WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioenergy center sugar

  1. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides Marques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose. The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and weight of moist cake. The final model is then proposed: TRS = 25.9892 + 0.02172*CVmc*WMC+0.536*WMC – 4.14*CVmc + + 4.8158*PC + 4.575*RSS. Thus we obtain the TRS calculated according to the calorific value of moist cake (CVmc, weight of moist cake (WMC, Pol cane (PC and the reducing sugars in sugarcane (RSS. This form is included in the estimation of TRS, the calorific value of moist cake, which reflects the bioenergy of fiber, weight of moist cake that estimates sugarcane fiber, in addition to existing factors Pol cane and reducing sugars in sugarcane. In the proposed model, the estimated values of TSR were 11.08% higher than the estimated values in the CONSECANA model.

  2. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  3. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts......One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and...... gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...

  4. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Campi; Alejandra Navarro; A. Domenico Palumbo; Marcello Mastrangelo; Antonio Lonigro; Marcello Mastrorilli

    2015-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera) for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014) was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments). The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production unde...

  5. TRS value of sugarcane according to bioenergy and sugar levels

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Alcides Marques; Larissa Carolina Gonçalves Neves; Erick Malheiros Rampazo; Elvis Lima Deltrejo Junior; Fernando Caetano Souza; Patricia Angelica Alves Marques

    2015-01-01

    In the specific case of sugarcane, producers in Brazil are currently paid by the content of total recoverable sugars (TRS) in the raw material when it reaches the industry, according to CONSECANA: TRS = 9.6316 *PC +9.15 * RSS, where PC is the Pol in cane (apparent sucrose) and RSS are reducing sugars in sugarcane (glucose + fructose). The objective of the project was to propose changes in the procedures used to mathematically determine the TRS, estimating the calorific value of moist cake and...

  6. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  7. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014 was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments. The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production under fresh water treatment (52.2 Mg ha–1 and 5446 L ha–1 were lower respect to that obtained from the secondary and tertiary wastewater treatments (66.7 Mg ha–1 and 6785 L ha–1, and 58.7 Mg h–1 and 6164 L ha–1, respectively, with the same irrigation volumes. These results can depend on the higher quantity of nutrient uptake when wastewater is used for irrigation. In particular, the average N applied (as nitrate and ammonium with irrigation during the growing seasons (2013 and 2014 was corresponding to the supply of 4, 28 and 20 kg ha–1, for the fresh water, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatments, respectively.

  8. Feasibility Assessment of Converting Sugar Mills to Bioenergy Production in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Regis Lima Verde Leal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available World sugar production has consistently overrun demand in the past five years. Moreover, in 2017 the European Sugar Regime will expire, ending the quota system and preferential sugar prices, largely affecting small producers, particularly in Africa. Diversification emerges as an option for sugar-oriented mills. Two evident alternatives are ethanol and electricity production that allow better use of molasses and cane fibers, respectively. Molasses is the cheapest feedstock for ethanol production, while the cane fibers—in the form of bagasse—are readily available at the mill. The transition from sugar to sugar, ethanol and electricity may require substantial investment capital, yet our results show that significant progress can start at relatively small cost. In this work, we use simulations to explore the impact of ethanol and electricity production in an existing sugar mill in Mozambique. In spite of the large amounts of energy obtained from ambitious scenarios, such as Ethanol-2 and Ethanol/EE, molasses-based ethanol (Ethanol-1 scenario seems more attractive in economical and infrastructural terms. High opportunity costs for molasses, low oil prices and enabling institutional conditions, such as mandatory blending mandates, to promote bioenergy remain a challenge.

  9. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...... change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens...

  10. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  11. Bioenergy

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Judy; Demain, Arnold L

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited supply of fossil fuels and the devastating effects of ever-increasing greenhouse gases, researchers have been committed to finding alternative fuel sources. Perhaps one of the least explored areas is bioenergy from microbes. In this landmark volume, world-renowned experts explore the possible contributions of microbes to the next generation of fuels. In 31 detailed chapters, Bioenergy provides thorough explanations of the current knowledge and future areas for research on microbial energy conversions. The volume begins with 10 chapters on ethanol production from cellulosic fe

  12. U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    challenges of biofuel production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs are providing the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use (see sidebar, Bridging the Gap from Fundamental Biology to Industrial Innovation for Bioenergy, p. 6). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations - the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast - with partners across the nation (see U.S. map, DOE Bioenergy Research Centers and Partners, on back cover). DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; and the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and bioinformatics, and engineering. Institutional partners include DOE national laboratories, universities, private companies, and nonprofit organizations.

  13. U.S, Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    . This program is bringing together scientists in diverse fields to understand the complex biology underlying solutions to DOE missions in energy production, environmental remediation, and climate change science. New interdisciplinary research communities are emerging, as are knowledgebases and scientific and computational resources critical to advancing large-scale, genome-based biology. To focus the most advanced biotechnology-based resources on the biological challenges of biofuel production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs will provide the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use. The scientific rationale for these centers and for other fundamental genomic research critical to the biofuel industry was established at a DOE workshop involving members of the research community (see sidebar, Biofuel Research Plan, below). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations--the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast--with partners across the nation. DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC); and DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California. Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and

  14. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  16. 78 FR 45441 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... of the Sugar Program under the cost reduction options provided by section 1009 of the Food Security... Register on October 19, 2011 (76 FR 64839-64844), with respect to the 2008 amendments that would establish... cost, FFP has at least one benefit that is not available with other sugar supply reduction...

  17. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... notice related to 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR... of the reduction in refined sugar supply available for human consumption due to the purchase. For...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program;...

  18. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable. PMID:25693995

  19. Bioenergy production in Central America: integration of sweet sorghum into sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo; Sánchez-Delgado, Sergio; Ruiz-Rivas, Ulpiano; Santana Santana, Domingo José

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential for electricity and ethanol production in Central America using sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Three scenarios were built to analyse sweet sorghum production in terms of the land where it can be cultivated: cropland, sugarcane land in fallow and land in continuous production (intercropping system). The land under permanent crops was not considered for this evaluation. We propose the integration of sweet sorghum into Central American sugar mills, by ...

  20. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems: GHG consequences of using molasses for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A challenging issue in LCA is how to account for co-products' environmental burdens. → The two most commonly used procedures are system expansion and allocation. → System expansion appears to be more appropriate than allocation. → Indirect land use change is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel. → The inclusion of land use change worsens the GHG balance of molasses ethanol. -- Abstract: This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens the GHG balance of ethanol, with deforestation being a worst-case scenario where the fuel is no longer a net carbon saver but carbon emitter.

  1. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  2. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80 °C, 85 °C and 90 °C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume. PMID:26819145

  3. Bioenergy visions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased growth of boreal natural forests will have a more important role as a renewable, also for energy. Bioenergy is also becoming an integrated part of ecoindustrial approach in which renewable resources form the raw material basis, industries use closed cycles, bioenergy plants transform the wastes into energy and ashes, and the ashes are used as forest fertilizer. Use of peat fuel as one of the boreal bioenergy resources is likely to increase. Peat is one of the important natural resources in the northern latitudes, and part of that resource will be needed for the economy and well-being of man. Sustainability in the peat land management and utilization of peat fuel in any particular area must, however, be carefully guaranteed. Part of cutaway peat bogs will be developed for bioenergy crops, like short rotation trees, hay, rape seed or barley. Importance of perennial, woody bioenergy crops, will be increasing in agriculture. With woody bioenergy crops the farms can spread their human work potential over the whole year. The bioenergy farming will thus become a combination of annual crops like rape seed for biodiesel, and perennial crops like Salix for fuel chips, in relation to their effective annual work need. Long-rotation trees will complement the farm bioenergy production. In the world of post fossil fuel era, biosocieties have best chances to survive. The economics of biosocieties are based on renewable resources, cycle of matter and amount of bioenergy stored and produced. Nordic countries with ample land, favorable growing season and abundant water will be developing into such wealthy biosocieties

  4. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the liquid from the juice of the sugar cane evaporates. Brown sugar is made from sugar crystals that come from ... sucrose. Turbinado sugar is unrefined sugar made from sugar cane juice. Raw and brown sugars are no healthier ...

  5. Sustainable bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Section I Fundamentals of Engineering Analysis and Design of Bioenergy Production SystemsGenetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops toward High Biofuel ProductionGuosheng Xie and Liangcai PengNovel Cropping Technologies and Management Applied to Energy CropsLorenzo BarbantiMathematical Modeling in Biomass and Bioenergy SystemsLijun Wang, Samuel Asomaning Agyemang and Abolghasem ShahbaziLife-Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy SystemsReinout Heijungs and Edi Iswanto WilosoSustainability of Bioenergy Systems

  6. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  7. Bioenergy 93 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the presentations given in the Bioenergy 93 Conference are published. The papers are grouped as follows: Opening addresses, biomass implementation strategies, nordic bioenergy research programs, production, handling and conversion of biofuels, combustion technology of biofuels and bioenergy visions

  8. BIOFUEL AND BIOENERGY PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR BEETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A design spreadsheet model for sizing and analyzing the integrated ethanol and biogas production system, a prototype of the ethanol and biogas production system in the laboratory that has been tested and documented with performance data, and a design and operating manual for t...

  9. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  10. Preface: Biocatalysis and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and bioenergy with emphasis on biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and industrial products. Biocatalysis and bioenergy defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, b...

  11. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise in blood sugar after meals or cause tooth decay. Unlike other sugar alcohols, it does not cause ... and other sweeteners with calories can lead to tooth decay . Large amounts of sugar-containing foods lead to ...

  12. Wood-Based Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Michael; Sletten, Thea Marcelia

    2014-01-01

    During recent years increased attention has been given to second-generation wood-based bioenergy. The carbon stored in the forest is highest when there is little or no harvest from the forest. Increasing the harvest from a forest, in order to produce more bioenergy, may thus conflict with the direct benefit of the forest as a carbon sink. We analyze this conflict using a simple model where bioenergy and fossil energy are perfect substitutes. Our analysis shows how the social optimum will depe...

  13. Bioenergy Resources in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Melece, Ligita; Krievina, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of study aimed to evaluate issues of current development of bioenergy in Latvia, taking into account restrictions, which may affect future progress of main biomass sources. These restrictions are based on latest European Union (EU) regulations and recommendations; and worldwide concerns of scholars on sustainability, particularly environmental (e.g. biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, carbon sequestration) of bioenergy (biomass) development. The appropriate qualitat...

  14. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  15. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  16. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinksi, Sharon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  17. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  18. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push. (author)

  19. Bioenergy overview for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. Bioenergy is also an atypical energy source due to its diversity and inter-linkages with many other technological and policy areas. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese possibilities for bioenergy provision from biomass. The potentials of biomass, conversion technologies and legal framework are analysed and discussed. The result of this analysis shows that there are still unused potentials especially from forestry, which can contribute significantly to cover the bioenergy targets. However, the Portuguese experience with conversion technologies is limited to combustion, which is a drawback that must be solved so as to the bioenergy potential can be used. Research and Development projects, as well as demonstration projects are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the technological processes. At political level, Portuguese governments have been following the policies and strategies of the European Commission in the energy sector. However, energy crops market, due to the inter-linkage with agricultural policy, seems to need some additional political push.

  20. Modifying lignin to improve bioenergy feedstocks: strengthening the barrier against pathogens?†

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Scott E.; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a ubiquitous polymer present in cell walls of all vascular plants, where it rigidifies and strengthens the cell wall structure through covalent cross-linkages to cell wall polysaccharides. The presence of lignin makes the cell wall recalcitrant to conversion into fermentable sugars for bioenergy uses. Therefore, reducing lignin content and modifying its linkages have become major targets for bioenergy feedstock development through either biotechnology or traditional plant breeding. ...

  1. The future of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez).

  2. Bioenergy: Potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Canadell, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this lecture we explain 1) the biochemical basis for photosynthesis and plant production and 2) the future demands on biomass for human use. Summing all physiological processes, the efficiency of converting solar energy into biomass is plant production will be available for bioenergy. We estimate this fraction to be between 3 and 8% of the global energy demand by 2050. The contribution of bioenergy is at the higher end in tropical regions and in the less industrialized parts of the world, but may even be < 3% in industrialized nations.

  3. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal

  4. Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its promising prospects, a growing global bio-energy market may have sustainability risks as well. Governing this market with respect to installing safeguards to ensure sustainable biomass production might reduce these risks. Therefore, proposals for governance systems for bio-energy are discussed in this article. The proposals are based on comparative case study research on the governance of comparable commodities. By assessing the governance system of global coffee trade, fair trade coffee, the global and the EU sugar market and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) wood, strong and weak points of governance systems for commodities are discerned. FSC is selected as the best performing case study and serves as the proposal's basis. FSC's weaknesses are minimized by, among others, using the lessons learned from the other case studies. This results in a system consisting of two pillars, a bio-energy labelling organization (BLO) and a United Nations Agreement on Bio-energy (UNAB). Although consulted experts in the research process are critical about this system they do suggest several conditions a governance system for bio-energy should meet in order to be effective, such as a facilitative government, professional monitoring and using progressive certification combined with price premiums. These conditions have been taken into account in the final proposal. (author)

  5. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  6. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  7. The Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy. First edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on sustainability indicators for bioenergy provides a resource in helping countries assess and develop sustainable production and use of bioenergy. The report - featuring 24 sustainability indicators and their respective methodology sheets - is intended to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with a tool that can support the development of national bioenergy policies and programmes as well as help interpret and respond to the environmental, social and economic impacts of bioenergy production and use. The indicators take a holistic approach to assessing many important aspects of the intersection of bioenergy and sustainability, including greenhouse gas emissions, biological diversity, the price and supply of a national food basket, access to energy, economic development and energy security.

  8. Survey of Genomics Approaches to Improve Bioenergy Traits in Maize, Sorghum and Sugarcane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wilfred Vermerris

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy crops currently provide the only source of alternative energy with the potential to reduce the use of fossil transportation fuels in a way that is compatible with existing engine technology, including in developing countries. Even though bioenergy research is currently receiving considerable attention, many of the concepts are not new,but rather build on intense research efforts from 30 years ago. A major difference with that era is the availability of genomics tools that have the potential to accelerate crop improvement significantly. This review is focused on maize, sorghum and sugarcane as representatives of bioenergy grasses that produce sugar and/or lignocellulosic biomass.Examples of how genetic mapping, forward and reverse genetics, high-throughput expression profiling and comparative genomics can be used to unravel and improve bioenergy traits will be presented.

  9. Rostock bioenergy forum. Future technologies for bioenergy. Proceedings; 4. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Zukunftstechnologien fuer Bioenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    diesel engines (Beate Richter); (19) The EU-Interreg project Baltic biogas bus (Petra Seidenberg); (20) Rearrangement of the local traffic on biogas within the scope of REK 'Natuerlich Ruegen' - Full power (Sarah Gehrig); (21) Biogas in Poland - actual condition and perspective of development (Krzystof Biernat); (22) Impact of regional factors on the universal validity of ecologically assessed evaluations of biogas (Daniela Dressler); (23) Comparison of solid/wet fermentation within the scope of biogas measurement program II (Britt Schumacher); (24) Sweet clover - an ecologically and economically attractive supplement to silage maize? (Ines Bull); (25) Near-IR spectroscopy for the evaluation of plant biomass for the use in biogas generation (Andrea Kraeft); (26) Investigation of internal power requirement of biogas plants using the research biogas plant Unterer Lindenhof as an example (Falk Baumgartner); (27) Research biogas plant Gut Huelsenberg (Dirk Banemann); (28) Investigation of the acid pattern and other important parameter in the fermenter during start up (Andreas Gurgel); (28) Significance of process engineering parameters for the yield of biogas and potential of residual gas (Gerd Reinhold); (29) Online investigation in NaWaRo biogas plants by eans of NIRS (Andreas Stockl); (30) Utilization of residues from pig farming for production of bioenergy in Cuba (Mathias Schlegel); (31) Ensiling of sugar beets as a substrate for biogas generation (Friedrich Weissbach); (32) Liquid fuels from biomass (Andreas Busch); (33) Digestion of lignocellulose for biogas generation (Dominik da Rocha); (34) Distribution of macronutrients and micronutrients after partly processing of fermentation residues by means of separation (Adam Feher); (35) How much energy is in the organics of municipal wastes from rural areas? (Andrea Schuech).

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOENERGY IN MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Timofte I.; Timofte N.; Brega V.

    2009-01-01

    This treatise summarizes practices of the Republic of Moldova in the area of bioenergy development and usage of biomass for energy engineering purposes. Information is provided on the developments in the bioenergy area, on organization and results of the development of new technologies as well as on the projects already implemented.

  11. Assessment of renewable bioenergy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Jensen, Jesper; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial impact as well as greenhouse gas emissions of bioenergy application in a food-processing company. The assessment of bioenergy comprises collection and handling of organic waste and conversion of these biomasses through anaerobic digestion into ...

  12. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran;

    International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  13. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  14. Potential for using the ARS switchgrass bioenergy NIRS calibrations on C4 tropical grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at USDA-ARS Forage, Grain and Bioenergy Research Unit (GFBRU) has demonstrated that Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to determine soluble and cell wall sugars of switchgrass biomass in addition to traditional forage quality traits. Composition data on cell wall and soluble suga...

  15. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  16. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions were simulated using cost data for year 2005. Five scenarios with different constraints, e.g. on food and feed supply and on nitrogen balance were considered focusing on: a) constraints as the year 2005, b) landscape aesthetics and biodiversity c) groundwater protection, d) maintaining current food and feed production, or e) on site carbon sequestration. In addition, two oil price levels were considered. The crop area distributions differed between scenarios and were affected by changing fossil oil prices up to index 300 (using 55$ per barrel in 2005 as index 100). The bioenergy supply (district heating, electric power, biogas, RME or bioethanol) varied between 56 PJ in the ''2005'' scenario at oil index 100 and 158 PJ at oil index 300 in the groundwater scenario. Our simple model demonstrates the effect of prioritizing multiple uses of land resources for food, feed or bioenergy, while maintaining a low nitrogen load to the environment. In conclusion, even after drastic landuse changes the bioenergy supply as final energy will not exceed 184 PJ annually (including 26 PJ processed biowaste sources) by far lower than the annual domestic total energy consumption ranging between 800 and 850 PJ yr-1. (author)

  17. Communicating About Bioenergy Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  18. Bioenergy opportunities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the prime needs of the modern world, and energy demands have been rapidly increasing in the recent years owing to rapid advancements in industrialization and population explosion. Conventional fossil fuels are being depleted at rapid rates, and the use of conventional sources such as coal or nuclear sources cause several hazards to the environment. New sources of fuel, such as bioenergy, are an ideal option for fulfilling ever-increasing energy demands. This important book offers an exploration of these alternate fuel sources, including biohydrogen, microbial fuel cells, bi

  19. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  20. Optimization of bioenergy yield from cultivated land in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Østergård, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    A cost minimization model for supply of starch, oil, sugar, grassy and woody biomass for bioenergy in Denmark was developed using linear programming. The model includes biomass supply from annual crops on arable land, short rotation forestry (willow) and plantation forestry. Crop area distributions...... were simulated using cost data for year 2005. Five scenarios with different constraints, e.g. on food and feed supply and on nitrogen balance were considered focusing on: a) constraints as the year 2005, b) landscape aesthetics and biodiversity c) groundwater protection, d) maintaining current food and...... heating, electric power, biogas, RME or bioethanol) varied between 56 PJ in the “2005” scenario at oil index 100 and 158 PJ at oil index 300 in the groundwater scenario. Our simple model demonstrates the effect of prioritizing multiple uses of land resources for food, feed or bioenergy, while maintaining...

  1. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. PMID:22204822

  2. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  3. Bioenergy and the poor: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Karekezi, Stephen; Kithyoma, Waeni

    2006-01-01

    "This brief delineates two broad categories for bioenergy development — the exploitation of existing agricultural wastes and the establishment of energy plantations—and suggests high-priority steps for developing bioenergy in ways that benefit the poor... Once developing countries have optimized the use of existing agricultural wastes for energy generation and put in place adequate revenue-sharing, regulatory, and policy frameworks, they can consider the option of dedicated energy plantations...

  4. Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Leading abstract). The conference ''Bioenergy '97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology'' took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  5. SUrvey of Guideline Adherence for Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure in Real World (SUGAR: a multi-center, retrospective, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Su Yoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have been slowly and inconsistently applied in clinical practice, and certain evidence-based, guideline-driven therapies for heart failure (HF have been significantly underused. The purpose of this study was to survey guideline compliance and its effect on clinical outcomes in the treatment of systolic HF in Korea. METHOD AND RESULTS: The SUrvey of Guideline Adherence for Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure in Real World (SUGAR trial was a multi-center, retrospective, observational study on subjects with systolic HF (ejection fraction <45% admitted to 23 university hospitals. The guideline adherence indicator (GAI was defined as a performance measure on the basis of 3 pharmacological classes: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI or angiotensin receptor II blocker (ARB, beta-blocker (BB, and aldosterone antagonist (AA. Based on the overall adherence percentage, subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with good guideline adherence (GAI ≥50% and poor guideline adherence (GAI <50%. We included 1319 regional participants as representatives of the standard population from the Korean national census in 2008. Adherence to drugs at discharge was as follows: ACEI or ARB, 89.7%; BB, 69.2%; and AA, 65.9%. Overall, 82.7% of the patients had good guideline adherence. Overall mortality and re-hospitalization rates at 1 year were 6.2% and 37.4%, respectively. Survival analysis by log-rank test showed a significant difference in event-free survival rate of mortality (94.7% vs. 89.8%, p = 0.003 and re-hospitalization (62.3% vs. 56.4%, p = 0.041 between the good and poor guideline-adherence groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with systolic HF in Korea, adherence to pharmacologic treatment guidelines as determined by performance measures, including prescription of ACEI/ARB and BB at discharge, was associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  6. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  7. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and project numbered 60. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1994, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 13 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well at wood processing industry as at power plants. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. Possibilities to produce agrofibre in investigated at a laboratory study

  8. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  9. Bioenergy production on degraded and marginal land

    OpenAIRE

    Wicke, B.

    2011-01-01

    Current global energy supply is primarily based on fossil fuels and is widely considered to be unsustainable. Bioenergy is considered an important option in making future global energy more sustainable. However, increasing global trade and consumption of bioenergy in industrialised countries has been accompanied by a growing concern about the environmental, ecological, and social impacts of (modern) bioenergy production. But producing bioenergy on degraded or marginal land may avoid many of t...

  10. A Global Model for Agriculture and Bioenergy: Application to Biofuel and Food Security in Peru and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Elbehri, Aziz; McDougall, Robert; Horridge, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a global model for agriculture and bioenergy (GLOMAB) that incorporates biomass, biofuels and bioelectricity sectors into the GTAP-Energy model by expanding the global GTAP database, production and consumption structures. Biofuels are separated between first- generation (sugar ethanol, starch ethanol) and second- generation (cellulosic ethanol) biofuels and associated biomass feedstocks (maize, sugar cane, crop residues, woody biomass). Beside biofuels, the model also inc...

  11. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  12. Combining Bioenergy with CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a carbon reduction technology that offers permanent net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This has been termed negative carbon dioxide emissions, and offers a significant advantage over other mitigation alternatives, which only decrease the amount of emissions to the atmosphere. The benefits inherent within this technology are currently receiving increased attention from policy makers. To facilitate the development of appropriate policy incentives, this paper reviews the treatment of negative carbon dioxide emissions under current and planned international carbon accounting frameworks. It finds that, while current frameworks provide limited guidance, proposed and revised guidelines could provide an environmentally sound reporting framework for BECCS. However, the paper also notes that, as they currently stand, new guidelines do not tackle a critical issue that has implications for all biomass energy systems, namely the overall carbon footprint of biomass production and use. It recommends that, to the best extent possible, all carbon impacts of BECCS are fully reflected in carbon reporting and accounting systems under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

  13. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  14. Bioenergy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaerd, H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Pilegaard, K.

    2012-11-15

    A prerequisite for biomass-based energy carriers should be that they support sustainable development. The EU has set up requirements for sustainable biofuels (1G) in Directive 2009/28/EU. These include requirements on reductions in GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels, and on the land used to produce biomass. They do not directly include requirements on energy invested, as measured by EROI, nor on recycling of nutrients. As commercial fertiliser is very energy-intensive and recycling would reduce the need for other fertilisers, more emphasis on recycling would contribute to the energy efficiency of bioenergy. In this chapter we have considered various technologies with emphasis on how each can help to support the cycling of nutrients while also producing energy at the highest possible efficiency. In most cases the EROI is much lower than what we are used to from fossil energy production. However, if we combine different conversion processes and integrate the resulting energy production and nutrient flows into the agricultural management system we can expect better returns. (Author)

  15. Worldwide commercial development of bioenergy with a focus on energy crop-based projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy consumption is greatest in countries with heavy subsidies or tax incentives, such as China, Brazil, and Sweden. Conversion of forest residues and agricultural residues to charcoal, district heat and home heating are the most common forms of bioenergy. Biomass electric generation feedstocks are predominantly forest residues (including black liquor), bagasse, and other agricultural residues. Biofuel feedstocks include sugar from sugarcane (in Brazil), starch from maize grain (in the US), and oil seeds (soy or rapeseed) for biodiesel (in the US, EU, and Brazil). Of the six large land areas of the world reviewed (China, EU, US, Brazil, Canada, Australia), total biomass energy consumptions amounts to 17.1 EJ. Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) established in Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia over the past 25 years equal about 50,000 km2. SRWC plantings in China may be in the range of 70,000-100,000 km2. SRWC and other energy crops established in the US and EU amount to less than 1000 km2. With some exceptions (most notably in Sweden and Brazil), the SRWC have been established for purposes other than as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks, however, portions of the crops are (or are planned to be) used for bioenergy production. New renewable energy incentives, greenhouse gas emission targets, synergism with industrial waste management projects, and oil prices exceeding 60 $ Bbl-1 (in 2005) are major drivers for SRWC or energy crop based bioenergy projects

  16. 9. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the following main topics: (1) Valorisation/overall optimization by (waste) heat utilization; (2) Flexible energy supply; (3) Traditional and alternative solid bioenergy sources; (4) Conditions for biofuel supply; (5) Utilization of biofuels for engines; (6) Bio-waste as resource; (7) Optimization of biogas plants/process optimization; (8) Energy crops and their rotations.

  17. The water footprint of bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Meer, van der Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rap

  18. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  19. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  20. IEA bioenergy annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given. 151 refs

  1. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the organization and the results of the recently completed and the ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks 1995 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste (Task XIV) and Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  2. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000086.htm Managing your blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... way your doctor or nurse recommends. Check your Blood Sugar Often Checking your blood sugar levels often and ...

  3. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000332.htm High blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... later when energy is needed. Symptoms of High Blood Sugar Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being ...

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  5. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  6. Technology Roadmaps: Bioenergy for Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap Bioenergy for Heat and Power highlights the importance of bioenergy in providing heat in the buildings sector and in industry, and shows what contribution it could make to meeting steadlily growing world electricity demand. The critical role of sustainability as well as the importance of international trade in meeting the projected demand for bioenergy, are highlighted in the roadmap, as well as the need for large-scale biomass plants in providing The roadmap identifies key actions by different stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, and sets out milestones for technology development in order to achieve a doubling of global bioenergy supply by 2050. It addresses the need for further R&D efforts, highlights measures to ensure sustainability of biomass production, and underlines the need for international collaboration to enhance the production and use of sustainable, modern bioenergy in different world regions.

  7. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    activity of enzymes used to deconstruct biomass, and the inhibitory effect of fuels and processing byproducts on organisms responsible for producing fuels from biomass monomers. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center that will address these roadblocks in biofuels production. JBEI draws on the expertise and capabilities of three national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)), two leading U.S. universities (University of California campuses at Berkeley (UCB) and Davis (UCD)), and a foundation (Carnegie Institute for Science, Stanford) to develop the scientific and technological base needed to convert the energy stored in lignocellulose into transportation fuels and commodity chemicals. Established scientists from the participating organizations are leading teams of researchers to solve the key scientific problems and develop the tools and infrastructure that will enable other researchers and companies to rapidly develop new biofuels and scale production to meet U.S. transportation needs and to develop and rapidly transition new technologies to the commercial sector. JBEI's biomass-to-biofuels research approach is based in three interrelated scientific divisions and a technologies division. The Feedstocks Division will develop improved plant energy crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels. The Deconstruction Division will investigate the conversion of this lignocellulosic plant material to sugar and aromatics. The Fuels Synthesis Division will create microbes that can efficiently convert sugar and aromatics into ethanol and other biofuels. JBEI's cross-cutting Technologies Division will develop and optimize a set of enabling technologies including high-throughput, chipbased, and omics platforms; tools for synthetic biology; multi-scale imaging facilities; and integrated data analysis to

  8. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  9. Bioenergy. The manifold renewable energy. 4. compl. rev. ed.; Bioenergie. Die vielfaeltige erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy source in Germany. With about 70 percent bioenergy contributes to the largest share of energy supply from renewable energy sources. This brochure provides an overview of the various possibilities, advantages and opportunities in the use of biomass and bioenergy.

  10. The future of bioenergy; Die Zukunft der Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following five contributions: 1. The impact of the governmental biogas production on agricultural rents in Germany. An econometric study (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas as price drivers on the land and rental market? An Empirical Analysis (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analysis of comparative advantage of bioenergy in electricity and heat production. Greenhouse gas abatement and mitigation costs in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibility potential of biogas and biomethane CHP in the investment portfolio (Matthias Edel); 5. Legal possibilities and limitations of a reform of the system for the promotion of bioenergy (Jose Martinez). [German] Dieser Band enthaelt folgende fuenf Themenbeitraege: 1. Die Auswirkungen der staatlichen Biogasfoerderung auf landwirtschaftliche Pachtpreise in Deutschland. Eine oekonometrische Untersuchung (Hendrik Garvert); 2. Biogas als Preistreiber am Bodenmarkt und Pachtmarkt? Eine empirische Analyse (Uwe Latacz-Lohmann); 3. Analyse komparativer Kostenvorteile von Bioenergielinien in der Strom- und Waermeproduktion Treibhausgasvermeidung und Vermeidungskosten in Brandenburg (Lukas Scholz); 4. Flexibilisierungspotenzial von Biogas- und Biomethan-BHKWs im Anlagenbestand (Matthias Edel); 5. Rechtliche Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer Reform des Systems zur Foerderung der Bioenergie (Jose Martinez).

  11. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  12. Developments in international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of the main developments and drivers of international bioenergy trade in IEA Bioenergy Task 40 member countries, based on various country reports written by Task 40 members. Special attention is given to pellet and ethanol trade. In many European countries such as Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK, imported biomass contributes already significantly (between 21% and 43%) to total biomass use. Wood pellets are currently exported by Canada, Finland and (to a small extent) Brazil and Norway, and imported by Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK. In the Netherlands and Belgium, pellet imports nowadays contribute to a major share to total renewable electricity production. Trade in bio-ethanol is another example of a rapidly growing international market. With the EU-wide target of 5.75% biofuels for transportation in 2010 (and 10% in 2020), exports from Brazil and other countries to Europe are likely to rise as well. Major drivers for international bioenergy trade in general are the large resource potentials and relatively low production costs in producing countries such as Canada and Brazil, and high fossil fuel prices and various policy incentives to stimulate biomass use in importing countries. However, the logistic infrastructure both in exporting and importing countries needs to be developed to access larger physical biomass volumes and to reach other (i.e. smaller) end-consumers. It is concluded that international bioenergy trade is growing rapidly, far beyond what was deemed possible only a few years ago, and may in the future in some Task 40 countries surpass domestic biomass use, especially for specific applications (e.g. transport fuels). (author)

  13. IEA Bioenergy. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the organization and the results of recently completed and ongoing tasks. Ongoing tasks in 1997 were: Biomass Production, Harvesting and Supply (Task XII); Biomass Utilization (Task XIII); Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (Task XIV); Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems (Task XV); and Technology Assessment Studies for the Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Ethanol in Sweden (Task XVI). Lists of publications from the different tasks are given

  14. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  15. China's bioenergy industry development roadmap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuanchun; Li Shizhong; Liu Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    Positive development of renewable energy, saving and substitution of fossil energy, promotion of the energy structure adjustment are the inevitable strategy choices of China's sustainable development. This paper discussed the China's bioenergy resources status, development targets and technology development roadmaps. China has 136. 140 million hm2 of marginal land, which distribute mainly in western and northern regions. There are 1 billion t of crop resi-dues and forestry waste annually, and 300 million t can be used to produce different kinds of bioenergies. And organic waste and manure can generate 50 billion m3 of biogas. The discussed development target indicated that it can construct a biomass oilfield with the capacity of 100 million t/year and reduce 200 million t of CO2 emission by 2020. The bioen-ergy technology development roadmap indicated that the bioethanol mainly uses non grain starch and hemicellulose prod-ucts as raw materials in the near-term (2006- 2010). The biodiesel technology will focus on the advanced production technology, FT diesel, liquefaction of biomass and raw material production technology.

  16. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  17. Heavy metals in sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.F.; Weigert, P.; Klein, H.

    1989-03-01

    130 samples of different sugars were analysed for their cadmium and lead contents. All analysed sugars and sugar products were slightly contaminated with lead and cadmium. Products as Kraut (kind of syrup) and molasses with an increased content of nonsugar components showed, compared with refined sugar in crystalls, higher lead contents.

  18. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  19. Bioenergy production on degraded and marginal land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.

    2011-01-01

    Current global energy supply is primarily based on fossil fuels and is widely considered to be unsustainable. Bioenergy is considered an important option in making future global energy more sustainable. However, increasing global trade and consumption of bioenergy in industrialised countries has bee

  20. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  1. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, Thomas

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...

  2. Evolution and Ecology of Actinobacteria and Their Bioenergy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Gina R; Carlos, Camila; Chevrette, Marc G; Horn, Heidi A; McDonald, Bradon R; Stankey, Robert J; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-09-01

    The ancient phylum Actinobacteria is composed of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse bacteria that help Earth's ecosystems function. As free-living organisms and symbionts of herbivorous animals, Actinobacteria contribute to the global carbon cycle through the breakdown of plant biomass. In addition, they mediate community dynamics as producers of small molecules with diverse biological activities. Together, the evolution of high cellulolytic ability and diverse chemistry, shaped by their ecological roles in nature, make Actinobacteria a promising group for the bioenergy industry. Specifically, their enzymes can contribute to industrial-scale breakdown of cellulosic plant biomass into simple sugars that can then be converted into biofuels. Furthermore, harnessing their ability to biosynthesize a range of small molecules has potential for the production of specialty biofuels. PMID:27607553

  3. Opportunities to boost bioenergy in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Semida [International Secretariat, Swedish Energy Agency, Box 310, SE-631 04 Eskilstuna (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [Skogsvaardsstyrelsen Vaermland OErebro/Regional Forestry Board, Skogsenheten/Forest Department, P.O. Box 387, S-651 09 Karlstad (Sweden); Lebedys, Arvydas [Forest Economics Service, Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of UN, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Significant efforts have been made in Lithuania to enhance the utilization of bioenergy since the early 1990s. While opportunities are large and signs of development visible, bioenergy still needs technical, institutional and policy-related support for further development side by side with other industries. This paper discusses the existing bioenergy potential in Lithuanian forests, biofuels market formation in the region and possible roads to boost development. The retrofitting of heat plants, forest management and policies are reviewed as a way to identify opportunities to promote bioenergy in the country. It is shown that the interplay between national and regional forces can promote technological and managerial improvements in the forest industry while also enhancing the biomass supply and sustainability of bioenergy systems. (author) (author)

  4. Selective removal of phenolic lignin derivatives enables sugars recovery from wood prehydrolysis liquor with remarkable yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Jiang, Jungang; Wang, Xiaojun; Fu, Yingjuan; Li, Zongquan; Zhang, Fengshan; Qin, Menghua

    2014-12-01

    The specific elimination of lignin derivatives from wood hydrolysate without sugar loss has great practical significance to biorefinery and bioenergy. In the present study, a process consisting of calcium hydroxide and anion exchange resin treatments was developed for the purpose of selective removal of lignin from wood prehydrolysis liquor (PHL). Particular emphasis was made on the ionization of phenolic lignin, and the subsequent binding to metallic salts. It was observed that phenolic hydroxyl groups (PhOH) in lignin played an important role in lignin removal. The results showed that up to 95.2% lignin was removed from PHL with 78.8% sugar recovery. This suggested that the proposed process is highly specific to lignin, and therefore can be envisaged as a great contribution to wood-sugar production or bioenergy conversion. PMID:25463800

  5. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-31

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  6. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work in the Executive Committee and includes short reports from the four tasks which have been in operation 1992-94: Task VIII - Efficient and Environmentally-Sound Biomass Production Systems; Task IX - Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Task X - Biomass Utilization; Task XI - The Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstocks to Energy. The three new tasks (XII-XIV) for the period 1995-97 approved during 1994 are presented in the report. At the end of 1994 there were sixteen Contracting Parties to the IEA Bioenergy Agreement - Fifteen countries plus the European Commission. 164 refs

  7. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  8. The Truth about Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times. PMID:26506805

  9. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  10. Potential Impact of Forest Bioenergy on Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forest bioenergy is an alternative to fossil energy.Although forest bioenergy is of great value to ease energy supply,there is still a strong call for the research of what impact forest bioenergy plantation will exert on environment if under large scale development.By discussing the resource potential and development status of forest bioenergy,the paper attempts to explore the potential impact of forest bioenergy on environment and give some recommendations to mitigate and even avoid negative impact.

  11. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  12. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  13. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  14. Biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches for metabolic engineering of bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M; Liang, Yan; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The Green Revolution has fuelled an exponential growth in human population since the mid-20th century. Due to population growth, food and energy demands will soon surpass supply capabilities. To overcome these impending problems, significant improvements in genetic engineering will be needed to complement breeding efforts in order to accelerate the improvement of agronomical traits. The new field of plant synthetic biology has emerged in recent years and is expected to support rapid, precise, and robust engineering of plants. In this review, we present recent advances made in the field of plant synthetic biology, specifically in genome editing, transgene expression regulation, and bioenergy crop engineering, with a focus on traits related to lignocellulose, oil, and soluble sugars. Ultimately, progress and innovation in these fields may facilitate the development of beneficial traits in crop plants to meet society's bioenergy needs. PMID:27030440

  15. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

  16. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  17. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  18. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  19. Impact evaluation of integrated food-bioenergy systems: A comparative LCA of peach nectar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processed food products present high energy intensity, along with a large amount of food losses and waste. The recovery of residual biomass as integrated renewable energy source could represent an interesting option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of agro-food sector towards a low-carbon economy. Two scenarios were compared, in order to evaluate the impacts of a fossil fuel-based food chain and the potential benefits of the integration of bioenergy production, using peach nectar as case study. In the first scenario, peach nectar is produced, distributed and consumed using fossil energy, while residuals are wasted. In the second scenario, byproducts from the nectar chain are used to produce bioenergy from combustion or anaerobic digestion, which is then consumed to substitute electricity and heat. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the same functional unit was performed. Main results show that, in the conventional scenario, most of the damage derives from land use, especially for sugar and glucose production, from the fossil energy consumption of about 15 MJ l−1, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 0.91 kg CO2 eq l−1. Food waste leads to a loss of about 20 kcal l−1. Bioenergy integration would allow a 13–15% damage reduction, mainly due to the substitution of indirect energy consumption. The effects on human health and ecosystem quality are limited. - Highlights: • Up to 15 MJ l−1 of fossil energy are needed to produce 2.7 MJ of peach nectar. • About 20 out of 648 kcal l−1 of peach and nectar are wasted along the supply chain. • Added ingredients (sugar and glucose) cause a large share of land use impact. • Bioenergy from waste reduces up to 37% of non-renewable energy consumption

  20. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  1. Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology; Bioenergi `97: nordisk bioenergikonferanse, marked, miljoe og teknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    (Leading abstract). The conference ``Bioenergy `97: Nordic Bioenergy Conference, market, environment and technology`` took place in Oslo, Norway, 7-8 Oct 1997. The conference papers are grouped under three headings: (1) The nordic energy market. 12 papers. (2) Production and sale of biofuels. 8 papers. (3) Conversion and utilization of biofuels. With subsections New technologies, 4 papers, and Power/heat production from biofuels, 4 papers

  2. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  3. Microfabricated devices in microbial bioenergy sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Arum; Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; Kim, Hyun Soo; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Microbes provide a platform for the synthesis of clean energy from renewable resources. Significant investments in discovering new microbial systems and capabilities, discerning the molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial bioenergy production, and optimizing existing microbial bioenergy systems have been made. However, further development is needed to achieve the economically feasible large-scale production of value-added energy products. Microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems provide cost- and time-efficient opportunities for analyzing microbe-mediated bioenergy synthesis. Here, we review developments in the application of lab-on-a-chip systems to the bioenergy sciences. We focus on systems that support the analysis of microbial generation of bioelectricity, biogas, and liquid transportation fuels. We conclude by suggesting possible future directions. PMID:23453527

  4. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  5. Field bioenergy in Finland, possibilities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Challenges for field bioenergy research: analysis methods, decrease of fossil energy consumption, if energy plants are used, 'waste' utilization, cultivation method, biofuel or biofuel raw material production on farms, changes in agricultural product prices and markets, new fuels.

  6. The position of bioenergy and development possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of bioenergy in energy economy of Finland and generally a review of bioenergy markets in the world. This review concentrates on wood and peat fuels. Municipal wastes, agro biomass and use of biogas in energy production are also considered in this review but in minor aspect. The significant part of this work is an estimation of bioenergy development prospects. The schedule is strategic to the year 2010, partly to the year 2025. The use of bioenergy in Finland has increased 64 % from the year 1980 and was in 1996 almost 7 million toe. The use of peat was 2,1 million toe and the rest consisted mainly of wood and wood based fuels. The share of bioenergy in the primary energy consumption is over 20 %. As far as the resources are concerned the possibilities to increase the use are very good. The main problem is the competitiveness. The competitiveness of forest biomass has improved as a result of technological research and development but it is still potential to maintain more by systematical R and D. A large target setting of increasing the bioenergy use in Finland is included in this review. The target is to increase the bioenergy use 25 % by the year 2005. This equals to 1,5 million toe. The target for the year 2010 is suggested to increase of 3,5 million toe from the 1995 level. Also the possibilities to develop new bioenergy technology for export markets are considered. A large number of concrete actions and long term activities to achieve these targets are presented. (orig.) 24 refs

  7. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  8. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Ronald C.; Sean K. Bedingfield; Reese Thompson; Sims, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would...

  9. Multi Criteria Analysis for bioenergy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable bioenergy systems are, by definition, embedded in social, economic, and environmental contexts and depend on support of many stakeholders with different perspectives. The resulting complexity constitutes a major barrier to the implementation of bioenergy projects. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) to facilitate the design and implementation of sustainable bioenergy projects. Four MCA tools (Super Decisions, DecideIT, Decision Lab, NAIADE) are reviewed for their suitability to assess sustainability of bioenergy systems with a special focus on multi-stakeholder inclusion. The MCA tools are applied using data from a multi-stakeholder bioenergy case study in Uganda. Although contributing to only a part of a comprehensive decision process, MCA can assist in overcoming implementation barriers by (i) structuring the problem, (ii) assisting in the identification of the least robust and/or most uncertain components in bioenergy systems and (iii) integrating stakeholders into the decision process. Applying the four MCA tools to a Ugandan case study resulted in a large variability in outcomes. However, social criteria were consistently identified by all tools as being decisive in making a bioelectricity project viable

  10. Bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph reviews the state of energy research and suggest direction for future research with information required to shape the energy strategies. The monograph covers the following topics: research and development in alternative energy sources; biomass energy development, biomass energy technology ; biomethanation process; biomass as a fuel and health risks associated with it. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (original)

  11. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  12. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...

  13. Engineering Cellulase Enzymes for Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Atreya, Meera Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable energy sources, such as biofuels, offer increasingly important alternatives to fossil fuels that contribute less to global climate change. The energy contained within cellulosic biofuels derives from sunlight energy stored in the form of carbon-carbon bonds comprising sugars such as glucose. Second-generation biofuels are produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, including agricultural waste products and non-food crops like Miscanthus, that contain lignin and the polysacch...

  14. Correlation of ESR with lyoluminescence dosimetry using some sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most applications involving ESR dosimetry currently center on aminoacids because of their relative tissue equivalence. Sugars, however, in addition to possessing high sensitivity and stability in their ESR and LL responses, are widely available as chemical reagents and as commercial sugar. In the present study, dosimetric characteristics of mannose, trehalose, sucrose and commercial sugar obtained by means of ESR and LL techniques are reported. Doses measured by both methods showed agreement within 5%. (author)

  15. 8. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 8. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2014-08-01

    This conference volume contains lectures and poster contributions with the following main topics: integrated biomass utilisation concepts; Solid bioenergy carrier; Bioenergy in the transport sector; Biogas. Seven papers are separately analyzed for this database. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt Vortraege und Posterbeitraege mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: Integrierte Biomassenutzungskonzepte; Feste Bioenergietraeger; Bioenergie im Transportsektor; sowie Biogas. Sieben Beitraege wurden fuer die INIS-Datenbank separat aufgenommen.

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy crops Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, but quantifying that offset is complex. We conducted a life cycle assessment of a range of bioenergy cropping systems to determine the impact on net greenho...

  17. The development of bioenergy technology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Z.; Yin, X.L.; Yuan, Z.H.; Zhou, Z.Q.; Zhuang, X.S. [The Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate Key Laboratory of CAS, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Among renewable energy resources, bioenergy is one of the fastest growth energy alternatives with tremendous potential in China. The thermal, physical, and biological processes of conversion of biomass yield a number of products and can be obtained as gases, liquids, solid fuels, and electricity as well as a variety of chemicals. Various bioenergy technologies that have been developed are at the fundamental research, demonstration, and commercialization stages. This review concentrates on the processes that are attracting the most attention in China. This paper presents the important roles bioenergy plays in China. Firstly, the application status of bioenergy technologies are introduced, including biogas, fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and power generation at the commercialization stage. Then, the current research progresses are analyzed of ethanol derived from lignocellulose, sweet sorghum and cassava, biodiesel from jatropha, biomass briquetting, synthesized fuels and pyrolysis technologies at the fundamental research and demonstration stages. Finally, it is concluded that the key areas for developing bioenergy for the future are the exploitation of new biomass resources and R and D in biofuels from non-food biomass resources, as well as the development of commercialization methods suitable for developing countries. (author)

  18. Bioenergy, its present and future competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis deals with aspects of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The central aim is to develop a number of concepts that enables an extended analysis. The thesis is composed of four studies. In study 1 and 2 the emphasis is put on two institutional frameworks within the forest company, i.e. the framework around the forest fuel operations and the framework around the industrial timber operations. Depending on which of the two institutional frameworks that makes up the basis for the understanding of forest fuel operations, the forest fuel operations will be given different roles and different priorities. Different goals and the process of integrating the forest fuel operations into the forest company will therefore be carried out with different means, different feelings and different resources. Study 3 examines the conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold. The study presents the concept of logic, which is an institutionalised conception of the competitiveness of bioenergy. Logics can be seen as the dominating conceptions within the energy system and are decisive in determining the factors and parameters that state the competitiveness of different forms of energy. Study 4 argues that the strategical work concerning the competitiveness of bioenergy in the long-run to a great extent is about understanding, shaping and utilising the conceptions that affect the bioenergy system. The study problematises strategies that are used to develop bioenergy by introducing the uncertainty of the future into the analysis. The uncertainty of the future is captured in different scenarios

  19. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  20. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  1. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  2. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Bright, Ryan; Cherubini, Francesco; Chum, Helena; Corbera, Esteve; Delucchi, Mark; Faaij, Andre; Fargione, Joseph; Haberl, Helmut; Heath, Garvin; Lucon, Oswaldo; Plevin, Richard; Popp, Alexander; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Rose, Steven; Smith, Pete; Stromman, Anders; Sangwon, Suh; Masera, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...... met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and...

  5. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran;

    2015-01-01

    met, large-scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and......Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  7. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar transportat......Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  8. Bioenergy: Doing well while doing right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy - growing one's own fuel - offers the opportunity to do well while doing right. For several decades, the United States has promoted development of ethanol because it offers multiple national benefits - aiding farmers, the environment and the nation's energy security. But we have only scratched the surface of bioenergy's promise. Most ethanol is produced from corn, using only the starch in the kernels. But new conversion technologies could lead to the cost-effective use of a wide variety of feedstocks and agricultural waste products like corn stalks and wheat straw to produce ethanol and other products, such as chemicals and plastics, that are currently derived from fossil fuels. These technologies allow farmers to harvest double dividends - selling cash crops like corn and wheat, and converting the leftover 'waste' to fuel for the transportation sector. Bioenergy's potential is huge - economically and environmentally. Currently, ethanol accounts for less than 2 per cent of US gas consumption. The new bioenergy technologies could dramatically increase that figure, producing as much as 150 billion litres - the equivalent of one quarter of our current gasoline use. Bioenergy will also help prevent further global warming because the carbon dioxide emitted as it is produced and used is absorbed by the plants as they grow. The net greenhouse gas emissions are near zero. Moreover, bioenergy could spur economic development around the world. Advanced ethanol technologies will provide poor countries with a new way to meet transportation needs that are necessary prerequisites to economic progress and growth. With the right technology and basic training, these countries will be able to grow their own fuels, allowing them to redirect scarce foreign exchange earnings away from imported oil to more productive national investments - including critical social investments in health, education and welfare

  9. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.;

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  10. Laminaria digitata as a potential carbon source for succinic acid and bioenergy production in a biorefinery perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Fotidis, Ioannis;

    2015-01-01

    corresponded to 298 and 285 NmL CH4 g− 1 VSadded, respectively. PHSR could potentially be used for: dietary food additive, fish feed, bioenergy production and added value products. This study opens possibility to conceive different biorefinery scenarios in which the efficient use of the macroalgal biomass......A novel biorefinery concept utilizing macroalgae Laminaria digitata to produce succinic acid, and direct the process residues for feed and energy production, is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at high solid loading (25% w v− 1) resulting in solubilization of...... the carbohydrates to soluble sugars, which accumulated in the liquid hydrolysate. The overall sugar recovery in the macroalgae hydrolysate was 78.23%. Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was able to ferment macroalgae hydrolysate to succinic acid with a yield of 86.49% (g g− 1 of total sugars) and an...

  11. Technological learning in bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this article is to determine whether cost reductions in different bioenergy systems can be quantified using the experience curve approach, and how specific issues (arising from the complexity of biomass energy systems) can be addressed. This is pursued by case studies on biofuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Sweden, global development of fluidized bed boilers and Danish biogas plants. As secondary goal, the aim is to identify learning mechanisms behind technology development and cost reduction for the biomass energy systems investigated. The case studies reveal large difficulties to devise empirical experience curves for investment costs of biomass-fuelled power plants. To some extent, this is due to lack of (detailed) data. The main reason, however, are varying plant costs due to differences in scale, fuel type, plant layout, region etc. For fluidized bed boiler plants built on a global level, progress ratios (PRs) for the price of entire plants lies approximately between 90-93% (which is typical for large plant-like technologies). The costs for the boiler section alone was found to decline much faster. The experience curve approach delivers better results, when the production costs of the final energy carrier are analyzed. Electricity from biofuelled CHP-plants yields PRs of 91-92%, i.e. an 8-9% reduction of electricity production costs with each cumulative doubling of electricity production. The experience curve for biogas production displays a PR of 85% from 1984 to the beginning of 1990, and then levels to approximately 100% until 2002. For technologies developed on a local level (e.g. biogas plants), learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting are important learning mechanism, while for CHP plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers, upscaling is probably one of the main mechanisms behind cost reductions

  12. Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First study on torrefaction of stump for bioenergy application. ► Stump can achieve higher energy densification factors. ► Torrefied stump requires longer grinding time than torrefied wood. - Abstract: A fixed bed reactor has been developed for study of biomass torrefaction, followed by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Norway spruce stump was used as feedstock. Two other types of biomass, poplar and fuel chips were also included in the study for comparison. Effects of feedstock types and process parameters such as torrefaction temperature and reaction time on fuel properties of torrefied solid product were investigated. The study has demonstrated that fuel properties, including heating values and grindability of the investigated biomasses were improved by torrefaction. Both torrefaction temperature and reaction time had strong effects on the torrefaction process, but temperature effects are stronger than effects of reaction time. At the same torrefaction temperature, the longer reaction time, the better fuel qualities for the solid product were obtained. However, too long reaction times and/or too higher torrefaction temperatures would decrease the solid product yield. The torrefaction conditions of 300 °C for 35 min resulted in the energy densification factor of 1.219 for the stump, which is higher than that of 1.162 for the poplar wood samples and 1.145 for the fuel chips. It appears that torrefied stump requires much longer time for grinding, while its particle size distribution is only slightly better than the others. In addition, the TG analyses have shown that untreated biomass was more reactive than its torrefaction products. The stump has less hemicelluloses than the two other biomass types. SEM analyses indicated that the wood surface structure was broken and destroyed by torrefaction process

  13. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoyana, Robert B., E-mail: RMangoya@usc.edu.a [Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, 4558 Queensland (Australia); Smith, Timothy F. [Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, 4558 Queensland (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: {yields} Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. {yields}Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. {yields} Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  14. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  16. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  17. Bioenergy in Russia: barriers and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulasevich, O.; Ivanov, T.; Chernyakhovskaya, Y. [Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)], e-mail: ulasevich@rosenergo.gov.ru

    2012-11-01

    A target to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the country's energy mix up to 4.5% till 2020 was set in the Russian Federation in 2009. That means commissioning of 10 GW installed capacity till 2020. The share of at least 40% should derive from bioenergy. Russian possessed a wide potential of biopower. Timber stock is evaluated at the amount of 83 billion m{sup 3}, agricultural complex wastes are considered to be not less than 773 million tons. By the development of RES and bioenegy one should bear in mind need to diversify the energy-mix for sustainable regional development in the optimal mode which is specific for each particular area. Bioenergy can make an important contribution to the technological, ecological and social development of the regions of the Russian Federation. RES and bioenergy progress in Russia requires holistic approach which includes development of institutional framework, manufacturing base, raising of market awareness, educational trainings, etc. Development of international cooperation in this sphere will allow to obtain the excess to the cutting edge technologies and know-how in order to use the huge bioenergy potential to mutual benefit of all parties.

  18. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...

  19. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  20. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary object...

  1. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchner, Sarah [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Lindauer, Alicia [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); McKinnon, Taryn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Broad, Max [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  2. Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Bioenergy Research at ARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth and long-term viability of bioenergy production in the Nation are impeded by a number of technical and commercial barriers. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) addresses technical barriers and does so by leveraging its strengths and unique capabilities to (1) pursue technical barriers th...

  3. Bioenergy markets in a climate constrained world

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, David

    2015-01-01

    Um gefährlichen Klimawandel zu vermeiden, werden starke Emissionsreduktionen im Energie- und Landnutzungs-Sektor benötigt. Zwischen verschiedenen Dekarbonisierungsoptionen sticht Bioenergie hervor, da sie zwei besondere Wege der Emissionsreduktion bietet. Erstens stellt sie wegen ihrer vielseitigen Einsetzbarkeit eine emissionsarme Alternative zu fossilen Brennstoffen in allen Energiesektoren dar. Zweitens kann sie aufgrund ihres Kohlenstoffgehalts in Kombination mit Kohlenstoffabscheidung (C...

  4. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Peat and field biomass production; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Turpeen ja peltobiomassojen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The development target for peat production technology is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing the production costs by 20 % from the level of 1992 (5-6 FIM/MWh) and to reduce the environmental load. In addition to this, the main parts of the production methods will be demonstrated. In 1995 there were 10 projects going on in the field of peat production. The results of 1995 projects will be presented in this publication. Field biomass research started in the Bioenergy Research Programme in 1994. The number of projects was three, funded mainly by the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The results of previous researches show that economically most promising possibilities are in the utilization of straw and reed canary grass

  5. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  6. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  7. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  8. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  9. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  10. Role of community acceptance in sustainable bioenergy projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community acceptance has been identified as one of the key requirements for a sustainable bioenergy project. However less attention has been paid to this aspect from developing nations and small projects perspective. Therefore this research examines the role of community acceptance for sustainable small scale bioenergy projects in India. While addressing the aim, this work identifies influence of community over bioenergy projects, major concerns of communities regarding bioenergy projects and factors influencing perceptions of communities about bioenergy projects. The empirical research was carried out on four bioenergy companies in India as case studies. It has been identified that communities have significant influence over bioenergy projects in India. Local air pollution, inappropriate storage of by-products and credibility of developer are identified as some of the important concerns. Local energy needs, benefits to community from bioenergy companies, level of trust on company and relationship between company and the community are some of the prime factors which influence community's perception on bioenergy projects. This research sheds light on important aspects related to community acceptance of bioenergy projects, and this information would help practitioners in understanding the community perceptions and take appropriate actions to satisfy them

  11. Risoe energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Kossmann, J.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    Three growing concerns - sustainability (particularly in the transport sector), security of energy supply and climate change - have combined to increase interest in bioenergy. The trend towards bioenergy has been further encouraged by technological advances in biomass conversion and significant changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, 'modern bioenergy', to cover those areas of bioenergy technology - traditional as well as emerging - that could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainable, modern bioenergy shows the promise of covering a considerable part of the world's energy needs, increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenous resources, and improving local employment and land-use. To make these promises, however, requires further R and D. This report provides a critical examination of modern bioenergy, and describes current trends in both established and emerging bioenergy technologies. As well as examining the implications for the global energy scene, the report draws national conclusions for European and Danish energy supply, industry and energy research. The report presents the status of current R and D in biomass resources, supply systems, end products and conversion methods. A number of traditional and modern bioenergy technologies are assessed to show their current status, future trends and international R and D plans. Recent studies of emerging bioenergy technologies from international organisations and leading research organisations are reviewed. (BA)

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  13. International Competitiveness of Sugar Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Beate; Zeddies, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Sugar market is one of the most protected markets for agricultural products world wide. In almost every sugar producing country the sugar market is regulated in some way. With an increasing liberalization of agricultural trade in the "Millennium Round" of the WTO trade negotiations, the question of international competitiveness is of increasing importance. Based on empirical studies, in this article the competitiveness of sugar production in the most important sugar producing countries is ana...

  14. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  15. Engineering Cellulase Enzymes for Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Meera Elizabeth

    Sustainable energy sources, such as biofuels, offer increasingly important alternatives to fossil fuels that contribute less to global climate change. The energy contained within cellulosic biofuels derives from sunlight energy stored in the form of carbon-carbon bonds comprising sugars such as glucose. Second-generation biofuels are produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, including agricultural waste products and non-food crops like Miscanthus, that contain lignin and the polysaccharides hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most abundant biological material on Earth; it is a polymer of glucose and a structural component of plant cell walls. Accessing the sugar is challenging, as the crystalline structure of cellulose resists degradation; biochemical and thermochemical means can be used to depolymerize cellulose. Cellulase enzymes catalyze the biochemical depolymerization of cellulose into glucose. Glucose can be used as a carbon source for growth of a biofuel-producing microorganism. When it converts glucose to a hydrocarbon fuel, this microbe completes the biofuels process of transforming sunlight energy into accessible, chemical energy capable of replacing non-renewable transportation fuels. Due to strong intermolecular interactions between polymer chains, cellulose is significantly more challenging to depolymerize than starch, a more accessible polymer of glucose utilized in first-generation biofuels processes (often derived from corn). While most mammals cannot digest cellulose (dietary fiber), certain fungi and bacteria produce cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing it. These organisms secrete a wide variety of glycoside hydrolase and other classes of enzymes that work in concert. Because cellulase enzymes are slow-acting and expensive to produce, my aim has been to improve the properties of these enzymes as a means to make a cellulosic biofuels process possible that is more efficient and, consequently, more economical than current

  16. DOE-INES New Planet Bioenergy Technical Report Final Public Version 7-22-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederschulte, Mark [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States); Russell, Kelly [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States); Connors, Keith [INEOS New Planet BioEnergy LLC, Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    2016-07-22

    INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy Florida formed a joint venture company called INEOS New Planet BioEnergy (“INPB”) in 2009. This venture’s intent was to demonstrate at commercial scale INEOS Bio’s third-generation technology (the “Bio Process”) that converts a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bioethanol and renewable electricity. INPB applied for and was awarded a $50,000,000 Department of Energy (“DOE”) grant in 2009 to support the construction of the commercial demonstration plant. The grant was a cost-sharing arrangement requiring at least 50% equity participation by the grantee. INPB completed construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida in June, 2012. The facility is designed to produce 8 million gallons per year of fuel-grade bioethanol and 6MW of electrical power, with upwards of 2MW exported to the electrical grid. Construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center was completed on-time and within its capital budget of $121 million.

  17. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  18. Analysis of growth dynamics of Mediterranean bioenergy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Archontoulis, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing bioenergy production worldwide, there is lack of field experience and experimental data on the cultivation of bioenergy crops. This study aims to advance crop management operations and modelling studies by providing essential information on phenology, agronomy and crop physiology of three Mediterranean bioenergy crops: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) and Cynara cardunculus (cynara). These crops cover a wide range of bio-industrial app...

  19. Bioenergy development pathways for Europe: potentials, costs and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil resources dominate the global energy system today which cannot be sustained indefinitely. Bioenergy use can meet a large share of future energy supply sustainably. For example, it can substitute fossil fuels including petroleum, and when sustainably produced, bioenergy avoids greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the recent increase of modern bioenergy use several drawbacks have become apparent that may lead to negative ecological impacts. Europe plays an important role in the furthe...

  20. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  1. Methodological long-term analysis of global bioenergy potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seungwoo; Selosse, Sandrine; Maïzi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the methodology investigated in order to make more suitable and relevant the representation of bioenergy resources in the long term bottom up optimization model, TIAM-FR. Indeed, the current simplified representation is not suitable for distinguish different use for each proper bioenergy source. Furthermore, considering the important role of global bioenergy trade in energy system particularly for projecting future energy system, disaggregation of these resources appears ...

  2. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley B Bennett

    Full Text Available In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  3. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ashley B; Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  4. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  5. Factors for successful market development of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market introduction of bioenergy is a complex task with many dimensions to be considered. The easiest way follows forest and sawmill-industries, where waste-wood and bark has to be get rid of as a waste. A little more difficult is introduction in district heating systems, however, existing district heat offers the possibility of a fuel switch from coal or gas to biomass. The most sophisticated market is the pellet market, which needs a reliable distribution system for the fuel. When building up a market, the arguments have to be considered which would support the introduction of bioenergy in the best way. These arguments may be different in Austria and Slovakia. (authors)

  6. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m3). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  7. The national bioenergy investment model: Technical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The National Bioenergy Investment Model is a scenario model that simulates the decisions of domestic and international investors on whether to invest in biofuel enterprises in a developing country. In the model, investors compare the profitability of different biofuel feedstock and fuel operations using a riskadjusted discount rate – taking market, currency, country and sector risks into account. Prices for biofuels and feedstocks are determined in part through exogenous international prices ...

  8. Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of the Green House Gases, Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide has increased largely since Industrial Revolution. Continued GHG emissions at or above current rates would cause further warming and induce many changes in global climate system. Climate changes will lead to more intense and longer droughts, water scarcity and many other problems then have been observed. For these reasons concept of development of bioenergy came into existance for climate change miti...

  9. Potential applications of nanotechnology in bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kramb, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology has an increasingly large impact on a wide range of industries, but its current use in the production of electricity and heat from biomass is limited. This thesis examined the potential impact of nanotechnology on bioenergy production through a literature review and interviews with industry members. Current technologies and methods in use were reviewed, with a focus on fuel handling and combustion systems. Areas in which problems existed were identified and nanotechnologies wit...

  10. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). - Research highlights: → We analyze main barriers for global trade of wood pellets, ethanol and biodiesel. → Import tariffs can be a major barrier for liquid biofuels trade. → Implementation of sustainability certification systems may hamper biofuels trade. → Logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for the trade of wood pellets. → Development of technical standards are deemed an opportunity for bioenergy trade.

  11. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 39 conference : biofuels and bioenergy, a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this conference was to showcase the advancements that have been made in bioenergy development. The presentations addressed several issues, including biorefinery integration; thermochemical technologies; biochemical technologies; feedstock harvest, pretreatment and logistics; biomass production and management; policy, strategies and trade; and greenhouse gas and life cycle assessment. Discussions focused on recent innovations in bioenergy and the feasibility of biofuels in the commercial marketplace with the aim to advance bioenergy development and reduce fossil fuel dependency. A two-day forest management and supply chain field trip was organized in conjunction with the conference. The conference featured 152 presentations, of which 30 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  13. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Americans' diets? Sugar-sweetened beverages including regular soft drinks, sports drinks and fruit drinks (fruitades and fruit ... milk). Does this mean I should avoid all soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages? You can choose ...

  15. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care team. What are target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes? A target is something ... gly- see -mee-uh). It means that your blood sugar level is higher than your target level or over ...

  16. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  17. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  18. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so ... as possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  19. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Heart Alternate Language URL Español Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes Page Content Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part ...

  20. Sugar-water hemolysis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003673.htm Sugar-water hemolysis test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sugar-water hemolysis test is a blood test to detect ...

  1. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association enhances drought tolerance potential of promising bioenergy grass (Saccharum arundinaceum retz.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshad, P P; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-07-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus spp.) on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of bioenergy grass Saccharum arundinaceum subjected to drought stress was studied. The symbiotic association of Glomus spp. was established with S. arundinaceum, a potential bioenergy grass as evident from the increase in percentage of root infection and distribution frequency of vesicles when compared with non-arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. AMF-treated plants exhibited an enhanced accumulation of osmolytes such as sugars and proline and also increased protein content under drought. AMF association significantly increased the accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants like phenols, ascorbate and glutathione as well as enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD (superoxide dismutase), APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation in S. arundinaceum. AMF symbiosis also ameliorated the drought-induced reduction of total chlorophyll content and activities of photosystem I and II. The maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (F v/F m) and potential photochemical efficiency (F v/F o) were higher in AMF plants as compared to non-AMF plants under drought stress. These results indicate that AMF association alleviate drought stress in S. arundinaceum by the accumulation of osmolytes and non-enzymatic antioxidants and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and hence, the photosynthetic efficiency is improved resulting in increased biomass production. AMF association with energy grasses also improves the acclimatization of S. arundinaceum for growing in marginal lands of drought-affected soils. PMID:27329476

  3. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Allison Ray; Jeffrey Lacey; Marnie Cortez; Courtney Payne; Doug Karlen; Stuart Birrell; David Laird; Robert Kallenbach; Josh Egenolf; Matthew Sousek; Thomas Voigt

    2014-11-01

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe reported in the United States. It is necessary to explore the effects of drought on the quality attributes of current and potential bioenergy feedstocks. Compositional analysis data for corn stover, Miscanthus, and CRP grasses from one or more locations for years 2010 (normal precipitation levels) and 2012 (a known severe drought year nationally) was collected. Results & discussion: The general trend for samples that experienced drought was an increase in extractives and a decrease in structural sugars and lignin. The TEY yields were calculated to determine the drought effects on ethanol production. All three feedstocks had a decrease of 12-14% in TEY when only decreases of carbohydrate content was analyzed. When looking at the compounded effect of both carbohydrate content and the decreases in dry matter loss for each feedstock there was a TEY decrease of 25%-59%. Conclusion: Drought had a significant impact on the quality of all three bioenergy crops. In all cases where drought was experienced both the quality of the feedstock and the yield decreased. These drought induced effects could have significant economic impacts on biorefineries.

  4. Interdependencies in the energy-bioenergy-food price systems: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d' Artis [European Commission (DG Joint Research Centre), Catholic University of Leuven (LICOS), and Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    The present paper studies the interdependencies between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. We develop a vertically integrated multi-input, multi-output market model with two channels of price transmission: a direct biofuel channel and an indirect input channel. We test the theoretical hypothesis by applying time-series analytical mechanisms to nine major traded agricultural commodity prices, including corn, wheat, rice, sugar, soybeans, cotton, banana, sorghum and tea, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. The data consists of 783 weekly observations extending from January 1994 to December 2008. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that the prices for crude oil and agricultural commodities are interdependent including also commodities not directly used in bioenergy production: an increase in oil price by 1 $/barrel increases the agricultural commodity prices between 0.10 $/tonne and 1.80 $/tonne. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the indirect input channel of price transmission is found to be small and statistically insignificant. (author)

  5. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  6. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and was

  7. No-till bioenergy cropping systems effect on soil aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on soil quality, such as the effects of maize stover harvesting on soil aeration and the relationships to soil structure and water, associated with bioenergy cropping systems has been l...

  8. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncada P C, Pietro (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Energy Lab.); Grassi, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Science, Research and Development)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO[sub 2] emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  9. Sugar Market Liberalization: Modeling the EU Supply of "C" Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The various assessments of the effects of a liberalization of world sugar markets are largely inconsistent. One cause seems to be the modeling of the EU supply response. We investigate three possible linkages between production quota sugar and the out-of-quota or "C" sugar supply: i/ the existence of fixed costs covered by the in-quota sugar; ii /the "overshooting" behavior as prevention against poor yields; iii/ the production of C sugar as "reference building" in view of expected reforms. M...

  10. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  11. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  15. The role of bioenergy in the UK's energy future formulation and modelling of long-term UK bioenergy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the prospects and policy implications for bioenergy to contribute to a long-term sustainable UK energy system. The UK MARKAL technology-focused energy systems dynamic cost optimisation model - which has been used to quantify the costs and benefits of alternative energy strategies in UK policy making - is enhanced with detailed representation of bio-energy chains and end-uses. This provides an important advance in linking bioenergy expert-knowledge with a whole system modelling approach, in order to better understand the potential role of bioenergy in an evolving energy system. The new BIOSYS-MARKAL model is used to run four scenarios constructed along the pillars of UK energy policy objectives (low carbon and energy security). The results are analysed in terms of bioenergy resources use and bioenergy pathways penetration in different end use sectors. The main findings suggest that the complexity of different bioenergy pathways may have been overlooked in previous modelling exercises. A range of bioenergy pathways - notably bio-heat and biofuels for transport - may have a much wider potential role to play. The extent to which this potential is fulfilled will be further determined by resources availability, and market segment constraints, as well as policy measures to improve deployment. (author)

  16. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  17. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  18. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  19. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects of...... the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success...

  20. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  1. Market survey Czech Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in the Czech Republic and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. The Czech biomass market is still developing and is segmented and disintegrated to many regional or sector markets where also prices of biomass differ significantly and could be affected by dominant players. There were several attempts to establish a kind of biomass exchange, but were unsuccessful. The biomass trade is done usually on bilateral basis but without clear long-term agreements on contracts which would secure stable supply and prices

  2. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    agricultural processing residues, manure and municipal liquid waste can theoretically replace approximately 20% of current utilisation of heat energy in households. However, a need is revealed for resilient small-scale anaerobic digestion solutions, designed for utilising agricultural residues under manure...... recommended to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be...

  3. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonnedry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJHHV) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonnedry or 2.1 euros/GJHHV; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MWHHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJHHV, when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJprimary/MJdelivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss. (Author)

  4. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  5. Analysis of sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols by chloride attachment in liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric C H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar polyols are relatively abundant groups of water-soluble constituents in atmospheric aerosols. This paper describes a method that uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols, ranging from C3 sugar alcohols to trisaccharides. Postcolumn addition of chloroform in acetonitrile was found to greatly enhance ionization of these compounds by forming chloride adduct ions in the negative-ion mode using electrospray ionization. A gradient elution program starting at 5%:95% H20/acetonitrile and ending at 30%:70% H2O/acetonitrile provides baseline separations of the sugars and sugar polyols on an amino-based carbohydrate column. The detection limits based on quantification of [M + 35Cl]- adduct ions were in the order of 0.1 microM. By eliminating the need for derivatization, this LC-MS based method provides a simpler alternative method to the commonly used and more laborious gas-chromatography based methods. It also has an additional advantage of being able to quantify trisaccharide sugars. The method was applied to analyze 30 ambient samples of fine particulate matter collected at a site away from urban centers in Hong Kong. The sugar compounds positively identified and detected in the ambient samples included four sugar alcohols (glycerol, erythritol, xylitol, and mannitol), three monosacchride sugars (xylose, fructose, and glucose), two disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose), two trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose), and one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan). The sum of these sugar and sugar polyol compounds ranged from 38 to 1316 ng m(-3), accounting for an average of 1.3% organic carbon mass. Through the use of a principal component analysis of the ambient measurements, the mono- to trisactharide sugars and C3-C5 sugar polyols were identified to be mainly associated with soil/soil microbiota while the anhydrosugar (levoglucosan) was associated with biomass burning. PMID:17438800

  6. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    data, it emerges that production of biomass for bioenergy on field margins improves ecosystem services, depending upon the soil/agroecosystem health status of arable land displaced by the bioenergy crop. Considering that climate change is a dominant driver for agroecosystem health and perennial bionergy crops tend to stabilize soil C in arable land, it will be necessary to focus our attention to the improvement of climate regulation ecosystem service value in ecologically-degraded arable field margins. This management option seems to be the most sustainable strategy to enhance a win-win strategy: namely, sequestering carbon, producing biomasses for energetic purposes, improving the whole set of ecosystem services affected by soil organic matter, leaving, at the same time, more arable land for food and fiber crops. * The HEDGE-BIOMASS project is funded by Italian Minister of Agriculture for the period 2013-2016 and is being followed by BIOMASS Research Center at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Piacenza, Italy).

  7. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  8. Large or small? Rethinking China’s forest bioenergy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China’s forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China’s forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. -- Highlights: ► China’s bioenergy policy is at a crossroads. ► Trade-offs exist between forest bioenergy policy for urban and rural users in China. ► There are strong arguments for focusing forest bioenergy policy on rural areas. ► China’s rural energy policy should increasingly support modern energy carriers

  9. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production. To this end, the following research questions have been formulated: (1). What is the potential of different world regions to produce biomass for energy generation in the year 2050, taking account of biological and climatological limitations, the use of biomass to produce food, materials and traditional bioenergy, as well as the need to maintain existing forests and thus protect biodiversity?; (2) What are the main bottlenecks to formulating and implementing sustainability criteria for bioenergy production?; (3) To what extent does complying with sustainability criteria have impacts on the costs and potential of bioenergy production?; (4) To what extent do fertilizer- and manure-induced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to energy crop production have an impact on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels?; (5) In terms of economic and environmental performance, how does Europe's production, storage and transport of miscanthus and switchgrass in 2004 compare to that in 2030? Throughout this thesis, specific attention is paid to knowledge gaps and their potential impact on results, the aim being to identify priorities for future research and development. Another key element of our research is that we evaluate the possibilities and limitations of strategies that are designed to improve the performance of bioenergy production systems and that may be incorporated in bioenergy certification schemes and bioenergy promoting policies

  10. Proceedings of the CANBIO conference : realizing the bioenergy opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference explored domestic bioenergy options in Canada, including potential for bioenergy trade. As biomass cogeneration proceeds, investments are now being made for exportable biofuels such as wood pellets and BioOil, driven by demand for biomass in Europe. Mill residue surpluses are rapidly diminishing, causing industry and government to look at forest residues. The conference also addressed obstacles to developing bioenergy options in Canada compared to countries with comprehensive bioenergy strategies. An entire session was devoted to Finnish expertise in residue harvesting and bioenergy equipment. Various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products were also explored along with new technologies in bioenergy practices and development in syngas production techniques. The conference sessions were entitled: volumes of economic biomass; costs and logistics of forest biomass; development opportunities; Finnish solutions for biomass; progress in Ontario; policies in Canada and Europe; and, towards a biofuels transportation infrastructure. The conference featured 34 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  12. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

  13. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  14. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

  15. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  16. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  17. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  18. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  19. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  20. The role of bioenergy in the electricity and heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy, especially from biomass crops, is today increasingly viewed with criticism on grounds ranging from economic and ecological to sociopolitical, especially when potential competing uses are taken into account. On the other hand, due to characteristics that distinguish it from other renewable energy resources, bioenergy can already today make a significant contribution to the ongoing transformation of the energy supply system. This can occur through existing as well as through new production plants. The present article provides an overview of possible approaches to this end and goes on to assess the future role of bioenergy in the electricity and heating market on this basis.

  1. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  2. Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara Jati

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI); and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change o...

  3. Nondestructive analysis of sugar content on watermelon using MRI device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far, the use of superconducting magnets has been limited to chemical analysis and medical inspection. To develop a new use, we have tried to apply common MRI devices as nondestructive sugar content detector of watermelon. To estimate the sugar content, a new technique using multiple regression analysis of two NMR relaxation times was developed. It was found that the coefficient of multiple regression at the center of the watermelon exceeded 0.9 and the standard error of prediction was around 0.5, and that the over-ripened part of flesh called 'nieka' in watermelon could be distinguished because its T2 was much longer than that of the ordinary part. An evaluation rate of sugar content could be below 6s per watermelon. It is concluded that multiple analysis of T1 and T2 on intact watermelon can be applied as a noninvasive, nondestructive indicator of sugar content. (author)

  4. Reforming the EU Sugar Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Soren E.; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2002-01-01

    This article presents and analyses the impacts of the EU sugar policy. Particular attention is given to the modelling of the quite complex policy and the calibration of the global general equilibrium model at the member state level. Two scenarios are analysed, namely a reduction in the intervention price of sugar and the sugar quota. It is found that the economic impacts of the two scenarios are quite different in terms of the effects on European production and trade in sugar as well in terms...

  5. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Dries, van den, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and have a low water content and/or that are frozen, since in both types the sugars can exist in the glassy state. Often, th...

  6. MHG bioenergy ERP - enterprise resource planning service entity for bioenergy operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurinainen, S. (MHG Systems Oy Ltd, Mikkeli (Finland)), Email: seppo.huurinainen@mhgsystems.com

    2009-07-01

    MHG Systems provides ERP systems specifically geared for the bioenergy and energy field. MHG ERP synthesizes mobile communications, the Internet, real-time maps, and satellite-based location information into one business-enhancing service and allows the use of new and especially contract-based and empowering operational models. The company's services bring significant cost savings to all operators in the bioheat, bioelectricity, and biofuel production chain. The MHG platform service allows development of new, empowering operational models resulting in paperfree office and field work. Customer solutions are created from MHG ERP's building blocks and delivered as turnkey solutions - or the service can be used an ASP basis. MHG customer solutions are created from MHG ERP's independent building blocks and delivered as turnkey solutions, or the service can be used on an ASP basis. MHG-ERP-based customer solutions can be used practically anywhere in the world, since they can be set to utilize national raster maps. professional vector-based Google Maps products, or remote sensing maps and are used via a Web browser or online or offline mobile devices such as smartphones, automatic navigators, PDAs, Toughbooks, and PCs. The superior features of the MGH Bioenergy ERP service include transparency throughout the delivery chain, management of the moisture content of bioenergy masses, reporting features focused on the amount of energy (i.e., the number of megawatt hours), and accounts and invoicing. (orig.)

  7. Better bioenergy : rather than picking bioenergy winners, effective policy should let a lifecycle analysis decide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdon, M.; Bailey-Stamler, S.; Samson, R. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This article proposed the concept of applying full life cycle performance criteria at the core of bioenergy policy in Canada. Four criteria were proposed, including energy return on investment (EROI); efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation; energy cost effectiveness; and carbon cost effectiveness. This ecological approach has been adopted by Resource Efficient Agricultural Production Canada (REAP-Canada) to the production of food, fibre and fuel from farms. The use of a full life cycle performance criteria can make bioenergy competitive with petroleum-based fuels. Currently, half of the $4.3 billion of federal funding for renewable energy available through the Canada's ecoACTION program is allocated to liquid biofuels such as corn, despite the fact that renewable energy can also be produced as green power and solid biofuels. This article suggested that a better plan would be to reward renewable energies based on their environmental and economic performance, thus allowing the best bioenergy options to emerge. REAP-Canada has proposed the Canada 1-2-3-4-5 renewable energy program to level the playing field across various biofuel options in the absence of a carbon tax. The program stands for 1 national renewable energy technology program, $2/GJ for solid bioheat, $3/GJ for biogas, $4/GJ for liquid biofuels and green power, and 5 for the requirement for a greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency of 5 per cent to qualify for an incentive. 2 refs.

  8. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing...) among the sugar beet processors and the cane sugar allotment of 4,316,778 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ... proportionate shares in Louisiana, the only State eligible for proportionate shares, in FY 2012. The cane...

  9. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    culture raceway for biofuel production. According to the proposed flow field design of ARID-HV algal raceway, experiments and numerical simulation have been conducted to understand the enhancement of flow mixing in the flow field of ARID-HV raceway by cutting slots on top of the dam near the dead zones. A new method was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the flow mixing by using the statistics of temporal and spatial distribution of the massless fluid particles (centered in each cell at the inlet surface) in the raceway collecting the data of path-lines of fluid particles from CFD results. It is hoped that this method can be applied to assist the algal raceway flow field design as well as other engineering applications. The third part introduces the details about the construction work of a high temperature molten salt test loop. Because of the limited operating temperature of conventional synthetic oils, in order to obtain higher energy conversion efficiency, higher operating temperature is always desirable in a CSP plant which leads to the requirement of new generation of HTF. Currently, a halide salt eutectic mixture (NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2) as a potential HTF for future CSP applications has been proposed by a multi-institute research team, led by University of Arizona. The thermophysical properties of the halide eutectic salt have been measured. However, this new developed halide eutectic salt has not been tested in a circulating loop at a high operating temperature for the measurement of heat transfer coefficient. It is a significant effort to build such a test system due to extremely high operating temperature. As a consequence, in the third part of this dissertation, details about the design of the lab-scale test system and all the equipment items will be introduced. The investigations included in this dissertation for the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems are of particular interest to the renewable energy engineering community. It is expected

  10. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  11. Simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars by an automatic sugar analyzer: applications to glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellich, G; Ziegler, D

    1975-04-01

    The simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars commonly found in glycoproteins is described. The automatic sugar analyzer used for the determination is based on the ion-exchange chromatography of sugar-borate complexes on a strong anion-exchange resin. The sugars are identified with the orcinol/sulfuric acid reagent. While less than 40 nmol of mannose, fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, or arabinose is sufficient for analysis at least 200 nmol mannosamine, glucosamine, or galactosamine is required; acidic monosaccharides cannot be determined. The technique of sugar analysis is applied to structural studies on natural compounds, e.g. the monosaccharide composition of lichenan and the carbohydrate moiety of the glycoproteins ovomucoid and Collocalia mucoid. PMID:1150155

  12. The effectiveness of policy instruments in promoting bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy could make a significant contribution in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and is unique in its potential to service all three of the major energy demand sectors for heat, electricity and transport fuels. Consequently during the last two decades many different initiatives have been launched and policy instruments employed in different countries to develop the bioenergy sector, some of which have been more successful than others. This paper analyses the relationship between the growth of bioenergy in four European states and national energy policy. The policy instruments used are critically evaluated alongside the evidence base of bioenergy capacity and output achieved. The possible reasons for success or failure of different instruments and any unexpected impacts are discussed and some general conclusions drawn

  13. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in...... summary tables, followed by a discussion of the possible emergence of productivist policy approaches in the bioenergy sector in these countries. Findings – The bioenergy policies pursued by both countries differ in key respects and yet have had the same result-an increase in the productivist orientation...

  14. Bird communities in future bioenergy landscapes of the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Timothy D; Hurlbert, Allen H; Gratton, Claudio

    2010-10-26

    Mandates for biofuel and renewable electricity are creating incentives for biomass production in agricultural landscapes of the Upper Midwest. Different bioenergy crops are expected to vary in their effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here, we use data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to forecast the impact of potential bioenergy crops on avian species richness and the number of bird species of conservation concern in Midwestern landscapes. Our analysis suggests that expanded production of annual bioenergy crops (e.g., corn and soybeans) on marginal land will lead to declines in avian richness between 7% and 65% across 20% of the region, and will make managing at-risk species more challenging. In contrast, replacement of annual with diverse perennial bioenergy crops (e.g., mixed grasses and forbs) is expected to bring increases in avian richness between 12% and 207% across 20% of the region, and possibly aid the recovery of several species of conservation concern. PMID:20921398

  15. Integrated assessment of future land use in Brazil under increasing demand for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Judith; van der Hilst, Floor; Karssenberg, Derek; Faaij, André

    2014-05-01

    Environmental impacts of a future increase in demand for bioenergy depend on the magnitude, location and pattern of the direct and indirect land use change of energy cropland expansion. Here we aim at 1) projecting the spatiotemporal pattern of sugar cane expansion and the effect on other land uses in Brazil towards 2030, and 2) assessing the uncertainty herein. For the spatio-temporal projection, four model components are used: 1) an initial land use map that shows the initial amount and location of sugar cane and all other relevant land use classes in the system, 2) an economic model to project the quantity of change of all land uses, 3) a spatially explicit land use model that determines the location of change of all land uses, and 4) various analysis to determine the impacts of these changes on water, socio-economics, and biodiversity. All four model components are sources of uncertainty, which is quantified by defining error models for all components and their inputs and propagating these errors through the chain of components. No recent accurate land use map is available for Brazil, so municipal census data and the global land cover map GlobCover are combined to create the initial land use map. The census data are disaggregated stochastically using GlobCover as a probability surface, to obtain a stochastic land use raster map for 2006. Since bioenergy is a global market, the quantity of change in sugar cane in Brazil depends on dynamics in both Brazil itself and other parts of the world. Therefore, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, MAGNET, is run to produce a time series of the relative change of all land uses given an increased future demand for bioenergy. A sensitivity analysis finds the upper and lower boundaries hereof, to define this component's error model. An initial selection of drivers of location for each land use class is extracted from literature. Using a Bayesian data assimilation technique and census data from 2007 to 2012 as

  16. Innovative Bioenergy Systems in Action. The Mureck bio-Energy Cycle: Synergistic Effects and Socio-economic, Political and Sociocultural Aspects of Rural Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomescu, Mihai

    2005-10-15

    In this thesis the development of three bioenergy projects within the Austrian province of Styria is discussed. The projects - a biodiesel cooperative (SEEG), a biomass district heating plant (Nahwaerme) and a biogas plant that produces 'green' electricity (Oekostrom) - are co-located on the outskirts of Mureck, a small rural community on the border with Slovenia. The projects, jointly referred to as the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, are explored in terms of interaction with each other, interactions between key stakeholders and political support. The thesis also adopts a system dynamics perspective and investigates the historical development and evolution of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle over time. To explore this case, the embedded case study method was chosen. Five factors were selected for analysis: (1) the synergies and complementarities between the three different bioenergy projects comprising the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle (for instance when the biogas plant uses byproducts from the biodiesel fabrication process), (2) economies of scale due to integrated deployment of the three systems (such as specialisation, knowledge-transfer and integration of certain activities), (3) local cooperation that allowed the formation of reliable supply chains, (4) the attitude of authorities and (5) the existing local opinion and the benefits associated by residents with the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle. The objective was to find out whether these factors have played a crucial role for the development of the Mureck bio-Energy Cycle, and to discuss how they contributed to the development of the system. A first important finding of this research is that the three bioenergy projects in Mureck have gradually evolved into an industrial ecosystem that is characterised by a more efficient, closed-loop use of materials and energy, and in which by-products from one process serve as feedstock for other processes. This evolution was triggered by glycerine - an important byproduct that occurs

  17. Time to Substitute Wood Bioenergy for Nuclear Power in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis E. Putz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by the recent earthquake and tsunami that hit northern Japan should stimulate consideration of alternative sources of energy. In particular, if managed appropriately, the 25.1 million ha of Japanese forests could be an important source of wood biomass for bioenergy production. Here, we discuss policy incentives for substituting wood bioenergy for nuclear power, thereby creating a safer society while better managing the forest resources in Japan.

  18. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  19. Possibilities and limitations for sustainable bioenergy production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, E.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the possibilities and limitations of sustainable bioenergy production systems. First, the potential contribution of bioenergy to the energy supply in different world regions in the year 2050 from different biomass sources (dedicated woody energy crops, residues and waste and biomass from forest growth) is analysed. The results show that particularly the potential of dedicated crops produced on land that is no longer required for the production of food can be ver...

  20. Bioenergy Consumption and Biogas Potential in Cambodian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrki Luukkanen; Risto Raiko; Suvisanna Mustonen

    2013-01-01

    Residential bioenergy consumption and bioenergy resources based on by-products of residential agricultural production and animal husbandry have been analyzed statistically, based on a nationwide residential livelihood and energy survey conducted in Cambodia in 2009. Furthermore, the potential for biomethanation, residential biogas consumption and small-scale power generation for non-electrified rural areas has been assessed. Household potential of biogas substrates in Cambodia, based on natio...

  1. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...... land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical......, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. Hence devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns....

  2. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  3. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  4. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  5. Securing a bioenergy future without imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK has legally binding renewable energy and greenhouse gas targets. Energy from biomass is anticipated to make major contributions to these. However there are concerns about the availability and sustainability of biomass for the bioenergy sector. A Biomass Resource Model has been developed that reflects the key biomass supply-chain dynamics and interactions determining resource availability, taking into account climate, food, land and other constraints. The model has been applied to the UK, developing four biomass resource scenarios to analyse resource availability and energy generation potential within different contexts. The model shows that indigenous biomass resources and energy crops could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050 without impacting food systems. The scenarios show, residues from agriculture, forestry and industry provide the most robust resource, potentially providing up to 6.5% of primary energy demand by 2050. Waste resources are found to potentially provide up to 15.4% and specifically grown biomass and energy crops up to 22% of demand. The UK is therefore projected to have significant indigenous biomass resources to meet its targets. However the dominant biomass resource opportunities identified in the paper are not consistent with current UK bioenergy strategies, risking biomass deficit despite resource abundance. - Highlights: • Biomass Resource Model and Scenarios reflect biomass supply-chain dynamics to 2050. • High potential availability of biomass and energy crops without food systems impacts. • UK Indigenous biomass resource could service up to 44% of UK energy demand by 2050. • Robust residue resource from ongoing activities and large potential waste resource. • Indigenous resource abundance and the UK’s path towards increased resource deficit

  6. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m3. On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m3/a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  7. Mary Elizabeth Hickox Mandels, 90, bioenergy leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveleigh Douglas E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mary E H Mandels, who spearheaded the US Army's national bioconversion studies for four decades and was an early proponent of conversion of waste biomass to readily bioconvertible sugars for the production of chemicals and transportation fuels such as ethanol, died 17 February 2008 at Natick, MA, USA. She was 90.

  8. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  9. LCA Study of Oleaginous Bioenergy Chains in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cocco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports outcomes of life cycle assessments (LCAs of three different oleaginous bioenergy chains (oilseed rape, Ethiopian mustard and cardoon under Southern Europe conditions. Accurate data on field practices previously collected during a three-year study at two sites were used. The vegetable oil produced by oleaginous seeds was used for power generation in medium-speed diesel engines while the crop residues were used in steam power plants. For each bioenergy chain, the environmental impact related to cultivation, transportation of agricultural products and industrial conversion for power generation was evaluated by calculating cumulative energy demand, acidification potential and global warming potential. For all three bioenergy chains, the results of the LCA study show a considerable saving of primary energy (from 70 to 86 GJ·ha−1 and greenhouse gas emissions (from 4.1 to 5.2 t CO2·ha−1 in comparison to power generation from fossil fuels, although the acidification potential of these bioenergy chains may be twice that of conventional power generation. In addition, the study highlights that land use changes due to the cultivation of the abovementioned crops reduce soil organic content and therefore worsen and increase greenhouse gas emissions for all three bioenergy chains. The study also demonstrates that the exploitation of crop residues for energy production greatly contributes to managing environmental impact of the three bioenergy chains.

  10. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  11. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Chen, Rick [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Ye, Ning [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Cheng, Zong-Ming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  12. Sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Jones, G; McDowell, H P

    1986-01-01

    Sugar intolerance occurred in 31 of 200 children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. In 28 this was transient and settled rapidly, but in the remaining three it indicated a more serious and persistent problem. The most important predisposing factor was viral infection, in particular with rotavirus. The current regimen for the management of sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis at this hospital is outlined.

  13. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  15. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth > For Kids > When ... they get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to ...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela;

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will...... be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  17. Sugar Production, Consumption, and Consumer Expenditure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Stancu

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines, firstly, the connection among sugar production, sugar consumption and population number. Secondly, it highlights the relationship between sugar consumption and the weight of sugar and confectionery consumer expenditure in the food and non-alcoholic beverages consumer expenditure category as well as in disposable income. Two matrices of countries were proposed based on the sugar consumption and the weight of sugar and confectionery consumer expenditure in the food and non-a...

  18. Input Quality in the Sugar Beet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.; Marsh, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Using 23 years of data (1978-2000), this study examines seven vertically integrated sugar beet plants representing three different companies in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify the marginal costs of producing sugar beets for vertically integrated sugar beet processors as a way of determining the cost savings from higher quality sugar beets. In doing so, we account for quality differences in the sugar beet input that are used to manufacture the refined sugar out...

  19. India's Sugar Trade: A fresh look

    OpenAIRE

    Deokate Tai Balasaheb

    2013-01-01

    International sugar trade is of strategic importance to India as it helps in maintain stability in the domestic sugar prices despite the cyclicality in production. Also, the potential for expanding sugar production in India exists and can be fully exploited if adjustments were introduced to ensure a market driven relationship between sugar and sugarcane prices. Higher domestic sugar prices than international sugar prices suggest the significant policy change are needed in India. India is 4th ...

  20. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. R. Castro; A. M. Zanine; D.J. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with f...

  1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Kanisek; Jadranka Deže; Ljubica Ranogajec; Mirjana Miljević

    2008-01-01

    Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its eq...

  2. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  3. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  4. Current and future competitiveness of bioenergy - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to visualize the conceptions that guide the behaviour of the actors within the energy system to be able to, in an efficient manner, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix. A major issue is to elucidate explicit and implicit presumptions within judgements on the competitiveness of bioenergy. This study focuses on how conceptions of bioenergy in the form of patterns of thinking, influence whether bioenergy can become competitive. The aim of the study is to develop a framework that will enable an increased understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy today and in the future. The conceptions that the actors of the energy system uphold are studied and analysed. The conceptions of the actors are seen as key factors for the understanding of the function of the energy system and accordingly also for the understanding of the competitiveness of bioenergy. The over-all method perspective in the study is an actor approach. The actors' conceptions have been identified from interviews with 30 significant actors within the energy system. The material from the interviews has been synthesised into nine ideal types of actors. These nine 'model actors' are seen as representing the whole material and form the basis for the further analysis of the competitiveness of bioenergy as depending on patterns of thinking called logics. Three idealized logics are developed. The three logics developed in the study are production logic, market logic and socio-economic logic. (Upholders of the logics rank energy sources after production cost, profitability, and socio-economic legitimacy, respectively.) The logics co-exist within the different parts of the energy system. A single person can even uphold more than one logic. The three logics have however different weight in different organisations and in different parts of the energy system. Finally, the study proposes an enlarged description of the competitiveness of bioenergy in three dimensions: price

  5. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  6. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  7. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  8. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  9. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  10. A Hybrid Neural Network Method for Detecting Structural Change in Oil-Bioenergy Crops Prices System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhao; Yu Zhang; Hong Xu

    2012-01-01

    The present study detects the structural change in oil-bioenergy crops prices system before and during the food crisis of 2007/2008 and financial crisis 2008/2010. In the recent years, rising world crude oil prices lead to increase of bioenergy production around the world. Bioenergy, in turn, affects bioenergy crops price, because it uses these commodities as inputs. We develop a hybrid neural network approach which can test the structural change of the linkages without priori knowledge of th...

  11. Uncertainty assessment of future land use in Brazil under increasing demand for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, F.; Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental impacts of a future increase in demand for bioenergy depend on the magnitude, location and pattern of the direct and indirect land use change of energy cropland expansion. Here we aim at 1) projecting the spatio-temporal pattern of sugar cane expansion and the effect on other land uses in Brazil towards 2030, and 2) assessing the uncertainty herein. For the spatio-temporal projection, three model components are used: 1) an initial land use map that shows the initial amount and location of sugar cane and all other relevant land use classes in the system, 2) a model to project the quantity of change of all land uses, and 3) a spatially explicit land use model that determines the location of change of all land uses. All three model components are sources of uncertainty, which is quantified by defining error models for all components and their inputs and propagating these errors through the chain of components. No recent accurate land use map is available for Brazil, so municipal census data and the global land cover map GlobCover are combined to create the initial land use map. The census data are disaggregated stochastically using GlobCover as a probability surface, to obtain a stochastic land use raster map for 2006. Since bioenergy is a global market, the quantity of change in sugar cane in Brazil depends on dynamics in both Brazil itself and other parts of the world. Therefore, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, MAGNET, is run to produce a time series of the relative change of all land uses given an increased future demand for bioenergy. A sensitivity analysis finds the upper and lower boundaries hereof, to define this component's error model. An initial selection of drivers of location for each land use class is extracted from literature. Using a Bayesian data assimilation technique and census data from 2007 to 2011 as observational data, the model is identified, meaning that the final selection and optimal relative importance of the

  12. Chapter 9, Land and Bioenergy in Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), Bioenergy & Sustainability: bridging the gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods J, Lynd LR [Imperial College London, UK; Laser, M [Dartmouth College; Batistella M, De Castro D [EMBRAPA Monitoramento por Satelite, Campinas, Brasil; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Faaij, Andre [Energy Academy Europe, Netherlands

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we address the questions of whether and how enough biomass could be produced to make a material contribution to global energy supply on a scale and timeline that is consistent with prominent low carbon energy scenarios. We assess whether bioenergy provision necessarily conflicts with priority ecosystem services including food security for the world s poor and vulnerable populations. In order to evaluate the potential land demand for bioenergy, we developed a set of three illustrative scenarios using specified growth rates for each bioenergy sub-sector. In these illustrative scenarios, bioenergy (traditional and modern) increases from 62 EJ/yr in 2010 to 100, 150 and 200 EJ/yr in 2050. Traditional bioenergy grows slowly, increasing by between 0.75% and 1% per year, from 40 EJ/yr in 2010 to 50 or 60 EJ/ yr in 2050, continuing as the dominant form of bioenergy until at least 2020. Across the three scenarios, total land demand is estimated to increase by between 52 and 200 Mha which can be compared with a range of potential land availability estimates from the literature of between 240 million hectares to over 1 billion hectares. Biomass feedstocks arise from combinations of residues and wastes, energy cropping and increased efficiency in supply chains for energy, food and materials. In addition, biomass has the unique capability of providing solid, liquid and gaseous forms of modern energy carriers that can be transformed into analogues to existing fuels. Because photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, biomass supply chains can be configured to store at least some of the fixed carbon in forms or ways that it will not be reemitted to the atmosphere for considerable periods of time, so-called negative emissions pathways. These attributes provide opportunities for bioenergy policies to promote longterm and sustainable options for the supply of energy for the foreseeable future.

  13. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  14. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  15. Prospects for Bioenergy in Europe. Supply, Demand and Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources (RES), such as biomass, can be used to address two important issues in Europe: climate change and energy security. If biomass is produced sustainably and used efficiently, bioenergy contributes very little to CO2 emissions. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a scientific basis describing how bioenergy can play a fundamental role in the transition to more sustainable energy systems. For this purpose, an assessment of the potential biomass supply was made. This assessment shows that the long-term biomass supply could amount to up to 16 EJ/y in the EU27, i.e. 21% of the current primary energy supply, taking environmental and land-use restrictions into account. The greater part of this potential biomass supply consists of perennial energy crops. Thus, if biomass is to play a major role in the future energy supply, large-scale perennial energy crop production is required. The analysis of the economics of growing willow, a perennial energy crop, indicates that it can be equally viable for the farmer as that of cereal crops if subsidies and the cost of risk are excluded. In a strategy to reduce the cost of risk, a central issue is to create opportunities for a long-term demand for bioenergy. In Sweden and Finland, two of the leading bioenergy-using countries in Europe, energy and CO2 taxes have been the key instruments in increasing the use of bioenergy. Creating opportunities for bioenergy in general will not immediately or necessarily stimulate perennial crop production since production costs are at the high end of the biomass cost range. In a strategy to stimulate perennial crop production, large coal-fired power and combined heat and power (CHP) plants can play an important role. Co-firing of biofuels in these plants is a low-risk bioenergy strategy for energy companies. The continuous and, compared to other continents in the world, more intense promotion of bioenergy in Europe is likely to increase

  16. Modeling carbon dynamics and social drivers of bioenergy agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Natalie D.

    Meeting society's energy needs through bioenergy feedstock production presents a significant and urgent challenge, as it can aid in achieving energy independence goals and mitigating climate change. With federal biofuel production standards to be met within the next decade, and with no commercial scale production or markets currently in place, many questions regarding the sustainability and social feasibility of bioenergy still persist. Clarifying these uncertainties requires the incorporation of biogeochemical, biophysical, and socioeconomic modeling tools. Chapter 2 validated the biogeochemical cycling model AGRO-BGC by comparing model estimates with empirical observations from corn and perennial C4 grass systems across Wisconsin and Illinois. AGRO-BGC, in its first application to an annual cropping system, was found to be a robust model for simulating carbon dynamics of an annual cropping system. Chapter 3 investigated the long-term implications of bioenergy feedstock harvest on soil productivity and erosion in annual corn and perennial switchgrass agroecosystems using AGRO-BGC and the soil erosion model RUSLE2. Modeling environments included biophysical landscape characteristics and management practices of bioenergy feedstock production systems. This study found that intensifying aboveground residue harvest reduces soil productivity over time, and the magnitude of these losses is greater in corn than in switchgrass systems. Results of this study will aid in the design of sustainable bioenergy feedstock management practices. Chapter 4 provided evidence that combining biophysical crop canopy characteristics with satellite-derived vegetation indices offers suitable estimates of crop canopy phenology for corn and soybeans in Southwest Wisconsin farms. LANDSAT based vegetation indices, when combined with a light use efficiency model, provide yield estimates in agreement with farmer reports, providing an efficient and accurate means of estimating crop yields from

  17. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... sector was allotted 54.35 percent of the OAQ (5,019,358 tons), while the cane sugar sector was allotted... structural changes in the allocation to certain sugarcane processors. CCC combined the Louisiana cane...

  18. Risø energy report 2. New and emerging bioenergy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    changes in energy markets. We even have a new term, “modern bioenergy”, to cover those areas of bioenergy technology – traditional as well as emerging – which could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides itspotential to be carbon-neutral if produced sustainably, modern bioenergy shows the promise of...

  19. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  20. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  1. Small-scale bioenergy alternatives for industry, farm, and institutions: A user's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases

  2. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. PMID:22306168

  3. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Seinjoki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  4. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  5. Pellets - the advance of refined bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference paper discusses the role of pellets in the use of bioenergy in Sweden. Pellets (P) have many advantages: (1) P are dry and can be stored, (2) P create local jobs, (3) P burn without seriously polluting the environment, (4) P are made from domestic and renewable resources, (5) P have high energy density, (6) P fit well in an energy system adapted to nature, (6) P are an economical alternative, both on a small scale and on a large scale. Pellets are more laborious to use than oil or electricity and require about three times as much storage space as oil. The Swedish pellets manufacturers per 1997 are listed. Locally pellets are most conveniently transported as bulk cargo and delivered to a silo by means of pressurized air. Long-distance transport use train or ship. At present, pellets are most often used in large or medium-sized heat plants, but equipment exists for use from private houses and up to the size of MW. Pellets may become the most important alternative to the fossil fuels which along with electricity today are dominating the small scale market. 1 fig., 1 table

  6. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  7. The market for bioenergy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conference paper. The demand for energy in Europe at present amounts to 16 PWh. Of this, 50% is needed for heating, 27% for transportation, 23% for light, communication and power. The European Commission in 1996 proposed that the share of renewables should be doubled to 12% by 2010. It is calculated that 3/4 of the supply of renewables must be supplied by biomass. A comprehensive energy crop programme is needed to guarantee the supply. According to calculations, 77% of the bioenergy supply will be used to deliver heat. For small heating installations financial support is necessary to overcome the investment costs. It is recommended that biomass based district heating grids should be subsidized by a joint programme of the Commission and the national governments. For industrial users little or no subsidies are required. It is suggested that the members of the EU should submit to the commission regional heat concepts, ''heat from biomass'', of a certain specified content. The necessary investment should come from private investors, from public money and from the EU. Green electricity is a way to promote renewable energy resources. As a realistic target for electricity from biomass within 12 years, 80 TWh is proposed. The production of raw materials for the energy sector on set-aside land is unsuccessful because of the changing set-aside rate. Some remedial actions are proposed

  8. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  9. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  10. Mathematical algorithms to locate factories to transform biomass in bioenergy focused on logistic network construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural y Agroalimentaria, Grupo de Mecanizacion y Tecnologia Agraria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Many linear programming models have been developed to study the logistics and determine the best setup for bioenergy chains. Most use network structures built from nodes with one or more depots and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is a source of a certain biomass type. Nodes can also represent a biomass storage point or a production facility (e.g., power plant) where the biomass is used. Arcs represent transport routes between depots. To combine GIS spatial studies with linear programming models, it is necessary to design a network from a digital map. In this research a mathematical calculation method is developed to select the actual points on the map for the locations of a bioenergy plant that will then be considered as biomass destinations in a network model. The base data for this model is city's locations and the bioenergy they required, given in GIS maps (shape files), although also it can be the points where the biomass is produced. The limits of the studied area should be defined in advance, for example, a country, a province or a region. Criteria selection for plant location is two: all the energy produced by the plant should be used; the cost to transport the energy produced should be minimal. With these criteria, the cities are grouped in sets, which should be supplied by a power energy plant. Each plant supplying a given subset of cities will be located in the center of gravity specified by the coordinates and the energy required by each city in the subset. The algorithm provides the locations of points where plants that transform biomass into bioenergy for a group of cities are placed. The points to locate plants are then taken as destination nodes in the network when the logistics models are implemented. In the next step, the network is analyzed by linear programming techniques to supply the optimal location for the power plants or factories depending on the available biomass sources. In this paper a practical example applied to Spanish

  11. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  12. Greenhouse gas balances of harvested wood products and Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Soimakallio, S. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    This project is a second part of the project concerning 'Carbon sink and other greenhouse gas impacts of harvested wood products' involved in Climate Change and Technology programme by Tekes. This project included three parts of the task: (1) to develop models and to do case study analyses concerning bioenergy and biomass systems, (2) participating in the completion work of writing Chapter 3 in IPCC's Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry, and 3) participating in an international collaboration project 'Greenhouse gas balances of biomass and bioenergy systems' (IEA Bioenergy Task 38) during 2003. This report briefly presents different parts of the task involved in the project and references to publications generated in the project. (orig.)

  13. Forestry Canada: Strategic plan for bioenergy research, 1992-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy research at Forestry Canada includes all aspects of production and growth of forest biomass for energy. Forestry Canada has conducted research in these areas since 1978, primarily through the ENFOR (Energy from the Forest) program funded through the interdepartmental Panel on Energy Research and Development (PERD). A previous strategic plan provided direction for bioenergy research from 1987 to 1992. Between 1992 and 1997, the primary research emphasis will be on environmental impacts of biomass harvesting. Priority will also be given to intensive silviculture to improve biomass productivity. Economics studies will be given a broader, nationwide perspective. Technology transfer will be accomplished through reviews of achievements and via workshops and demonstrations. These activities will be undertaken within the context of the PERD process for funding of proposals. The work will be implemented through Forestry Canada's ENFOR program, which focuses on contract research and development, and through participation in international collaborative research under the Bioenergy Agreement of the International Energy Agency

  14. The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e. as an energy source to substitute fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of bioenergy has so far received less attenuation as a means of mitigating climate change. Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, bioenergy has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. < finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime. (author)

  15. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  16. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  17. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Vuille, F. [E4tech, London (United Kingdom); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Junginger, M. [Copernicus Institute, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  18. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  19. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; HOLBROOK, N. MICHELE

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transpor...

  20. Technical Efficiency in Louisiana Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jason L.; Zapata, Hector O.; Heagler, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the Louisiana sugar cane industry have provided little information related to the efficiency of sugar processing operations. Using panel data from the population of Louisiana sugar processors, alternative model specifications are estimated using stochastic frontier methods to measure the technical efficiency of individual sugar factories. Results suggest the Louisiana sugar processing industry is characterized by a constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas processing function wit...

  1. Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production

    OpenAIRE

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2011-01-01

    International audience Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests1, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions2, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions3. Here, we use forest inventory data to show that fire prevention measures and large-scale bioenergy harvest in US West Coast forests lead to 2-14% (46-405 Tg C) higher emissions compared with cur...

  2. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  3. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  4. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  5. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  6. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Min S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unkefer, Clifford J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  7. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  8. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  11. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  12. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  13. Bioenergy production in Finland and a Finnish perspective on Maritime bioenergy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J. [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented an overview of bioenergy production in Finland, including details of political commitments, resource management strategies and economic factors. The influence of international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol was discussed. Consumer energy prices in New Brunswick and Finland were presented. Details of forest ownership in Finland were provided, along with a chart of national energy sources. Statistics on the division of wood-based fuels in Finland were presented to the year 2010. Details of biomass drain and residues were provided, including harvestable potential. Various stand types and machinery were examined, as well as logging and mill residues and residue procurement from clear cuts. The importance of new technologies was emphasised, with details of the Timberjack residue bundler, forwarding residues and road side chipping methods. Issues concerning cleanings and thinnings were examined. In addition, the forwarding of whole trees to landing was also discussed with reference to changes in technologies in the forwarding of stumps and roots. Cost factors of integrated harvesting from thinnings include stand types; geographic conditions; end user requirements; the scale of operation; available machinery; annual harvested volume; and the procurement systems used. Stem volume and feller buncher productivity details were presented, as well as details of cost at delivery. Issues concerning procurement at co-operatives were examined. The management of fuel quality was discussed, including the importance of cover, pile management, and chip storage methods. It was concluded that bioenergy production in Finland was carbon dioxide neutral, promoted forest management and decreased imports. Other benefits included employment opportunities, competition, site preparation and the use of existing equipment. Details of fuel moisture content at co-operatives were also provided. tabs, figs.

  14. 6. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 6. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 6th Rostock bioenergy forum at 14th and 15th June, 2012, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Regional concepts of bioenergy as a contribution to the energy policy turnaround (A. Schuette); (2) Bio energy region Ruegen - Regional mastering of the energy policy turnaround (S. Gehrig); (3) Bio energy Austria - Developments, state of the art and perspectives (A.M. Ragossnig); (4) Public relations and conflict management at regional bio energy projects (T. Turk); (5) Approaches for the determination of a regional added value by biomass by means of the technical-economical accompanying research in competition bio energy regions (S. Bohnet); (6) Town with energy efficiency - SEE - Stuttgart: Flagship project ''Wilhelma'' (A. Hilse); (7) Paludiculture - A regional bio energy concept for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (C. Schroeder); (8) Pilot projects for the utilization of biomass from paludiculture in integrated biomass heating systems in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (T. Dahms); (9) Production of biomass in wet peatlands (paludiculture). The EU-AID project 'Wetland energy' in Belarus - solutions for the substitution of fossil fuels (peat briquettes) by biomass from wet peatlands (W. Wichtmann); (10) State of the art of the compacting of straw in Germany (T. Hering); (11) Heating with straw - Cost structure of the agricultural heat production (M. Dietze); (12) Utilization and development of alternative fuels - state of the art and innovations (L. Di Matteo); (13) Production of qualitatively high-value wood-pellets for an energetic utilization (C. Kirsten); (14) Decentralized power generation from solid biomass in the course of the Renewable Energy Law EEG (P. Sauter); (15) MixBioPellets: Improvement of the market relevance of alternative and mixed biomass pellets in Europe - Framework conditions, measures and suitable utilisation concepts (T. Zeng); (16) Optimisation of a pellet

  15. Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Véronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanism...

  16. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  17. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contam

  18. Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2011-11-01

    Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest inventory data to show that fire prevention measures and large-scale bioenergy harvest in US West Coast forests lead to 2-14% (46-405TgC) higher emissions compared with current management practices over the next 20 years. We studied 80 forest types in 19 ecoregions, and found that the current carbon sink in 16 of these ecoregions is sufficiently strong that it cannot be matched or exceeded through substitution of fossil fuels by forest bioenergy. If the sink in these ecoregions weakens below its current level by 30-60gCm-2yr-1 owing to insect infestations, increased fire emissions or reduced primary production, management schemes including bioenergy production may succeed in jointly reducing fire risk and carbon emissions. In the remaining three ecoregions, immediate implementation of fire prevention and biofuel policies may yield net emission savings. Hence, forest policy should consider current forest carbon balance, local forest conditions and ecosystem sustainability in establishing how to decrease emissions.

  19. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  20. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  1. The Biogeochemistry of Bioenergy Landscapes: Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well-known, increasingl...

  2. Spatiotemporal cost-supply curves for bioenergy production in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, F. van der; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess how bioenergy costs and supply potential in Mozambique develop over time in a spatially explicit way. The land availability for energy crops was explored making use of a businessas- usual and progressive scenario on the development of other land-use

  3. Evaluation of maize and hemp cultivars as bioenergy crop

    OpenAIRE

    Santanen, Arja; Kenedy, Epie; Mäkelä, Pirjo; Stoddard, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    We are cultivating annual and perennial crops as monoculture and as mixed culture to investigate plant biomass use for production of renewable energy sources in northern latitudes. We have grown different hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and bioenergy maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars in 2007-2009 at Viikki Experimental Farm, University of Helsinki.

  4. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP, which was published in this publication on June 12, 2009 (74 FR 27998). All payments will be made based upon the terms and conditions... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels AGENCY: Rural...

  5. Efficiency Dynamics of Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Raheman; Abdul Qayyum; Talat Afza

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is the 15th largest producer of sugar in the world, 5th largest in terms of area under sugar cultivation and 60th in yield. The sugar industry is the 2nd largest agro based industry which comprises of 81 sugar mills. With this scenario, Pakistan has to import sugar which exposes it to the effects of shortage and rising prices in the world. The present sugar crisis has opened up new avenues for researcher to analyse the performance and efficiency of the firms in this sector. Total fac...

  6. Price Transmission in the German Sugar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Stephan; Natanelov, Valeri; Buysse, Jeroen; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van

    2012-01-01

    The German sugar market is governed by the European Union’s common market organization (CMO). In 2006, the CMO was subject to its first major reform. Among others, the administered price for sugar was reduced by 36%. We use a data set with monthly prices for sugar and sugar containing products to perform a cointegration analysis. Results show that the reduction of the institutional price has led to a reduction of wholesale prices and of retail prices for table sugar. Prices for sugar containi...

  7. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  8. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  9. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  10. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  11. Bioenergy consumption in rural China: Evidence from a survey in three provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass in the form of crop residues and firewood is a major energy source for rural households in China. A survey conducted in the provinces of Shanxi, Zhejiang, and Guizhou shows that 37 percent of rural households use bioenergy for heating and cooking and that bioenergy accounts for 18 percent of their total energy consumption. Most of the biomass used for energy is burned in traditional stoves, contributing to indoor air pollution in rural homes. Crop residues also are commonly burned in the fields, contributing to the high level of outdoor air pollution in China. Our econometric analysis of the key determinants of bioenergy use shows that bioenergy consumption falls modestly with income growth, increased time required for biomass collection, and less farmland. Hence, open burning of some biomass is an optimal choice and is likely to become more of a problem without policy intervention. These findings suggest that a more sustainable use of biomass requires policies that promote cleaner, more efficient bioenergy combustion technologies and increase the economic value of biomass such that local households can benefit from biomass collection. - Highlights: • Nearly 40 percent of rural households surveyed in 2010 and 2011 use bioenergy. • Bioenergy accounts for nearly 20 percent of total energy used by rural households. • Income growth of 5 percent results in less than 1 percent reduction in bioenergy use. • The high opportunity cost of biomass collection reduces bioenergy use. • Sustainable policy for bioenergy use must benefit local households

  12. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: A consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops...

  13. Zhongrun,Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology%Zhongrun, Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Huaibei Zhongrun Bio-energy Technology Development Co.,Ltd.is a high-tech Sino-US joint venture,also a participator of the 12th CHITEC.Its majority shareholder is Anhui Huaibei Mining Group and it is co-sponsored by Anhui Guohua Group and US Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

  14. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. S

  15. Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens - from cross-national surveys to conceptual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, P.

    2011-07-01

    Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of

  16. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  17. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... it often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  18. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Gulati; Anoop Misra

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

  19. Sugar in the diet of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenčič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweetened beverages are increasingly present in the nutrition of adolescents. Sugars added to food usually do not contain essential nutrients and inhibit the consumption of nutritionally rich foods. The aim of this diploma thesis is to determine how much sugar is present in the diets of adolescents, how and when most frequently adolescents eat sugar and whether the consumption of sweet foods among adolescents vary according to gender, age, and body weight. Data were collected using ...

  20. Sugars as double-signal high dose dosimeters of ionizing radiation. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results of investigation of some sugars (maltose, saccharose, commercial sugar) as sensor materials for a high dose dosimetry of ionizing radiation are presented. An advantage of using sugars consists in fact that ionizing radiation creates in them two kind of signals: colour centers (spectrophotometric read-out) and paramagnetic centers (read-out by EPR method). This allows to chose more convenient - in particular conditions a method of analysis and more exactly to estimate uncertainties connected with analytical procedures. The results indicate saccharose as better than others dosimetric material with a threshold at ∼ 100 Gy for the EPR method and ∼ 5 Gy for the optical one. The investigation reveals a high discrepancy of physicochemical parameters and generally a low quality of Polish grocery sugar. (author)

  1. 7. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 7. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2013-10-01

    Within the 7th Rostock bioenergy forum at 20th and 21st June, 2013, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Bio energy as a key component of sustainable (regional) energy concepts (S. Daebeler); (2) Bio energy in the Baltic Sea Region, Nordic Countries and EU (J.B. Holm Nielsen); (3) Legal frameworks of the waste management and energy industry (F. Brahms); (4) Energy from biogenic wastes and residual materials - potentials, perspectives and examples (M. Nelles); (5) Regional concepts for the energetic utilization of biogenic residual materials exemplified by the county Holzminden (T. Turk); (6) Utilization concepts for the energetic utilization of suitable grassland growth in the natural preserve Droemling (T. Zeng); (7) Swamp future - Energy for Western Pomerania Grid formation and potentials for the thermal utilization of biomass from paludi culture (A. Nordt); (8) Identification and analysis of demands by nature protection at the supply of electricity and heat from energy crop (R. Wirkner); (9) Short rotation plantation: Value-added chain and opportunities for users of energy crop (T. Peschel); (10) Municipal mobilisation of materials for the landscape conservation (A. Bruening); (11) Conditioning ad energetic utilization of wooden materials for landscape conservation (C. Letalik); (12) Supply of Paludi biomass for energetic utilization (S. Dettmann); (13) Processing of excess fermentation remainders to compact fuel pellets (C. Kirsten); (14) Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector (J. Witt); (15) Power generation from solid biomass in central and decentralized power stations (M. Edel); (16) Biomass gasification project WKK2013 Unterpremstaetten (E. Greiler); (17) Certification of biofuels based on waste materials and residual materials - Adaptation of the 36. BImSchV (W.-D. Kindt); (18) New adjustment of the biofuel sector in the EU (K. Naumann); (19) Reduction of the THG emissions in agricultural productions for

  2. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Teens > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... and prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

  3. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000085.htm Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Hypoglycemia - self-care What is low Blood Sugar? Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia. A blood ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  5. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  6. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... domestic cane sugar allotments of 120,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports; and an increase in the... to 9,400,000 STRV ] and a reassignment of surplus cane sugar allotment to imports. The OAQ...

  7. A Hybrid Neural Network Method for Detecting Structural Change in Oil-Bioenergy Crops Prices System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study detects the structural change in oil-bioenergy crops prices system before and during the food crisis of 2007/2008 and financial crisis 2008/2010. In the recent years, rising world crude oil prices lead to increase of bioenergy production around the world. Bioenergy, in turn, affects bioenergy crops price, because it uses these commodities as inputs. We develop a hybrid neural network approach which can test the structural change of the linkages without priori knowledge of the input data distribution. And then we studies price linkages applying the hybrid neural network to two major bioenergy crops prices, including Argentina corn and Brazil soybean, along with two major crude oil price, including West Texas and Brant crude oil. The data consists of 1467 observations from January 2006 to November 2011. The empirical findings confirm that the structures of oil-bioenergy crops prices system change observably during the food crisis and the financial crisis.

  8. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  9. The Influence of Climate on Sustainable North American Bioenergy Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, J. E.; Cuadra, S.; Drewry, D.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Bioenergy agroecosystems are increasingly being investigated and implemented as an important source of sustainable and secure liquid fuel. In the U.S. the current bioenergy market is dominated by ethanol derived from maize, which has limited carbon benefits and multiple environmental concerns. In 2012, a record ~40% of the maize crop went to ethanol production despite persistent drought conditions reducing yields across much of the growing region. This has led to questions of the future value of devoting such a large fraction of the most valuable arable land to ethanol production with the frequency of these extreme conditions expected to increase with climate change. A proposed solution is the development of 2nd-generation bioenergy crops including miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane on marginal or abandoned croplands that have limited value for food production. However, the future potential for these lands to provide sufficient bioenergy production has uncertainty associated with changing climate. In this study, we use a newly available suite of dynamically downscaled climate data sets, estimates of marginal and abandoned cropland derived in part from satellite observations, and an extended version of the Agro-IBIS LSM to estimate the impact of climate change on North American bioenergy potential. In particular, we assess how temperature and precipitation are likely to change over marginal and abandoned croplands, and how these changes may impact the range and yields of maize, miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane. We extend the Agro-IBIS model with mechanistic multilayer vegetation, and validate the model using published yield, leaf area, and surface flux observations. The extended Agro-IBIS model is driven with weather conditions from the near-past (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) using 30-year dynamically downscaled climate estimates from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and CO2 concentrations specified from

  10. Biochemical production of bioenergy from agricultural crops and residue in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Alavijeh, Masih; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-06-01

    The present study assessed the potential for biochemical conversion of energy stored in agricultural waste and residue in Iran. The current status of agricultural residue as a source of bioenergy globally and in Iran was investigated. The total number of publications in this field from 2000 to 2014 was about 4294. Iran ranked 21st with approximately 54 published studies. A total of 87 projects have been devised globally to produce second-generation biofuel through biochemical pathways. There are currently no second-generation biorefineries in Iran and agricultural residue has no significant application. The present study determined the amount and types of sustainable agricultural residue and oil-rich crops and their provincial distribution. Wheat, barley, rice, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, sugarcane, sugar beets, apples, grapes, dates, cotton, soybeans, rapeseed, sesame seeds, olives, sunflowers, safflowers, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts have the greatest potential as agronomic and horticultural crops to produce bioenergy in Iran. A total of 11.33million tonnes (Mt) of agricultural biomass could be collected for production of bioethanol (3.84gigaliters (Gl)), biobutanol (1.07Gl), biogas (3.15billion cubic meters (BCM)), and biohydrogen (0.90BCM). Additionally, about 0.35Gl of biodiesel could be obtained using only 35% of total Iranian oilseed. The potential production capacity of conventional biofuel blends in Iran, environmental and socio-economic impacts including well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the social cost of carbon dioxide reduction are discussed. The cost of emissions could decrease up to 55.83% by utilizing E85 instead of gasoline. The possible application of gaseous biofuel in Iran to produce valuable chemicals and provide required energy for crop cultivation is also studied. The energy recovered from biogas produced by wheat residue could provide energy input for 115.62 and 393.12 thousand hectares of irrigated and rain-fed wheat

  11. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, S. E.; Shurpali, N. J.; O. Peltola; Mammarella, I.; N. Hyvönen; Maljanen, M.; M. Räty; Virkajärvi, P.; Martikainen, P J

    2015-01-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 ...

  12. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Saara E.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Peltola, Olli; Mammarella, Ivan; Hyvönen, Niina; Maljanen, Marja; Räty, Mari; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 ex...

  13. Initial soil C and land-use history determine soil C sequestration under perennial bioenergy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Keith, Aidan M; Elias, Dafydd; Dondini, Marta; Smith, Pete; Oxley, Jonathan; McNamara, Niall P.

    2016-01-01

    In the UK and other temperate regions, short rotation coppice (SRC) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) are two of the leading ‘second-generation’ bioenergy crops. Grown specifically as a low-carbon (C) fossil fuel replacement, calculations of the climate mitigation provided by these bioenergy crops rely on accurate data. There are concerns that uncertainty about impacts on soil C stocks of transitions from current agricultural land use to these bioenergy crops could lead to either an und...

  14. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo-Abad, C.; Althaus, H.J.; Berndes, G.; Bolwig, S.; Corbera, E.; Hanger, S.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policy-making. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environ...

  15. Belowground Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Loblolly Pine Forest Managed for Bioenergy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Minick, Kevan J

    2014-01-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy and fuel production. Therefore, bioenergy production has expanded during the last decade, increasing demand for forest-based bioenergy feedstocks. Millions of acres of privately and industrially owned pine plantations exist across the southeastern US, representing a vast area of land that could be utilized to produce bioenergy without significant land-use change or diversion...

  16. Young citizens' knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years extensive discussions on bioenergy has been both positive and negative. In Europe, the image of bioenergy appears to be low with lack of broad public support. Previous studies show that younger people are unsure about many issues surrounding renewable energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among pupils in North Karelia, Finland. Data drawn from 495 ninth grade students indicate that the majority of them lack in-depth knowledge about different renewable energy sources, including bioenergy. Only a small percentage has a 'high' level of knowledge about bioenergy and the majority indicates critical perceptions of it. Statistically significant gender differences are not apparent. Girls appear to be more knowledgeable than boys. Results also show a clear 'urban' and 'rural' difference in perceptions of bioenergy. Perceptions of urban respondents being more positive than that of their rural counterparts. Developing collaboration between future bioenergy policies and bioenergy education for younger citizens is necessary for their engagement in critical debates on bioenergy.

  17. Sustainability standards for bioenergy-A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market.

  18. Sustainability standards for bioenergy. A means to reduce climate change risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the importance of standards for sustainable bioenergy production. Sustainability of bioenergy production is crucial if bioenergy is supposed to contribute effectively to climate change mitigation. First, a brief overview of current bioenergy policies and of initiatives and legislation for bioenergy sustainability are given. Then, the authors show that under free market conditions undersupply of sustainable bioenergy will prevail. Two types of market failures are identified: information asymmetry and externalities in bioenergy production. Due to these market failures bioenergy is less sustainable than it could be. It is shown that mandatory certification and subsequent labeling can help to overcome the information asymmetry and lead to a more efficient market outcome since consumers can choose products according to their preferences. The authors conclude, however, that the existence of production externalities asks for stronger market intervention, for example in the form of binding minimum standards or taxes. The paper discusses the efficiency and feasibility of such policy measures and shows that mandatory certification combined with binding minimum standards can be an adequate policy choice to regulate the bioenergy market. (author)

  19. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Timson David J; Reece Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactos...

  20. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  2. Instruments for the introduction of bioenergy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden a carbon dioxide tax on fossil fuels for heat production and financial support for electricity production based on biomass have caused the use of bioenergy to increase by 4 TWh per year since 1990. Thus biomass has become Sweden's next largest energy source, providing more energy than the nuclear power plants or the hydroelectric power stations. Only oil supplies Sweden with more TWh/year. This development has taken place under favourable competition and with falling prices of biological fuels. Economically, however, the expansion might be controlled more efficiently by making the economic incentive equal in all sectors. This paper was presented at the Nordic Bioenergy Conference held in Oslo, Norway, 1997

  3. Bioenergy potentials from forestry to 2050. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study a bottom-up scenario analysis of the global bioenergy production potential is carried out, with specific attention for the impact of underlying factors, existing outlook studies on demand and supply and gaps in the knowledge base that explain the large range in estimates. Key variables are the demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, plantation establishment rates and natural forest growth. Key uncertainties are the supply of wood from trees outside and the impact of sustainable forest management (SFM) of yields. Results show that the world is capable of meeting the future demand for industrial roundwood and fuelwood, without further deforestation. The total potential of bioenergy from surplus forest growth and residues is estimated at 27 to 140 EJy-1 in 2050

  4. Barriers for the introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biomass for energy in the Netherlands is still limited despite the political incentives to make bio-energy a major source of renewable energy. The hesitation of many stake-holders is due to the limited insight into the potential of biomass in the Netherlands and the presence of numerous other barriers. Availability of biomass, emission regulation and waste treatment regulations are considered important barriers. Analyses of their current state show that these barriers are broadly recognised and possibilities to decrease their impact are present. Some barriers with a minor influence so far will be of increasing importance and could be a threat to the development of bio-energy in future. These are the fast liberalising of the energy market and sustainable energy market, the competition with other renewables and the unclear status of the current technology available. Future research should focus on the possibilities to overcome these new barriers. 5 refs

  5. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Cherubini; Mark Huijbregts; Georg Kindermann; Rosalie Van Zelm; Marijn van der Velde; Konstantin Stadler; Anders Hammer Strømman

    2016-01-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustaied emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explici...

  6. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  7. Sustainable Palm Oil Production For Bioenergy Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wai Kiat

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergy supply chain is formed by many parts which from the raw material, biomass feedstock until the distribution and utilisation. The upstream activity is always managed in a sustainable way in order to be capable enough to support the downstream activity. In this dissertation, the sustainable production of palm oil is focused and researched through problem identification and solving by using the operation management perspective and practices. At first, the global biomass industry is st...

  8. IEA Bioenergy Task 37 - Country Reports Summary 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of summaries of country reports from members of IEA Bioenergy Task 37 (Energy from Biogas). The individual country reports include information on the number of biogas plants in operation, biogas production data, how the biogas is utilised, the number of biogas upgrading plants, the number of vehicles using biomethane as fuel, the number of biomethane filling stations, details of financial support schemes in each country and some information on national ...

  9. IEA Bioenergy Task 37: Country Reports Summary 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of summaries of country reports from members of IEA Bioenergy Task 37 (Energy from Biogas). The individual country reports include information on the number of biogas plants in operation, biogas production data, how the biogas is utilised, the number of biogas upgrading plants, the number of vehicles using biomethane as fuel, the number of biomethane filling stations, details of financial support schemes in each country and some information on national ...

  10. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is increasingly being considered as a feedstock to provide a clean and renewable source of energy in the form of both liquid fuels and electric power. In the United States, the biofuels and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets given policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance. - Highlights: ► We model a United States bioenergy feedstock commodity market. ► Three buyers compete for biomass: biopower, biofuels, and foreign exports. ► The presented methodology improves on dynamic economic equilibrium theory. ► With current policy incentives and ignoring exports, biofuels dominates the market. ► Overseas biomass demand could dominate unless a CO2-limiting policy is enacted.

  11. Adoption of bioenergy technologies for a sustainable energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Even

    2011-01-01

    A future sustainable energy system must achieve great improvements in energy efficiency and the energy supply must be based on renewable energy sources. Bioenergy will be an important part of this system. Changing from the current fossil-dependent energy system to a truly sustainable energy system will require fundamental changes in basic structures of society, in the technologies we utilize in the living of our lives and in the way we as citizens and consumers behave relative to energy use. ...

  12. An Assessment of Bio-Energy Crops Use in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Khanna, M.; Barman, R.; Yang, X.; Dhungana, B.; Chen, X.

    2007-12-01

    Growing concern about climate change and energy security has led to increasing interest in developing domestically available renewable energy sources for meeting the electricity, heating and fuel needs in the United States. Illinois has a significant potential to grow perennial grasses that can provide bio-energy. Two perennial grasses, Switchgrass and Miscanthus, have been identified as among the best choices for low input bio-energy production in the US and Europe. The purpose of this talk is two fold. First, we will examine the optimal areas in Illinois to locate perennial grasses as feedstocks. These areas will be determined based on biophysical conditions (such as heterogeneity in soil quality and climatic factors) and costs of production and costs of land that differ across locations. Second, we will determine the CO2 mitigation benefits to be provided by bioenergy crops, both in the form of soil carbon sequestration and displacement of carbon emissions from gasoline. This analysis will be undertaken using detailed GIS data on soil quality, climate and land use for 0.1deg by 0.1deg grid cells in Illinois. This data will be used together with the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), a terrestrial ecosystem model, to estimate the yields of Switchgrass and Miscanthus as well as their potential to sequester carbon in the soil. Yield for row crops will be based on historical data and will be used to determine the opportunity cost of converting land currently under corn and soybean production to perennial grasses. Costs of production for the alternative crops here include expenses incurred by farmers on fertilizer inputs, machinery, harvesting and transportation and will be used to determine the profitability of alternative land uses in each grid cell. The framework developed here will be used to examine the optimal locations to grow bio-energy crops to achieve various carbon mitigation targets cost-effectively.

  13. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typicalAfrican biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the samescientific attention as biomasses from Europe, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergypotentials in the African region.As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in G...

  14. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  15. Integrating bioenergy into computable general equilibrium models. A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, Bettina; Peterson, Sonja [Kiel Institute for the World Economy, 24100 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In the past years biofuels have received increased attention since they were believed to contribute to rural development, energy security and to fight global warming. It became clear, though, that bioenergy cannot be evaluated independently of the rest of the economy and that national and international feedback effects are important. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have been widely employed in order to study the effects of international climate policies. The main characteristic of these models is their encompassing scope: Global models cover the whole world economy disaggregated into regions and countries as well as diverse sectors of economic activity. Such a modelling framework unveils direct and indirect feedback effects of certain policies or shocks across sectors and countries. CGE models are thus well suited for the study of bioenergy/biofuel policies. One can currently find various approaches in the literature of incorporating bioenergy into a CGE framework. This paper gives an overview of existing approaches, critically assesses their respective power and discusses the advantages of CGE models compared to partial equilibrium models. Grouping different approaches into categories and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages is important for giving a structure to this rather recent and rapidly growing research area and to provide a guidepost for future work. (author)

  16. Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups

  17. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Assessment of bioenergy potential on marginal land in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Dafang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Lei; Huang, Yaohuan [Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bioenergy developed from energy plants will play a more and more important role in future energy supply. Much attention has been paid to energy plants in recent years. As China has fairly limited cultivated land resources, the bioenergy development may mainly rely on the exploitation of marginal land. This study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and bio-fuel potential in China using newly acquired data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. A multi-factor analysis method was adopted to identify marginal lands for bioenergy development in China, with data of several main types of energy plants on the eco-environmental requirements and natural habits employed. A combined planting zonation strategy was proposed, which was targeted for five species of energy plants including Helianthus tuberous L., Pistacia chinensis, Jatropha curcas L., Cassava and Vernicia fordii. The results indicated that total area of marginal land exploitable for development of energy plants on a large scale was about 43.75 million ha. If 10% of this marginal land was fully utilized for growing the energy plants, the production of bio-fuel would be 13.39 million tons. (author)

  19. Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others

  20. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  1. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 - Countries report. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Mandl, M. (Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2010-07-01

    This report has been developed by the members of IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery: Co-production of Fuels, Chemicals, Power and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to improve international cooperation and information exchange between national bioenergy RD and D programs. IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefinery covers a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals with a variety of market sectors with many interested stakeholders, a large number of biomass conversion technologies, and integrated concepts of both biochemical and thermochemical processes. This report contains an overview of the biomass, bioenergy and biorefinery situation, and activities, in the Task 42 member countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands. The overview includes: national bioenergy production, non-energetic biomass use, bioenergy related policy goals, national oil refineries, biofuels capacity for transport purposes, existing biorefinery industries, pilot and demo plants, and other activities of research and development (such as main national projects and stakeholders). Data are provided by National Task Leaders (NTLs), whose contact details are listed at the end of the report. (author)

  2. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  3. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  5. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  6. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  7. Greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems: Programme and accomplishments of IEA Bioenergy Task XV, 1995-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of IEA Bioenergy Task XV was to investigate all processes involved in using bioenergy systems, on a full fuel-cycle basis, with the aim of establishing overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. Task participants have been Austria, Canada, Finland, Sweden and the U.S.A. (Operating Agent: Austria). During its work period (1995-97), Task XV hosted five international workshops. The scientific achievements of the Task are documented in a number of published papers. Also, a bibliography on the research area was compiled. Much work was devoted to the question of carbon accounting in the context of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and Task XV made contributions to a draft IPCC special report prepared for the IPCC Expert Group on Harvested Wood Products. The technical paper 'Forest harvests and wood products: sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide' (Forest Science, forthcoming) contrasts two carbon accounting approaches for considering wood products in the IPCC Guidelines (i.e., 'atmospheric-flow' vs. 'stock-change' method) and reports on estimated national carbon source-sink balances for selected countries, regions, and the world. Finally, progress was made in establishing a common analytical framework to compare different bioenergy options. The framework considers on-site carbon storage changes as well as GHG emissions from auxiliary fossil fuels, conversion efficiencies, and emission credits for by-products; comparisons between bioenergy systems and traditional fossil fuel and other energy systems as a reference are allowed, and reference land-uses accounted for. The continuation Task is Task 25 (1998-2000), with New Zealand joining the current partners 9 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  9. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  10. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  11. A systematic review of bioenergy life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We conducted a systematic literature review of bioenergy LCAs. • We provide a detailed overview of GWP, AP, and EP for biomass electricity and heat. • We discuss methodological choices that can lead to variations in results. • Relevant choices are functional unit, allocation method, system boundary, and carbon modelling. - Abstract: On a global scale, bioenergy is highly relevant to renewable energy options. Unlike fossil fuels, bioenergy can be carbon neutral and plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass electricity and heat contribute 90% of total final biomass energy consumption, and many reviews of biofuel Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) have been published. However, only a small number of these reviews are concerned with electricity and heat generation from biomass, and these reviews focus on only a few impact categories. No review of biomass electricity and heat LCAs included a detailed quantitative assessment. The failure to consider heat generation, the insufficient consideration of impact categories, and the missing quantitative overview in bioenergy LCA reviews constitute research gaps. The primary goal of the present review was to give an overview of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. A systematic review was chosen as the research method to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. We conducted a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. There is a significant variability in results of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. Assumptions regarding the bioenergy system and methodological choices are likely reasons for extreme values. The secondary goal of this review is to discuss influencing methodological choices. No general consensus has been reached regarding the optimal functional unit, the ideal allocation of environmental impact between co-products, the definition of the system boundary

  12. 2010 World bio-energy conference; Compte-rendu de la conference internationale sur les bioenergies 25-27 mai a Joenkoeping en Suede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  13. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferu...

  14. Sustainability of bioenergy chains. The result is in the details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J.M.C.

    2009-05-13

    This thesis investigated how the feasibility and sustainability of large-scale bioenergy production, supply and use for local use or trade can be determined ex ante on a regional level, taking into account the complexities and variabilities of the underlying factors like food demand and land use. Recently, governments, NGOs, companies and international organizations (e.g. Dutch government, Solidaridad, Shell or FAO) have taken initiatives to guarantee the sustainable production and use of biomass. Uncertainties on the feasibility, implementation and costs of international biomass certification systems and the compliance with international laws and agreements have to be resolved. A developed software tool shows that it is possible to allow users from various regions to use one methodology and tool to calculate the GHG balances and cost-effectiveness of biomass energy systems. Core methodological issues are accommodated in the tool. One of the case studies demonstrates e.g. that the allocation procedure should be carefully defined as is shown by the variation in results, which is 35 to 50 kg CO2 eq./GJ delivered in GHG emissions. The technical potentials and cost-supply curves of bioenergy are assessed for Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) on a regional level. The more favourable scenarios to 2030 show a highest potential of 11.7 EJ. In most CEEC, bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs below 2 euro/GJ. The cost performance of energy carriers supplied from the CEEC is assessed for a set of bioenergy chains. Ethanol can be produced at 12 to 21 euro/GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at selected destinations in Western Europe or at 15 to 18 euro/GJ if biomass to ethanol conversion takes place where the biomass is produced. A case in Argentina shows the potential and economic feasibility of large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass, cultivated in La Pampa province. For the various scenarios to 2030, biodiesel from

  15. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  16. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pelkonen, Paavo [School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Havu-Nuutinen, Sari [School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pietarinen, Janne [School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-04-15

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum. (author)

  17. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum.

  18. Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of

  19. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  20. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  1. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  2. Extending bioenergy towards smart biomass use Issues of social acceptance at Park Cuijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, J.; Asveld, L.; Osseweijer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background While the share of bioenergy in the overall energy supply has increased over the last decade, its social acceptance is fragile, mainly due to concerns about negative sustainability impacts. In this paper, we will investigate to what extent the extension of bioenergy towards ‘smart’ or ‘ca

  3. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  4. Integrating place-specific livelihood and equity outcomes into global assessments of bioenergy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Corbera, Esteve; Bolwig, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated assessment models suggest that the large-scale deployment of bioenergy could contribute to ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. However, such a shift would intensify the global competition for land, with possible consequences for 1.5 billion smallholder livelihoods that these m...... scenarios of future bioenergy deployment, thus contributing to a key challenge in sustainability sciences....

  5. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik

    2012-07-01

    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  6. Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

  7. Pullulan production from sugar beat molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم; Sultan, Raad Hussani

    1997-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses was used as the substrate for the production of pullulan with Aureobasidum pullulans ATCC 42023. In addition biomass, residual sugar and final pH of the culture medium were investigated. In comparing sugar beet molasses and glucose media, it was found that production of pullulan from glucose medium highly exceeded that produced from molasses medium. Treatment of molasses with sodium sulphate slightly enhanced pullulan production. Highest pullulan production from molasses o...

  8. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  9. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  10. The Mexican sugar industry : problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican sugar industry operates under strict government controls. The sugar parastatal, AZUCAR, and other state agencies govern virturally all aspects of pricing and, until recently, AZUCAR controlled virtually all aspects of marketing. The purpose of this study is to make transparent the main economic effects of existing sugar policies. Three broad measures are used to estimate the resource misallocation effects of intervention: the nominal rate of protection, the effective rate of assis...

  11. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-01-01

    [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.). Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00) Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50) These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slaver...

  12. Supply Response of Sugar Cane in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Soetrisno

    1984-01-01

    The paper investigates the supply response of sugar cane using an extended Nerlovian model, The analysis is separated into sugar mills and farmers’ responses. Output response is decomposed into area response and yield response. An important finding shows farmers to be responsive to price while millers are not, The insignificant results on sugar mills indicate that when they are under strict control, and are no longer profit maximizing, the Nerlovian supply response does not apply.

  13. Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-06-15

    Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

  14. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  15. Sustainability and meanings of farm-based bioenergy production in rural Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S.

    2013-06-01

    Rural bioenergy production has accrued interest in recent years. EU pressure for climate change abatement and energy political concerns regarding the availability of fossil fuels, have increased bioenergy production objectives in Finland. In addition, rural regions in Finland have encountered structural changes following EU inclusion, including an emergent interest in auxiliary production lines of which bioenergy production is an example. Local bioenergy production has the potential to increase rural sustainability and provide a model for sustainable rural development and energy production. Focusing on the recent emergence of small-scale farm-related bioenergy production: heat provision from wood fuels and biogas and biodiesel production, this study aims to discover if and how farm-based bioenergy production contributes to sustainable rural development. The study derives from the field of rural studies and evaluates sustainable rural development via the concepts of multifunctionality, embeddedness, ecological modernization and sustainable livelihoods, with a particular focus on social sustainability. The empirical portion of the study is comprised of thematic qualitative interviews of bioenergy producing farmers, and on newspaper and periodical article material. The results demonstrate how rural small-scale bioenergy production can have important positive developmental effects that ameliorate and sustain livelihoods in remote areas. This occurs via the multifunctional benefits of bioenergy production to the producers and local communities. The positive effects include social, economical and environmental aspects and rural bioenergy production can present traits of sustainable rural development, predominantly manifested in the social aspects of increased capabilities and reinforced social networks. There are, however, important differences between the examined production models. As an example of achieving sustainable rural development and livelihoods, heat

  16. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  17. The development of bioenergy in Austria and in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria is interested in using of biomass for energy because of its energy, environmental, agricultural and social policy. The country imports more than two thirds of the energy (about 350 P J/a). As the energy production using fossils decreases, the dependence of the country on imported energy increases. Compensation of this could be only an increase of hydropower and of bio-energy utilization but about 70% of the domestic hydropower is already used and the use of the remaining 30% is ecologically objected. So this increase relies on bio-energy. It is non exhaustible and very attractive as is neutral to carbon dioxide emissions. With of 46% of its territory wooded and large quantities of by-products, the country has an enormous potential for bio-energy production. Like other European countries there is surplus food and feed production, expressed as about 350 000 ha arable and greenland . The cultivation of new and special crops could reduce the surplus area to 170 000 ha for energy crops. The regional utilization of biomass for energy production would contribute to the creation of new jobs in the undeveloped rural areas. Each MW installed capacity would result to 2-3 new jobs and prevent the migration of 2-3 families from rural to urban regions saving large subsidies. The share of bio-energy is 10.9% of the primary energy consumption or 13.5% of the end energy consumption and is continually increasing. Bio-energy by wood by-product is mainly used for space heating with a total capacity of 2.5 GW: 90% of the furnaces are of less than 100 k W, the rest are of medium capacity (100-1000 k W) and only 364 of a capacity larger than 1MW. Considerable technical progress in decreasing emissions from wood burning was made in recently. About 25% of the bio-fuels are used in industrial installations and about 75% for space heating. The industrial boilers use fluidized-bed technology and co-generation systems using steam. Starting from 2005 3% of the electricity have to be

  18. Determining greenhouse gas balances of biomass fuel cycles. Results to date from task 15 of IEA bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected activities of IEA Bio-energy Task 15 are described. Task 15 of IEA Bio-energy, entitled 'Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bio-energy Systems', aims at investigating processes involved in the use of bio-energy systems on a full fuel-cycle basis to establish overall greenhouse gas balances. The work of Task 15 includes, among other things, a compilation of existing data on greenhouse gas emissions from various biomass production and conversion processes, a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bio-energy systems, a bibliography, and recommendations for selection of appropriate national strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. (K.A.)

  19. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Sbats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment. PMID:23085289

  20. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is accelerating the commercialization of first-of-a-kind technologies that use our nation’s abundant renewable biomass resources for the production of advanced biofuels and biobased products. Non-food sources of biomass, such as algae, agricultural residues and forestry trimmings, and energy crops like switchgrass, are being used in BETO-supported, cutting-edge technologies to produce drop-in biofuels, including renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. BETO is also investigating how to improve the economics of biofuel production by converting biomass into higher-value chemicals and products that historically have always been derived from petroleum.

  4. The role of sustainability requirements in international bioenergy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelkmans, Luc; Goovaerts, Liesbet; Goh, Chun Sheng;

    2014-01-01

    impact on worldwide markets and trade. On the basis of these studies, recommendations were made on how sustainability requirements could actually support further bioenergy deployment. Markets would gain from more harmonization and cross-compliance. A common language is needed as ‘sustainability’ of...... account how markets work, in relation to different biomass applications (avoiding discrimination among end-uses and users). It should also take into account the way investment decisions are taken, administrative requirements for smallholders, and the position of developing countries....

  5. 9. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 9. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    This volume contains the following main topics: (1) Valorisation/overall optimization by (waste) heat utilization; (2) Flexible energy supply; (3) Traditional and alternative solid bioenergy sources; (4) Conditions for biofuel supply; (5) Utilization of biofuels for engines; (6) Bio-waste as resource; (7) Optimization of biogas plants/process optimization; (8) Energy crops and their rotations. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt folgenden Themenschwerpunkte: (1) Inwertsetzung/Gesamtoptimierung durch (Ab-)Waermenutzung; (2) Flexible Energiebereitstellung; (3) Traditionelle und alternative feste Bioenergietraeger; (4) Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Biokraftstoff-Bereitstellung; (5) Motorische Nutzung von Biokraftstoffen; (6) Bioabfall als Ressourcen; (7) Optimierung von Biogasanlagen/Prozessoptimierung; (8) Energiepflanzen-Fruchtfolgen.

  6. Proceedings of the first meeting of IEA, Bioenergy, Task 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L.; Ledin, S. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The present proceedings are the result of the first meeting of Task 17 within the frame of IEA, Bioenergy. During the meeting the objectives of Task 17 were discussed and determined to be: * to stimulate the full-scale implementation of energy crops in participating countries; * to strengthen the contacts and co-operation between participating countries, scientists, biomass producers, machine developers, entrepreneurs, and end users; * to select the most urgent research and development areas, and to suggest projects of co-operation; * to deliver Proceedings from the meetings, and * to inform Ex-Co-members. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the 7 papers presented.

  7. Feed or bioenergy production from agri-industrial residues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    consequences on the food/feed market, or on the carbon balance of the soil. The first are commonly called indirect land-use changes (iLUC), as they cause an increase in the international demand of a food/feed product, finally inducing an expansion of cropland into other ecosystems. Failing to account for these...... consequences may lead to misrepresent the actual environmental impacts. This study quantified, by use of consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA), the environmental impacts associated with a number of bioenergy scenarios involving selected agri-industrial residues. Three relevant conversion pathways were...

  8. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  10. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  11. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  12. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  13. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  14. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is widely grown, however high profitability requires proper land selection and management. This chapter describes the characteristics of sugar beet and reviews its land and soil management, including cultivation techniques, crop rotation, soil tillage, planting and seedbed preparation, di...

  15. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  16. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  17. How a change in Brazil's sugar policies would affect the world sugar market

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Although Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, only one-third of the cane it grows is used to produce sugar; the rest is used to produce ethanol as fuel for automobiles. Still, Brazil is the world's fourth largest sugar producer. This paper asks what it would mean for Brazil and for the world sugar market if Brazil were to shift largely away from ethanol to sugar production. This question is of keen interest for the world sugar market because such a shift -- although politically d...

  18. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a def...

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  20. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  1. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  2. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  3. Large scale international bioenergy trading. How bioenergy trading can be reliazed under safe and sustainable frame conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Kirchovas, Simas

    2011-01-01

    sustainability criteria. The sustainability criteria agreed internationally could be realized as a tool to secure the positive impacts of bioenergy and to foster the international trade. This study investigates the developments by national and international bodies of biomass standardization and certification...... has for many years been forming the basis for the change together with wind and solar energy. These resources still contains great potentials for energy supply chains in increasing areas of Europe and the World. Biomass sustainability issues could be solved by developing the international...

  4. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  5. Striving to further harmonization of sustainability criteria for bioenergy in Europe: Recommendations from a stakeholder questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This questionnaire analyzed the ongoing development of sustainability criteria for solid and liquid bioenergy in the European Union and further actions needed to come to a harmonization of certification systems, based on EU stakeholder views. The questionnaire, online from February to August 2009, received 473 responses collected from 25 EU member countries and 9 non-European countries; 285 could be used for further processing. A large majority of all stakeholders (81%) indicated that a harmonized certification system for biomass and bioenergy is needed, albeit some limitations. Amongst them, there is agreement that (i) a criterion on 'minimization of GHG emissions' should be included in a certification system for biomass and bioenergy, (ii) criteria on optimization of energy and on water conservation are considered of high relevance, (iii) the large variety of geographical areas, crops, residues, production processes and end-uses limits development towards a harmonized certification system for sustainable biomass and bioenergy in Europe, (iv) making better use of existing certification systems and standards improves further development of a harmonized European biomass and bioenergy sustainability certification system and (v) it is important to link a European certification system to international declarations and to expand such a system to other world regions. - Highlights: → The majority of stakeholders agree on the need of a certification system for biomass and bioenergy. → Limitations for harmonizing a European system include the geographical diversity, crops and processes for biomass and bioenergy. → It is important to consider the international declarations when developing a European system.

  6. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  7. Proceedings of the CANBIO workshop on Canadian bioenergy : export markets vs. domestic business opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While there is a strong European demand for bioenergy products such as wood pellets, Canadian bioenergy markets remain relatively subdued. Organized by the Canadian Bioenergy Association, this workshop explored various national and international development opportunities for wood residue and bioenergy products. BioOil markets in Europe were considered as a potential market for Canadian bioenergy products. Various European and Canadian incentive programs and research initiatives were outlined. New technologies in bioenergy refinement practices were explored and new development in syngas production techniques were introduced. It was suggested that district heating programs and gasification fuels may provide new domestic markets for bioenergy products. Resource opportunities in the electricity sector were evaluated, and wood residue production trends in Canada were examined. It was noted that the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia (BC) has increased wood residue production surpluses in the province, which has resulted in increased sawmill activity. Sixteen presentations were given at this workshop, 4 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Effect of Ripeness and Drying Process on Sugar and Ethanol Production from Giant Reed (Arundo donax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Viola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work highlighted the influence of the water content within the starting biomass, drying procedure and ripeness on the enzymatic digestibility of the giant reed, one of the most suitable nonfood crops for bioenergy and bio-compound production. Fresh green reed was treated as received, while oven-dried green and ripe reed were humidified before the steam explosion pretreatment that was carried out at 210 ℃ for 10 minutes. The exploded biomasses were extracted with water to remove the soluble hemicellulose and potential inhibitors; the insoluble residue was submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation. The process was evaluated in terms of sugars recovery and ethanol yield. After the sequence of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 132 g; 103 g; 162 g of ethanol; and 77 g; 63 g; 92 g of pentosanes were respectively obtained from 1 kgDM of fresh green reed; dried green reed or ripe reed. The ripe reed contains more carbohydrates than the green reed and the resulting sugar and ethanol production was higher, in spite of lower saccharification yield. While drying the fresh biomass is good practice for biomass preservation, it negatively affects the recovery of free sugars and the ethanol production, because of fiber hornification which hinders enzyme access in the hydrolysis step.

  10. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  11. Sustainable bioenergy and bioproducts value added engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Leeuwen, J; Brown, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts considers the recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in biobased energy production and coproducts utilization. Each chapter in  this book has been carefully selected and contributed by experts in the field to provide a good understanding of the various challenges and opportunities associated with sustainable production of biofuel. Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts covers a broad and detailed range of topics including: ·         production capacity of hydrocarbons in the plant kingdom, algae, and microbes; ·         biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; ·         microbial fuel cells; ·         sustainable use of biofuel co-products; ·         bioeconomy and transportation infrastructure impacts and ·         assessment of environmental risks and the life cycle of biofuels. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of biorenewables, and members of th...

  12. Bioenergy Consumption and Biogas Potential in Cambodian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Residential bioenergy consumption and bioenergy resources based on by-products of residential agricultural production and animal husbandry have been analyzed statistically, based on a nationwide residential livelihood and energy survey conducted in Cambodia in 2009. Furthermore, the potential for biomethanation, residential biogas consumption and small-scale power generation for non-electrified rural areas has been assessed. Household potential of biogas substrates in Cambodia, based on nationally representative data has not been presented earlier. This paper proposes mixtures of substrates for biogas production for various livelihood zones of Cambodia. The occurrence of biomass suitable for biomethanation is most favorable in unelectrified rural areas, except for fishing villages. The theoretical daily biogas potential from animal dung and rice husk appears to be promising for households in unelectrified rural villages, both for household digesters and units designed for small-scale electricity generation. Theoretical CH4 content of biogas was 63.9% and specific biogas yield 0.41 Nm3/kg for households in unelectrified villages. Based on the survey, the energy content of biogas potential is 25.5 PJ per year. This study shows that biogas has nationally significant technical potential in Cambodia.

  13. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Helen K., E-mail: watsonh@ukzn.ac.za [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km{sup 2} resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  14. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to interrogate 1 km2 resolution protected area, land cover, climate, elevation and soil data sets. To avoid detrimental impacts on biodiversity, all categories of protected areas, closed canopy forests and wetlands were excluded. To safeguard food security, all areas under food and/or cash crop production were excluded. Areas unsuitable because of climate, terrain and soil constraints were also excluded. The assessment found that almost 6 million hectares of suitable land is available in these countries, clearly suggesting that 'land' is unlikely to be a limiting factor in harnessing sugarcane's bioenergy potential in the region. However, land identified as such in this study needs to be verified using better resolution, preferably ground, information.

  15. Threshold Dynamics in Soil Carbon Storage for Bioenergy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D.; Quijano, J.; Kumar, P.; Chaoka, S.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the Midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. In this study, we attempt to explore and analyze how different amounts of above-ground biomass returned to the soil at harvest affect the below-ground dynamics of carbon and nitrogen as a comparative study between miscanthus, swichgrass, and corn-corn-soybean rotation. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of above-ground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C:N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25% and 15% of above-ground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. However, we do not observe such threshold effects for corn-corn-soybean rotation. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which in turn would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared with a corn-corn-soybean rotation.

  16. The IEA/bioenergy implementing agreement and other activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, R. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C. (United States). Biofuels Systems Div.

    1996-12-31

    Implementing Agreements (IAs) are used widely in international collaborative work within the International Energy Agency (IEA). These agreements are meant to be very flexible depending on the nature of the work and the interests of the participating countries. Many IAs are directed at the development of specific technologies, while a number of IAs are primarily used to facilitate information collection and dissemination. There are also a number of agreements that do not deal directly with technology development, but deal with environmental, economic and safety aspects of the technologies under development. The IEA Bioenergy Agreement is a prime example of how Implementing Agreements can be utilised to establish and expand cooperative research for the effective leveraging of technical knowledge and financial resources in finding solutions to the future needs of a growing energy dependent world. As will be illustrated, these activities are important to the commercialisation and deployment of bioenergy technologies, which increasingly are being visualized as one of the few options that can maintain and promote economic and environmental stability

  17. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 are to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands, and also sets the first step to make an inventory of barriers as perceived by various Dutch stakeholders. The report organizes as follows. Section 2 and 3 presents a brief overview of the policy setting on renewable energy and bio-energy in the Netherlands and the policy instruments deployed to stimulate renewable energy market penetration. In section 4, the achievements, the current status and the short-term expectations for the use of biomass energy in the Netherlands are described. Next, in section 5, the biomass market and biomass trade in the Netherlands are discussed, including the major biomass streams involved, conversion technologies, import and export volumes, biomass prices, barriers for further import and biomass certification efforts. Section 6 concludes with a general discussion and conclusions.

  18. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. PMID:26087365

  19. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for bioenergy agroecosystems to provide global-scale climate regulating ecosystem services via biogeochemical processes. Such as those processes associated with carbon uptake, conversion, and storage that have the potential to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, the expansion of bioenergy crops can also lead to direct biophysical impacts on climate through water regulating services. Perturbations of processes influencing terrestrial energy fluxes can result in impacts on climate and water across a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about biophysical feedbacks between vegetation, water, and climate that would be affected by bioenergy-related land use change. The physical mechanisms involved in biophysical feedbacks are detailed, and interactions at leaf, field, regional, and global spatial scales are described. Locally, impacts on climate of biophysical changes associated with land use change for bioenergy crops can meet or exceed the biogeochemical changes in climate associated with rising GHG's, but these impacts have received far less attention. Realization of the importance of ecosystems in providing services that extend beyond biogeochemical GHG regulation and harvestable yields has led to significant debate regarding the viability of various feedstocks in many locations. The lack of data, and in some cases gaps in knowledge associated with biophysical and biochemical influences on land–atmosphere interactions, can lead to premature policy decisions. - Highlights: • The physical basis for biophysical impacts of expanding bioenergy agroecosystems on climate and water is described. • We

  20. A single amino acid change converts the sugar sensor SGLT3 into a sugar transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3 does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For this reason SGLT3 was suggested to be a sugar sensor rather than a transporter. Despite 70% amino acid identity between hSGLT3 and hSGLT1, their sugar transport, apparent sugar affinities, and sugar specificity differ greatly. Residue 457 is important for the function of SGLT1 and mutation at this position in hSGLT1 causes glucose-galactose malabsorption. Moreover, the crystal structure of vibrio SGLT reveals that the residue corresponding to 457 interacts directly with the sugar molecule. We thus wondered if this residue could account for some of the functional differences between SGLT1 and SGLT3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mutated the glutamate at position 457 in hSGLT3 to glutamine, the amino acid present in all SGLT1 proteins, and characterized the mutant. Surprisingly, we found that E457Q-hSGLT3 transported sugar, had the same stoichiometry as SGLT1, and that the sugar specificity and apparent affinities for most sugars were similar to hSGLT1. We also show that SGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in a living organism. We expressed hSGLT3 and E457Q-hSGLT3 in C. elegans sensory neurons and found that animals sensed glucose in an hSGLT3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrate that hSGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in vivo and that mutating a single amino acid converts this sugar sensor into a sugar transporter similar to SGLT1.

  1. Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Schell, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times as much water as the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the various organics present in a post-fermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The organic loading was varied over a wide range to assess removal efficiency, coulombic efficiency and power production. A coulombic efficiency of 40% was observed for a low loading of 1% (0.66 g/L) and decreased to 1.8% for the undiluted process stream (66.4 g/L organic loading). A maximum power density of 1180 mW/m2 was observed at a loading of 8%. Excessive loading was found to result in poor electrogenic performance. The results indicate that operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

  2. ANALYSIS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SUGAR INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes basic indicators of innovative activity of sugar enterprises during the study period. The study presents basic factors that prevent the innovative development of sugar industry enterprises. The economic assessment is made as to various schemes of processing sugar beets for sugar and ethanol production for maximization of economic benefit. The evidence reveals importance of sugar and ethanol producrion combination in terms of the sugar enterprises to provide their socio-economic activity stabilization.

  3. A market based development strategy for biomass and bioenergy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the current level of commercialization of some kinds of developing bioenergy technologies in China on the basis of the criteria for technology commercialization, analyzes factors that restrict bioenergy technologies, and proposes ways to overcome barriers and promote bioenergy development. Commercialization, the great power driving technology development, is the basic measure of transferring scientific achievement into productivity. Experience shows that commercialization of new technology not only perfects the performance of the technology but also accelerates society's productive power development, which then meets demands of the national economy and of people's material and cultural life. These issues concern the Chinese government and are the topic of this paper. (author)

  4. In search of a sustainable bioenergy policy; Auf der Suche nach einer nachhaltigen Bioenergiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Purkus, Alexandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie

    2012-03-15

    As part of the envisaged energy turnaround bioenergy is supposed to make a major contribution to a sustainable, climatically friendly energy supply system. While there is no energy resource that does not also cause environmental costs, bioenergy is particularly incriminated of failing to deliver on its promise of sustainability. Particularly the quantity-oriented expansion strategy currently pursued holds a risk of stoking up the competition for land use and provoking conflicts with nature conservation goals. Sustainable bioenergy policy requires an institutional framework that not only promotes the efficient use of scarce biomass resources but also sets up reliable crash barriers to safeguard sustainability.

  5. An approach to computing marginal land use change carbon intensities for bioenergy in policy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurately characterizing the emissions implications of bioenergy is increasingly important to the design of regional and global greenhouse gas mitigation policies. Market-based policies, in particular, often use information about carbon intensity to adjust relative deployment incentives for different energy sources. However, the carbon intensity of bioenergy is difficult to quantify because carbon emissions can occur when land use changes to expand production of bioenergy crops rather than simply when the fuel is consumed as for fossil fuels. Using a long-term, integrated assessment model, this paper develops an approach for computing the carbon intensity of bioenergy production that isolates the marginal impact of increasing production of a specific bioenergy crop in a specific region, taking into account economic competition among land uses. We explore several factors that affect emissions intensity and explain these results in the context of previous studies that use different approaches. Among the factors explored, our results suggest that the carbon intensity of bioenergy production from land use change (LUC) differs by a factor of two depending on the region in which the bioenergy crop is grown in the United States. Assumptions about international land use policies (such as those related to forest protection) and crop yields also significantly impact carbon intensity. Finally, we develop and demonstrate a generalized method for considering the varying time profile of LUC emissions from bioenergy production, taking into account the time path of future carbon prices, the discount rate and the time horizon. When evaluated in the context of power sector applications, we found electricity from bioenergy crops to be less carbon-intensive than conventional coal-fired electricity generation and often less carbon-intensive than natural-gas fired generation. - Highlights: • Modeling methodology for assessing land use change emissions from bioenergy • Use GCAM

  6. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  7. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  8. 5. Rostock bioenergy forum. Proceedings; 5. Rostocker Bioenergieforum. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 5th Rostock bioenergy forum at 2nd and 3rd November, 2011, in Rostock (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) International developments in the range of bioenergy (Frank Scholwin); (2) Grassland power Havelland - An analysis of potentials (Sven Schicketanz); (3) MixBioPells: Improvement of the market relevance of alternative biomass mix pellets in Europe (Thomas Zang); (4) Energetic utilization of Paludi biomass (Matthias Ahlhaus); (5) Supply of wood-based bioenergy sources by means of agro-forestry systems (Christian Boehm); (6) Results from experiments with rapidly growing tree species after eighteen years of management in Guelzow (A. Gurgel); (7) Landscape conservation materials - Optimization of the supply of sustainable raw materials by means of implementation of biomass farms (R. Wirkner); (8) Biomass as an energy source - An efficiency comparison from the view of land use (W. Grosse); (9) State of the art of the advancement of stationary fluidized-bed systems with low performance from the view of the engineering design (C. Boehme); (10) Classification and implementation of wood ashes (R. Schraegle); (11) Estimation of the sustainable biomass potential from grasslands of Brandenburg (C. Schleier); (12) Optimization of a regional production of bioalcohol from biogenic residues (M. Buck); (13) Results of the project BioWtL for the use of biogenic residues and wastes in the rapid pyrolysis for the economy of forces (M. Kroeger); (14) Characterization of gaseous primary products of the rapid pyrolysis of biomass (T. Streibel); (15) Vegetable oils as a fuel - DIN 51605 and DIN SPEC 51623 (E. Remmele); (16) Use of rapeseed oils in diesel engines (V. Wichmann); (17) Operation of tractors with rapeseed oil - Experiences and potential of optimization (H.M. Paulsen); (18) Ignition behaviour of different vegetable oils (P. Emberger); (19) Unwanted interactions of biofuel components with engine lubricating oils - Important

  9. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  10. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or β-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic β-keto ester or β-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as β-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic β-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic β-diketones, β-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  11. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  12. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  13. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological performance and effectiveness. Results show that these projects have not achieved a satisfying performance after 10 years experience. Many projects have been discontinued. This failure is attributed to a complex of shortcomings in institutional structure, technical level, financial support and social factors. For a more successful future development of bioenergy in rural areas, China should reform its institutional structure, establish a renewable energy market and enhance the technological level of bioenergy projects

  14. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  15. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc;

    2012-01-01

    soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon......Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which...... emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy....

  16. Planning for Increased Bioenergy use - Strategies for Minimising Environmental Impacts and Analysing the Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several goals aimed at increasing the use of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system. Bioenergy is one important renewable energy source and there is a potential to increase its use in the future. This thesis aimed to develop and analyse strategies and tools that could be used when planning for conversion to bioenergy-based heating systems and the building of new residential areas with bioenergy-based heating. The goal was to enable the increase of bioenergy and simultaneously minimise the negative health effects caused by emissions associated with the combustion of bioenergy. The thesis consists of two papers. Paper I concerned existing residential areas and conversion from electric heating and individual heating systems, such as firewood and oil boilers, to more modern and low-emitting pellet techniques and small-scale district heating. Paper II concerned new residential areas and how to integrate bioenergy-based heating systems that cause impacts on local air quality into the physical planning process through using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a meteorological dispersion model, ALARM. The results from Paper I indicated that it was possible to convert areas currently using electric heating to pellet techniques and small-scale district heating without degrading local air quality. Furthermore, it was possible to decrease high emissions caused by firewood boilers by replacing them with pellet boilers. The results from Paper II highlighted that GIS and ALARM were advantageous for analysing local air quality characteristics when planning for new residential areas and before a residential area is built: thus, avoiding negative impacts caused by bioenergy-based combustion. In conclusion, the work procedures developed in this thesis can be used to counteract negative impacts on local air quality with increasing use of bioenergy in the heating system. Analysis of potentially negative aspects before conversion to bioenergy-based heating

  17. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  18. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Application of radiotracers in the sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to determine the residence time distribution in the pre-heaters and in the clarifier to meet the dynamic of the sugar manufacturing process and to diagnose the equipment operation