WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioenergy industries development

  1. China's bioenergy industry development roadmap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuanchun; Li Shizhong; Liu Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    Positive development of renewable energy, saving and substitution of fossil energy, promotion of the energy structure adjustment are the inevitable strategy choices of China's sustainable development. This paper discussed the China's bioenergy resources status, development targets and technology development roadmaps. China has 136. 140 million hm2 of marginal land, which distribute mainly in western and northern regions. There are 1 billion t of crop resi-dues and forestry waste annually, and 300 million t can be used to produce different kinds of bioenergies. And organic waste and manure can generate 50 billion m3 of biogas. The discussed development target indicated that it can construct a biomass oilfield with the capacity of 100 million t/year and reduce 200 million t of CO2 emission by 2020. The bioen-ergy technology development roadmap indicated that the bioethanol mainly uses non grain starch and hemicellulose prod-ucts as raw materials in the near-term (2006- 2010). The biodiesel technology will focus on the advanced production technology, FT diesel, liquefaction of biomass and raw material production technology.

  2. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOENERGY IN MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Timofte I.; Timofte N.; Brega V.

    2009-01-01

    This treatise summarizes practices of the Republic of Moldova in the area of bioenergy development and usage of biomass for energy engineering purposes. Information is provided on the developments in the bioenergy area, on organization and results of the development of new technologies as well as on the projects already implemented.

  6. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  7. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  8. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  9. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  10. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  11. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  12. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  13. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  14. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    foreign trade deficit in the U.S. and about 45% of the total annual U.S. oil consumption of 34 quads (1 quad = 1015 Btu, Lynd et al. 1991). The 22 quads of oil consumed by transportation represents approximately 25% of all energy use in the US and excedes total oil imports to the US by about 50%. This oil has environmental and social costs, which go well beyond the purchase price of around $15 per barrel. Renewable energy from biomass has the potential to reduce dependency on fossil fhels, though not to totally replace them. Realizing this potential will require the simultaneous development of high yielding biomass production systems and bioconversion technologies that efficiently convert biomass energy into the forms of energy and chemicals usable by industry. The endpoint criterion for success is economic gain for both agricultural and industrial sectors at reduced environmental cost and reduced political risk. This paper reviews progress made in a program of research aimed at evaluating and developing a perennial forage crop, switchgrass as a regional bioenergy crop. We will highlight here aspects of research progress that most closely relate to the issues that will determine when and how extensively switchgrass is used in commercial bioenergy production.

  15. Factors for successful market development of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market introduction of bioenergy is a complex task with many dimensions to be considered. The easiest way follows forest and sawmill-industries, where waste-wood and bark has to be get rid of as a waste. A little more difficult is introduction in district heating systems, however, existing district heat offers the possibility of a fuel switch from coal or gas to biomass. The most sophisticated market is the pellet market, which needs a reliable distribution system for the fuel. When building up a market, the arguments have to be considered which would support the introduction of bioenergy in the best way. These arguments may be different in Austria and Slovakia. (authors)

  16. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  18. Feed or bioenergy production from agri-industrial residues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    consequences on the food/feed market, or on the carbon balance of the soil. The first are commonly called indirect land-use changes (iLUC), as they cause an increase in the international demand of a food/feed product, finally inducing an expansion of cropland into other ecosystems. Failing to account for these...... consequences may lead to misrepresent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified, by use of consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA), the environmental impacts associated with a number of bioenergy scenarios involving selected agri-industrial residues. Three relevant conversion pathways were...

  19. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  20. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  1. Small-scale bioenergy alternatives for industry, farm, and institutions: A user's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases

  2. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  3. Bioenergy visions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased growth of boreal natural forests will have a more important role as a renewable, also for energy. Bioenergy is also becoming an integrated part of ecoindustrial approach in which renewable resources form the raw material basis, industries use closed cycles, bioenergy plants transform the wastes into energy and ashes, and the ashes are used as forest fertilizer. Use of peat fuel as one of the boreal bioenergy resources is likely to increase. Peat is one of the important natural resources in the northern latitudes, and part of that resource will be needed for the economy and well-being of man. Sustainability in the peat land management and utilization of peat fuel in any particular area must, however, be carefully guaranteed. Part of cutaway peat bogs will be developed for bioenergy crops, like short rotation trees, hay, rape seed or barley. Importance of perennial, woody bioenergy crops, will be increasing in agriculture. With woody bioenergy crops the farms can spread their human work potential over the whole year. The bioenergy farming will thus become a combination of annual crops like rape seed for biodiesel, and perennial crops like Salix for fuel chips, in relation to their effective annual work need. Long-rotation trees will complement the farm bioenergy production. In the world of post fossil fuel era, biosocieties have best chances to survive. The economics of biosocieties are based on renewable resources, cycle of matter and amount of bioenergy stored and produced. Nordic countries with ample land, favorable growing season and abundant water will be developing into such wealthy biosocieties

  4. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  5. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  6. Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph reviews the state of energy research and suggest direction for future research with information required to shape the energy strategies. The monograph covers the following topics: research and development in alternative energy sources; biomass energy development, biomass energy technology ; biomethanation process; biomass as a fuel and health risks associated with it. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (original)

  7. Stakeholders' perceptions on forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes perceptions of four stakeholder groups (non-governmental organizations [NGOs], government, industry, and academia) regarding forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US (United States) by combining SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats) framework with AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Results suggest that NGO representatives perceived rural development as an important opportunity. Government stakeholder group noted that less or no competition with food production and promotes energy security were major strength factors. Conversion technologies are still under trial was identified as a major weakness by industry representatives. Representatives of academia felt that the competition from other renewable energy sources could be a major threat. Overall, all stakeholder groups were in favor of forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US.

  8. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  9. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  10. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria is interested in using of biomass for energy because of its energy, environmental, agricultural and social policy. The country imports more than two thirds of the energy (about 350 P J/a). As the energy production using fossils decreases, the dependence of the country on imported energy increases. Compensation of this could be only an increase of hydropower and of bio-energy utilization but about 70% of the domestic hydropower is already used and the use of the remaining 30% is ecologically objected. So this increase relies on bio-energy. It is non exhaustible and very attractive as is neutral to carbon dioxide emissions. With of 46% of its territory wooded and large quantities of by-products, the country has an enormous potential for bio-energy production. Like other European countries there is surplus food and feed production, expressed as about 350 000 ha arable and greenland . The cultivation of new and special crops could reduce the surplus area to 170 000 ha for energy crops. The regional utilization of biomass for energy production would contribute to the creation of new jobs in the undeveloped rural areas. Each MW installed capacity would result to 2-3 new jobs and prevent the migration of 2-3 families from rural to urban regions saving large subsidies. The share of bio-energy is 10.9% of the primary energy consumption or 13.5% of the end energy consumption and is continually increasing. Bio-energy by wood by-product is mainly used for space heating with a total capacity of 2.5 GW: 90% of the furnaces are of less than 100 k W, the rest are of medium capacity (100-1000 k W) and only 364 of a capacity larger than 1MW. Considerable technical progress in decreasing emissions from wood burning was made in recently. About 25% of the bio-fuels are used in industrial installations and about 75% for space heating. The industrial boilers use fluidized-bed technology and co-generation systems using steam. Starting from 2005 3% of the electricity have to be

  11. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo-Abad, C.; Althaus, H.J.; Berndes, G.; Bolwig, S.; Corbera, E.; Hanger, S.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policy-making. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environ...

  12. Bioenergy development pathways for Europe: potentials, costs and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil resources dominate the global energy system today which cannot be sustained indefinitely. Bioenergy use can meet a large share of future energy supply sustainably. For example, it can substitute fossil fuels including petroleum, and when sustainably produced, bioenergy avoids greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the recent increase of modern bioenergy use several drawbacks have become apparent that may lead to negative ecological impacts. Europe plays an important role in the furthe...

  13. Antagonistic bioenergies: Technological divergence of the ethanol industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present evidence for the coexistence of two antagonistic sugarcane ethanol production technologies in Brazil, with the Southeast region of the country having relatively mechanized production processes, and the Northeast area using labor-intensive ones. We highlight the main differences between the hand-production and fully automated mechanical manufacturing in the Brazilian ethanol industry and examine the historical, political, and economic factors that induced this regional technology gap that is currently observed. We then construct an environmental model based on a 375-industry interregional input-output system for the Brazilian regions, in order to determine the extent to which the primitive ethanol production of Northern Brazil differs from the automated manufacture technologies of the South in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. We show that ethanol produced with modern technologies generates lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than ethanol produced with traditional production processes. We also demonstrate that ethanol, regardless of the technology with which it was produced, is more carbon-efficient than petrochemical products. - Research Highlights: →The ethanol industry in Brazil exhibits major regional technological differences. →Traditional ethanol production processes are more polluting than mechanized ones. →The lowest carbon-intensity for an ethanol sector is found in the southeast region. →Ethanol explains less than 1% of the land-transport sector's carbon-intensity. →Ethanol is less polluting than natural gas, oil by-products and electricity.

  14. A market based development strategy for biomass and bioenergy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the current level of commercialization of some kinds of developing bioenergy technologies in China on the basis of the criteria for technology commercialization, analyzes factors that restrict bioenergy technologies, and proposes ways to overcome barriers and promote bioenergy development. Commercialization, the great power driving technology development, is the basic measure of transferring scientific achievement into productivity. Experience shows that commercialization of new technology not only perfects the performance of the technology but also accelerates society's productive power development, which then meets demands of the national economy and of people's material and cultural life. These issues concern the Chinese government and are the topic of this paper. (author)

  15. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  16. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  19. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  20. Opportunities to boost bioenergy in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Semida [International Secretariat, Swedish Energy Agency, Box 310, SE-631 04 Eskilstuna (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [Skogsvaardsstyrelsen Vaermland OErebro/Regional Forestry Board, Skogsenheten/Forest Department, P.O. Box 387, S-651 09 Karlstad (Sweden); Lebedys, Arvydas [Forest Economics Service, Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of UN, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Significant efforts have been made in Lithuania to enhance the utilization of bioenergy since the early 1990s. While opportunities are large and signs of development visible, bioenergy still needs technical, institutional and policy-related support for further development side by side with other industries. This paper discusses the existing bioenergy potential in Lithuanian forests, biofuels market formation in the region and possible roads to boost development. The retrofitting of heat plants, forest management and policies are reviewed as a way to identify opportunities to promote bioenergy in the country. It is shown that the interplay between national and regional forces can promote technological and managerial improvements in the forest industry while also enhancing the biomass supply and sustainability of bioenergy systems. (author) (author)

  1. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  2. Worldwide commercial development of bioenergy with a focus on energy crop-based projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy consumption is greatest in countries with heavy subsidies or tax incentives, such as China, Brazil, and Sweden. Conversion of forest residues and agricultural residues to charcoal, district heat and home heating are the most common forms of bioenergy. Biomass electric generation feedstocks are predominantly forest residues (including black liquor), bagasse, and other agricultural residues. Biofuel feedstocks include sugar from sugarcane (in Brazil), starch from maize grain (in the US), and oil seeds (soy or rapeseed) for biodiesel (in the US, EU, and Brazil). Of the six large land areas of the world reviewed (China, EU, US, Brazil, Canada, Australia), total biomass energy consumptions amounts to 17.1 EJ. Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) established in Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia over the past 25 years equal about 50,000 km2. SRWC plantings in China may be in the range of 70,000-100,000 km2. SRWC and other energy crops established in the US and EU amount to less than 1000 km2. With some exceptions (most notably in Sweden and Brazil), the SRWC have been established for purposes other than as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks, however, portions of the crops are (or are planned to be) used for bioenergy production. New renewable energy incentives, greenhouse gas emission targets, synergism with industrial waste management projects, and oil prices exceeding 60 $ Bbl-1 (in 2005) are major drivers for SRWC or energy crop based bioenergy projects

  3. Bio-energy in the wood processing industry. Manual for energy production from residual matter for the wood processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is published within the framework of a project, financed by Novem (EWAB programme) and the European Commission (Altener programme). Similar manuals were drafted in Germany, England and Sweden. The basis of the project was the manual 'Quality manual for small-scale wood incineration and wood gasification', published by Novem in 1998. That quality manual was drafted on the basis of an evaluation of a number of wood combustion and wood gasification projects. The original manual has been improved as a result of comments made by experts in the field of bio-energy. Updated information was added with respect to legislation, financing options and new technology. Also the manual is focused more on the wood processing industry

  4. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  5. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  6. Information as a key-element for the development and dissemination of bioenergy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the renewable energy sources which have to be developed to replace of CO2-intensive energy technologies the utilization of bio-energy has a lot of advantages: it is CO2- neutral; it is not dependent on imports and improves security of supply; has enormous potential of job creation for rural areas, in small and medium size enterprises; has an enormous market potential; biomass is a by-product in many industrial processes and its using would solve also the waste problem; biomass is an infinite energy source. Predominant market of the biomass for Europe is that for low temperature heating. Being underestimated this market is not attractive for high tech development and research perhaps because of the difficulties for collecting statistical data. Technologies vary from low efficient logwood boilers to sophisticated district heating plants. The strategy of the European Commission, referring to the White Paper, proposes to install 1mill sophisticated biomass heating systems in Europe till 2003. The low temperature heating market will be the most important for future information programmes and projects. For launching of biomass technologies onto a market it is necessary to inform the customer about it and the way to get it. The distribution systems have to rely on multipurpose equipment i.g. for different kind of bio-fuel. The information has to target the advantages of bio-energy fuels compared to the competing carriers like natural gas and oil. These advantages define the market niche. The information strategies include establishing of national and international networks and collaboration with other renewable energy sources associations and with the agricultural sector. The information related projects of the Austrian Biomass Association include: issuing a magazine, information campaigns, conferences, issuing of teaching materials for schools, information brochures and training programmes for plumbers so to be key-agents in the dissemination of small heating

  7. Future yields assessment of bioenergy crops in relation to climate change and technological development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore L. Cosentino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy crops are expected to play an important role in reducing CO2 emission, in energy supply and in European energy policy. However, a sustainable bioenergy supply must be resilient to climate change and the impacts on agriculture at both global and regional scale. The purpose of this study was to forecast the potential distribution of several bioenergy crops based on agronomic and environmental constrains under current conditions and future scenarios (2020 and 2030 in European Union. Potential biomass yield, according to the category end use product achievable in each environmental zone of Europe at present and in the future available land have been also studied. Future yields were assessed according to two factors: technological development and climate change: the former was based on prospect of DG-Agriculture for conventional crops and expert judgments for bioenergy crops, while the latter based on relevant research papers and literature reviews which used site-specific crop growth models. Yields are expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change and technological development, while in southerneastern Europe the negative effect of climate change will be mitigated by the technological development. The estimated total biomass production in Europe, on the basis of future yields and surplus land made available for energy crops, may not be sufficient to meet the needs of bioenergy supply as claimed in the European directive 2009/28/EC.

  8. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  9. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Joint BioEnergy Institute is to advance the development of the next-generation of biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. The papers in this volume describe some of the research conducted in the area of feedstocks development and biomass deconstruction.

  10. A strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia to avoid dangerous climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the cost-effective strategy for introducing modern bioenergy into developing Asia through the 21st century under a 400 ppmv CO2 stabilization constraint using a global energy model that treats the bioenergy sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, under the 400 ppmv CO2 stabilization constraint, it is cost-effective to use modern bioenergy largely to generate heat and replace direct coal use in developing Asia in the first half of the century, because direct heat generation from modern biomass is efficient and expected to achieve large CO2 reduction. As second-generation bioenergy conversion technologies (mainly gasification-based technologies) become mature in the second half of the century, it becomes cost-effective to introduce biomass-derived hydrogen, electricity, and Fischer-Tropsch synfuels and bioethanol produced using these technologies into developing Asia instead of modern biomass-derived heat. All biomass gasification-based conversion technologies are combined with CO2 capture and storage from 2060, which enables negative CO2 emissions and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the stringent climate stabilization target. Second, due to its small availability of biomass resources, large-scale import of biofuels and wood pellets is inevitable in developing Asia except southeastern Asia under the CO2 constraint used here. It is shown that this contributes to diversifying liquid fuel import sources and improving energy security in developing Asia. Third, sensitivity analysis shows that these findings are robust to bioenergy-related cost parameters. (author)

  11. Preface: Biocatalysis and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and bioenergy with emphasis on biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and industrial products. Biocatalysis and bioenergy defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, b...

  12. Bioenergy and the potential contribution of agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruane, John [FAO Working Group on Biotechnology, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome (Italy); Sonnino, Andrea [FAO Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome (Italy); Agostini, Astrid [FAO Investment Centre, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    We provide an overview of the current status of bioenergy development, focusing on first- and second-generation liquid biofuels, considering drivers of growth and risks that have raised concerns over recent years. We also describe the main areas where biotechnologies are being, or can be, applied for production of first- and second-generation biofuels as well as microalgal biodiesel and biogas. Greatest attention is paid to second-generation biofuels in the review because of the large expectations they have created and because of the significant role that biotechnology applications are likely to play in their development. We close with some specific considerations regarding applying biotechnologies for bioenergy development in developing countries. (author)

  13. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John C; Davis, Sarah C; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient. PMID:25873672

  14. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  15. Development of a tool to model European biomass trade : Report for IEA Bioenergy Task 40

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Resch, G.; Matzenberger, J.; Panzer, C.; Pelkmans, L.

    2011-01-01

    This report investigated the potential of future intra- and inter-European trade of solid biomass for bioenergy purposes taking country to country specific intermodal transport routes into account and matching supply and demand for energy crops, forestry products and residues and agricultural residues. For this purpose, a geospatial, intermodal biomass transport model was developed in the ArcGIS 10.0 Network Analyst extension. This model has been complemented with data on the cost of shipment...

  16. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  17. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  18. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-01-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust...

  19. Rural development and bioenergy - experiences from 20 years of development in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities have been going on for a number of decades in Sweden in the field of job creation, rural development and development of local economies through the use of bioenergy. This paper relates the experience of different strategies of rural development projects over a 20-year period based on the rapid development of biofuel use, especially wood fuel use in Sweden. A successful strategy for people and companies involved, has been to specify the products and services opposed to bulky raw material production and to integrate them into the companies operations. Another success factor has been size rationalisation. Systems thinking with respect to the market and in different environmental values in the environmental cycle have also been successful. In the future, there will probably be room for different niche companies that can meet the needs of the market that the strongly rationalised companies cannot. This study calls for new studies of direct employment effects and multipliers. Continued internationalisation of the biofuel market will give greater competitiveness and press down prices among local producers. The strong competition will mean that the survivors will be those who are flexible and have activities and products integrated and apply systems thinking where contact will be with different parts of the chain and not only with the production of the raw material.(author)

  20. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  1. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  2. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana S.A. Derkyi, Daniel Sekyere, Philip Y. Okyere, Nicholas A. Darkwa, Samuel K. Nketiah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  3. Development of bioenergy conversion alternatives for climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkyi, Nana S.A.; Sekyere, Daniel [CSIR-FORIG, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST Box 63 (Ghana); Okyere, Philip Y. [Electrical Engineering Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Darkwa, Nicholas A. [FRNR, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology KNUST (Ghana); Nketiah, Samuel K. [TROPENBOS International (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional charcoal production, firewood sourcing and over-dependence on the national grid for electricity are associated with high greenhouse gas emissions relative to other common energy options. However, there have been few attempts to analyze the potential of cogeneration and briquetting as favourable energy options for climate change mitigation. The possibility of utilizing abundant wood residues to produce energy for domestic and industrial application through co-generation and sawdust briquetting was assessed. Annual residues generated in the three mills studied ranged from 19,230 m3 to 32,610 m3. Annual output of semi-carbonized and carbonized sawdust briquette from the briquette factory studied was 1400 tonnes. Heating values of the wood species ranged from 8.2 to 20.3 MJ/kg. Power requirements for the mills, necessary for sizing co-generation units were derived from their monthly electricity bills. Power ratings for co-generation units were specified between 400 kWe to 2000 kWe with heat to power ratios of 19 to 21. The energy generated could be used to produce electrical power and reduce dependency on the national grid. Conversion of sawdust in the briquette factory potentially contributes a saving of 5,600 tonnes of trees/year that would have been cut from the forest. Thus, adoption of co-generation and sawdust briquetting nationwide could be of immense benefit to the country in terms of climate change mitigation.

  4. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

  5. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's March 1991 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items discussed include: (1) a joint fuels venture between Nuexco and Energy Fuels, (2) bids for two nuclear units in Czechoslovakia, (3) plans for nuclear power in China, (4) uranium mining in Queensland, (5) marketing of nuclear power technology by India, and (6) uranium production in Australia

  6. Market development problems for sustainable bio-energy systems in Sweden. (The BIOMARK project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter (ed.); Boerjesson, Paal; Hansen, Anders Christian; Roos, Anders; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-03-01

    The report consists of three case studies relating to Swedish bio-energy markets. The first is concerned with a general analysis of costs and benefits of transition to biomass-based electricity in Sweden. The analysis indicates that many price relations in Sweden do not support the transition to bio-energy. Future prospects for biomass conversion technologies versus natural gas based technologies may not be in favour of bio-energy with the existing fuel prices. Additionally, there is no effective utilisation of the large economic benefits that could be gained by coordinating the bio-energy fuel chain with the management of other material flows such as the nutrient flows in the water cycle. In government policies, the supply of biomass does not seem to receive the same attention as the conversion technologies. Potentially, this could lead to a shortage of biomass feedstock when the conversion technology part of the programmes succeeds. The second study is about market development for energy crops, specifically Salix. The analysis shows that real-life development is far behind prognoses and scenarios, confirming worries about future supplies of biomass. While Salix is associated with significant positive externalities and provides a large potential for co-benefits, the institutional setting is not favourable for the exploitation of these advantages. A particular problem is the high risk farmers face when planting Salix, as future demand is uncertain and prices difficult to predict. A better distribution of risk among the market actors, particularly between farmers and district heating companies, might be the best strategy for renewed growth in this sector. The third study is concerned with the wood pellets market, which experienced a supply crisis in the winter 2001/02, as producers were unable to satisfy demand or did so only at highly elevated prices. The analysis points to weakness in market governance, especially insufficient information flows between actors

  7. Market development problems for sustainable bio-energy systems in Sweden. (The BIOMARK project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report consists of three case studies relating to Swedish bio-energy markets. The first is concerned with a general analysis of costs and benefits of transition to biomass-based electricity in Sweden. The analysis indicates that many price relations in Sweden do not support the transition to bio-energy. Future prospects for biomass conversion technologies versus natural gas based technologies may not be in favour of bio-energy with the existing fuel prices. Additionally, there is no effective utilisation of the large economic benefits that could be gained by coordinating the bio-energy fuel chain with the management of other material flows such as the nutrient flows in the water cycle. In government policies, the supply of biomass does not seem to receive the same attention as the conversion technologies. Potentially, this could lead to a shortage of biomass feedstock when the conversion technology part of the programmes succeeds. The second study is about market development for energy crops, specifically Salix. The analysis shows that real-life development is far behind prognoses and scenarios, confirming worries about future supplies of biomass. While Salix is associated with significant positive externalities and provides a large potential for co-benefits, the institutional setting is not favourable for the exploitation of these advantages. A particular problem is the high risk farmers face when planting Salix, as future demand is uncertain and prices difficult to predict. A better distribution of risk among the market actors, particularly between farmers and district heating companies, might be the best strategy for renewed growth in this sector. The third study is concerned with the wood pellets market, which experienced a supply crisis in the winter 2001/02, as producers were unable to satisfy demand or did so only at highly elevated prices. The analysis points to weakness in market governance, especially insufficient information flows between actors

  8. Proceedings of the CANBIO conference : realizing the bioenergy opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference explored domestic bioenergy options in Canada, including potential for bioenergy trade. As biomass cogeneration proceeds, investments are now being made for exportable biofuels such as wood pellets and BioOil, driven by demand for biomass in Europe. Mill residue surpluses are rapidly diminishing, causing industry and government to look at forest residues. The conference also addressed obstacles to developing bioenergy options in Canada compared to countries with comprehensive bioenergy strategies. An entire session was devoted to Finnish expertise in residue harvesting and bioenergy equipment. Various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products were also explored along with new technologies in bioenergy practices and development in syngas production techniques. The conference sessions were entitled: volumes of economic biomass; costs and logistics of forest biomass; development opportunities; Finnish solutions for biomass; progress in Ontario; policies in Canada and Europe; and, towards a biofuels transportation infrastructure. The conference featured 34 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the 'Industry Briefs' portion of Nuexco's July 1992 'Recent Developments' section. Specific items mentioned include: (1) the merger of Entergy and Gulf States Utilities, (2) restart of the Sequoyah Fuels facility in Oklahoma, (3) development of the 7th and 8th nuclear units in Taiwan, (4) purchase of interest in Rio Algom, Ltd, and (5) acquisition of the Italian firm AGIP by a Canadian company

  10. INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INC-DTCI ICIS Rm. Valcea conducts basic and applied research among which there is the INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme that comprises studies of risk analysis and evaluation at objectives and activities in zones were risk factors are in operation, factors leading potentially to natural or technological disasters. The risk analysis and evaluation methodology proposed is a follow-up of the action plan for risk reduction in industry. The risk management refers to risk and its components assessment and identification of places where improvements are to be introduced. The risk analysis and evaluation model was developed for installations in chemical industry and are also applicable for the installations of heavy water production by H2O-H2S isotopic exchange. The risk studies supply information necessary in making decisions, aiming at preventing the operation incidence and reducing their consequences

  11. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  12. The effect of CO2 on algal growth in industrial waste water for bioenergy and bioremediation applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Roberts

    Full Text Available The energy, mining and mineral processing industries are point sources of metal-contaminated waste water and carbon dioxide (CO2. Freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium can be grown in metal-contaminated waste water to generate biomass for bioenergy applications and concomitantly bioremediate metals. However, interactions between CO2 addition and algal growth, which can affect bioremediation, remain untested. The addition of CO2 to algal cultures in the Ash Dam Water (ADW from a coal-fired power station increased the biomass productivity of Oedogonium sp. from 6.8 g dry weight (DW m(-2 d(-1 to a maximum of 22.5 g DW m(-2 d(-1. The greater productivity increased the rate of bioremediation of most elements. However, over time carbon-amended cultures experienced a decline in productivity. Possible explanations include metal toxicity at low pH or essential trace element limitation as a result of competition between toxic and essential trace elements for uptake into algae. Higher productivity increased bioremediation rate and yielded more biomass for bioenergy applications, making maintenance of maximum productivity the central aim of the integrated culture model. To do so it will be necessary to resolve the mechanisms responsible for declining yields over time in carbon-amended cultures. Regardless, our data demonstrate that freshwater macroalgae are ideal candidates for bioremediation of metal-contaminated waste streams. Algal culture delivered significant improvement in ADW quality, reducing 5 elements that were initially in excess of water quality criteria (Al, As, Cd, Ni and Zn to meet guidelines within two to four weeks.

  13. Industrialized Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    The production of application software is rapidly being industrialized. Computer manufacturers and software houses produce a rapidly growing number of generic software applications and systems, and more and more user companies choose to build their computer-based information systems with such...... generic products, instead of custom made software. We discuss how the move away from traditional in-house development and the increasing use of generic software is likely to transform IS development in the near future. We conclude that these developments will make new demands on the information systems...

  14. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  15. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  16. Harvesting Carbon from Eastern US Forests: Opportunities and Impacts of an Expanding Bioenergy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern forests of the US are valued both as a carbon sink and a wood resource. The amount of biomass that can be harvested sustainably from this biome for bioenergy without compromising the carbon sink is uncertain. Using past literature and previously validated models, we assessed four scenarios of biomass harvest in the eastern US: partial harvests of mixed hardwood forests, pine plantation management, short-rotation woody cropping systems, and forest residue removal. We also estimated the amount and location of abandoned agricultural lands in the eastern US that could be used for biomass production. Greater carbon storage was estimated to result from partial harvests and residue removals than from plantation management and short-rotation cropping. If woody feedstocks were cultivated with a combination of intensive management on abandoned lands and partial harvests of standing forest, we estimate that roughly 176 Tg biomass y−1 (~330,000 GWh or ~16 billion gallons of ethanol could be produced sustainably from the temperate forest biome of the eastern US. This biomass could offset up to ~63 Tg C y−1 that are emitted from fossil fuels used for heat and power generation while maintaining a terrestrial C sink of ~8 Tg C y−1.

  17. Bioenergy Resources in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Melece, Ligita; Krievina, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of study aimed to evaluate issues of current development of bioenergy in Latvia, taking into account restrictions, which may affect future progress of main biomass sources. These restrictions are based on latest European Union (EU) regulations and recommendations; and worldwide concerns of scholars on sustainability, particularly environmental (e.g. biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, carbon sequestration) of bioenergy (biomass) development. The appropriate qualitat...

  18. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries. A world-economy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio-economic development. (author)

  19. Bioenergy: Potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Canadell, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this lecture we explain 1) the biochemical basis for photosynthesis and plant production and 2) the future demands on biomass for human use. Summing all physiological processes, the efficiency of converting solar energy into biomass is plant production will be available for bioenergy. We estimate this fraction to be between 3 and 8% of the global energy demand by 2050. The contribution of bioenergy is at the higher end in tropical regions and in the less industrialized parts of the world, but may even be < 3% in industrialized nations.

  20. Jatropha. A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop. The Potential for Pro-Poor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the information currently available on jatropha as a bioenergy crop, starting with the papers presented to the April 2008 IFAD/FAO International Consultation on Pro-Poor Jatropha Development held in Rome, Italy (IFAD 2008). This information has been supplemented by consulting various reports, conference papers, and both published and unpublished scientific papers. Based on the output of the International Consultation, the aim of this report is to identify the jatropha production systems that are most sustainable and viable and that can contribute to rural development and alleviate poverty. It also points out the critical areas of needed research, trusting that this information will be useful for decision-makers as well as for those actively involved in jatropha production. This introductory chapter offers general background on liquid biofuels, energy poverty and global jatropha production trends.

  1. Jatropha. A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop. The Potential for Pro-Poor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittaine, R. [Agricultural Consultant, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Lutaladio, NeBambi [Plant Production and Protection Division, FAO, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    A review is given of the information currently available on jatropha as a bioenergy crop, starting with the papers presented to the April 2008 IFAD/FAO International Consultation on Pro-Poor Jatropha Development held in Rome, Italy (IFAD 2008). This information has been supplemented by consulting various reports, conference papers, and both published and unpublished scientific papers. Based on the output of the International Consultation, the aim of this report is to identify the jatropha production systems that are most sustainable and viable and that can contribute to rural development and alleviate poverty. It also points out the critical areas of needed research, trusting that this information will be useful for decision-makers as well as for those actively involved in jatropha production. This introductory chapter offers general background on liquid biofuels, energy poverty and global jatropha production trends.

  2. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  3. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  4. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  5. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  6. Impacts of policy means for increased use of forest-based bioenergy in Norway-A spatial partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like the European Union (EU), Norway has defined quite ambitious targets regarding increased use of bioenergy. However, the bioenergy market develops relatively slowly, and stronger policies seem necessary to reach the targets. This study analyses how different policy means, high on the agenda in the Norwegian energy debate, may affect the use of forest-based bioenergy in Norway. The means studied are (i) subsidies reducing investment costs of district heating installations, (ii) deposit grant for replacement of oil burners with burners based on bioenergy (iii) feed-in supporting energy production in district heating based on bioenergy. The study is based on a regionalised partial equilibrium model covering forestry, forest industries and the bioenergy sector. The advantage of this methodology is that it allows for assessments of the economic potential of bioenergy under different policy alternatives, taking into account the competition for raw materials from the forest industries, regional differences regarding heat demand and wood fibre supply, as well as important spatial aspects connected to inter-regional transport and trade of wood. The results of the study give medium-term projections for bioenergy use in Norway under different bioenergy policy regimes. Some investments in bioburners in central heating systems and new district heating based on bioenergy are profitable at the current energy prices, but policy incentives in terms of grants, subsidies or feed-in systems make it possible to overcome inertia in investments decisions and provide substantial increase in the supply of bioenergy. The results show that the analysed policy means are effective at the current energy price levels and have a significant impact on bioenergy production. While some results are specific to Norway, other results and the methodology used are of more general value also to other European countries

  7. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  8. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  9. The Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy. First edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on sustainability indicators for bioenergy provides a resource in helping countries assess and develop sustainable production and use of bioenergy. The report - featuring 24 sustainability indicators and their respective methodology sheets - is intended to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with a tool that can support the development of national bioenergy policies and programmes as well as help interpret and respond to the environmental, social and economic impacts of bioenergy production and use. The indicators take a holistic approach to assessing many important aspects of the intersection of bioenergy and sustainability, including greenhouse gas emissions, biological diversity, the price and supply of a national food basket, access to energy, economic development and energy security.

  10. Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of the Green House Gases, Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide has increased largely since Industrial Revolution. Continued GHG emissions at or above current rates would cause further warming and induce many changes in global climate system. Climate changes will lead to more intense and longer droughts, water scarcity and many other problems then have been observed. For these reasons concept of development of bioenergy came into existance for climate change miti...

  11. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

  13. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fulbright, Scott P [Colorado State University; Zeng, Xiaowei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yates, Tracy [Solix Biofuels; Wardle, Greg [Solix Biofuels; Chisholm, Stephen T [Colorado State University; Xu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Lammers, Peter [New Mexico State University

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  14. Water-Soluble Lignins from Different Bioenergy Crops Stimulate the Early Development of Maize (Zea mays, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savy, Davide; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Vinci, Giovanni; Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular composition of water-soluble lignins isolated from four non-food bioenergy crops (cardoon CAR, eucalyptus EUC, and two black poplars RIP and LIM) was characterized in detail, and their potential bioactivity towards maize germination and early growth evaluated. Lignins were found to not affect seed germination rates, but stimulated the maize seedling development, though to a different extent. RIP promoted root elongation, while CAR only stimulated the length of lateral seminal roots and coleoptile, and LIM improved only the coleoptile development. The most significant bioactivity of CAR was related to its large content of aliphatic OH groups, C-O carbons and lowest hydrophobicity, as assessed by (31)P-NMR and (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopies. Less bioactive RIP and LIM lignins were similar in composition, but their stimulation of maize seedling was different. This was accounted to their diverse content of aliphatic OH groups and S- and G-type molecules. The poorest bioactivity of the EUC lignin was attributed to its smallest content of aliphatic OH groups and largest hydrophobicity. Both these features may be conducive of a EUC conformational structure tight enough to prevent its alteration by organic acids exuded from vegetal tissues. Conversely the more labile conformational arrangements of the other more hydrophilic lignin extracts promoted their bioactivity by releasing biologically active molecules upon the action of exuded organic acids. Our findings indicate that water-soluble lignins from non-food crops may be effectively used as plant biostimulants, thus contributing to increase the economic and ecological liability of bio-based industries. PMID:26556330

  15. Water-Soluble Lignins from Different Bioenergy Crops Stimulate the Early Development of Maize (Zea mays, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Savy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of water-soluble lignins isolated from four non-food bioenergy crops (cardoon CAR, eucalyptus EUC, and two black poplars RIP and LIM was characterized in detail, and their potential bioactivity towards maize germination and early growth evaluated. Lignins were found to not affect seed germination rates, but stimulated the maize seedling development, though to a different extent. RIP promoted root elongation, while CAR only stimulated the length of lateral seminal roots and coleoptile, and LIM improved only the coleoptile development. The most significant bioactivity of CAR was related to its large content of aliphatic OH groups, C-O carbons and lowest hydrophobicity, as assessed by 31P-NMR and 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopies. Less bioactive RIP and LIM lignins were similar in composition, but their stimulation of maize seedling was different. This was accounted to their diverse content of aliphatic OH groups and S- and G-type molecules. The poorest bioactivity of the EUC lignin was attributed to its smallest content of aliphatic OH groups and largest hydrophobicity. Both these features may be conducive of a EUC conformational structure tight enough to prevent its alteration by organic acids exuded from vegetal tissues. Conversely the more labile conformational arrangements of the other more hydrophilic lignin extracts promoted their bioactivity by releasing biologically active molecules upon the action of exuded organic acids. Our findings indicate that water-soluble lignins from non-food crops may be effectively used as plant biostimulants, thus contributing to increase the economic and ecological liability of bio-based industries.

  16. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  17. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  18. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push.

  19. Potential Impact of Forest Bioenergy on Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forest bioenergy is an alternative to fossil energy.Although forest bioenergy is of great value to ease energy supply,there is still a strong call for the research of what impact forest bioenergy plantation will exert on environment if under large scale development.By discussing the resource potential and development status of forest bioenergy,the paper attempts to explore the potential impact of forest bioenergy on environment and give some recommendations to mitigate and even avoid negative impact.

  20. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  1. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... concrete suggestions for network activities had been made, but overall the development is at an early stage....

  2. Zhongrun,Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology%Zhongrun, Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Huaibei Zhongrun Bio-energy Technology Development Co.,Ltd.is a high-tech Sino-US joint venture,also a participator of the 12th CHITEC.Its majority shareholder is Anhui Huaibei Mining Group and it is co-sponsored by Anhui Guohua Group and US Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

  3. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  4. Pharmaceutical Industry Develops Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the development of the economy, the growth of the total population, the growing proportion of older citizens, and the increasing awareness of people's health care,the pharmaceutical market in China has seen a sustained and rapid expansion.

  5. Industrial Development for Manufacturing Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Šatrevičs, V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the development for manufacturing companies is analysed based on historical review of competitive factors used by manufacturing industry. Development strategy is built understanding the development evolution. This allows us to identify important factors for performance improvements, using resource for improving strategy level and efficiency. Traditional strategy will be substituted by achieving certain competitive factors for sustainable development. Using this approach, author ...

  6. DEVELOPMENT TREND OF ETHYLENE INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ting

    2014-01-01

    The growth of world ethylene production and demand has been slowed down, but accelarated growth after 2015 is forecasted. Shale gas revolution has promoted the resurge of ethylene industry in North America and changed the investment pattern of world ethylene industry.Chinese ethylene industry has developed rapidly, facing not only opportunities for development but also outside pressure.The diversified pattern of Chinese ethylene industry has been formed , in which MTO has become an effective complement to the ethylene industry.While cracking raw material has become lighter and lighter worldwide, naphtha still dominates the ethylene raw material in China, leading to high cost of raw material.Aiming to reduce the cost and improve the competitiveness, this article introduces the progress of steam cracking technology for ethylene production from the aspects of low energy consumption , low cost, large capacity and long-term operation.

  7. The bio-energies development: the role of biofuels and the CO{sub 2} price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvet, Pierre-Andre [Universite Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense, Climate Economics Chair (France); Lantz, Frederic [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4, avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Le Cadre, Elodie [IFPEN, INRA, Universite Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense (France)

    2012-07-01

    Reduction in energy dependency and emissions of CO{sub 2} via renewable energies targeted in the European Union energy mix and taxation system, might trigger the production of bio-energy production and competition for biomass utilization. Torrefied biomass could be used to produce second generation biofuels to replace some of the fuels used in transportation and is also suitable as feedstock to produce electricity in large quantities. This paper examines how the CO{sub 2} price affects demand of torrefied biomass in the power sector and its consequences on the profitability of second generation biofuel units (Biomass to Liquid units). Indeed, the profitability of the BtL units which are supplied only by torrefied biomass is related to the competitive demand of the power sector driven by the CO{sub 2} price and feed-in tariffs. We propose a linear dynamic model of supply and demand. On the supply side, a profit-maximizing torrefied biomass sector is modelled. The model aims to represent the transformation of biomass into torrefied biomass which could be sold to the refinery sector and the power sector. A two-sided (demanders and supplier) bidding process led us to arrive at the equilibrium price for torrefied biomass. The French case is used as an example. Our results suggest that the higher the CO{sub 2} price, the more stable and important the power sector demand. It also makes the torrefied biomass production less vulnerable to uncertainty on demand coming from the refining sector. The torrefied biomass co-firing with coal can offer a near-term market for the torrefied biomass for a CO{sub 2} emission price lower than 20 euros/tCO{sub 2}, which can stimulate development of biomass supply systems. Beyond 2020, the demand for torrefied biomass from the power sector could be substituted by the refining sector if the oil price goes up whatever the CO{sub 2} price. (authors)

  8. The bio-energies development: the role of biofuels and the CO2 price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction in energy dependency and emissions of CO2 via renewable energies targeted in the European Union energy mix and taxation system, might trigger the production of bio-energy production and competition for biomass utilization. Torrefied biomass could be used to produce second generation biofuels to replace some of the fuels used in transportation and is also suitable as feedstock to produce electricity in large quantities. This paper examines how the CO2 price affects demand of torrefied biomass in the power sector and its consequences on the profitability of second generation biofuel units (Biomass to Liquid units). Indeed, the profitability of the BtL units which are supplied only by torrefied biomass is related to the competitive demand of the power sector driven by the CO2 price and feed-in tariffs. We propose a linear dynamic model of supply and demand. On the supply side, a profit-maximizing torrefied biomass sector is modelled. The model aims to represent the transformation of biomass into torrefied biomass which could be sold to the refinery sector and the power sector. A two-sided (demanders and supplier) bidding process led us to arrive at the equilibrium price for torrefied biomass. The French case is used as an example. Our results suggest that the higher the CO2 price, the more stable and important the power sector demand. It also makes the torrefied biomass production less vulnerable to uncertainty on demand coming from the refining sector. The torrefied biomass co-firing with coal can offer a near-term market for the torrefied biomass for a CO2 emission price lower than 20 euros/tCO2, which can stimulate development of biomass supply systems. Beyond 2020, the demand for torrefied biomass from the power sector could be substituted by the refining sector if the oil price goes up whatever the CO2 price. (authors)

  9. Bioenergy and the poor: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Karekezi, Stephen; Kithyoma, Waeni

    2006-01-01

    "This brief delineates two broad categories for bioenergy development — the exploitation of existing agricultural wastes and the establishment of energy plantations—and suggests high-priority steps for developing bioenergy in ways that benefit the poor... Once developing countries have optimized the use of existing agricultural wastes for energy generation and put in place adequate revenue-sharing, regulatory, and policy frameworks, they can consider the option of dedicated energy plantations...

  10. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  11. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  12. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  13. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Seinjoki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  14. Innovative Bioenergy Systems in Action. The Mureck bio-Energy Cycle: Synergistic Effects and Socio-economic, Political and Sociocultural Aspects of Rural Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomescu, Mihai

    2005-10-15

    In this thesis the development of three bioenergy projects within the Austrian province of Styria is discussed. The projects - a biodiesel cooperative (SEEG), a biomass district heating plant (Nahwaerme) and a biogas plant that produces 'green' electricity (Oekostrom) - are co-located on the outskirts of Mureck, a small rural community on the border with Slovenia. The projects, jointly referred to as the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, are explored in terms of interaction with each other, interactions between key stakeholders and political support. The thesis also adopts a system dynamics perspective and investigates the historical development and evolution of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle over time. To explore this case, the embedded case study method was chosen. Five factors were selected for analysis: (1) the synergies and complementarities between the three different bioenergy projects comprising the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle (for instance when the biogas plant uses byproducts from the biodiesel fabrication process), (2) economies of scale due to integrated deployment of the three systems (such as specialisation, knowledge-transfer and integration of certain activities), (3) local cooperation that allowed the formation of reliable supply chains, (4) the attitude of authorities and (5) the existing local opinion and the benefits associated by residents with the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle. The objective was to find out whether these factors have played a crucial role for the development of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, and to discuss how they contributed to the development of the system. A first important finding of this research is that the three bioenergy projects in Mureck have gradually evolved into an industrial ecosystem that is characterised by a more efficient, closed-loop use of materials and energy, and in which by-products from one process serve as feedstock for other processes. This evolution was triggered by glycerine - an important byproduct that occurs

  15. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  16. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). - Research highlights: → We analyze main barriers for global trade of wood pellets, ethanol and biodiesel. → Import tariffs can be a major barrier for liquid biofuels trade. → Implementation of sustainability certification systems may hamper biofuels trade. → Logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for the trade of wood pellets. → Development of technical standards are deemed an opportunity for bioenergy trade.

  17. Effects of first- and second-generation bioenergy crops on soil processes and legacy effects on a subsequent crop

    OpenAIRE

    Schrama, Maarten; Vandecasteele, Bart; Carvalho, Sabrina; Muylle, Hilde; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a more sustainable bio-based economy, an increasing amount of carbon for industrial applications and biofuel will be obtained from bioenergy crops. This may result in intensified land use and potential conflicts with other ecosystem services provided by soil, such as control of greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and nutrient dynamics. A growing number of studies examine how bioenergy crops influence carbon and nitrogen cycling. Few studies, however, have combined such ...

  18. Sustainable bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Section I Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy Production SystemsGenetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops toward High Biofuel ProductionGuosheng Xie and Liangcai PengNovel Cropping Technologies and Management Applied to Energy CropsLorenzo BarbantiMathematical Modeling in Biomass and Bioenergy SystemsLijun Wang, Samuel Asomaning Agyemang and Abolghasem ShahbaziLife-Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy SystemsReinout Heijungs and Edi Iswanto WilosoSustainability of Bioenergy Systems

  19. Bioenergy opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the prime needs of the modern world, and energy demands have been rapidly increasing in the recent years owing to rapid advancements in industrialization and population explosion. Conventional fossil fuels are being depleted at rapid rates, and the use of conventional sources such as coal or nuclear sources cause several hazards to the environment. New sources of fuel, such as bioenergy, are an ideal option for fulfilling ever-increasing energy demands. This important book offers an exploration of these alternate fuel sources, including biohydrogen, microbial fuel cells, bi

  20. Eco-friendly Development Of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports eco-friendly development of industry, which has summary on bring up the issue and research way and system of research. It deals with current state of affairs on eco-friendly development of industry and the case of developed countries such as necessity and meaning of eco-friendly development industry, prospect and change of the tendency, environmental issue by field in Korea like the steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, auto industry, and cement industry and general policy for eco-friendly development of industry.

  1. Review of 1992 industry developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 1992 was remarkable for a number of major events that affected the market. The key developments can be categorized in areas such as supply restrictions, legislative and political events, industry consolidations, reactor and mine closures as well as start-ups, and achievements at assorted fuel cycle operations. Clearly, the most influential event was the US uranium anti-dumping investigation, but other significant developments included Euratom's actions restricting imports of CIS-origin uranium into the European Community, continuing upheaval and evolution of the market-based economies of the CIS and central Europe, the second-most active year ever in the uranium spot market, the formation of ConverDyn and the indefinite shutdown of Sequoyah Fuels, Cogema's purchase of Urangesellschaft, passage of a US Energy Bill, China's signing of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, renewed progress on Taiwan's fourth nuclear station, formation of the Japanese fuel cycle corporation JNFL, premature closure of three US reactors for economic reasons, and several mergers and acquisitions that further consolidated the uranium and nuclear industries. As a whole, the past year will be looked back on by market participants as a year of turning point, both good and bad, in the evolution of the industry

  2. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  3. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  4. Analysis of the potential production and the development of bioenergy in the province of Mendoza - Bio-fuels and biomass - Using geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Marco, Noelia; Hilbert, Jorge Antonio [Instituto de Ingenieria Rural, INTA Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP: 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silva Colomer, Jorge [INTA EEA Junin Mendoza, Carril Isidoro Busquets s/n CP: 5572 (Argentina); Anschau, Renee Alicia; Carballo, Stella [Instituto de Clima y Agua, INTA. Las Cabanas y Los Reseros s/n, CP:1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the partial results of the potential production of energy, starting from the biomass and the development of the crops, directed to the production of bio-fuels (Colza and Topinamur) in the North irrigation oasis of Mendoza, Argentina within the National Program of Bio-energy developed by INTA is presented. For the evaluation of the bio-energetic potential, derived from the biomass, the WISDOM methodology developed by FAO and implemented by INTA in Argentina was applied with the collaboration of national and provincial governmental entities that contribute local information The study of the potential production and the development of the bio-energetic crops have been carried out with the advising and participation of the experts of INTA of the studied crops. The province of Mendoza has semi-deserted agro-climatic characteristics. The type of soil and type of weather allows the production of great quality fruits and vegetables in the irrigated areas. The four great currents of water conform three oasis; Northeast, Center and South, which occupy the 3.67% of the surface of Mendoza. Today, Mendoza has 267,889 irrigated hectares, but the surface that was farmed by irrigation was near to the 400,000 ha. The climate contingencies, froze and hailstorm precipitations, plus the price instability cause great losses in the productive sector, taking it to the forlornness of the exploitations. The crop setting of these forlornness lands with crops directed to the production of bio-fuels and the utilization of the biomass coming from the agriculture activities and the agro industry (pruning of fruit trees, refuses of olive and vine, remnants of the peach industry, etc.) could assist the access to the energy in the rural areas, stimulating the economical improvement and the development in these communities. (author)

  5. 国际生物能源研究开发现状和趋势%Current status and trend of international development of bioenergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱万斌; 李杰; 袁旭峰; 程序; 王小芬

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research priorities, advances of tapping the second and the third generation biofuel as well as the backgrounds of fast growing of two bioenergy industries, that is pellet biomass fuel and biomethane. An overall picture of exploration efforts on bioenergy by international community was given.%通过对国际可再生能源研发的重点,第二、三代生物乙醇的研发动向,以及对生物天然气和生物质颗粒燃料异军突起的背景分析,反映出生物能源研发的总体状况和发展趋势.

  6. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  7. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities-including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development-were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops. Despite technological viability and associated environmental and local economic benefits, the high price of willow biomass relative to coal has been a barrier to wide-scale deployment of this system. The cost of willow biomass is currently $3.00GJ-1($57.30odt-1) compared to $1.40-1.90GJ-1 for coal. Yield improvements from traditional breeding efforts and increases in harvesting efficiency that are currently being realized promise to reduce the price differential. Recent policy changes at the federal level, including the provision to harvest bioenergy crops from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land and a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and state-level initiatives such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) will help to further reduce the difference and foster markets for willow biomass. Years of work on willow biomass crop research and demonstration projects have increased our understanding of the biology, ecophysiology and management of willow biomass crops. Using an adaptive management model, this information has led to the deployment of willow for other applications such as phytoremediation, living snow fences, and riparian buffers across the northeastern US. (author)

  8. Development of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a bioenergy feedstock in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-year US Department of Energy-sponsored research program designed to evaluate and develop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial warm-season grass, as a dedicated energy crop is reviewed. The programmatic objectives were to identify the best varieties and management practices to optimize productivity, while developing an understanding of the basis for long-term improvement of switchgrass through breeding and sustainable production in conventional agroecosystems. This research has reduced the projected production cost of switchgrass by about 25% ($8-9 Mg-1) through yield increases of about 50% achieved through selection of the best regionally adapted varieties; through optimizing cutting frequency and timing; and by reducing the level (by about 40%) and timing of nitrogen fertilization. Breeding research has made further gains in productivity of switchgrass that exceed the historical rate of yield improvement of corn. Studies of soil carbon storage under switchgrass indicate significant carbon sequestration will occur in soils that will improve soil productivity and nutrient cycling and can substantially augment greenhouse gas reductions associated with substituting renewable energy for fossil energy. Collaborative research with industry has included fuel production and handling in power production, herbicide testing and licensing, release of new cultivars, and genetic modifications for chemical coproduct enhancement. Economically based life cycle analyses based on this research suggest that switchgrass produced for energy will compete favorably both as an agricultural crop and as fuel for industry

  9. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  10. Research & Development in aeronautical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ghatage

    1950-04-01

    Full Text Available   A good deal of research and development work is essential for the proper working of an aeronautical industry. Very little work has been done in these directions in our country although we do have a fairly well equipped aircraft factory capable of manufacturing airplanes but the lack of research and development work on many of the essential items that are required for the successful design and manufacture of aircraft has hampered the progress of this factory. If one looks at the genera1 conditions in this country, it could be seen that almost everything in the way of material and equipment needed for the successful design and manufacture of airplanes is not available from indigenous sources.

  11. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  12. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Ronald C.; Sean K. Bedingfield; Reese Thompson; Sims, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would...

  13. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  14. Technical development of industry for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions the history for 30 years since 1979 on industrial technology, which records change of system and environment of industrial technology development, like economical and social environment, industrial technology policy, support system on technical development and enterprise institute, assignment for future and product of industrial technology by field such as electric electronic, information and communications, machine material and fiber chemistry, and the way which Korea industrial technology association walked on.

  15. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  16. An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ► We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ► International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ► A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ► Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ► 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

  17. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and crop physiology of three Mediterranean bioenergy crops: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) and Cynara cardunculus (cynara). These crops cover a wide range of bio-industrial app...

  18. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagasse combustion. In this work, the case of a sucrose and ethanol production plant, which mills ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, is considered. A tailor-made computational model was developed to assess the energy and material process balances in order to estimate the effect of different operating conditions on cogeneration boilers and turbines, and to optimize the overall process efficiency. The current situation was modeled with good precision from the developed model. Likewise, the concept of “Renewable Efficiency” was introduced to explain the degree of green power, which a process plant is able to produce. Consequently, new innovative solutions and process layouts were proposed in order to increase their renewable efficiency. With the new configurations, a convenient energy surplus of up to 33 MW can be reached, which could be sold in the national electricity grid, representing long-term interesting economic benefits for the company.

  19. Communicating About Bioenergy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  20. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    production, and commercial forestry. The issues include the dispersed nature of some of the waste (increasing costs of transport and reducing economy of scale), and the fact that some of these are already applied in energy generation. (4) Rural firewood use is problematic. This is a significant resource, plays a large role in the energy budget of poor and rural households, and current use means that it will have little impact on the GHG emissions balance. Data availability and quality is poor, and needs improvement. (5) Process technologies are not all mature: We have investigated 52 different process technologies in respect of costs, economy of scale, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emission and job creation impacts, and maturity of technology. Many attractive options are not mature, and unlikely to be commercially useful in the next decade - essentially excluding them from consideration for medium-term implementation. (6) Solutions are probably 'packages'. One has to balance the diversity of available resource streams and processing technologies against the need to focus resources on development of critical mass (workforce skills, support industries, expertise). Combining feedstocks and aligning with other government initiatives or subsidies can achieve such critical mass more easily. (7) Solutions must be robust in future too. Feasibility studies that focus on the current situation only ignore the fact that future sustainability is strongly dependent on assumptions on relative economic growth (influences household and industrial energy consumption, and the limiting cost for energy), cost of capital and inflation (affects choices of labour- or capital-intensive industries), exchange rates and fossil fuel prices (huge effect on selection of alternatives). (8) The most promising biomass source is medium-term mining and eradication of invasive alien plants, but this source is limited in time and, if exploited as proposed, will not be available after about 20 years. The

  1. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  2. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  3. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  4. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Ghanaian exporters developed technological capabilities initially and the incentives and disincentives to building on those capabilities. The article argues that at the heart of the industry's crisis was an inability to further develop technological capabilities. The crisis had systemic features that have......This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...... broader implications for developing new agro-industries in Ghana as well as other African countries....

  5. Pharmaceutical industry in strategic development

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    World pharmaceutical industry has been changing profoundly as it has been steadily concentrating and consolidating in the last decade. According to our survey, we may underline the intensive marketing management represents an extremely important operational and even strategic function for proper business performance and long-term strategic orientation for the world pharmaceutical companies. We may even conclude that intensive consolidation of world pharmaceutical industry is a market driven a...

  6. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoyana, Robert B., E-mail: RMangoya@usc.edu.a [Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, 4558 Queensland (Australia); Smith, Timothy F. [Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, 4558 Queensland (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: {yields} Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. {yields}Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. {yields} Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  7. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  8. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    to a group of studies examining the influence of policies and institutions on national economic performance in late industrialising countries in a comparative perspective. It is guided by the proposition that the nature of the politico-institutional setting has an important impact on the effectiveness......’s capacity and the nature of politics. Henceforth, the dissertation examines the ability and willingness of the state to design and implement an adequate and coherent set of strategic industrial policies, and the likely impact of such policies on industrial deepening and upgrading in Taiwan and Thailand...

  9. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    to a group of studies examining the influence of policies and institutions on national economic performance in late industrialising countries in a comparative perspective. It is guided by the proposition that the nature of the politico-institutional setting has an important impact on the effectiveness......'s capacity and the nature of politics. Henceforth, the dissertation examines the ability and willingness of the state to design and implement an adequate and coherent set of strategic industrial policies, and the likely impact of such policies on industrial deepening and upgrading in Taiwan and Thailand...

  10. An expose of bioenergy and its potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas and coal) that place a big burden on the economy. Air pollution is also becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from bioenergy, which is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The amount of usable bioenergy potential of Turkey is approximately 17 Mtoe. This article not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the bioenergy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers

  11. Chaos theory perspective for industry clusters development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang

    2016-03-01

    Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CHINESE TOURISM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Luo, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the fast growth of Chinese tourism industry, sustainable development catches more and more attention of professionals. Starting from the basic concept of sustainable development, this paper, using China as examples, analyzes the inter-impact of sustainable development and tourism industry in different aspects. Strategies to improve sustainability of one of famous Chinese tourism destination are introduced.

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CHINESE TOURISM INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Luo, Yan

    2011-01-01

    With the fast growth of Chinese tourism industry, sustainable development catches more and more attention of professionals. Starting from the basic concept of sustainable development, this paper, using China as examples, analyzes the inter-impact of sustainable development and tourism industry in different aspects. Strategies to improve sustainability of one of famous Chinese tourism destination are introduced.

  14. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  15. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  16. Ways of Light Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The planning of the right industry restructuring and revitalization" was officially released on May 18th this year. This planning mainly includes food, cereals, oil, batteries, leather, paper, fermentation, brewing, sugar refining and home electrical appliances. As a response to a comprehensive action plan, the planning period is from 2009 to 2011.

  17. China's Fermentation Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.

  18. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Colombo; William Ocampo-Duque; Fabio Rinaldi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagass...

  19. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine

  20. US Energy Industry Financial Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second quarter of 1992, the financial performance of the US petroleum industry continued to deteriorate, as weakening domestic economic growth slowed the demand for refined petroleum products. Net income for 119 petroleum companies--including 19 major oil and gas producers--declined 2 percent between the second quarter of 1991 and the second quarter of 1992, and was down 35 percent for the first 6 months of 1992. Unless otherwise stated, all quarterly comparisons relate to the second quarter of 1992 versus the second quarter of 1991. Weak margins reduce downstream earnings; higher prices increase oil and gas production earnings; industry downsizing improves financial results; oil and gas drilling remains depressed; cool spring helps gas companies but disappoints electric utilities

  1. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  2. Telecommunication Industry Development Prospects Based on Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy S. Ageenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing industries. Telecommunications development is one of the major indicators of sustainable development of both states and the entire world economy. Any branch of the world economy (banking, transport, tourism, etc. depends on the speed and reliability of global telecommunications. Telecommunication technologies enable to create new markets and provide new services.

  3. Sustainable Development and Spatial Distribution of Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShengYi

    2005-01-01

    At the cost of overdrawing from the environment, spatial distribution of industries takes promoting the economic growth as goal and makes the overload of industries coexist with the unreasonable arrangement in some areas, which is unable to satisfy the demand of sustainable development. To change the present development model, the spatial distribution of industries must coordinate with the environmental bearing capacity. The present practice we take to change resources distribution to meet the existing arrangement of industries will bring incredible calamitous consequence to the development in the future. To make industry's arrangement coordinate with ecological environment, and to adopt the method similar to “arranging along the rivers” should become the guidefines of spatial distribution of industries.

  4. Microfabricated devices in microbial bioenergy sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Arum; Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; Kim, Hyun Soo; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Microbes provide a platform for the synthesis of clean energy from renewable resources. Significant investments in discovering new microbial systems and capabilities, discerning the molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial bioenergy production, and optimizing existing microbial bioenergy systems have been made. However, further development is needed to achieve the economically feasible large-scale production of value-added energy products. Microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems provide cost- and time-efficient opportunities for analyzing microbe-mediated bioenergy synthesis. Here, we review developments in the application of lab-on-a-chip systems to the bioenergy sciences. We focus on systems that support the analysis of microbial generation of bioelectricity, biogas, and liquid transportation fuels. We conclude by suggesting possible future directions. PMID:23453527

  5. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  6. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  7. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  8. China's Cultural Industry Development in Governments' Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Wu; Wang Taihua; Liu Binjie; Zhang Shaochun

    2009-01-01

    * Cai Wu,Minister of the Ministry of Culture The implementation of the Cultural Industry Promotion Plan will have a very significant impact not just on China's cultural development, but also the entire national economic and social development.

  9. Bio-energies. The domestic use of wood fuel: the weight of discretion. The urban and industrial wood heating, a growth value. Biomass - electricity - heat, towards a new concept. Bio-gas, a fermenting stake. Bio-components for fuels, foresight and quality. Biomolecules: towards a chemistry of substitution. Wood materials: a concentrate of environment; Les bioenergies. L'usage domestique du bois energie: le poids de la discretion. Le chauffage urbain et industriel au bois, une valeur de croissance. Biomasse - electricite - chaleur, vers un nouveau concept. Le biogaz, un enjeu qui fermente. Biocomposants pour carburants, prevoyance et qualite. Les biomolecules: vers une chimie de substitution. Le bois materiau: un concentre d'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This dossier presents a status of todays situation of the use of bio-energies in France and of its perspectives of development at the year 2006 vista. Seven aspects of bio-energies are considered: wood fuel, district and industrial heating, biomass production and gasification processes, biogas (methane) production from municipal waste tips, bio-fuels and bio-additives (bio-ethanol, ETBE, colza derived oils, vegetal oil methyl esters), bio-molecules production and valorization as substitutes to petroleum products (lubricants, wetting agents, solvents, polymers, coatings), development of wood materials (environmental advantages: CO{sub 2} immobilization, lower energy needs during fabrication, possible energy valorization at end life). (J.S.)

  10. Analysis of the evolution of sustainable development in biofuels industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Loayza Rollano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of sustainable development in the biofuel production sector. The Energy Indicators Tool for Sustainable Development (EISD and the Sustainability Indicators Tool Global Association for Bioenergy (GBEP were applied. Performing a comparison of indicators in each performance (economic, social and environmental, it was found that the production of biofuels in Brazil is positive in most of them. Biofuels showed a favorable trend in economic indicators, not only in terms of cost, but also through the use of energy available to the consumer market. Environmental indicators showed an improvement in the efficient use of land, water and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the limits. In addition, it appears that the biofuels industries have contributed positively to rural economies, since the social indicators showed a relatively significant and positive increase in labor supply and salary level of the labor market in this sector. Also appears that existing tools are complementary and the results provide a basis for future discussions and the development of sustainability assessments in systems and bioenergy-related projects.

  11. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  12. International bioenergy trade - a review of past developments in the liquid biofuels market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Policies aimed to promote biofuels locally had tremendous effects on global market developments across the past decade. This article develops insights into the interaction of these policies and market forces via a comprehensive collection and analysis of international production and trade data. It s

  13. Industrial parks as an innovative vector of industrial production development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyuta, Lyudmyla Yaroslavivna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The urgent problem of industrial parks foundation and their activity organization as an innovative structure to provide industrial production and business development has been considered. Etymological role of industrial parks under present economic conditions, preconditions and main stages of their creation in Ukraine have been described. It’s mentioned that the mechanism of industrial parks foundation as a business development instrument provides the customers number increase, markets extension, partnership building and development. The main subjects of the above-mentioned innovative formation, fundamental and competitive features of IP, conditions and advantages of every project participant investing have been determined. A model of managerial decision making about IP foundation has been built. Key factors of success and efficiency of the above-mentioned entrepreneurship structures have been determined. Law basis, possible financing and state support conditions of IP have been analyzed. Some examples of their foundation in certain regions of Ukraine have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of these innovative structures have been determined.

  14. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  15. Development and outlook of Chinese steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The fast development of Chinese steel industry has drawn great attention from the world.Market n eeding and technical development are the main driving forces for the rapid development of Chinese steel industry. Based on the discussing of the reasons of its rapid development, the present paper further analyzed the main problems and distance towards the advanced level of international steel industry. It bring forward that Chinese steel industry should enhance the research and development on new generation steel materials and production process to ensure its sustainable development. Through populating the key technologies of syntheses energy saving and water saving to realize the main equipments self-making and establish a new recyclable steel production process.

  16. Development Model of Rural Industrialization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weihong; Zhang, Ruide; Liu, Guichuan

    2009-01-01

    With the implementation of the policy of expanding domestic demand, farmers have become the main body of rural economy and rural industrialization. Development of rural industrialization promotes the development of rural economy in China, effectively transfers the surplus labor force in rural areas, continuously optimizes the rural economic structure, improves the living standard of farmers, and has made important contributions to the stability and development of economy and society in China....

  17. Energy and Environmental Management in Egypt : Bioenergy CDM projects for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    El-Dorghamy, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    In the rapidly developing economy of Egypt with the increasing population density and depleting natural resources, the management of energy and environment has become of utmost importance to the sustainability of our development. A clear example is the severe air pollution, which is causing the most environmental damage, being mostly attributed to the energy sector, and largely attributed to uncontrolled burning of solid waste and agriculture residue. It mainly affects Greater Cairo, which ho...

  18. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  19. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  20. Developments in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics and biological treatment technologies of several kinds of industrial wastewater are summarised. Biological treatment of industrial wastewater is a well-established system with applications going back for over a century. However, developments are still taking place but at the design stage, more emphasis will be placed on small "footprint" systems, odour control and minimization of excess sludge production.

  1. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries

  2. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  3. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  4. Colombian capital goods industry and technological development.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleta LA; Londono JL; Uribe JD

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper, capital goods, technology, industrial development, trends, 1955-1978, Colombia - supply and demand, choice of product, Innovation, technology transfer, obstacles, tariff policy, research policy. Bibliography, diagram, statistical tables.

  5. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  6. Product development in the wood industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stendahl, Matti

    2009-01-01

    It is common advice from strategy consultants that companies in the wood industry should increase their rate of innovation in order to survive global competition. Neither consultants nor academics, however, provide much advice on how this is to be achieved. For example, what resources are crucial for product innovation to take place and are current organizational structures suitable for development work? In this study, the product development processes of companies in this industry were exami...

  7. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly esta...... of switching merits attention in the future design of firm surveys across developing countries and in associated analytical studies....... established entrants and exiting firms that are closing down operations. In this study, we develop an empirical model that examines switching behavior using data from Vietnamese manufacturing firms during the 2001–2008 period. The diagnostic shows that switching firms exhibit different characteristics and...

  8. Developing finance to meet energy industry challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of commercial financial institutions in the development of the world's oil and gas industry are charted in this article. Banks and other institutions have been lending money to the oil industry since the late 1920s. In the early days loans were short-term, but as the oil and gas industries have developed, using deeper wells and more complex technology, financial needs too have expanded. Better forecasting of future recovery levels, and a better understanding of reservoir characteristics has meant that lending institutions have advanced funds against projected oil revenues, with repayments due only as oil production comes on-line. (UK)

  9. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  10. Project ARBRE: Lessons for bio-energy developers and policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project Arable Biomass Renewable Energy (ARBRE) was a 'flagship' project in the UK to demonstrate electricity generation from dedicated energy crops, employing the high efficiency of gasification combined cycle technology while also contributing to the waste management problem of sewage disposal. The plant never reached commercial operation and this paper provides the first detailed public account of the reasons, drawing on interviews with the main actors. Project ARBRE failed due to three unfortunate developments: the withdrawal for reasons of commercial strategy of the main company that initiated and financed the project; bankruptcy of the turnkey contractor appointed to oversee the project; and technical problems with the gasification technology, which could not be resolved within the financial and time constraints. All these factors acted in reinforcing manner and they were individually preventable: documenting the process of failure is a learning experience that can prevent their recurrence

  11. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable Bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For this purposes existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First an inventory of existing systems was made; next, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholder involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In a third and fourth step different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. In step five, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verification tools that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholder (e.g. biomass producer and consumer

  12. Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass production, have led to the demand for sustainability criteria and certification systems that can control biomass trade. Because neither such criteria and indicator sets nor certification systems for sustainable biomass trade are yet available, the objective of this study is to generate information that can help to develop them. For these purposes, existing certification systems, sets of sustainability criteria or guidelines on environmental or social sound management of resources are analyzed with the purpose to learn about the requirements, contents and organizational set ups of a certification system for sustainable biomass trade. First, an inventory of existing systems was made; second, their structures were analyzed. Key finding from the analysis of internationally applied certification systems was that they are generally led by an international panel that represents all countries and stakeholders involved in the biomass production and trade activities. In third and fourth steps different approaches to formulate standards were described and a list of more than 100 social, economic, ecological and general criteria for sustainable biomass trade was extracted from the reviewed systems. Fifth, methods to formulate indicators, that make sustainability criteria measurable, and verifiers that are used to control the performance of indicators are described. It is recommended to further develop the criteria and indicator (C and I) sets for sustainable biomass trade by involvement of the relevant stakeholders (e.g. biomass producer and consumer) and the

  13. Fast Development Of China's Small Satellite Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hongjin

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Spacesat Co., Ltd of China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) recently said, along with the successful launch of HJ-1A/B for the environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation and after years of efforts, small satellite development technology has achieved fruitful results, and the development status has been greatly improved.China's small satellite technology has realized a great-leap-forward in development from a single satellite model to series model, from the satellite program to space industry. China has explored a development road for China's small satellite industrialization, and a modern small satellite development base has resulted.

  14. Chinese RE Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The development goals set for Chinese rare earthindustry in the '10th-Five-Year Plan" (year 2001~2005) wereachieved one year in advance. By 2004, following economyindexes were realized: production of rare earth minerals wasrestricted to around 90,000 tons; consumption of rare earthincreased to 32,000~33,000 tons from 19,200 tons; exportvolume was 70% of the world total, keeping the same level asthat in 2000; export of high value-added products wasincreased. During 2001-2005, rare earth separation capacitywa...

  15. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  16. Sustainable development and the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception in some quarters that the continued development of the coal and minerals industries is incompatible with sustainability. Yet a future without mining is clearly a very long way off. This article outlines some of the initiatives being taken by the coal industry to overcome the adverse perceptions and demonstrate that coal has an important future to play. Industries in the future will be assessed not only on their economic performance, as in the past, but also on their environmental and social performance - that is, their contribution to sustainable development. In this context, sustainable development is now part of mainstream business thinking in many major corporations. Apart from identifying improvement opportunities, the process should also result in a better understanding of mining industry role by non-mining stake holders. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  17. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  18. Wood-Based Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Michael; Sletten, Thea Marcelia

    2014-01-01

    During recent years increased attention has been given to second-generation wood-based bioenergy. The carbon stored in the forest is highest when there is little or no harvest from the forest. Increasing the harvest from a forest, in order to produce more bioenergy, may thus conflict with the direct benefit of the forest as a carbon sink. We analyze this conflict using a simple model where bioenergy and fossil energy are perfect substitutes. Our analysis shows how the social optimum will depe...

  19. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m3. On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m3/a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  20. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  1. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley B Bennett

    Full Text Available In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  2. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ashley B; Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  3. Innovation, Procurement and Construction Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geard de Valence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The implications for analysis of innovation in construction of theoretical developments in industrial organisation are considered in this research, as an attempt to outline a new approach to construction innovation incorporating the ideas found in knowledge based, technology centred models. The paper firstly summarises characteristics of the construction industry, focusing on their effects on innovation, before surveying some of the ideas about the sources of innovation and the expansion and application of knowledge. Construction can be seen as an industry with limited scope for knowledge externalities, where the procurement methods used by the industry’s clients do not pay for innovation. The following discussion uses recent developments in the research on the economics of innovation and industrial organization theory, such as research intensity and the endogenous sunk costs in competitive, fragmented, low research intensity industries. The effects on R&D of procurement methods and on industry structure are discussed, with a focus on the appropriability of innovations and the role of the client on the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. The paper concludes that the procurement methods used for building and construction projects appears to be a determining factor in the level of innovation in the construction industry

  4. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    performance under industrial fermentation conditions. These challenges can be overcome by taking systems approaches through the use of state-of-the-art tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering in the context of industrial bioprocess. Major systems metabolic engineering......Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different...... orders. The key challenges have been the time-, cost- and labor-intensive processes of strain development owing to the difficulties in understanding complex interactions among the metabolic, gene regulatory and signaling networks at the cell level, which are collectively represented as overall system...

  5. Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Hettige, Hemamala; Mani, Muthukumara; Wheeler, David

    1998-01-01

    Using new international data, the authors test for an inverse U-shaped, or"Kuznets,"relationship between industrial water pollution and economic development. They measure the effect of income growth on three proximate determinants of pollution: the share of manufacturing in total output, the sectoral composition of manufacturing, and the intensity (per unit of output) of industrial pollution at the"end of pipe."They find that the manufacturing share of output follows a Kuznets-type trajectory...

  6. Potential applications of nanotechnology in bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kramb, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology has an increasingly large impact on a wide range of industries, but its current use in the production of electricity and heat from biomass is limited. This thesis examined the potential impact of nanotechnology on bioenergy production through a literature review and interviews with industry members. Current technologies and methods in use were reviewed, with a focus on fuel handling and combustion systems. Areas in which problems existed were identified and nanotechnologies wit...

  7. Developing an Experimental Watershed for Monitoring the Impacts of Bioenergy Production on Marginal Lands of the Northeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B. M.; Adler, P. R.; Kemanian, A. R.; Saha, D.; Montes, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern U.S. over 400,000 acres have been placed into conservation programs to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Most of this acreage is within the Chesepeake Bay watershed. Many of these acres may be suitable for raising second generation bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus). Bioenergy production may provide a viable economic incentive to keep marginal lands in perennial crop production, and improve water quality. However, the environmental impacts and benefits of second generation bioenergy crop production are not well understood on marginal lands. We designed an experimental watershed to compare switchgrass and miscanthus production against typical conservation grasslands. The Mattern Watershed is a horseshoe shaped 1st order watershed located near Leck Kill, PA, and is representative of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Province. The upper portions of the watershed have been and are currently used for tillage corn and bean production. The lower portions of the watershed are excessively wet and have been in a conservation easement since 2005. In spring 2012 we planted eight 0.4 ha replicate plots of switchgrass (4 fertilized and 4 with no fertilizer) and four 0.4 ha plots of miscanthus into the lower portions of the watershed an additional four 0.4 ha plots were left in conservation grassland using a randomized block design. We compare biomass production, biomass elemental content, N2O emissions, soil moisture, shallow groundwater quality, surface runoff, and soil organic carbon in order to determine which treatment most effectively produces bioenergy feedstock, mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, and improves water quality. The experimental watershed will provide an unparalleled opportunity to verify and parameterize watershed, and bigeochemical models. Preliminary results suggest that early in the growing season cool season grasses minimized shallow groundwater NO3 and N2O

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network Method for Detecting Structural Change in Oil-Bioenergy Crops Prices System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhao; Yu Zhang; Hong Xu

    2012-01-01

    The present study detects the structural change in oil-bioenergy crops prices system before and during the food crisis of 2007/2008 and financial crisis 2008/2010. In the recent years, rising world crude oil prices lead to increase of bioenergy production around the world. Bioenergy, in turn, affects bioenergy crops price, because it uses these commodities as inputs. We develop a hybrid neural network approach which can test the structural change of the linkages without priori knowledge of th...

  9. SPECIFICITY IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Golubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity in development of construction industry of the Republic of Belarus determines  character of competition on the construction market, forms a pricing, marketing and product policy of building companies. Construction represents itself as a highly developed complex where interaction of business entities is of rather complicated multilateral character.

  10. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  11. Feed or bioenergy production from agri-industrial residues?:An overview of the GHG emissions including indirect land-use change impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels produced from “residual” biomasses are considered promising ways of producing bioenergy. However, many studies tend to forget that these biomasses are today used for specific purposes, (e.g. feeding). This means that their use for energy would induce cascading consequences on the food/feed market, or on the carbon balance of the soil. The first are commonly called indirect land-use changes (iLUC), as they cause an increase in the international demand of a food/feed ...

  12. New Zealand’s Drug Development Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carswell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry’s profitability depends on identifying and successfully developing new drug candidates while trying to contain the increasing costs of drug development. It is actively searching for new sources of innovative compounds and for mechanisms to reduce the enormous costs of developing new drug candidates. There is an opportunity for academia to further develop as a source of drug discovery. The rising levels of industry outsourcing also provide prospects for organisations that can reduce the costs of drug development. We explored the potential returns to New Zealand (NZ from its drug discovery expertise by assuming a drug development candidate is out-licensed without clinical data and has anticipated peak global sales of $350 million. We also estimated the revenue from NZ’s clinical research industry based on a standard per participant payment to study sites and the number of industry-sponsored clinical trials approved each year. Our analyses found that NZ’s clinical research industry has generated increasing foreign revenue and appropriate policy support could ensure that this continues to grow. In addition the probability-based revenue from the out-licensing of a drug development candidate could be important for NZ if provided with appropriate policy and financial support.

  13. Securing a bioenergy future without imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK has legally binding renewable energy and greenhouse gas targets. Energy from biomass is anticipated to make major contributions to these. However there are concerns about the availability and sustainability of biomass for the bioenergy sector. A Biomass Resource Model has been developed that reflects the key biomass supply-chain dynamics and interactions determining resource availability, taking into account climate, food, land and other constraints. The model has been applied to the UK, developing four biomass resource scenarios to analyse resource availability and energy generation potential within different contexts. The model shows that indigenous biomass resources and energy crops could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050 without impacting food systems. The scenarios show, residues from agriculture, forestry and industry provide the most robust resource, potentially providing up to 6.5% of primary energy demand by 2050. Waste resources are found to potentially provide up to 15.4% and specifically grown biomass and energy crops up to 22% of demand. The UK is therefore projected to have significant indigenous biomass resources to meet its targets. However the dominant biomass resource opportunities identified in the paper are not consistent with current UK bioenergy strategies, risking biomass deficit despite resource abundance. - Highlights: • Biomass Resource Model and Scenarios reflect biomass supply-chain dynamics to 2050. • High potential availability of biomass and energy crops without food systems impacts. • UK Indigenous biomass resource could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050. • Robust residue resource from ongoing activities and large potential waste resource. • Indigenous resource abundance and the UK’s path towards increased resource deficit

  14. China Accelerates Development of Coalbed Methane Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shenyan

    1997-01-01

    @@ Coalbed methane is a kind of natural gas self-accumulated in coalbed and adjacent strata. It was usually regarded hazardous in coal mine production and drained with an aim of coal mine safe production in the past time. Many countries have re-cently attached great importance to the development of coalbed methane since the United States developed the technique of extraction of coalbed methane through drilling a hole from the surface in the 1980s. It has rapidly become a new industrial sector, which provides both clean gas energy for residential and industrial purposes and raw material for chemical products such as fertilizer,carbon black and methanol.

  15. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and...... medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  16. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  17. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  18. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  19. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  20. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  1. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well as by...

  2. Development of Industrial Yeast Platform Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Basti; Dato, Laura; Förster, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    frequently encounter high substrate concentrations, low pH, high temperatures and various inhibitory compounds originating either from the raw material used or from cellular metabolism. The aim of this research project is to develop robust platform strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on industrial...

  3. Prospects of Russian Automobile Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ajupov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article comprises the results of the SWOT analysis of the Russian automotive industry, identified keyopportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses and set strategic goals for further development. The articlepresents the results of grouping of the world's car manufacturers based on the matrix of the Boston consultinggroup on two criteria - market share and market share growth of the company.

  4. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Suliman L. Kh. M.; Abdelnaser Omran

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A li...

  5. Model Oriented Approach for Industrial Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Drobintsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the specifics of a model oriented approach to software development based on the usage of Model Driven Architecture (MDA, Model Driven Software Development (MDSD and Model Driven Development (MDD technologies. Benefits of this approach usage in the software development industry are described. The main emphasis is put on the system design, automated code generation for large systems, verification, proof of system properties and reduction of bug density. Drawbacks of the approach are also considered. The approach proposed in the article is specific for industrial software systems development. These systems are characterized by different levels of abstraction, which is used on modeling and code development phases. The approach allows to detail the model to the level of the system code, at the same time store the verified model semantics and provide the checking of the whole detailed model. Steps of translating abstract data structures (including transactions, signals and their parameters into data structures used in detailed system implementation are presented. Also the grammar of a language for specifying rules of abstract model data structures transformation into real system detailed data structures is described. The results of applying the proposed method in the industrial technology are shown.The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  6. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  7. Bioenergy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaerd, H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Pilegaard, K.

    2012-11-15

    A prerequisite for biomass-based energy carriers should be that they support sustainable development. The EU has set up requirements for sustainable biofuels (1G) in Directive 2009/28/EU. These include requirements on reductions in GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels, and on the land used to produce biomass. They do not directly include requirements on energy invested, as measured by EROI, nor on recycling of nutrients. As commercial fertiliser is very energy-intensive and recycling would reduce the need for other fertilisers, more emphasis on recycling would contribute to the energy efficiency of bioenergy. In this chapter we have considered various technologies with emphasis on how each can help to support the cycling of nutrients while also producing energy at the highest possible efficiency. In most cases the EROI is much lower than what we are used to from fossil energy production. However, if we combine different conversion processes and integrate the resulting energy production and nutrient flows into the agricultural management system we can expect better returns. (Author)

  8. Thoughts on the Current Cement Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhihe

    2003-01-01

    According to the analysis of cement capacity andits relations with macro economy running index, the mainreasons for the present rapid development of cement capacityare the rapid development of economy and the shot up ofwhole society fixed asset investment. According to the presentspeed of economy development, cement still enjoys a po-tential increase, So here has not been an overall excessivepopularity of cement industry. The best way to prevent lowlevel repeated construction is to promote the development ofnew dry- process cement as well as try to get rid of blindness.

  9. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a cooperation between KAERI, Kurchatov Institute (Russia), and Mirae Co., development of a metal ion implanter and ion implantation technology is performed on a basic idea of popularization and refinement of ion implantation technology applied to the industrial components. The developed implanter is a two beam type: the mass separation line produces several mA of metal ion beams and the non-separation line produces several tens of mA gas ion beams, thus making the synergistic effect possible by the irradiation of beams from both lines. The target is made of a rotating plate of 60cm in radius and can treat various types of industrial components or parts. About 60 kinds of specimens were treated for the development of implantation technology. Two or five times lengthening of longevities were achieved on the PCB drills, razor blades, cutters, and precision dies. (Author)

  10. Belowground Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Loblolly Pine Forest Managed for Bioenergy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Minick, Kevan J

    2014-01-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy and fuel production. Therefore, bioenergy production has expanded during the last decade, increasing demand for forest-based bioenergy feedstocks. Millions of acres of privately and industrially owned pine plantations exist across the southeastern US, representing a vast area of land that could be utilized to produce bioenergy without significant land-use change or diversion...

  11. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-10-01

    Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different orders. The key challenges have been the time-, cost- and labor-intensive processes of strain development owing to the difficulties in understanding complex interactions among the metabolic, gene regulatory and signaling networks at the cell level, which are collectively represented as overall system performance under industrial fermentation conditions. These challenges can be overcome by taking systems approaches through the use of state-of-the-art tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering in the context of industrial bioprocess. Major systems metabolic engineering achievements in recent years include microbial production of amino acids (L-valine, L-threonine, L-lysine and L-arginine), bulk chemicals (1,4-butanediol, 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,3-propanediol, butanol, isobutanol and succinic acid) and drugs (artemisinin). PMID:26448090

  12. Recent Developments in Empirical Industrial Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an bibliographic essay of recent empirical research in industrial organization. Examines topics such as the econometrics of markets with imperfect competition, technology and industry structure, industry evolution, and industry studies of regulation. (CFR)

  13. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  14. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Vuille, F. [E4tech, London (United Kingdom); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Junginger, M. [Copernicus Institute, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  15. Strategies for Developing China's Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The software industry is deemed an ideal target for a developing country to integrate into the world information and communications technology (ICT market. On the one hand the industry is labor intensive, and the developing countries have a large labor surplus; on the other hand, it is a worldwide trend for developed countries to outsource a vast amount of low-end, software-related tasks to the low-cost countries and regions, which fits into some developing countries’ caliber nicely. India has often been cited as the role model for a developing country to tap into the world software market for its continuous success in the software export sector. In comparison, China’s software industry is still negligible in the world despite its sustained high economic growth rate since the economic reform took off in the late 1970s.This paper aims at examining strategies for developing China’s software industry. We use India as a reference because of the similarities of the two countries’ stages of economic development and the clear divergence in their ICT structures and development paths. Although the language barrier has often been singled out as the major obstacle for China’s software exports, we believe the major reasons for its underdevelopment can be ascribed to the following factors. On the national level, the government attention has been skewed toward the hardware sector in the ICT industry, and there is no clear national vision for the strategic direction for the software industry.On the industry and ªrm level, software development has been regarded as the art of individual creativity rather than an engineering process. As a result, the importance of quality and standards, the two important critical factors in software development, have been largely neglected. Perhaps an even more fundamental factor lies in the deeply rooted notion that software is an attachment to the hardware and should be a free product. The lack of intellectual

  16. The future of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez).

  17. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  18. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...... developed from a holistic and strategically anchored point of view. Another assumption is that this is a challenge for many industrial companies. Even though the literature presents many considerations on general issues covering new information technology, little work is found on the business perspectives...... and the challenge of understanding the variant specification tasks and the connections between variant specification, product development, sales, manufacturing, and information technology. The present thesis seeks to meet this challenge with a procedure, concepts and tools. This is done through an...

  19. Bioenergy: Doing well while doing right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy - growing one's own fuel - offers the opportunity to do well while doing right. For several decades, the United States has promoted development of ethanol because it offers multiple national benefits - aiding farmers, the environment and the nation's energy security. But we have only scratched the surface of bioenergy's promise. Most ethanol is produced from corn, using only the starch in the kernels. But new conversion technologies could lead to the cost-effective use of a wide variety of feedstocks and agricultural waste products like corn stalks and wheat straw to produce ethanol and other products, such as chemicals and plastics, that are currently derived from fossil fuels. These technologies allow farmers to harvest double dividends - selling cash crops like corn and wheat, and converting the leftover 'waste' to fuel for the transportation sector. Bioenergy's potential is huge - economically and environmentally. Currently, ethanol accounts for less than 2 per cent of US gas consumption. The new bioenergy technologies could dramatically increase that figure, producing as much as 150 billion litres - the equivalent of one quarter of our current gasoline use. Bioenergy will also help prevent further global warming because the carbon dioxide emitted as it is produced and used is absorbed by the plants as they grow. The net greenhouse gas emissions are near zero. Moreover, bioenergy could spur economic development around the world. Advanced ethanol technologies will provide poor countries with a new way to meet transportation needs that are necessary prerequisites to economic progress and growth. With the right technology and basic training, these countries will be able to grow their own fuels, allowing them to redirect scarce foreign exchange earnings away from imported oil to more productive national investments - including critical social investments in health, education and welfare

  20. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number of...... platforms and product brands serve as the key dimensions when distinguishing the different strategies. Each strategy has its own challenges and raises various issues to deal with....

  1. Strategies for developing the cassava industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centralization of the cassava industry in tropical (and especially African) countries should be considered as a very important part of general strategy directed to the provision of the population with nutritionally balanced cassava foods. The Irish model of the development of dairy industry during the last 45 years had been a classical example of small involved groups in dairy farming getting together to pool their resources and family requirements to make a common objective succeed. This model based on a co-operative concept could be recommended for the cassava producing areas in order to improve this industry. The identification of the research areas required to improve the quality of the cassava fermented food products is another important part of the cassava strategy. These areas should include (i) fundamental studies of the various bacterial groups involved in the fermentation process and identification of the key groups involved at the various stages of fermentation (ii) strain screening programmes of these identified bacteria to select those which are most important to the fermentation of cassava (iii) studies to determine the appropriate methods for the propagation and the storage of these strains and (iv) systems to distribute these strains to the industries/small farmers/local co-operatives in cassava processing. Other technological and research aspects of improvement of the traditional fermentation practice of cassava are discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  3. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa P. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  4. Bioenergy in Russia: barriers and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulasevich, O.; Ivanov, T.; Chernyakhovskaya, Y. [Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)], e-mail: ulasevich@rosenergo.gov.ru

    2012-11-01

    A target to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the country's energy mix up to 4.5% till 2020 was set in the Russian Federation in 2009. That means commissioning of 10 GW installed capacity till 2020. The share of at least 40% should derive from bioenergy. Russian possessed a wide potential of biopower. Timber stock is evaluated at the amount of 83 billion m{sup 3}, agricultural complex wastes are considered to be not less than 773 million tons. By the development of RES and bioenegy one should bear in mind need to diversify the energy-mix for sustainable regional development in the optimal mode which is specific for each particular area. Bioenergy can make an important contribution to the technological, ecological and social development of the regions of the Russian Federation. RES and bioenergy progress in Russia requires holistic approach which includes development of institutional framework, manufacturing base, raising of market awareness, educational trainings, etc. Development of international cooperation in this sphere will allow to obtain the excess to the cutting edge technologies and know-how in order to use the huge bioenergy potential to mutual benefit of all parties.

  5. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Catalysts development for Venezuelan oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of technical activities at PDVSA Intevep, Catalysis became a fact. As the technological affiliate of the Venezuelan Oil Industry, its rol in this area has been oriented towards the refining and petrochemical needs of that industry. In doing so, the whole set of activities dealing with basic research, development and consulting has lead to keep in force such a topic along our history. This work describes these activities, the infrastructure which supported it and the most relevant results, both those which have reached commercial level together with those holding that potential through a valid patent. As can be seen, this country relay on a corporation capable of generating catalytic technologies to satisfy its needs, within a wide range of applications. PDVSA Intevep has been exhaustively working with that orientation from the knowledge creation through the technology transfer of our products to the operational units

  7. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  8. Advanced Engineering Platform for Industrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. González-Palacios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a full description of a software development platform involving libraries that allow the creationof software packages focused not only on industrial applications, but also on applications where design, modelingand/or on-line simulation are required. The flexibility of the main classes simplifies the generation of modules thatconstitute an application developed with this platform. Furthermore, any custom application starting from scratchcontains by default a set of functions that facilitates the developer firstly to build the graphical environment withcapabilities to interact with the pointing device, and secondly, to accomplish machinery control tasks whilecommunicating with input/output components; such is the case of digital-analog cards or modules connectedremotely. Besides, any fully developed application can be considered as a platform to generate another with a higherlevel of specialization. Several applications built with this platform are reported here as case studies.

  9. Development of radiopharmaceuticals and industrial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development process of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical does not really differ from the development of a classical drug. Some specific properties of these nuclear medicine tools mainly linked to the ease to follow their distribution in the human body allow to save a couple of years out of the dozen of years required to bring a drug on the market. Overall development costs can be significantly reduced for the same reason. An industrial who wants to invest in such a business bases its analysis on other criteria that need to evaluate the medical, safety and regulatory environment at the time of drug launching. Competition is obviously a major decision criteria, but in order to evaluate the market potential, other data must be available such as the analysis of the medical landscape, the reimbursement issues, the technology evolution, the investment needs or the development of other imaging modalities, among others. In fact all these parameters concentrate toward a common criteria, the profitability of the project. Nuclear medicine moved from an art and crafts era towards the industrial era and hence plunged from the twentieth to the twenty first century in the economic reality with all its constraints and consequences. (author)

  10. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  11. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  12. The development of the Canadian peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J. (New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Bathurst, NB (Canada). Mineral Resources Division)

    1994-02-01

    Peatlands occupy 111 million hectares or about 12% of Canada's land surface and are principally located in the boreal region of the country. Most of the bog surveys which were initiated in Canada since 1908 have been prompted by a national interest in gaining fuel self-sufficiency, but the production of peat has almost always been exclusively for horticultural purposes. The birth of the Canadian peat industry dates back to the early 1940s, when the United States' traditional supplies from Europe were cut off during the Second World War. Between 1938 and 1992, the production of horticultural peat has grown from 4,000 and 745,000 tonnes, making Canada the world's third largest producer of horticultural peat. Canadian peat is exported to 25 countries. In 1992, the United States accounted for 89% of all exports, and Japan ranked second with 10%. In 1992, the total value of the production was estimated at 108 million dollars and provided employment for thousands of people in rural areas. The present industry owes its existence to an abundant supply of sphagnum moss located near population centres and in proximity to important transportation corridors. The continued development of the Canadian peat industry depends on establishing sound environmental practices, examining alternate uses for peat and exploring new market opportunities. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  14. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  15. The Development of Printing Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Printing products are one kind of information carder.Printing can be seen as a service,serving almost all fields from politics, economy,military,science & technology,culture and education,news & publication,to daily life of the people.Every one of the people needs the services of printing.In China,with the development of market economy,printing has become increasingly important and more dependent to the economy.It is proper to say,the printing industry is growing simultaneously with the economy. So firstly I introduce some data about China’s economy.

  16. New Technologies and Sustainable Development of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present technology assessment study examines the effects of three technology scenarios on future energy consumption and the energy-related emissions by industrial manufacturing in Switzerland. The three paths of development (Trend, High-Tech, Alternative) can be represented as follows: After a reduction until 2015, the Trend development entails a slight increase in consumption of energy. Until then consumption is some 10 percent lower in both the High-Tech and the Alternative Scenarios. Consumption of electricity increases in all scenarios, the proportion is highest in 20 year's time under the High-Tech scenario. SO2 and CO2 emissions decrease in all scenarios until 2000 and then level out at a low level. The emissions are lowest in the High-Tech scenario. In contrast the NOx and the VOC emissions diminish until 2000 and then rise again continuously. At this juncture important bases are still not yet available for a definitive evaluation with respect to the sustainable development. Sustainability objectives are currently being compiled for Switzerland in the wake of the Berlin Climate Conference and the Rio Conference. In the political lobbies the Green factions are making demands, such as those currently under discussion internationally (e.g. CO2 reductions on a scale of some 80 percent by 2050), whereas conservative and industrial circle representatives support the objective of sustainable development but reject a quantification of objectives. The official objectives of the Swiss Energy 2000 programme can be achieved with all scenarios. With the High-Tech and Alternative scenarios, concepts of a reduction in CO2 by 20 percent by 2015 (as currently under discussion in Switzerland), are realistic. However, further energy-relevant efficiency potentials in industrial production can be activated by energy-policy motivated measures. More extensive objectives, such as e.g. a CO2 reduction of 50 percent, are hardly attainable, even in the long-term, without

  17. PTM Thrives for Onshore Petroleum Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Technology Market Office, CNPC

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the Law on Technological Contracts was issued, it has been conscientiously carried out by every onshore petroleum enterprise in China. Exchanges of technology have been vigorously carried out among petroleum enterprises,scientific and technological institutes and colleges. Nearly 10 000 technology contracts have been signed, the scientific and technological achievements have been introduced to production and a lot of technological problems in production have been resolved. Therefore, the petroleum technology market (PTM)has played an active role in promoting the development of onshore petroleum industry.

  18. 3. forum bioenergy. Politics, market, finances, marketing and distribution, export. Proceedings 2007; 3. Forum Bioenergie. Politik, Markt, Finanzierung, Marketing and Vertrieb, Export. Tagungsband 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The following lectures were held (selection of topics): The decision to the thermal energy law and EEG from the cabinet meeting at 5th December, 2007 (Heiko Schwarzburger); Comment of the opposition to the cabinet decisions and outline of the political activities of the European policy (Heinz-Josef Fell); The meaning of new systems for utilization of land for soil protection and climatic change (Uwe Schneider); State of the art: laws and terms of references (Lothar Breidenbach); Bioenergy the interface industry - strategic challenges (Hilmar Platz); Actual developments with the promotion of the bioenergy by EEG and thermal energy law (Nicole Pippke); National biomass strategies in the European Union - project BAP DRIVER (Alexandra Lermen); Effects of the trade from biofuels to meet the development extensions of the European Union on area requirements (Enver Doruk Oezdemir); Energy region Rhein-Sieg: Renewable energies in the association - modelling of self-sufficient regions (Rolf Beyer); Potentials of value added in regions - results from the BMU project BioRegio (Georg Wagener Lohse); Posibilities and terms of references for increasing the potentials of biomass (Cornelia Behm); What can bioenergies perform in mix of renewable energies? - Discussion contribution for the limited potential of the bio energies (Susanne Jung); Panel discussion with representatives from the policy: Surface competition - full grain instead of full power; Fermentation gas - economy and experiences from bank view (Joerg-Uwe Fischer); Financing concept of large-scale projects by the example of the biological gas facility in Penkun (Balthasar Schramm); Economy factors for the gas feed - examples from consultant practice (Markus Helm); Stabilization or endangerment agriculture? Realizations from the field study 'biological gas facilities in Bavaria' (Wilfried Zoerner); Bioenergy - chances for investors (Daniel Kellermann); Private Equity within the range of bioenergy (Andrew Murphy

  19. Recent trends in development of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the recent trends in the development of radiation sources, radiation detectors and imaging systems in industrial radiography. Among those developmental trends mentioned are the development of mini and microfocal X-ray equipment that produces high definitions radiographs for micro-radiography; the potentials of using lasers for production of low-energy X-rays in high intensity new fields of applications in micro radiography and flash radiography for radiation sources. Other developments in detectors in imaging systems (films, plastic sheets, fluoroscopy screens, electrostatic imaging), radiometry, and image information processing (real time radiography, computerized tomography (CT), gamma-ray-scattering NDE, simultaneous dynamic neutron and gamma radiography, and isotope containers). In 20 years, NDT measurements are expected on the following: on-line detection of laminations in steel during hot rolling, automatic inspection of castings before machining, detection of defects between weld passes and inspection of bonding surfaces before gluing. (ELC). 7 tabs., 7 refs., 15 figs

  20. Petrochemical Industrial Development Flourishes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cangzhou to construct world·class chemical industrial park To make full use of its advantages in coastline and harbors,local industries, traffic conditions and land use, Cangzhou City, Hebei Province, planned to construct the largest chemical industrial park in North China - Lingang Chemical Industrial Park, which has already captured attention of the Chinese and foreign chemicals enterprises.

  1. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be

  2. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferu...

  3. Regional competitiveness and territorial industrial development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeković Slavka

    2009-01-01

    In the paper are investigated the regional competitiveness and the territorial aspects of industry in Serbia. There are analyzed the key recent movement in industrial development of Serbia and macrolocational factors and territorial organization of industry. The research of possible structural changes of industry and identification of its key development sectors is the important component of territorial development analysis in Serbia. This paper points to the kinds and types of industri...

  4. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Large or small? Rethinking China’s forest bioenergy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China’s forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China’s forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. -- Highlights: ► China’s bioenergy policy is at a crossroads. ► Trade-offs exist between forest bioenergy policy for urban and rural users in China. ► There are strong arguments for focusing forest bioenergy policy on rural areas. ► China’s rural energy policy should increasingly support modern energy carriers

  6. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  7. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology: Evidence from a new Danish bioenergy concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-01-15

    The interest in sustainable bioenergy solutions has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce GHG emissions and to meet environmental policy targets, not least for the protection of groundwater and surface water quality. In the Municipality of Solrød in Denmark, a novel bioenergy concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under construction, was designed to handle an annual input of up to 200,000 t of biomass based on four main fractions: pectin wastes, carrageenan wastes, manure and beach-cast seaweed. This paper describes how this bioenergy concept can contribute to strengthening the linkages between climate change mitigation strategies and Water Framework Directive (WFD) action planning. Our assessments of the projected biogas plant indicate an annual reduction of GHG emissions of approx. 40,000 t CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approx. 1/3 of current total GHG emissions in the Municipality of Solrød. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63 t yr.(-1) and 9 tyr.(-1), respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific food industry residues, pig manure and beach-cast seaweed is feasible and that there is a very significant, cost-effective GHG and nutrient loading mitigation potential for this bioenergy concept. Our research demonstrates how an integrated planning process where considerations about the total environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions. PMID:26476058

  8. On the commons of developed industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Berge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The editorial discusses the status and prospects of the commons of developed industrialized countries, based on the literature. For the traditional commons, one key variable for long-term development prospects of the commons is found in the way ownership to the commons is structured. A second key variable is the way increasing knowledge, including scientific environmental knowledge, has affected our perception of what a resource is within a commons and its value. The way these two variables characterizing commons: “structure of ownership” and “knowledge of valuable resources” are related is illustrated in a process referred to as “the withering away” with potential for widely diverging outcomes. Also new emerging urban commons are commented on and a more indepth study of both traditional and new urban commons is called for.

  9. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman L. Kh. M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.

  10. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  11. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in...... summary tables, followed by a discussion of the possible emergence of productivist policy approaches in the bioenergy sector in these countries. Findings – The bioenergy policies pursued by both countries differ in key respects and yet have had the same result-an increase in the productivist orientation...

  12. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  13. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  14. Infrastructure development to support the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengiz and Jubail represent areas in which the exploitation of oil and gas resources have, and are, providing enormous opportunities for regional development. Each has required a vision of the future and an understanding that infrastructure input is very broadly defined. Tengiz and Jubail are extreme examples. There are probably no cases in the Americas that will exactly mirror these. But opportunities for oil and gas development here may share some of these projects characteristics - extraction from remote areas, challenging transportatoin needs, and perhaps most importantly, opportunities for related industrial and economic development. Just as Jubail's master plan was part of a larger Saudi vision, oil and gas infrastructure planning can support Latin and North American countries individual visions of their nation's future. Where regional economic integration and interaction is increasing, there are even greater opportunities for good infrastructure planning. In some cases, such economic integration will provide the key which will unlock oil and gas development. Once these keys are provided - be it through the intangible innovations of creative project finance or tangible links through roadways, pipeline and rail - the opening will provide real chances to develop the infrastructure of the entire region

  15. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  16. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  17. The industrial development of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure 235U and 239Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material (235U or 239Pu) or concentrated material (235U mixed with small quantities of 238U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with 238U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate 238U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in 239Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and 238U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England and Scotland. The third class of reactor using natural

  18. Development and Demand Analysis of Convention and Exhibition Industry Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the necessity and urgency of accelerating convention and exhibition industrial standardization on the basis of an analysis of the industry demands, developing tendencies, and existing problems during development.

  19. Physics and Industrial Development - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Physics and Industrial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, R.; Moreira, R. L.; Rodrigues, W. N.

    1997-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Sponsors * Committees * Opening Lecture * Relations between Science and Industry in Brazil * Technological Change and Economic Development * Science and Economic Development * Recent Technological Change and Industrial Dynamics * Technology and Economic Development: Suitability of the Institutional System of Minais Gerais * Bridging the Gap * Transfer of Scientific Results into Industry: A Controversial Problem in Central and Eastern Europe * Bridging the Gap Between Basic Research and Industrial Development at the J. STEFAN Institute * Liquid Crystals: A Case Study of the Interaction Between Science and Application * Role of Physics in the Modern Industrialization Process of Korea * Research in Industry * A Theoretical Physicist's 21-Year Experience in the Argentine Industry * Four Characters in Search of a Profession * Status and Prospects for the Use of Renewable Sources of Energy in Minas Gerais State-Brazil * University-Industry Cooperation I * Development and Industrialization of Fiber Optics Metrology Equipment * Finnish Experiences on University-Industry Collaboration in Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy * A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Interaction between Academic Research and Industry * Technological Modernization of the Alkaline Cooking Process for the Production of Masa and Tortilla * The Fapergs Program on University Versus Private Enterprise * Integral Development Centers: Tying Mexican Industry With the National Polytechnic Institute * Materials Characterization and Applied Physics * Imaging Manganese Sulfide Inclusions in Grain Oriented Silicon Steels * Electrical Resistivity Changes Associated to Static Strain Aging in High Carbon Steel * PVD Hard Coatings for Wear Applications * Scanning Acoustic Microscopy: Application to Porous Materials * Indentation Testing of Thennal Sprayed WC-Co * Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis with Laserinduced

  20. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Min; Li, Yu

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand. diversified indu...

  1. Analysis of territorial and industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhul'kova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available At present a territory is considered as the basis for effective socio-economical development of the region. However, special attention should be paid to the presence of available resources on the territory under consideration, as well as the conditions of their future development. The availability and/or the possibility of creating/upgrading the existing resources encourage today the accumulated potential of the territory. Potential of the area is a set of capabilities and different levels of impact on the total potential of the area and includes such resources as natural, human, investment, innovation, employment, scientific and technological, demographic, urban development, tourism, tax, financial, recreational, marketing, cluster and infrastructure, as well as other kinds of potentials. The prospects for the development of enterprises or their complexes determine the capacities of the territory, the basis of their operation being the location. In this connection it is necessary to consider the basic types of potential undertakings, which the article refer to: marketing, investment, innovation, employment, tax, industrial, economic, resources. For more exact information and accurate prediction each primary resource must include a group of elements. The number of analyzed resources, as well as their elements, is not limited. However an obligatory demand for including the resources or their elements in the list is their exceptional importance for the development of the subject. For efficient operation of enterprises or their complexes in a certain area it is necessary to identify the sources of coordinated development of land and property of the complex, the purpose of which is to obtain maximum benefit from the combination of "territory↔enterprise (s". For this aim we suggest assessing the possibility of long-term development according to the following scenario: establishment of a list of core resources, having impact on businesses

  2. Development of aircraft industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Chaturvedi

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available It is axiomatic that India requires to self sufficient in the design, development and production of aircraft both for civil and military use, and not, as she is at present, remains entirely dependent on foreign sources. This requirement is keenly felt in the field of defence, since it is appreciated .that the growth of the Armed Forces of a country, in fact their very existence in peace and war, is in modern times directly related to the industrial potential of that country to produce weapons of war. If the two are not properly balanced the Armed Forces would be quite ineffective in fulfilling their role of defending their country in time of emergency.

  3. The Impact of Industrial Automation on Industrial Organisation: Implications for Developing Countries' Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Alcorta, Ludovico

    1995-01-01

    The paper examines profuse literature indicating the potential advantages of recent microelectronics-based industrial automation for developing countries in the light of present trends for the diffusion of industrial automation and their impact on industrial organisation in the mechanical engineering industry. It argues that industrial automation does not seem to be leading to the beneficial effects predicted in the literature. The paper points out that while diffusion of new technologies has...

  4. Thirty Years' Reform and Development in China's Refractories Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dianli; CHEN Jianxiong

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Development of Refractories Industry Since the People's Republic of China Founded Refractories is mainly used in high temperature industries,such as metallurgy,building materials,nonferrous,chemical,mechanical,electric power industries,which is the important fundamental material for high temperature industries.

  5. Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Adrian J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

  6. Sustainable Development - An Oil Industry View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langcake, Peter [Shell International BV, (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    For Shell companies, according to this presentation, sustainable development is an umbrella concept that they have been dealing with for many years and that has recently been given increased focus. Over the years, concern about the depletion of non-renewable resources has been overshadowed by concern about the depletion of renewable sources such as fisheries, forests etc. and climate changes. The primary contribution that Shell can make to sustainable development now and in the foreseeable future is in the economic sphere. Some examples of the involvement of Shell are given: (1) Shell companies have for many years invested considerably in forestry projects and recently some have developed businesses in biomass to power generation projects. Some have projects in photovoltaics. (2) In the Camisea project in Peru, a Shell company is putting the sustainability principle to work by integrating economic, environmental and social aspects. Two large oil reserves lie on either side of the Camisea River. The area is home to several indigenous peoples; it borders a national park and is rich in biodiversity. (3) In Malaysia, Shell is exploiting rich offshore gas fields. These projects are examples of technology cooperation and capability building that contribute to Malaysia`s plans for becoming fully industrialized by 2020

  7. Chemicals in the oil industry. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cookson, L.; Ogden, P.H. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    Increasing water breakthrough in maturing oil-wells and the need to develop less accessible oil deposits has led to steadily growing consumption of well management and production chemicals. This, together with higher performance requirements of chemical formulations and increasing restriction of chemical choice due to environmental constraints, makes this industry a highly challenging one. However, reward for success can be high, and the combined chemical and service value of this market has been estimated to be worth billions. This book covers a wide range of subjects concerned with the application of chemistry in the drilling for, handling, and transportation of crude oil. Aimed at the interface between chemistry and engineering, where cost considerations are of vital importance, the book addresses developments over the past few years, both technical and commercial, with particular reference to the emergence of alliances between oil producers and major supply and service companies. It concentrates on those topics such as environmental issues, reservoir souring and analytical developments, where there is an immediate need for innovation. (author)

  8. Research of Cruise Industry Development Bottlenecks In China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cruise industry is a comprehensive new industry, which has a strong impetus to the development of other industries. In recent years, as the explosive growth in cruise market, China has become a global rapidly-growing emerging cruise market. The cruise industry has begun transiting from infancy to the development phase, in all likelihood facing a number of bottlenecks problem. In this paper, the development trend of the cruise industry is first analyzed, then the bottlenecks of cruise industry are studied and finally some reasonable countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. By perfecting policy and legal, expanding industrial chain, diversifying investment mode, cultivating the market of consumer subjects, and establishing a scientific talents training mode of enterprise, the bottlenecks of cruise industry can be solved. This will consequently promote healthy and rapid development in cruise tourism industry, and give full play to the role of joint economy.

  9. Towards preventative eco-industrial development: an industrial and urban symbiosis case in one typical industrial city in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dai, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    situation. In order to investigate the eco-benefits of eco-industrial development in China, this study focused on an industrial and urban symbiosis case of Guiyang city in which process synergy, municipal solid wastes recycling and waste energy utilization were incorporated in this typical industrial city...... traditional development mode which merely relocating industries outside of the cities for pursuing sustainable development, eco-industrial development makes significant innovation by treating or utilizing wastes (i.e. solid wastes and waste energy) in a smart way for local industries to achieve awinewin......, with linkages between various industries through energy exchanges and process synergies. Subsequently, a quantitative assessment on the life cycle environmental benefits were further conducted. Then, we found that a dramatic resource saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction can be achieved. Finally...

  10. Development and assessment of symiosis in an industrial park

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    As weather records are broken, and the topic of global warming and climate change, focus has been set on how this current development could be slowed or stopped. A change in paradigm must be conducted in order to address sustainable development. This paper has focused on how the field of industrial ecology and the tool of eco-industrial parks could be used to improve environmental performance of industrial systems. To evaluate the methods an industrial area at Moss has been further developed...

  11. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial impact as well as greenhouse gas emissions of bioenergy application in a food-processing company. The assessment of bioenergy comprises collection and handling of organic waste and conversion of these biomasses through anaerobic digestion into ...

  12. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran;

    International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  13. Sustainable Development as Concern for Industrial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Hans

    Today, the industrial company has responsibilities towards the environment, the society, and the owners. From a theoretical base of social theory and social science, this industry research has considered the preconditions for a more proactive industrial response towards sustainability. A new...... conceptual model for management approach to the environmental dimension, and corporate environmental management initiated intervention, changing management conception and organisational capability to live up to future environment-related responsibilities and business opportunities in soiciety, is suggested....

  14. The effectiveness of policy instruments in promoting bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy could make a significant contribution in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and is unique in its potential to service all three of the major energy demand sectors for heat, electricity and transport fuels. Consequently during the last two decades many different initiatives have been launched and policy instruments employed in different countries to develop the bioenergy sector, some of which have been more successful than others. This paper analyses the relationship between the growth of bioenergy in four European states and national energy policy. The policy instruments used are critically evaluated alongside the evidence base of bioenergy capacity and output achieved. The possible reasons for success or failure of different instruments and any unexpected impacts are discussed and some general conclusions drawn

  15. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  16. Ideas on Policy Framework of China's Bamboo Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiyong; WANG Dengju; FAN Baomin; XIAO Jianming; CHEN Yong; LIU Yan; BAO Yingshuang

    2006-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the current situation of China's bamboo industry,the major policy issues,future development trends and policy orientation.And then with industry policy theory as a guide,the paper propounds the basic framework and policy proposals in resources cultivation and management,industrial structure and pattern,markets and trade,industrial organization system,finance and taxes,industrial technologyand So forth.

  17. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  18. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  19. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  20. The success of the industrial development policy in the pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nurul Amin; Tetsushi Sonobe

    2013-01-01

    While there are scores of excellent studies on failed industrial policies, studies of successful cases of industrial development are much fewer. This paper reports a case study of the successful development of the pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh and the critical roles played by the country’s National Drug Policy established in 1982 in boosting this development. This paper attempts to explain how badly the markets for drugs in developing countries in general fail in providing essential d...

  1. Development Report on Exhibition Industry in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Generat Features of Guangzhou Exhibitions (Ⅰ) Quantity of Exhibitions and Industry Features. Overall, after suf-fering from global financial crisis in 2008 as well as the interference of Beijing Olympic Games and other major events, the exhibition industry in Guangzhou has still not encountered an easy condition in 2009.

  2. Lab Partners: MSOE Develops Industrially Sponsored Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Maureen; Davis, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    The Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE) in Wisconsin has entered into a partnership with industry to fund continuous upgrading and expansion of its laboratories. The program has succeeded because of industry's need to hire work-ready graduates who have experience with the companies and with the latest technology. (MSE)

  3. “Textile Industry Twelfth Five Year Development Plan” issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the "Textile Industry Twelfth Five Year Development Plan" (hereinafter "Plan") has been issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, has been published to the public. The Plan highlights the restructuring, innovation, brand building

  4. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  5. Perspectives of development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having passed through phases of euphoria and retardation nuclear power has been on its way to normality, i.e., to a phase of consolidation, over the past four or five years. Fears after the Chernobyl accident, which had been deliberately stirred up in some instances, have turned out not to be convertible into benefits arising to certain political parties, as has been evidenced by the outcome of recent elections. Nuclear technology enjoys a solid scientific backing in all its ramifications, including the behavior of nuclear power plants under accident conditions, and encompassing the management of core meltdown. A comprehensive inspection and service concept has assigned to quality assurance the rank it deserves under aspects of reliability and operational safety. As far as the construction of new nuclear power plants is concerned, nuclear industry will be facing a difficult period of time worldwide in the next few years. It could be used for consolidating the present technical level of nuclear power plants and for defining the objectives of their further technical development. (orig.)

  6. Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate Development

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hadiwijoyo; P. Purwanto; Sudharto P. Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable industrial development requires a balance between economic growth,equity and environment. Two major components of industrial development are energy and rawmaterials. To minimize the environmental impacts of energy and raw materials, important stepsare required to deal with the green economy and global warming issues. The use of innovationtechnology to industrial gas emission is a preventive solution facing global warming. A research hasbeen done in Industrial Estate in Cilegon (IE...

  7. Research and development in the Irish electronics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Joe

    1993-01-01

    The electronics industry is a rapidly changing technology driven industry. Intensive research and development activity in electronics has been partly responsible for the emergence of Japan as an economic superpower and the rapid development of the Korean economy. Following the publication of the Telesis Review of Industrial Policy in 1982, the Irish Government undertook a gradually more interventionist policy towards the indigenous electronics industry. In the ten years since Telesis ther...

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network Method for Detecting Structural Change in Oil-Bioenergy Crops Prices System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study detects the structural change in oil-bioenergy crops prices system before and during the food crisis of 2007/2008 and financial crisis 2008/2010. In the recent years, rising world crude oil prices lead to increase of bioenergy production around the world. Bioenergy, in turn, affects bioenergy crops price, because it uses these commodities as inputs. We develop a hybrid neural network approach which can test the structural change of the linkages without priori knowledge of the input data distribution. And then we studies price linkages applying the hybrid neural network to two major bioenergy crops prices, including Argentina corn and Brazil soybean, along with two major crude oil price, including West Texas and Brant crude oil. The data consists of 1467 observations from January 2006 to November 2011. The empirical findings confirm that the structures of oil-bioenergy crops prices system change observably during the food crisis and the financial crisis.

  9. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m3). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  10. Green Design-the Development direction of Industrial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽锟

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the reform and opening-up,all walks of life in China have started to develop rapidly,especially the industrial development.Though the rapidly developing industry has brought much convenience to our life,blind emphasis on the industrial development has also led to much negative effects. Therefore,green design is becoming an inevitable development trend of industrial design which is related to the future survival and development of human beings and is the development direct of all enterprises in the future.Industrial designers shall comply with the trend of future green design,learn the concept of green design while paying attention to the corporate profitability and apply it into industrial design to guarantee the survival and development of human beings[2].

  11. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Chen, Rick [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Ye, Ning [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Cheng, Zong-Ming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  12. The national bioenergy investment model: Technical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The National Bioenergy Investment Model is a scenario model that simulates the decisions of domestic and international investors on whether to invest in biofuel enterprises in a developing country. In the model, investors compare the profitability of different biofuel feedstock and fuel operations using a riskadjusted discount rate – taking market, currency, country and sector risks into account. Prices for biofuels and feedstocks are determined in part through exogenous international prices ...

  13. Green Design-the Development direction of Industrial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽锟

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the reform and opening-up,all walk of life in China have started to develop rapidly,especially th industrial development.Though the rapidly developing industry has brought much convenience to our life,blind emphasis on th industrial development has also led to much negative effects Therefore,green design is becoming an inevitable developmen trend of industrial design which is related to the future surviva and development of human beings and is the development direc of all enterprises in the future.Industrial designers shall comply with the trend of future green design,learn the concept of green design while paying attention to the corporate profitability an apply it into industrial design to guarantee the survival an development of human beings[2].

  14. Status and Development of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing

    1994-01-01

    @@ CNPC, as a state petroleum corporation, is mainly engaged in exploration and development of oil and gas, and other businesses in upstream industry.In addition it has its own down-stream operations in refining and chemical industry. Through many years' efforts, CNPC's downstream industry has begun to take shape with a fairly good foundation.

  15. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Qihui

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  16. DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY PLANNING IN CLOUD COMPUTING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Hsiu Weng; Woo-Tsong Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the development assessment and strategy planning of Taiwan’s cloud computing industry. The research is conducted through a nominal group technique, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions of industry professionals. The research process includes defining industry scope, assessing business environment, forecasting production value and outlining a strategy for the emerging cloud computing industry. Based on the analysis of cloud computing business prospects...

  17. THE OPPORTUNITY TO ADDRESS THE SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duduiala Popescu Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Its economy experienced a sharp decline, coupled with a process of deindustrialization, projected on a phase of the property. In these circumstances, to discuss the sustainable development may seem inappropriate; therefore, be taken in steps such as halting the decline of the economy and industry; the industry revitalization and growth; the development that takes place according to the criteria of sustainable development. To this must be stopped declining industrial output and output stabiliz...

  18. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  19. DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY PLANNING IN CLOUD COMPUTING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsiu Weng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the development assessment and strategy planning of Taiwan’s cloud computing industry. The research is conducted through a nominal group technique, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions of industry professionals. The research process includes defining industry scope, assessing business environment, forecasting production value and outlining a strategy for the emerging cloud computing industry. Based on the analysis of cloud computing business prospects and possible strategies for the cloud computing industry, the result provides a reference for IT business developers and innovative vendors interested in entering the emerging cloud computing market.

  20. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  1. Young citizens' knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years extensive discussions on bioenergy has been both positive and negative. In Europe, the image of bioenergy appears to be low with lack of broad public support. Previous studies show that younger people are unsure about many issues surrounding renewable energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among pupils in North Karelia, Finland. Data drawn from 495 ninth grade students indicate that the majority of them lack in-depth knowledge about different renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. Only a small percentage has a 'high' level of knowledge about bioenergy and the majority indicates critical perceptions of it. Statistically significant gender differences are not apparent. Girls appear to be more knowledgeable than boys. Results also show a clear 'urban' and 'rural' difference in perceptions of bioenergy. Perceptions of urban respondents being more positive than that of their rural counterparts. Developing collaboration between future bioenergy policies and bioenergy education for younger citizens is necessary for their engagement in critical debates on bioenergy.

  2. A Fault-tolerant Development Methodology for Industrial Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Thybo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Developing advanced detection schemes is not the lone factor for obtaining a successful fault diagnosis performance. Acquiring significant achievements in applying Fault-tolerance in industrial development requires that fault diagnosis and recovery schemes are developed in a consistent and...

  3. Development of an Industrial Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Gonzalez, Evelio; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay; Marichal, Nicolas; Hamilton, Alberto; Sigut, Marta; Mendez, J. Albino; Hernandez, Sergio; Torres, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching strategy of the scheduling and developmental phase of an Industrial Engineering computer project. It is based on a real project which has been carried out by our department in collaboration with a local company. The classroom setting provides an environment where students can experience firsthand all phases of the…

  4. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  5. Development of IT Industry in China in the New Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ze-min

    2009-01-01

    The article explains the role and future trend of IT industry, and states that information technology represented by the Internet and computers has brought about the third industrial revolution in history. An important impetus for economic growth in modern times, the IT industry has greatly promoted sustainable development and is profoundly changing mankind's way of life and production. In discussing the development trend of world IT industry, the article suggests that with potential new breakthroughs in information technology, the trend of agglomeration and integration of industries has become increasingly obvious, competition of intellectual properties and standards is intensifying and ubiquitous network is taking shape. It points out that China should bring into better play the role of IT industry as an "amplifier" in economic growth, a "transformer" in development mode and a "propeller" in industrial upgrading. It is important to follow a policy that emphasizes independent innovation, market-driven approach, open and compatible technologies, integrated and comprehensive applications, and serving both military and civil purposes, so that a quantum leap of IT industry will be achieved. China should advance industrialization with information technologies and promote the IT industry in the course of industrialization in an effort to build an IT industry with Chinese characteristics. Greater efforts should be made to develop such core sectors as microelectronics, computer, software, key components and materials, as well as sectors with international competitiveness, including broadband mobile communication, next-generation network and information services. Continued improvement should be made in policies guiding the development of IT industry with a view to making China a country with a strong IT industry by 2020.

  6. Ways of improvement of financial provision of industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemyakina Natalya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts the study of the state of financial provision of industrial development under modern conditions and justifies main ways of improvement and prospects of investment financing of technical development of the production potential. Classical theses and fundamental works of foreign and domestic scientists, statistical indicators and results of author’s studies of the problems of financing of technical development of industry became the methodological basis of the study. Using the conducted analysis of the state of financing the industrial development in Ukraine, potential sources of financial resources of development of the production potential (profit, depreciation, means of financial institutions and leasing, condition of the state financial support of technical development of the industrial sector and taking into account the modern experience of foreign countries, the article justifies main ways of improvement of the financial provision of industrial development. The proposed ways of improvement of financial provision of industrial development are based on: orientation at the modern model with attraction of all potential investment sources; state-private co-financing of investment projects of production development; de-centralisation of the state support through the use of various channels of support of the processes of industrial development; and formation of the market infrastructure of ensuring of financing of the innovation and investment process in industry.

  7. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  8. China Aluminum Processing Industry Development Report 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry maintained a high growth rate,with the aluminum output reaching 23,456,000tons,up 20.6% y-o-y.Overshadowed by complicated situation both at home and abroad,China’seconomy slowed down and declined by2.2% y-o-y.In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry showed a downward tendency,that is,it grew at a high speed before the3rd quarter,but suffered from a shortage of orders in the remaining time of the year and the growth rate fell increasingly.Between January and August,China’s aluminum output rose by 26% y-o-y;

  9. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing: New Emphasis in Industrial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Irina, Dezhina; Alexey, Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the economic concepts of advanced manufacturing and suggests promising interconnected technologies that could lead to new industrial infrastructures. The authors estimate Russia’s standing in popular areas of advanced manufacturing (e.g. 3D-printing, Internet of things, and composite materials). An analysis of government policies for advanced manufacturing in the USA and UK revealed several common elements, which include creation of consortia, dissemination of diagnostic ...

  11. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  12. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  13. What Development for Bioenergy in Asia: A Long-term Analysis of the Effects of Policy Instruments using TIAM-FR model

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seungwoo; Selosse, Sandrine; Maïzi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Asian countries have sharply increased their energy consumption with economic growth, inducing an extremely high dependency on energy fossil due to a low level of energy resources. In 2011, Asia’s share in global energy consumption reached 40%, of which China, India, Japan and South Korea represented 70%. Furthermore, these countries are ranked among the world’s largest CO2 emitters. Hence, bioenergy is currently being highlighted to diversify the energy mix and to mitigate climate change in ...

  14. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  15. The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron smelting.

  16. Technology Innovation Heralds the Development of the Nonferrous Metals Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) recently formally published"Development Plan for Nonferrous Metal Industry in the ‘Twelfth Five Year Plan’ Period"(hereinafter referred to as the "Plan"), and a sub-plan "Development Plan for Aluminum

  17. 26 CFR 1.103-7 - Industrial development bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts will be executed obligating any person other than Z to purchase any specified amount of the power...) Industrial development bonds—(1) Definition. For purposes of this section, the term “industrial development... which has taxing power and the bonds are general obligation bonds. Since both the trade or business...

  18. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  19. Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hadiwijoyo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable industrial development requires a balance between economic growth,equity and environment. Two major components of industrial development are energy and rawmaterials. To minimize the environmental impacts of energy and raw materials, important stepsare required to deal with the green economy and global warming issues. The use of innovationtechnology to industrial gas emission is a preventive solution facing global warming. A research hasbeen done in Industrial Estate in Cilegon (IEC Banten province, Indonesia, to see how to reduceenergy demand and encourage uses of more environmentally-friendly energy in the estate. Fossilenergy needs in the industrial estate were analyzed to see the opportunities of energy saving andrenewable energy development. The target to be achieved is to reduce the greenhouse gasemissions and improve the energy efficiency in the industrial park.

  20. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND VISUALISATION-A PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Taking the actual project of teaching and researching process for example, the relationship between the industrial engineering and product development is discussed. And use the novel visualization technology to support the industrial engineering and product development. How to use the new computer modeling and simulating technologies to support the product development and industrial engineering, is introduced especially. The support includes both domestic products and industrial systems. The visualization and computer technologies take a very important role in some system or multi-direction modeling, those technologies mentioned above can help the industrial engineers study the effect of design on the whole life circle, including the producing steps. So the engineers can avoid making the wrong decision which may cause bad effects on the whole industrial engineering.

  1. Approaches for Sustainable Development of China's Energy Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhongpei; Yan Qingxu

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is well-known that energy industry is a backbone in the development of economy in a country. Energy demand forecasts, adjustment of energy supply structure, energy security, policies concerning energy saving and environmental protection, climate factors, reform of energy pricing system, new energy technologies and renewable energy development, etc. have far-reaching impacts on energy industry and even on the development of national economy. Therefore, the sustainable development of energy industry is critical for the sustainable developments of economy and the society, and its strategic position requires great attention from the whole society.

  2. Sustainable Development of Geothermal Industry in China: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a wide distribution, large reserves, low cost, sustainable energy use and environmental protection and other unparalleled advantages, geothermal energy resources is important for China’s energy structure adjustment, energy conservation and environment improvement. Currently, geothermal utilization in China is still in its infancy, and Sustainable Development of the geothermal industry is also having a lot of problems. In this paper, the current research on sustainable development of geothermal industry focuses on two aspects: 1. the current situation of geothermal industry development and existing problems, 2. the current situation of sustainable development of the geothermal industry. On the basis of the review, some suggestions for further study on the sustainable development of geothermal industry are put forward.

  3. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  4. Fossils as Key Resources of Hydrocarbons for the Chemical Industry - The Burning Problem of Industrial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytowski, J.A.; Wojtania, J.; Zebrowski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Intensive research is being pursued world-wide to establish a methodology for industrial development. Many types of changes play an important role in the dynamics of the industrial structure in both large and small economies. The global energy supply and future substitution of crude oil are among the most important and widely investigated constraints. With the existing patterns of production and development strongly determined by the specific conditions in a given region, the development of v...

  5. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blumenstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  6. Culture dimensions in software development industry: the effects of mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Misra, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Software development is a human centric and sociotechnical activity and like all human activities is influenced by cultural factors. However, software engineering is being further affected because of the globalization in software development. As a result, cultural diversity is influencing software development and its outcomes. The software engineering industry, a very intensive industry regarding human capital, is facing a new era in which software development personnel must adapt to multicul...

  7. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... on the regional features of industrial emissions is critical to better decision makings. While to date, related studies have been rather few. This paper applies a spatial analysis on regional features of China's industrial emissions (SO2, NOx and PM2.5 and CO2 emission) in 31 provinces. Spatial autocorrelation...

  8. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  9. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  10. Chapter 9, Land and Bioenergy in Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), Bioenergy & Sustainability: bridging the gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods J, Lynd LR [Imperial College London, UK; Laser, M [Dartmouth College; Batistella M, De Castro D [EMBRAPA Monitoramento por Satelite, Campinas, Brasil; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Faaij, Andre [Energy Academy Europe, Netherlands

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we address the questions of whether and how enough biomass could be produced to make a material contribution to global energy supply on a scale and timeline that is consistent with prominent low carbon energy scenarios. We assess whether bioenergy provision necessarily conflicts with priority ecosystem services including food security for the world s poor and vulnerable populations. In order to evaluate the potential land demand for bioenergy, we developed a set of three illustrative scenarios using specified growth rates for each bioenergy sub-sector. In these illustrative scenarios, bioenergy (traditional and modern) increases from 62 EJ/yr in 2010 to 100, 150 and 200 EJ/yr in 2050. Traditional bioenergy grows slowly, increasing by between 0.75% and 1% per year, from 40 EJ/yr in 2010 to 50 or 60 EJ/ yr in 2050, continuing as the dominant form of bioenergy until at least 2020. Across the three scenarios, total land demand is estimated to increase by between 52 and 200 Mha which can be compared with a range of potential land availability estimates from the literature of between 240 million hectares to over 1 billion hectares. Biomass feedstocks arise from combinations of residues and wastes, energy cropping and increased efficiency in supply chains for energy, food and materials. In addition, biomass has the unique capability of providing solid, liquid and gaseous forms of modern energy carriers that can be transformed into analogues to existing fuels. Because photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, biomass supply chains can be configured to store at least some of the fixed carbon in forms or ways that it will not be reemitted to the atmosphere for considerable periods of time, so-called negative emissions pathways. These attributes provide opportunities for bioenergy policies to promote longterm and sustainable options for the supply of energy for the foreseeable future.

  11. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    synthesize materials that mimic or are inspired by natural systems will lead to entirely new applications in the bioenergy areas. In addition, there are new developments in this capability that involve development of catalytic methods for the production of carbon chains from the most abundant carbohydrate on the planet, glucose. These carbon chains will be useful in the production of high density fuels which defined characteristics. In addition, these methods/capabilities will be used to generate feedstocks for industrial processes. LANL is the second largest partner institution of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI), and specializes in high throughput genome finishing and analysis in support of DOE missions in energy, bioremediation and carbon sequestration. This group is comprised of molecular biology labs and computational staff who together focus on the high-throughput DNA sequencing of whole microbial genomes, computational finishing and bioinformatics. The applications team focuses on the use of new sequencing technologies to address questions in environmental science. In addition to supporting the DOE mission, this group supports the Nation's national security mission by sequencing critical pathogens and near neighbors in support of relevent application areas.

  12. The Differential Effects of Financial Development on India's Industrial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Gupta

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to investigate the differential impact of increased financial development on industrial output, across state and industry categories. Using an unbalanced panel of 15 Indian states, 22 industries at the 2-digit level, and an 11-year period spanning 1992-2002, the paper's most novel contribution comes from hypothesising and testing for operating channels though which increased financial depth benefits output. It is concluded that financial depth facilitates increased use of contr...

  13. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  14. Bioenergy production on degraded and marginal land

    OpenAIRE

    Wicke, B.

    2011-01-01

    Current global energy supply is primarily based on fossil fuels and is widely considered to be unsustainable. Bioenergy is considered an important option in making future global energy more sustainable. However, increasing global trade and consumption of bioenergy in industrialised countries has been accompanied by a growing concern about the environmental, ecological, and social impacts of (modern) bioenergy production. But producing bioenergy on degraded or marginal land may avoid many of t...

  15. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  16. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  17. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yue-gui; WU Jian-tao; YANG Jun-xian; LI Qi-wei; XIE Jing; PAN Fang-yin; WU Wen-long; LIU Fu-ye; DENG Hai-hua; QI Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China’s three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, from strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of sugarcane industrial development in Guangdong Province. The results show that in order to promote the development of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, it is necessary to adopt the SO development strategy (relying on its own strengths and using favorable external environment), to achieve the rapid development.

  18. Proceedings of the CANBIO workshop on bioenergy opportunities in the Maritime provinces : policy and awareness. CD ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop addressed issues regarding the development and implementation of bioenergy opportunities in the Maritime provinces, with particular reference to renewable energy policies. Bioenergy resources were reviewed, as well as new and available technologies in harvesting residues. Financing issues for biomass projects were also discussed and perspectives on renewable energy development were presented. Issues concerning the long-term sustainability of bioenergy harvesting were also reviewed, as well as bundling trials and other new developments in bioenergy technology applications. The workshop featured 9 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. Flourishing Technology Development for China's Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Chengde; Liu Bingyi

    1994-01-01

    @@ Glimpse of Science andTechnology With over 40 years of development history, a rather complete package system for petroleum research and development has formed. The system includes geological study, oil and gas exploration as well as petroleum machinery etc. There are 262research institutions in CNPC at three different levels (CNPCheadquarters, oilfields headquarters and subsidiaries of oilfields). About 42 021 personnel are directly involved in research and development.

  20. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  1. Rostock bioenergy forum. Future technologies for bioenergy. Proceedings; 4. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Zukunftstechnologien fuer Bioenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Rostock bioenergy forum 'future technologies for bioenergy' at 27th and 28th October, 2010, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Sustainable supply of biomass from the agriculture (Christian Gienapp); (2) Biogas plants in conflict of different legal regulation systems (Michael Kern); (3) Logistics of biomass - Do you know the real costs? (Nadine Doden); (4) Potentials of wooden biomass from the landscape conservation using the Lower Saale valley (Sachsen-Anhalt) as an example (Karen Runge); (5) Value creation with energy wood in rural area - Results of a potential study (Marco Hahs); (6) Soil ecological evaluation of short rotational plantations on farmland (Christel Baum); (7) Development of moulds and dry weight losses in bulk wood chips (Christine Idler); (8) Logistics of pellets during the harvest of short-term rotation areas with a field chopper (Franz Handler); (9) Concepts of combustion of biomass within the scope of the BMU funding program 'Energetic utilization of biomass' (Diana Pfeiffer); (10) Thermoelectric transformer for biogenic heat (Karl-Ernst Schnorr); (11) Emissions of benzene in the combustion f gases from wood in cogeneration plants (Christian Hirschmeier); (12) Utilization of additives in the combustion of miscanthus pellets in a small-scale furnace < 100 kW{sub N}WL (Thomas Zeng); (13) Practical experiences with dust separators for small-scale furnaces (Peter Turowski); (14) Analysis for gaining the minimum goal of 10 % renewable energy in traffic sector (Karin Naumann); (15) New diesel components from glycerine (E. Paetzold); (16) Challenges and possibilities in the utilization of biofuels in customary auxiliary heatings (Hajo Hoffmann); (17) Demands on biofuels for the use in combustion engines (Volker Wichmann); (18) Alternative fuel dimethyl ether (Martin Werner); (19) Long-term investigation of the stability of rapeseed fuel and field study of modern Common Rail

  2. Forestry Canada: Strategic plan for bioenergy research, 1992-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy research at Forestry Canada includes all aspects of production and growth of forest biomass for energy. Forestry Canada has conducted research in these areas since 1978, primarily through the ENFOR (Energy from the Forest) program funded through the interdepartmental Panel on Energy Research and Development (PERD). A previous strategic plan provided direction for bioenergy research from 1987 to 1992. Between 1992 and 1997, the primary research emphasis will be on environmental impacts of biomass harvesting. Priority will also be given to intensive silviculture to improve biomass productivity. Economics studies will be given a broader, nationwide perspective. Technology transfer will be accomplished through reviews of achievements and via workshops and demonstrations. These activities will be undertaken within the context of the PERD process for funding of proposals. The work will be implemented through Forestry Canada's ENFOR program, which focuses on contract research and development, and through participation in international collaborative research under the Bioenergy Agreement of the International Energy Agency

  3. Discuss the Development of Computer-Aided Industrial Design Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the development of the industrial design gradually approaches mechanical-electrical integration and informational and electronic products. With an increasing improvement of its technical content, and better social economic conditions, peoples consumption concept are getting more and more different. Consumer concerns not just the functionality and quality of the product, more and more people are starting to focus on the appearance of the product, degree of innovation, environmental protection, and so on, which brings a higher degree of difficulty to the industrial technology. It is because the increasing demands of people and the industrial design, many scholars are increasingly concerned about the industrial design in recent years. With the continuous development of computer technology, a wide variety of hardware and software are developed, and a variety of ever-changing technologies are attracting the industrial design talents as well.

  4. Essence of institutional provision of industrial complex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanenkova Iryna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies and justifies the essence of institutional provision of the industrial complex development. It systemises and justifies main institutes of industrial complex of Ukraine. It marks a necessity of improvement of institutional structures, which influence activity and development of the industrial complex, that should go along the way of use of both market mechanisms and state regulation of functioning of links of the national innovation system. The article identifies main directions of organisational and institutional transformations in the industrial complex of Ukraine. It justifies expediency of shifting the focus of structural transformations in industry to the regional level and develops proposals with respect to distribution of authorities of state and regional bodies of authorities for the conduct of these reforms.

  5. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  6. Strategic development trends in the world pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Kesič

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to research and evaluate the strategic development trends in the world pharmaceutical industry in the period 1996–2006.We aim to find that mergers and acquisitions prevail as a vital strategic development option in the world pharmaceutical industry. The research examines the exploratory hypothesis that the intensive globalization process, increased competitiveness and changed structure of competitors, strongly influence the consolidation development trends in ...

  7. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  8. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  9. The Danish bioenergy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m3 reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  10. Programming for development of tourism industry using case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Aziz Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a research into the assessment of tourism industry quality and programing for its development in Iran. In a tough economic situation, the hypothesis is to grow and develop the national economy with the help of the tourism industry. A unified assessment of tourism industry quality, method is made use of in this study, which is based on the case study of all elements of Iran tourism industry system. Quality assessment by means of unified problems (indicators that hinder the maximum development of the tourism industry shows the reliability of the hypothesis. SWOT analysis aided to determine the weaknesses and threats aiming at raising the quality of the indicators. In addition, a linear programming from the standpoint of internal and external relations with national economy has been applied. The analysis revealed that the system of the tourism industry is unable to assist the macro economy. The failure corresponds to scarcely favorable natural environmental conditions, capacity for motivating to visitors, tourism marketing, and tourism infrastructures. After remedy actions, prospects for tourism industry development despite the complicated situation are quite favorable due to the advantageous climate, natural characteristics, cultural and ancient heritages, tourism resources, and educated labor. The methods applied by this paper suggest adaptive governance tools suitable to apply for optimization of the tourism industry everywhere similar to Iran.

  11. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  12. Alternative strategies of nuclear industry development in XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual status and the role of world nuclear industry are considered, as well as the state and problems of nuclear industry in Russia. The present concepts of the long-term nuclear engineering development strategy are analyzed. It is shown that the most perspective variant is orientation on the closed fuel cycle with fast reactors which is satisfy the acceptable safety requirements

  13. Key Factors for Development of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Worldwide Market Volume and Development Trends of the Petrochemical Industry (1) Periodicity and Fluctuation The petrochemical industry has a typical periodicity that is shaped primarily by supply and demand on one hand and on the other hand by newly added capacity being put into production, operating rate and other uncertainty factors.

  14. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  15. Analysis of Wood Floor Industry's Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an emerging industry,China's wood floor industry dates back to the early 1980s. Despite a late start,it has developed rapidly during the last 20 years.The past decades have witnessed great changes in China's wood floor industry.With high quality,many products"made in China"are available widely abroad nowadays.Current global economic shocks,however,affect China's domestic real estate sector;hence the falling domestic sales of wood floor.The paper aims to identify the current situation of floor industry...

  16. Research on Computer-based Creative Industries Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqin, Sun

    In recent years, creative industries based on the computer technology is booming and leads a new trend in this field. This creative industries considers innovation as a driving force. It combines the various cultural art resources with the latest computer technology, estabilshes new production and consumption patterns, promotes new industrial clusters, cultivates new consumer groups and generates enormous economic and social value. Therefore, computer-based creative industries is not only a cultural or educational philosophy, but also a development strategy with practical and sustainable features.

  17. Prospects for Bioenergy in Europe. Supply, Demand and Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    biofuel imports unless the EU chooses to expand the use of trade barriers and tariffs. When Swedish energy policy in the early 1990s made biofuels the most competitive fuel in the production of district heat, this stimulated biofuel import flows, neither foreseen nor intended by Swedish policy makers. These unintentional effects of policy can, however, be positive when viewed in a wider context as they lead to the development of biomass production and logistics in countries where current demand for bioenergy is low

  18. Development Trend of China's Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui-di

    2005-01-01

    @@ China's economy is at an important turning point. After more than 20 years of high-speed development, to maintain a high growth rate continuously is more difficult ,as shown by international experience.

  19. Analysis of territorial and industrial development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhul'kova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2014-01-01

    At present a territory is considered as the basis for effective socio-economical development of the region. However, special attention should be paid to the presence of available resources on the territory under consideration, as well as the conditions of their future development. The availability and/or the possibility of creating/upgrading the existing resources encourage today the accumulated potential of the territory. Potential of the area is a set of capabilities and different levels of...

  20. DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, resulted from the reconsideration of the report between development and pollution in the light of the interdependencies among the components of development, defines the profound change in which the exploitation of resources, direction of investments, the development of technologies takes a new path in the sense that, by their judicious harmonization, provides significant increase of the present and future potential to meet the requirements of society. Such a development is based on economic growth, which is, in fact, its spring, but also on new concepts and values that provide a superior framework of transposing the growth coordinates. Such a framework should provide incentives to accelerate economic growth, whose objectives, ways and tools are defined in a long-term perspective, able to provide large openings to the real progress of society at all levels and provide solutions for the effective and continuous support for this progress. Therefore, in this article, we identify and explain the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental.

  1. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Development of uranium industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the uranium resources is performed in Romania by the National Uranium Company. The tasks to be done are: 1. management and protection of rare and radioactive metal ores in the exploitation areas; 2. mining, preparation, refining and trading the radioactive ores, as well as reprocessing the uranium stock from the uranium concentrate in the national reserve; 3. performing geologic and technologic studies in the exploitation areas; 4. performing studies and projects concerning the maintenance of the present facilities and unearthing new ores; 5. building industrial facilities; 6. carrying out technological transport; 7. importation-exportation operations; 8. performing micro-production activity in experimental research units; 9. personnel training; 10. medical assistance for the personnel; 11. environment protection. The company is organized as follows: 1.three branches for uranium ore mining, located at Suceava, Bihor and Banat; 2. one branch for geologic survey, located at Magurele; 3. one branch for uranium ore preparation and concentration and for refining uranium concentrates, located at Feldioara; 4. One group for mine conservation, closure and ecology, located at Bucuresti. The final product, sintered powder of UO2 produced at Feldioara plant, was tested in 1994 by the Canadian partner and met successfully the required standards. The Feldioara plant was certified as supplier of raw material for CANDU nuclear fuel production and as such, Romania is the only authorized producer of CANDU nuclear fuel in Europe and the second in the world, after Canada. Maintaining the uranium production in Romania is justified by the existence of uranium ore resources, the declining of natural gas resources, lower costs per kWh for electric nuclear power as compared to fossil-fuel power production, the possibility for Romania to become an important supplier of CANDU nuclear fuel, the low environmental impact and high costs for total shutdown of activity, high

  3. Sustainable energy equals freedoms and choice: bioenergy and biofuels als energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejigu, M. [Partnership for African Environmental Sustainability (PAES)]|[Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS)

    2006-07-01

    We are gathered here to explore the potential of modern bioenergy and discuss ways and means of promoting its wider production and investment. Our primary goal is the attainment of human development - development that is sustainable and balances economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. Well, Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate in Economics, defines development as ''the process of expanding real freedoms people can enjoy.'' Where development has taken place, people have more freedoms. People living in well developed countries enjoy freedoms at the individual and community levels. They can move from place to place, own property, receive education and health services, work at night if they choose to, etc. without any fear or threat. Energy is critical to the survival of human society. It is a means to achieve development, hence freedoms. Higher level of electrification, for example, has always been a vital indicator of industrial development. (orig.)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  5. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO2-limiting policy is enacted.

  6. Industrialization development of food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces present status on food irradiation at home and abroad in detail. It also introduces the scientific research and application in reducing diseases caused by food borne pathogens, quarantine control of import and export products, grain store and killing insects in traditional Chinese medicine. The report also analyzes the problems in developing food irradiation in China and gives some suggestions

  7. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  8. THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF INDUSTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Ignatyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the stages of the birth and development of the industry markets theory were defined in order to have a full picture of its current goals, objectives and areas of study.

  9. Selection Factors for Market Subjects of Agricultural Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes selection factors for market subjects of agricultural industrial development in China. From the political aspect, it is required to take account of features of subjects of agricultural industrial development at current stage. From economic aspects, we should adheres to the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management in the countryside, and cultivate and foster subject enterprises according to features of most important market subjects in market economy. From natural aspects, it is proposed to consider features of agricultural industry and inherent advantages of agricultural resources in China. From social aspects, it is essential to draw on successful experience of developed countries in developing market subjects of agricultural industry.

  10. Research, Development, and industrialization of artificial musk: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu

    2014-12-01

    Four key problems need to be addressed during the research and development of artificial musk. The past two decades have witnessed the remarkable industrialization of artificial musk in China. PMID:25556726

  11. Uzbekistan: Forming a cluster strategy for textile industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Dilyafruz Nasirkhodjaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.

  12. FORMING A CLUSTER STRATEGY FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    DILYAFRUZ NASIRKHODJAEVA

    2010-01-01

    The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.

  13. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in ‘first generation’ biofuels was observed, however ‘food competition’ concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal s...

  14. Greenhouse gas balances of harvested wood products and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Soimakallio, S. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    This project is a second part of the project concerning 'Carbon sink and other greenhouse gas impacts of harvested wood products' involved in Climate Change and Technology programme by Tekes. This project included three parts of the task: (1) to develop models and to do case study analyses concerning bioenergy and biomass systems, (2) participating in the completion work of writing Chapter 3 in IPCC's Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry, and 3) participating in an international collaboration project 'Greenhouse gas balances of biomass and bioenergy systems' (IEA Bioenergy Task 38) during 2003. This report briefly presents different parts of the task involved in the project and references to publications generated in the project. (orig.)

  15. Spatiotemporal cost-supply curves for bioenergy production in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess how bioenergy costs and supply potential in Mozambique develop over time in a spatially explicit way. The land availability for energy crops was explored making use of a businessas- usual and progressive scenario on the development of other land-use

  16. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  17. 2010 World bio-energy conference; Compte-rendu de la conference internationale sur les bioenergies 25-27 mai a Joenkoeping en Suede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  18. Developments in measuring the UK service industries, 1990 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Brook

    2008-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in the measurement and publication of service sector statistics and considers where improvements are still neededThis article reviews recent developments in the measurement and publication of services sector statistics for the UK, taking into account the recommendations of an interdepartmental review undertaken in 1995, which was chaired by the former Department of Trade and Industry. In recent years, UK service industries have seen considerable growth and now acco...

  19. Economic development and industrial concentration: An inverted U-curve

    OpenAIRE

    Junius, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets up an economic geography model to show the endogenous forces that determine the degree of industry concentration in the course of economic development. The model includes centrifugal forces, such as home market effects and access to intermediate suppliers, and centripetal forces, such as demand pull of dispersed resources and congestion effects. Economic development increases the size of the industrial sector in terms of employment relative to the size of the agricultural sect...

  20. Presidential Address: Industry Location, Economic Development Incentives, and Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Douglas P.

    2012-01-01

    In his Presidential Address, Professor Woodward uses South Carolina’s economic development experience as a case study of significant challenges in regional development. The state has re-industrialized and emerged as a leader in attracting capital investment through generous financial incentives, after watching the demise of its major industry cluster (textiles and apparel) since the 1970s. The address argues that regional science research continues to advance our understanding of regional pol...

  1. Contemporary Development Of Creative Industries In Bosnia And Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Nurković Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The article consists of three basic parts. In the first, the concept of post-socialist urban settlements and the position of creative industries in them are presented. In the second, examples of the development of creative actions of cities are given. In the third, the role of local policy in the development of new creative industries in Bosnia and Herzegovina is critically analysed, emphasising some of its shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures. In Bosnia and ...

  2. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    , this study highlights key lessons learned from empirical studies of CSR initiatives that aimed to improve environmental management and work conditions and reduce poverty in local industrial districts. Academic work in this area remains embryonic, lacking in empirical evidence about the effects of CSR...... a theoretical model to explain why CSR has not become institutionalized in many developing country clusters, which in turn suggests that the vast majority of industrial clusters in developing countries are likely to engage in socially irresponsible behavior....

  3. Towards an Innovative Service Development Process in the Electricity Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Domigall, Yannic; Albani, Antonia; Winter, Robert, ed.

    2013-01-01

    The electricity industry is currently confronted with regulatory and technological change that leads to fundamental transformation of the value propositions and innovation processes of enterprises. New services are one possibility to compete in the new market environment. This paper proposes a service development process for the electricity industry that builds up on existing approaches. The process model was developed by means of an embedded research framework that combines qualitative and q...

  4. Latex industry and RVNRL development in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia, as the largest producer of NR, exported 72.9 % of World's total export of 455,000 tonnes NR latex in 1987. In 1988, it has also become one of the largest consumers of NR latex, consuming 61,063 tonnes and producing 1.34 billion pairs of gloves, 45.5 million units of catheters and other latex products. Malaysia began active research and development of RVNRL only recently and much of which is through its participation in the UNDP/RCA project on RVNRL. Commercialization of RVNRL in Malaysia is expected to begin once its technical and economic merits and market potential have been established and demonstrated. It is suggested that a world-wide marketing study be undertaken to access the actual market potential of RVNRL. Companies intending to commercialize RVNRL may collaborate with UTN and RRIM to develop the commercial process for RVNRL. (author)

  5. Research on the Development Issues of Fruit Industrialization of Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis expounds the status quo of the fruit industrial development in Shaanxi Province:the first is the output and distribution of fruits;the second is the status quo of fruit industrial development.The planting layout of fruit is continuously optimized;the industrial scale and the brand reputation are increasingly promoted;the process of fruit industrialization develops rapidly.The problems existing in the fruit industrial chain of Shaanxi Province are analyzed:firstly,in the chain of preproduction service and support system,the capital input is scanty,the production standard is not unified,and the matching service system is not sound;secondly,in the chain of cultivation and plucking,the regional layout is not reasonable and the variety structure is not balanced;thirdly,in the chain of post-plucking disposal and enterprise scale,the post-plucking disposal ability is not enough and the enterprise scale of fruit industry is small;fourthly,in the chain of products sales,the awareness of famous brand is not strong,the marketing ways are outdated and the sales structure is not reasonable.The countermeasures and suggestions for promoting fruit industrial development of Shaanxi Province are put forward:firstly,perfect preproduction service and support system;secondly,promote the scientific technology of cultivation and plucking;thirdly,strengthen the commercialization disposal after plucking;fourthly,reinforce the degree of marketing.

  6. Methodological issues concerning the development of sustainable industrial parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian NASTASE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to make a sustainable economic growth possible, especially within manufacturing industries, with auspicious effects concerning the standard of living and the employment rates, the governments should develop and implement projects and strategies, aiming the transition towards knowledge-based economy. The entities that need investments the most are the countries which are crossing a development process, usually facing difficulties in developing a high-performance industrial sector. Under these circumstances, industrial parks prove to be important tools in order to ensure the competitiveness of the national industry. However, the more and more frequent relocation of industrial companies within industrial parks, as a consequence of amplifying the urban areas’ environmental regulations, is due to generate uncontrollable pollution centers, placed just nearby towns and cities, with highly destructive impact upon the environment. This article aims to describe and recommend several strategic options for developing sustainable industrial parks, focused on protecting the environment and promoting the “new economy’s” principles. Among the strategic options recommended, some of them are highly innovative, such as environmental benchmarking or environmental leadership.

  7. The Spanish experience - future developments in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish experience is presented concerned it may be useful at the time of setting up a natural gas industry. The Spanish natural gas industry is of recent creation. Developing infrastructure and securing gas supplies have been major challenges. Challenges which, are also common for majority of the countries. The presentation is split into two blocks: the first one is on our experience in the establishment and consolidation of the market for natural gas in Spain. The second block deals with future developments aiming to strengthen the security of supply; and with the opportunities and threats the gas industry will face

  8. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution

  9. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  10. Bioenergy potentials from forestry to 2050. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study a bottom-up scenario analysis of the global bioenergy production potential is carried out, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing outlook studies on demand and supply and gaps in the knowledge base that explain the large range in estimates. Key variables are the demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, plantation establishment rates and natural forest growth. Key uncertainties are the supply of wood from trees outside and the impact of sustainable forest management (SFM) of yields. Results show that the world is capable of meeting the future demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, without further deforestation. The total potential of bioenergy from surplus forest growth and residues is estimated at 27 to 140 EJy-1 in 2050

  11. Assessing the potential of bioenergy. Final report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, J.; Badin, J.

    1998-12-31

    As electricity restructuring proceeds, traditional concepts of how energy is produced, transported, and utilized are likely to change dramatically. Marketplace, policy, and regulatory changes will shape both the domestic and global energy industry, improving opportunities for clean, low-cost energy, competitively priced fuels, and environmentally responsible power systems. Many of these benefits may be obtained by commercial deployment of advanced biomass power conversion technologies. The United BioEnergy Commercialization Association represents the US biomass power industry. Its membership includes investor-owned and public utilities, independent power producers, state and regional bioenergy, equipment manufacturers, and biomass energy developers. To carry out its mission, UBECA has been carrying out the following activities: production of informational and educational materials on biomass energy and distribution of such materials at public forums; technical and market analyses of biomass energy fuels, conversion technologies, and market issues; monitoring of issues affecting the biomass energy community; and facilitating cooperation among members to leverage the funds available for biomass commercialization activities.

  12. Rapid Development of China's Offshore Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haimin

    2002-01-01

    @@ Founded on February 15, 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) has experienced two decades of rapid development, in which the annual offshore oil production rose dramatically to 23.13 million tons in 2001 from 90,000 tons in 1982while the total assets jumped to 72 billion yuan from 2.8 billion yuan, but the total employees dropped to 21,000 people from 30,000. This offshore oil giant generated a profit of 9.2 billion yuan in 2001 and turned over 4 billion yuan in taxes to the State with the crude production cost lowered to US$9 per barrel.

  13. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U3O8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U3O8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U3O8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U3O8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U3O8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U3O8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U3O8. Heathgate Pty. Ltd

  14. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U3O8 to approximately 12 000 t U3O8 by the year 2000. (author)

  15. Environmental technology development through industry partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system. The precision measurement capability of the coherent laser radar (CLR) technology has already been demonstrated in the form of the CLR 3D Mapper, of which several copies have been delivered or are under order. The CLVS system, in contrast to the CLR 3D Mapper, will have substantially greater imaging speed with a compact no-moving parts scanner, more suitable for real-time robotic operations.

  16. Developments in the uranium enrichment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until a few years ago, the uranium enrichment market was characterized by one major supplier, one technology, on set of terms and conditions for supply, and ample capacity to meet demand. Now the market is passing through a period of extraordinary change and uncertainty. It is likely that some time will elapse before more stable conditions are restored. he present changes have been brought about by the introduction of new technologies and new suppliers, which has- resulted in a growing competition for shares of the market and a diversification of terms and conditions for supply. The major uncertainties are the size of the future market for enriched uranium and the closely related problem of whether too little, too much or adequate enrichment capacity to meet future demand will be available when needed. Lying further in the future is the possible development of new technologies for uranium enrichment. he world's major supplier, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), since mid-1974 has fully booked, under long-term contracts, its present and future committed capacity, and has since then been unable to accept new contracts. Also, the question of government or private ownership of enrichment facilities in the-USA has become controversial with the result that proposals for expansion of enrichment capacity, made in 1974, have not yet been decided on. (author)

  17. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  18. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  19. Sustainable development of electricity industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency should be the cutting edge of national energy policies for sustainable development. The cost effectiveness of efficiency as the most environmentally benign source of energy is well established. The energy consumption per unit of output from most efficient processes and technologies is one third to less than one-half of typically available equipment. The older and the less efficient equipment has sunk energy costs and also the sunk capital which can have severe negative impact on a national economy if such equipment has to be discarded. Thus energy efficiency can be maintained and extended, through judicious and explicit policy which minimizes combined cost of capital and energy in a long term perspective weighing the costs and benefits in the means of production with gradual shift towards energy efficient technologies. 6 refs., 17 tabs

  20. Development of a master plan for industrial solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid industrial growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran has resulted in disposal of about 1750 tons of solid waste per day. Most of these industrial solid wastes including hazardous wastes are disposed without considering environmental issues. This has contributed considerably to the pollution of the environment. This paper introduces a framework in which to develop a master plan for industrial solid waste management. There are usually different criteria for evaluating the existing solid waste pollution loads and how effective the management schemes are. A multiple criteria decision making technique, namely Analytical Hierarchy Process, is used for ranking the industrial units based on their share in solid waste related environmental pollution and determining the share of each unit in total solid waste pollution load. In this framework, a comprehensive set of direct, indirect, and supporting projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control. The proposed framework is applied for industrial solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan in Iran and a databank including GIS based maps of the study area is also developed. The results have shown that the industries located near the capital city of the province, Ahwaz, produce more than 32 percent of the total solid waste pollution load of the province. Application of the methodology also has shown that it can be effectively used for development of the master plan and management of industrial solid wastes

  1. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  2. OPEN INNOVATION OF DRUG DEVELOPMENT WITHIN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Waltemath, Ursula; Jensen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is a growing environment which seems to expand alongside globalization. External sources of ideas support open innovation for the initiation of the drug development process. Open innovation has shown to distinguish a firm from competitors. Further exploration of the methods involved in managing drug research and development provides insight into the success of modern innovative approaches for developing drugs.

  3. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  4. Strategic Development Trends in the World Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kesič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to research and evaluate the strategicdevelopment trends in the world pharmaceutical industry in the period1996–2006.We aim to find that mergers and acquisitions prevailas a vital strategic development option in the world pharmaceutical industry.The research examines the exploratory hypothesis that the intensiveglobalization process, increased competitiveness and changedstructure of competitors, strongly influence the consolidation developmenttrends in the world pharmaceutical industry which result in anincreased number of mergers and acquisitions. The intensive consolidationof the world pharmaceutical industry is a market driven processand conditioned by several strategic issues, such as lack of brand newproducts, increased competitiveness, fast globalization process, intensiveglobal marketing and sales activities, changed structure of competitors,fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. There isclear evidence that the world pharmaceutical industry and market areboth becoming more oligopolistic and monopolistic.

  5. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  6. Striving to further harmonization of sustainability criteria for bioenergy in Europe: Recommendations from a stakeholder questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This questionnaire analyzed the ongoing development of sustainability criteria for solid and liquid bioenergy in the European Union and further actions needed to come to a harmonization of certification systems, based on EU stakeholder views. The questionnaire, online from February to August 2009, received 473 responses collected from 25 EU member countries and 9 non-European countries; 285 could be used for further processing. A large majority of all stakeholders (81%) indicated that a harmonized certification system for biomass and bioenergy is needed, albeit some limitations. Amongst them, there is agreement that (i) a criterion on 'minimization of GHG emissions' should be included in a certification system for biomass and bioenergy, (ii) criteria on optimization of energy and on water conservation are considered of high relevance, (iii) the large variety of geographical areas, crops, residues, production processes and end-uses limits development towards a harmonized certification system for sustainable biomass and bioenergy in Europe, (iv) making better use of existing certification systems and standards improves further development of a harmonized European biomass and bioenergy sustainability certification system and (v) it is important to link a European certification system to international declarations and to expand such a system to other world regions. - Highlights: → The majority of stakeholders agree on the need of a certification system for biomass and bioenergy. → Limitations for harmonizing a European system include the geographical diversity, crops and processes for biomass and bioenergy. → It is important to consider the international declarations when developing a European system.

  7. MHG bioenergy ERP - enterprise resource planning service entity for bioenergy operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurinainen, S. (MHG Systems Oy Ltd, Mikkeli (Finland)), Email: seppo.huurinainen@mhgsystems.com

    2009-07-01

    MHG Systems provides ERP systems specifically geared for the bioenergy and energy field. MHG ERP synthesizes mobile communications, the Internet, real-time maps, and satellite-based location information into one business-enhancing service and allows the use of new and especially contract-based and empowering operational models. The company's services bring significant cost savings to all operators in the bioheat, bioelectricity, and biofuel production chain. The MHG platform service allows development of new, empowering operational models resulting in paperfree office and field work. Customer solutions are created from MHG ERP's building blocks and delivered as turnkey solutions - or the service can be used an ASP basis. MHG customer solutions are created from MHG ERP's independent building blocks and delivered as turnkey solutions, or the service can be used on an ASP basis. MHG-ERP-based customer solutions can be used practically anywhere in the world, since they can be set to utilize national raster maps. professional vector-based Google Maps products, or remote sensing maps and are used via a Web browser or online or offline mobile devices such as smartphones, automatic navigators, PDAs, Toughbooks, and PCs. The superior features of the MGH Bioenergy ERP service include transparency throughout the delivery chain, management of the moisture content of bioenergy masses, reporting features focused on the amount of energy (i.e., the number of megawatt hours), and accounts and invoicing. (orig.)

  8. Contemporary Development Of Creative Industries In Bosnia And Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurković Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of three basic parts. In the first, the concept of post-socialist urban settlements and the position of creative industries in them are presented. In the second, examples of the development of creative actions of cities are given. In the third, the role of local policy in the development of new creative industries in Bosnia and Herzegovina is critically analysed, emphasising some of its shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, contemporary ideas of the development of the creative industries started to develop at the end of 2001 with the use of the technology of the developed countries of the world.

  9. Development of industrial process diagnosis and measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section1. Industrial Gamma CT Technology for Process Diagnosis The project is aimed to develop industrial process gamma tomography system for investigation on structural and physical malfunctioning and process media distribution by means of sealed gamma source and radioactive materials. Section2. Development of RI Hydraulic Detection Technology for Industrial Application The objectives in this study are to develop the evaluation technology of the hydrological characteristics and the hydraulic detection technology using radioisotope, and to analyze the hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in water environment like surface and subsurface. Section3. Development of RT-PAT System for Powder Process Diagnosis The objective of this project is the development of a new radiation technology to improve the accuracy of the determination of moisture content in a powder sample by using radiation source through the so-called RT-PAT (Radiation Technology-Process Analytical Technology), which is a new concept of converging technology between the radiation technology and the process analytical technology

  10. Strategy and business development practices in Danish constrution industry SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian; Nielsen, Jesper Salling

    2010-01-01

    companies compete on their overhead rather than their ability to reduce production cost and create value. (2) the companies have a reactive practice towards development, where they try to follow the development in the market rather than shaping their own market. (3) their approach towards strategy......The paper presents a qualitative study of strategy and business development practices in Small and Medium Sizes Enterprises (SME) in the Danish construction industry. Theoretically the paper draws upon theories on how strategy is developed and practiced as in integrated part of everyday management...... development represents an important but unacknowledged practice for innovation of the building industry and suggests that strategy processes should be facilitated and subject to more detailed research in order to escape the present unhealthy market practices in the construction industry....

  11. Strategy and business development practices in Danish constrution industry SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian; Nielsen, Jesper Salling

    The paper presents a qualitative study of strategy and business development practices in Small and Medium Sizes Enterprises (SME) in the Danish construction industry. Theoretically the paper draws upon theories on how strategy is developed and practiced as in integrated part of everyday management...... companies compete on their overhead rather than their ability to reduce production cost and create value. (2) the companies have a reactive practice towards development, where they try to follow the development in the market rather than shaping their own market. (3) their approach towards strategy...... development represents an important but unacknowledged practice for innovation of the building industry and suggests that strategy processes should be facilitated and subject to more detailed research in order to escape the present unhealthy market practices in the construction industry....

  12. New directions of foreign direct investment and industrial development

    OpenAIRE

    Yamin, Mo; Nixson, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The Routledge Handbook of Industry and Development is a global overview of industrialisation. Each chapter will provide readers with contemporary insights into this this essential aspect of economic development. Industrialisation has been at the forefront of discussion on economic development since the earliest days of development economics. But over the last fifty years, the manufacturing sectors of different countries and regions have grown at strikingly different rates. In 1960 developing ...

  13. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  14. Questionnaire survey on future development of energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The above questionnaire survey was carried out by the Energy Environmental Policy Committee of Japan Productivity Center for Socio-economic Development in 2003. The outline of the questionnaire survey and the important results are described. 1,570 subjects consisted of 105 Member of Congress, 105 members of local government, 350 researchers, 200 energy industries and organizations, 400 general industries and organizations, 105 mass communication and critics, 105 labor unions, NPO and consumer's organizations and 200 others. They are gone and collected by post. The period was from 8 March to 6 May, 2003. The recovery rate was 38%. Attributions were age, occupation and relation between energy industry and business. The important results and analysis were obtained by the following questions; economic growth, liberalization of electric power and gas market, factors of development of electric power industry, expected saving energy technologies, projection of new energy, expected new energy technologies, nuclear power correlative industries, nuclear power policies, new business of energy industries, support policy for energy industry, energy situation, environmental problems, energy conservation, natural gas and energy policies. (S.Y.)

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    challenges of biofuel production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs are providing the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use (see sidebar, Bridging the Gap from Fundamental Biology to Industrial Innovation for Bioenergy, p. 6). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations - the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast - with partners across the nation (see U.S. map, DOE Bioenergy Research Centers and Partners, on back cover). DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; and the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and bioinformatics, and engineering. Institutional partners include DOE national laboratories, universities, private companies, and nonprofit organizations.

  16. Política industrial e desenvolvimento Industrial policy and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Suzigan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the debate on industrial policy and economic development in Brazil. At first, theoretical approaches that support industrial policy-making are discussed, with emphasis on the neoschumpeterian/evolutionary approach, which focuses on innovation as prime mover of economic development and on the co-evolution of technologies, institutions, and industries and firms structures. Next, such an approach is applied to explain some successful experiences of industrial policy-making and economic development in Brazil up to the end of the 1970s, and the failures to implement such a policy from the 1980s onwards. Finally, the present government industrial policy is evaluated, arguing that although it has some positive aspects like the focus on innovation, clearly defined targets and a new institutional organization, it fails as an economic development policy because of weaknesses such as incompatibility with macroeconomic policy, inconsistencies of policy instruments, deficiencies in infrastructure and in the science, technology and innovation system, and lack of coordination and political drive.

  17. 9. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the following main topics: (1) Valorisation/overall optimization by (waste) heat utilization; (2) Flexible energy supply; (3) Traditional and alternative solid bioenergy sources; (4) Conditions for biofuel supply; (5) Utilization of biofuels for engines; (6) Bio-waste as resource; (7) Optimization of biogas plants/process optimization; (8) Energy crops and their rotations.

  18. The water footprint of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Meer, van der Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rap

  19. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  20. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  1. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  2. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  3. Overview of the Development of the Fluoropolymer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Teng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review briefly describes the development of the fluoropolymer industry in the past 70 years. Discussed are industrial fluoropolymers including polytetrafluoroethylene, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, polyvinylidenefluoride, polyvinylfluoride, ETFE, ECTFE, FEP, PFA, THV, Teflon AF and Cytop. Nafion is included as a special functional fluoropolymer material. These industrial fluoropolymers are introduced in the order of their discovery or time of first production, included are their chemical structures, thermal properties, mechanical properties, electrical and electronic properties, optical properties, chemical resistance, oxidative stabilities, weather stabilities, processabilities and their general applications. The main manufacturing companies for the different types of fluoropolymer products are also mentioned.

  4. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  5. Hidden trends of economic development of Ukraine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Marina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of the authors’ studies on technological development problems and industrial production efficiency in Ukraine is held. It has been proved that the industrial enterprises efficiency is not just low, but there is not even technological development foundation in the economic mechanism of their functioning. It is shown that the greatest increase in the innovative products sales volume is achieved due to investment in the external knowledge acquisition and the least profitableactivity is the purchase of equipment The article suggests the ways to improve the industrial enterprises efficiency and the effectiveness of their innovation activities. It is proved, that the optimization (reduction of investments in the purchase of machinery and equipment and the increase in funding of such directions of innovative activity of industrial enterprises as «The acquisition of external knowledge» may be appropriate.

  6. THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL PARCS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEȘTER Liana-Eugenia

    2013-07-01

    The approach of the subject is theoretical starting from the need to support the economic activities by local social institutions fostering the access to information and technology and identifying some solutions that meet these needs - industrial parks. Even if industrial parks in Romania are still considered in draft form, some examples can be identified as functional and supporting the local development. Their functionality is given by the involvement of local authorities and the interest of the business environment in exploiting the economic potential of the region. The role of industrial parks in supporting the local development is measured in the number of new jobs created, the income received by local institutions by paying taxes and duties from firms benefiting from the infrastructure made available through their involvement in attracting investors; the more productive the industry and more efficient the production, the higher the company\\\\\\'s results and therefore the benefits of local institutions.

  7. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  8. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W

    1999-12-01

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  9. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  10. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EAST JAVA: A SPECIAL CASE?

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang-Heru Santosa; Heath McMichael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of manufacturing in East Java in comparison with other major industrial provinces in Indonesia, with a focus on employment, output and investment in the pre-and-post crisis periods. East Java's 'winner' and 'loser' industries and the geographical distribution of manufacturing in the province are described. The paper attempts to account for manufacturing patterns in East Java in terms of infrastructure constraints, the investment climate, access to finance a...

  11. Continuing Professional Development Build on Industry-Academia Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming K.

    2007-01-01

    A challenge for university - industry partnerships is to combine productive engineering and academic learning, to combine industrial engineering tasks with their tasks in Continuing Professional Development (CPD). The rather new methodology Facilitated Work Based Learning (FWBL) can be defined as...... of engineers as an integrated part of their problem oriented team organised engineering work. This presentation will describe the definition of the FWBL methodology, the FWBL Learning Contract, the FWBL process and discuss some results....

  12. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Khramtsov, Andrey; Evdokimov, Ivan; Lodygin, Aleksey; Budkevich, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The information available on high technology in food industry is systematized. Different approaches to the development and integration of scientific knowledge are discussed. According to the European Institute for Food Processing (EU-IFP), there are three possible areas where a breakthrough in food science can occur: biotechnology (BIOTECH), nanotechnology (NANO), and information and communication technology (ICT). A transition is expected of high technology in food industry to convergent tec...

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  15. ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK - A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGNAR NICOLETA GEORGETA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local communities embracing the concept of Eco-industrial park are looking for some additional benefits for all the interested parties – both public and private: higher economic efficiency, the increase of competitivity by applying last minute technologies, generation of additional revenues through positive regulations at the community level, the creation of jobs, solving the conflict between economy and environment, diminishing the demand on the county infrastructure, decreasing the effects of pollution, using energy from regenerating sources and replacement materials. Communities and enterprises creating Eco-industrial parks will have common grounds for industrial development, which is much more competitive, more efficient and much cleaner than traditional industrial parks. Moreover, the new business niches will be open to recruitment or new incubators. Eco-industrial parks represent a special category compared to industrial parks, a category which is different from the classical ones due to the fact that they are designed in such a way so that they promote the collaboration between companies in order to reuse recyclable materials and green energy sources. A long-term vision must reflect the focus on the creation of collaboration networks between firms and the fact that an Eco-industrial park should be a business community, not only a mathematical sum of companies located in the same geographical area. The quality, continuity and interconnection of economic flows within the firms of an Eco-industrial park are important characteristics for the success of Eco-industrial networks. The following discussion tackles the way in which an Eco-industrial park is set-up: creating and implementing an Eco-industrial park in accordance with the principles of circular economy or transforming an already existing industrial park into an Eco- industrial park. The quality, the continuity, the number of interconnected firms, the flows of resources and the

  16. Development Prospect of Aromatherapy Industry in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziyun; PENG; Dantong; LI; Rui; CHEN; Min; QIAN; Yiqi; CHEN; Hongjun; YANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced domestic and foreign supply of products processed by aromatherapy plant. On the basis of predicting market demand of aromatherapy plant,it analyzed current development situation of the plant in Yunnan Province. It arrived at the conclusion that the industry has broad market prospect. Then,it analyzed competitive advantages and risk factors of aromatherapy plant in Yunnan Province. There are climate,location and price advantages,but due to lack of product standard,it is difficult to guarantee quality,and there are certain market risks. Finally,it put forward recommendations for development of aromatherapy industry:( 1) taking full advantage of preferential policies to set up leading enterprises and realize radiated development;( 2) bringing into play of resource advantages and introducing capitals and technologies;( 3) Fostering market and driving the industrial development.

  17. Papua New Guinea seeks industry to support river development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.E.

    1978-07-01

    Feasibility studies support the Papua New Guinea government's plans for hydroelectric development on the Purari River if industry can be attracted to the largely unsettled area to absorb most of the power generated. A 30-month design and mobilization period, followed by 5/sup 1///sub 2/ years of construction are indicated for the proposed 1800 megawatt project. The region could develop into an international industrial megapolis supplied with cheap power and transport, abundant fresh water, and large supplies of forest and mineral resources. The government is exploring the drain on manpower resources and the inflationary and environmental effects of rapid development on the rest of the country.

  18. Research and development of zirconium industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of uranium material for nuclear power and silicon material for information industry represents two revolutionary changes in the material field in 20-th century. The development of these kinds of materials not only brings about great revolution of technology in the material field, but also promotes the great advancement of the world economy. Zirconium or its alloy, as one of the most important material in atomic age, just as the same as foreign countries has been developed under promotion of nuclear submarine project in China, and building of civil nuclear power reactor then has been laid a solid foundation for zirconium industry and provide a broad market for zirconium material

  19. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Lee, Na-Young; Kwon, Taek-Yong

    2008-09-15

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD.

  20. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD

  1. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonnedry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJHHV) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonnedry or 2.1 euros/GJHHV; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MWHHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJHHV, when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJprimary/MJdelivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss. (Author)

  2. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  3. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  4. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  5. Financial crisis and Sustainable development of Chinese manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bing

    2009-01-01

    Sub-prime lending crisis has become an international financial crisis,which is evolving into an economic recession sweeping across the West.Financial crisis leads to the demand reduction in western countries,and as the largest manufacturing country,China must face overproduction.The role of China as "world factory" determines that financial crisis will severely attack Chinese manufacturing industry.The unsustainable development of Chinese manufacturing industry is mainly reflected in the following aspects:heavy dependence on export,low-level manufacturing link,lack of modern service industry and high-tech industry,weak independent innovative ability,unsustainable exploration of heavy-pollution resources,and lack of international famous brands.How to transform crisis to opportunities is an urgent research topic.Under the circumstance of financial crisis,Chinese manufacturing industry has more external drives to change the current situation.Therefore,financial crisis becomes not only an opportunity for Chinese manufacturing industry to improve itself based on the existing accumulation but also a chance for China to transform from "world factory" into a powerful nation of manufacturing industry in the world.

  6. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  7. Proceedings of the CANBIO workshop on Canadian bioenergy : export markets vs. domestic business opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While there is a strong European demand for bioenergy products such as wood pellets, Canadian bioenergy markets remain relatively subdued. Organized by the Canadian Bioenergy Association, this workshop explored various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products. BioOil markets in Europe were considered as a potential market for Canadian bioenergy products. Various European and Canadian incentive programs and research initiatives were outlined. New technologies in bioenergy refinement practices were explored and new development in syngas production techniques were introduced. It was suggested that district heating programs and gasification fuels may provide new domestic markets for bioenergy products. Resource opportunities in the electricity sector were evaluated, and wood residue production trends in Canada were examined. It was noted that the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia (BC) has increased wood residue production surpluses in the province, which has resulted in increased sawmill activity. Sixteen presentations were given at this workshop, 4 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Manpower development in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the history and current status of the university nuclear education sector and the utility training sector of the United States (US) nuclear power industry. Recently, the number of programs in the university nuclear education sector has declined, and the remaining programs are in need of both strong governmental and industrial assistance if they are to remain a stable source for educating nuclear engineers and health physicists to staff the resurgence of the nuclear power industry. The utility training sector has undergone remarkable development since the TMI-2 accident. Programs to recruit, train, and qualify the variety of personnel needed, as well as the steps to accredit these programs, are being developed on a systematic, industry-wide basis. A number of new technologies for educating and training personnel are emerging which may be used to create or improve learning environments. Manpower development for the US nuclear power industry is a shared responsibility among the universities, the nuclear utilities, and the nuclear suppliers. This shared responsibility can continue to be best discharged by enhancement of the interaction among all parties with respect to evaluating the proper level of cognitive development within the utility training program

  9. Industry and development: Global report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1980s, but increasingly so within the past two years, opinion has swung decisively in favour of an open, market-oriented economy, for the greater part privately owned and managed, as a way of achieving sustained industrial growth. It is with this knowledge that the Global Report focuses once again on providing detailed, concrete and up-to-date information on the global prospects for industrial growth. This year, special attention is devoted to the issues of efficiency in the use of energy and to the new financial instruments available for manufacturing industries in the global financial markets. An overview of industrial energy consumption and efficiency in the manufacturing sector is presented. Industry is the most important end-user sector in total final energy consumption in most countries. Given the dominant share of manufacturing energy consumption, it is not difficult to see the enormous potential for energy savings through improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, and the substantial economic and environmental benefits to be derived therefrom in both developing and developed countries. The widespread decoupling of output and energy in OECD countries in the past two decades has already been noted, while the opposite phenomenon of energy consumption increasing in step with output has been observed in developing countries during the same period. Conservation and improvements in energy efficiency are therefore of crucial importance in developing countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Sustainable development and upgrading mode of coal industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhenguo

    2012-01-01

    It is an emerging realistic problem on how to promote a high level of technology in the coal industry,find new upgrading powers and create new competitive advantages,which are also the core problems to efficient transformation pattern of economic growth for coal industry in the "twelfth five year" period,involving the key to China's energy supply and energy security.Through field surveys and inductive analyses,analyzing of the content of upgrading the coal industry as an entry point,this paper analyzes the sustainable development mechanisms for the coal industry from the aspects of work force,power,methods,goals,and so on; and puts forward corresponding developmental modes according to the mecha nisms which can improve resource recovery and mineral resources utilization rates by putting them into practice.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The proposed expansion of the Industrial Engineering discipline, termed Strategic Industrial Engineering, holds that scientific industrial engineering knowledge may be applied to capitalistic systems with the strategic goal of maximising wealth for the corporate shareholders. This paper provides an overview of the development of such a Strategic Industrial Engineering Philosophy and discusses the possible application of this philosophy in improving the capital productivity of an organisation.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die voorgestelde uitbreiding van die Bedryfsingenieurswesedissipline, genaamd Strategiese Bedryfsingenieurswese, beweer dat wetenskaplike bedryfsingenieurswesekennis toegepas mag word op kapitalistiese stelsels met die maksimisering van welvaart vir die korporatiewe aandeelhouers as die strategiese doelwit. Hierdie artikel verskaf ’n oorsig van die ontwikkeling van so ’n Strategiese Bedryfsingenieurswesefilosofie en bespreek die moontlike toepassing van hierdie filosofie in die verbetering van die kapitaalproduktiwiteit van ’n onderneming.

  12. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna;

    inform the public about the processes and benefits of the prototype products, and partly to give feedback to the project partners on the environmental and safety aspects of the different material, processing, use and waste stages. By that being a link between the industrial project partners developing...... developers, production industries, consumers and authorities. Part of the consideration is the public perception of the new product and the processes to manufacture it, which is an important aspect for products being developed using nanoscale surface processing. Such considerations are integrated in the...... PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly to...

  13. Development of Industrial High-Speed Transfer Parallel Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung In; Kyung, Jin Ho; Do, Hyun Min; Jo, Sang Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Parallel robots used in industry require high stiffness or high speed because of their structural characteristics. Nowadays, the importance of rapid transportation has increased in the distribution industry. In this light, an industrial parallel robot has been developed for high-speed transfer. The developed parallel robot can handle a maximum payload of 3 kg. For a payload of 0.1 kg, the trajectory cycle time is 0.3 s (come and go), and the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s (pick amp, place work, adept cycle). In this motion, its maximum acceleration is very high and reaches approximately 13g. In this paper, the design, analysis, and performance test results of the developed parallel robot system are introduced.

  14. Development of Industrial High-Speed Transfer Parallel Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parallel robots used in industry require high stiffness or high speed because of their structural characteristics. Nowadays, the importance of rapid transportation has increased in the distribution industry. In this light, an industrial parallel robot has been developed for high-speed transfer. The developed parallel robot can handle a maximum payload of 3 kg. For a payload of 0.1 kg, the trajectory cycle time is 0.3 s (come and go), and the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s (pick amp, place work, adept cycle). In this motion, its maximum acceleration is very high and reaches approximately 13g. In this paper, the design, analysis, and performance test results of the developed parallel robot system are introduced

  15. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  17. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  18. A Brief Global Perspective on Biomass for Bioenergy and Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has a large energy potential. A comparison between the available potential with the current use shows that, on a worldwide level, about two-fifths of the existing biomass energy potential is used. In most areas of the world the current biomass use is clearly below the available potential. Only for Asia does the current use exceed the available potential, i.e. non-sustainable biomass use. Therefore, increased biomass use, e.g. for upgrading is possible in most countries. A possible alternative is to cover the future demand for renewable energy, by increased utilization of forest residues and residues from the wood processing industry, e.g. for production of densified biofuels (Parrika, 2004.If carried out on a large scale, the increased use of agricultural resources for energy will have the effect of raising the prices of most commodity crops and reducing the need for subsidies – with particular benefit for producers of commodity crops in developing countries. An aggressive program of bioenergy development could lead to reductions in government support to farmers without any loss of income. The long-term success of bio-based facilities and markets is dependent in part on the level of commitment of feedstock from forest landowners and farmers.  Forest, crop, and animal residues present considerable potential as a biomass feedstock.  They are renewable, sustainable, locally available, and often considered carbon-neutral when compared to fossil fuels (Hoogwijk, 2004; Mathews, 2008.

  19. New Development of China Shipping Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distinguished Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,Today I am very delighted to attend the 12th China International Maritime Technology Forum in Shanghai, communicate the development and trend of maritime transport and related industries, and discuss the policies and measures on promotion of sustainable and healthy development of maritime transport industry together with every friend in maritime transport sector from home and abroad. I hope the Forum will be of a complete success.Nowadays, with the continuous deepening of economic globalization and trade

  20. A regional comparison of China’s industrial development efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏后凯; 王业强

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy has been experiencing extensive growth for decades. Along with this growth, however, there have been industrial-economic, social and environmental inefficiencies. In some regions, problems exist because of overemphasis on GDP growth, or growth at the expense of the environment. Looking at efficiency through the prism of economic, social and environmental factors, this article analyzes the industrial economic development during the 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005). The authors conclude that economic development should be achieved while making overall improvements to economic, social and ecoenvironment efficiency.

  1. Nylon and Chemical Fiber Industry of Shifeng Developing Synchronously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yinshi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, over 40 people of the investigation group of the 10th Chinese Caprolactam and Nylon Market Forum went to Shifeng Group for visitation and investigation. They learnt the overall general situation of Shifeng Group in details, visited the factory areas such as chemical fiber & tire industrial park and agricultural automobile industrial park, and listened to the development process of Shifeng Group, the present production and future development of such products as nylon chip, nylon yarn and flat chafer fabric under nylon and chemical fiber project, and the market growth in recent two years. The investigation group showed great cooperation intention on the caprolactam project of Shifeng Group.

  2. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  3. Industrial Parks In Russia: Conceptual Development Of The Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Gennadyevich Sandler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical framework of industrial parks effectiveness as an element of economic policy to accelerate economy development in regions or municipalities. The article studies how historically such instruments were used in modern Russia. The paper states the necessity of extensive development of the industrial park concept and how it affects the chances of project realization and potential economic effectiveness. The main parts and blocks that should be taken into account during concept preparations are highlighted, and proposals for their content are made.

  4. An Industrial Organisation to get Reactivity in Space Equipment Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heranger, Ch.

    2004-10-01

    With a development phase launched in spring, a delivery of 60 flight models and a QR beginning 2004, the 200N FCV development sets a record in the European space business in terms of development duration. The success of this program owes to the co-operation EADS Space Transportation tied with small companies since some years. In order to adapt to ever-shorter development cycles, EADS Space Transportation propulsion equipment business line has developed industrial ties with small companies, namely AER in France. This article will present the reasons for such an industrial alliance, then the actual work share and organisation of the 200N program used as an example of such a cooperation. Finally, the key successes of this development along with a performance description of the 200N valve will be presented.

  5. Development status of liquefied natural gas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the significant economic growth in China, energy related environmental issues become more and more serious. Most of air pollutants are produced by burning coal. In order to achieve a sustainable balance between economic growth and environmental protection, China has been taking measures to expand the role played by natural gas, especially since the beginning of the 21st century. As the liquid form of natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has also been paid more attention in the country. This paper explores main motives for the fast development of China's LNG industry. An overview of the industry is also described, covering LNG receiving terminals, plants and transportation. Despite a relatively short development history of LNG industry in China, there are many remarkable successes. City-gas supply by LNG is widely applied in many small to medium cities, and LNG vehicles and cold energy utilization are growing rapidly with governmental supports. At the end, the developmental trends of China's LNG industry are introduced. All the discussions show that LNG is strategically important in China's future energy infrastructure. - Research highlights: →Explore main momentums for the fast development of China's LNG industry→Analyze detailedly current states and future prospects of LNG infrastructure in China→Introduce and analyze the wide application of LNG-based gas supply mode in China→Discuss new developmental trends in China's LNG industry

  6. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  7. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  8. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  9. Industrial Clusters and Corporate Social Responsibility in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a review of what we know, what we do not know, and what we need to know about the relationship between industrial clusters and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries. In addition to the drivers of and barriers to the adoption of CSR initiatives, this...... study highlights key lessons learned from empirical studies of CSR initiatives that aimed to improve environmental management and work conditions and reduce poverty in local industrial districts. Academic work in this area remains embryonic, lacking in empirical evidence about the effects of CSR...... focus on export-oriented industrial clusters, the risk that CSR becomes a form of economic and cultural imperialism, and the potential for joint-action CSR initiatives in clusters of small and medium-sized enterprises to offer a new form of greenwashing. From this review, the authors develop a...

  10. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... challenge in staging a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational...

  11. THE OPPORTUNITY TO ADDRESS THE SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Its economy experienced a sharp decline, coupled with a process of deindustrialization, projected on a phase of the property. In these circumstances, to discuss the sustainable development may seem inappropriate; therefore, be taken in steps such as halting the decline of the economy and industry; the industry revitalization and growth; the development that takes place according to the criteria of sustainable development. To this must be stopped declining industrial output and output stabilization. It must be found and made the necessary conditions leading to full use of the potential of the country, to stimulate those structural changes that allow the country to fall market economy conditions. To address the main criteria for sustainable industrial development since this time of economic downturn may be several reasons such as the need to respect the provisions of international treaties to which Romania is a party. Some of them may be mentioned as: putting control of Earth's greenhouse effect, preventing damage to the ozone layer (waiving of manufacture and use of chlorofluorocarbons, transboundary pollution and protection of large water basins of the border. Each of these treaties contain provisions that are converging concept of sustainable development. The entry into the European Union implies aligning Romanian legislation in the EU The EU Council adopted a common position, relative to a plan of action intended to give a new political impetus of the fifth environmental action program. The main objective of this program is the promotion of sustainable development throughout the economy. The Action Plan identifies priority areas for action, namely: • better integration of environmental issues into policies as those of agriculture, transport, energy, industry and tourism; • further development of basic tools acting on the market and, in particular, horizontal instruments; • improving enforcement and implementation of environmental

  12. Perspectives in developing industrial enzymes by using technological intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing emergent technologies implies an ongoing challenge involving using new technological management tools. Enzyme engineering and its respective technology (within the context of biotechnology is one of the areas of knowledge from which great expectations are constantly arising, such as providing competitive advantage in emergent economies like that of Colombia. However, several decades of research in this field have still not led to important results in terms of enzyme production and their application in industrial processes. This article proposes applying the components of a technological intelligence system to developing enzyme technology. Initial emphasis is placed on scientometrics, using exercises for mapping patents, technological monitoring and evaluating Colombian prolects forming part of Colciencias’ ScienTI network, carried out for the enzymes being used in both the food industry for obtaining hydrolysed products and in the textile industry. An example of Delphi study is documented within the context of industrial enzymes’ future within biotechnology in general. The learning which can arise from analysing a sector leader is stressed by using organisational benchmarking. The basis of a technological intelligence system is then discussed in terms of how it can provide productive and competitive strategies aimed at applying industrial enzymes.

  13. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  14. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  15. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions were simulated using cost data for year 2005. Five scenarios with different constraints, e.g. on food and feed supply and on nitrogen balance were considered focusing on: a) constraints as the year 2005, b) landscape aesthetics and biodiversity c) groundwater protection, d) maintaining current food and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index 100). The bioenergy supply (district heating, electric power, biogas, RME or bioethanol) varied between 56 PJ in the ''2005'' scenario at oil index 100 and 158 PJ at oil index 300 in the groundwater scenario. Our simple model demonstrates the effect of prioritizing multiple uses of land resources for food, feed or bioenergy, while maintaining a low nitrogen load to the environment. In conclusion, even after drastic landuse changes the bioenergy supply as final energy will not exceed 184 PJ annually (including 26 PJ processed biowaste sources) by far lower than the annual domestic total energy consumption ranging between 800 and 850 PJ yr-1. (author)

  16. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  17. Efficient Safety Culture as Sustainable Development in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Otti. V. I; Nwolum F. C

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on precaution necessary to prevent avoidable accidents in the construction industries, important water development, building and roads construction in Nigeria. Moreover, appreciate the need for a safe working environment but also precaution necessary for hitch-free operation.

  18. Sodium waste management: from process development to industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation and decommissioning of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) generate various kinds of sodium wastes. Simple methods dealing with such wastes exist and are currently used in the classical industry or for the dismantling of non-radioactive test loops. However radioactivity implies accurate control of the liquid and gaseous effluents generated, which implies more sophisticated methods and design features. Moreover, high sodium reactivity implies the development of safe processes with simple technology. In support to the needs of the LMFRs in operation, and in preparation to the LMFR decommissioning, the CEA has developed particular skills and specific processes with respect to sodium waste management. On its side, FRAMATOME Direction NOVATOME has applied its LMFR and sodium engineering knowledge to the industrialization of such processes. This paper describes the results obtained so far on the development of processes, together with examples or prospects of application in industrial conditions based on the wide diversity of wastes produced by a LMFR. This review shows that, if the contaminated sodium waste treatment requires the greatest care and well-adapted processes, the techniques exist or are being developed, with already satisfactory industrial application records. (authors)

  19. Review of Recent Developments in Solar Heat for Industrial Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hennecke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Industrial heat applications are a significant potential market for concentrating solar technologies Suitable collector technologies are offered by a number of suppliers First demonstration projects have been realized, or are under development Challenges remain: System Integration / Optimization Plant engineering Collector improvements Competitiveness with other heat sources / Incentive schemes

  20. Developing the organization's productivity strategy in various sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Looze, M.P. de; Have, K.T.; Rhijn, J.W. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present an approach to improve the organisation's productivity which is applicable in every industrial sector. The nucleus of the approach is to develop an optimal productivity strategy in an organization by the application of a uniform static model of productivity (Q4-mod