WorldWideScience

Sample records for biodiversity

  1. Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity is a really surprising ecological event, as long as there is an extraordinary chemical and biochemical homogeneity at the very foundation of all living beings. It is believed that there are at least three phenomena that may explain it: Darwinian evolution, that is a kind of ramifying evolution; structural coupling, as defined by H. Maturana; and, finally, thermodynamical phenomena, as presented by S. Kauffman leaning on the concepts of organization and a propagating organization that diversifies, and they are all interpreted by E. D. Schneider and J. J. Kay from the idea of Earth as a thermodynamical system. The explanatory importance of this idea in the current environmental crisis, evident in other events such as global warming, is of great relevance.

  2. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  3. Mapping Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

    This document features a lesson plan that examines how maps help scientists protect biodiversity and how plants and animals are adapted to specific ecoregions by comparing biome, ecoregion, and habitat. Samples of instruction and assessment are included. (KHR)

  4. Bundling biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity provides essential services to human societies. Many of these services are provided as public goods, so that they will typically be underprovided both by market mechanisms (because of the impossibility of excluding non-payers from using the services) and by government-run systems (because of the free rider problem). I suggest here that in some cases the public goods provided by biodiversity conservation can be bundled with private goods and their value to consumers captured in th...

  5. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  6. Collecting biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Haripersaud, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Collecting biodiversity There are major concerns about the use of primary species occurrence data that are rapidly becoming available on the internet for ecological studies. To this end, this research assessed the extent of biases associated with a herbarium dataset based is based on specimens collected in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. After getting an understanding of the biases, the database was used to: (a) develop a model to simulate relative abundance distributions in the herbarium...

  7. Biodiversity and global learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rieckmann, Marco; Timm, Jana-M.

    2010-01-01

    "The United Nations declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. This emphasis on the significance of biodiversity for human existence and well-being reveals just how important expanding biodiversity conservation really is. Against this background the question arises as to how much global learning can contribute to maintaining biodiversity." (author's abstract)

  8. Progress in Biodiversity Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Keping Ma; Bin Chen; Liqiang Ji; Lisong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity Informatics is a young and rapidly growing field that brings information science and technologies to bear on the data and information generated by the study of biodiversity and related subjects. Recent years, biodiversity informatics community has made an extraordinary effort to digitize primary biodiversity data, and develop modelling tools, data integration, and county/ regional/ global biodiversity networks. In doing so, the community is creating an unprecedented global sharin...

  9. Biodiversity Is Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Greater numbers of species are disappearing from the planet. Biodiversity protection has become an urgent task for all of us.Given this,the UN declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. Chinese conservationists call for increased awareness of the importance of saving the biodiversity.The following are the perspectives of some Chinese scientists on the significance of,and measures for,biodiversity protection:

  10. Progress in Biodiversity Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keping Ma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity Informatics is a young and rapidly growing field that brings information science and technologies to bear on the data and information generated by the study of biodiversity and related subjects. Recent years, biodiversity informatics community has made an extraordinary effort to digitize primary biodiversity data, and develop modelling tools, data integration, and county/ regional/ global biodiversity networks. In doing so, the community is creating an unprecedented global sharing of information and data produced by biodiversity science, and encouraging people to consider, survey and monitor natural biodiversity. Due to success of several international biodiversity informatics projects, such as Species 2000, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Barcoding of Life and Encyclopedia of Life, digitized information on species inventories, herbarium specimens, multimedia and literature is available through internet. These projects not only make great contributions to sharing digitized biodiversity data, but also in prompting the implementation of important biodiversity information standards, such as Darwin Core, and in the establishment of regional and national biodiversity networks. These efforts will facilitate the future establishment of a strong information infrastructure for data sharing and exchange at a global scale. Besides focusing on browsing and searching digitized data, scientists should also work on building data mining and modeling, such as MAXENT for Ecological Niche Modelling and LifeDesk for taxonomist’s knowledge management. At the same time, the idea of citizen sciences gains popularity showing us the benefit of the public working closely with the scientific community in completing internet-based biodiversity informatics activities. Therefore, biodiversity informatics has broad prospects, and is helping to build strong facilities that will aid in implementing the goals set by Global Plant Conservation Strategy and

  11. Knowing Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvany, P.

    2001-01-01

    The term "agricultural biodiversity" is relatively recent, perhaps post-CBD. Although, the specific nature of the biodiversity used by people was recognised for a long time, the overwhelming emphasis in the CBD was on general biodiversity, mainly 'wild' flora and fauna that inhabit this fragile biosphere in which people also live.

  12. Essential biodiversity variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  13. Biodiversity and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological diversity or biodiversity is crucial for ecological stability including regulation of climate change, recreational and medicinal use; and scientific advancement. Kenya like other developing countries, especially, those in Sub-Saharan Africa, will continue to depend greatly on her biodiversity for present and future development. This important resource must, therefore be conserved. This chapter presents an overview of Kenya's biodiversity; its importance and initiatives being undertaken for its conservation; and in detail, explores issues of climate change and biodiversity, concentrating on impacts of climate change

  14. SRC and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article outlines the priority bird species and habitats in the UK which may be affected by short rotation coppice (SRC). Ways in which SRC plantations can give greatest benefits for biodiversity are examined before then considering the wider biodiversity implications of SRC. (UK)

  15. Biodiversity: Luxury or necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans, J.; Groot, de R.S.; Vliet, van A.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Because biodiversity is so complex and varied, knowledge in this area is still relatively limited. It can be stated that this complexity, combined with structural uncertainty, may well lead to an unpredictable future and further loss of biodiversity which will be characterised by non-linearity, thre

  16. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  17. Funding begets biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, Antje; Burgess, Neil David; Gereau, Roy E.;

    2011-01-01

    Aim Effective conservation of biodiversity relies on an unbiased knowledge of its distribution. Conservation priority assessments are typically based on the levels of species richness, endemism and threat. Areas identified as important receive the majority of conservation investments, often...... facilitating further research that results in more species discoveries. Here, we test whether there is circularity between funding and perceived biodiversity, which may reinforce the conservation status of areas already perceived to be important while other areas with less initial funding may remain overlooked......, and variances decomposed in partial regressions. Cross-correlations are used to assess whether perceived biodiversity drives funding or vice versa. Results Funding explained 65% of variation in perceived biodiversity patterns – six times more variation than accounted for by 34 candidate environmental factors...

  18. Biodiversity and geography

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, Michael; Barbier, Edward B.

    2007-01-01

    The paper combines an economic-geography model of agglomeration and periphery with a model of species diversity and looks at optimal policies of biodiversity conservation. The subject of the paper is "natural" biodiversity, which is inevitably impaired by anthropogenic impact. Thus, the economic and the ecological system compete for space and the question arises as to how this conflict should be resolved. The decisive parameters of the model are related to biological diversity (endemism vs. r...

  19. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records

    OpenAIRE

    Katsanevakis, S.; Ü. ACAR; Ammar, I.; Balci, B.A.; Bekas, P.; Belmonte, M.; Chintiroglou, C.C.; P. CONSOLI; Dimiza, M; K. FRYGANIOTIS; V. GEROVASILEIOU; Gnisci, V.; N. GÜLŞAHIN; Hoffman, R.; Y. ISSARIS

    2014-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf) (Greece); the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore); the mantis shrimp Clorid...

  20. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  1. Business and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Meyer; Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per

    - a challenge that needs to be shared between conservationists, green organisations, public authorities, as well as the private sector. A new wave of green initiatives has emerged within the culture of business and marketing. The reasons for why businesses should engage in environmental actions are many......, but the effort has until now considered biodiversity actions relatively little, compared to other areas such as e.g. climate related actions. Nevertheless, the opportunity for businesses to meet their responsibilities and lift a share of the challenge is far from being just a romantic thought. Nor...... is the challenge of engaging businesses in responsible actions. The core challenge is to create awareness of the environmental phenomenon biodiversity, inform about the significance of business involvement, and encourage the business world to participate in this process of protecting biodiversity as the valuable...

  2. Operationalizing biodiversity for conservation planning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Chris Margules

    2002-07-01

    Biodiversity has acquired such a general meaning that people now find it difficult to pin down a precise sense for planning and policy-making aimed at biodiversity conservation. Because biodiversity is rooted in place, the task of conserving biodiversity should target places for conservation action; and because all places contain biodiversity, but not all places can be targeted for action, places have to be prioritized. What is needed for this is a measure of the extent to which biodiversity varies from place to place. We do not need a precise measure of biodiversity to prioritize places. Relative estimates of similarity or difference can be derived using partial measures, or what have come to be called biodiversity surrogates. Biodiversity surrogates are supposed to stand in for general biodiversity in planning applications. We distinguish between true surrogates, those that might truly stand in for general biodiversity, and estimator surrogates, which have true surrogates as their target variable. For example, species richness has traditionally been the estimator surrogate for the true surrogate, species diversity. But species richness does not capture the differences in composition between places; the essence of biodiversity. Another measure, called complementarity, explicitly captures the differences between places as we iterate the process of place prioritization, starting with an initial place. The relative concept of biodiversity built into the definition of complementarity has the level of precision needed to undertake conservation planning.

  3. Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that the immense diversity of microorganisms and animals that live belowground contributes significantly to shaping aboveground biodiversity and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Our understanding of how this belowground biodiversity is distributed, and how it regulates

  4. Biodiversity: a new challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoe, Edward T.

    1995-01-01

    Resource managers at many state and federal agencies are in the middle of a fundamental change in the practice and objectives of conservation. Traditional management has been directed toward maintaining, usually for harvest purposes, populations of individual species such as ducks, deer, or salmon. Increasingly, however, resource managers are recognizing the critical important of conserving biological diversity, or biodiversity.

  5. Biodiversity and national accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity, a property of natural areas, provides a range of benefits to the economy including bioprospecting rents, knowledge and insurance, ecotourism fees, and ecosystem services. Many of these values can be broken out in the System of National Accounts, leading to better estimates of the economic losses when natural areas are degraded or destroyed. Developing countries harbor the gre...

  6. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  7. Books, Biodiversity, and Beyond!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor, Donna; Helms, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Reading in science class does not have to be boring, but it is no secret to students or teachers that textbooks are not much fun to read. It is always a challenge for teachers to find reading materials that would grab the interests of their students. In this article, the author relates how she used Biodiversity, a nonfiction book by Dorothy…

  8. Forecasting the future of biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Sanders, Nate; Ferrier, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    , but their application to forecasting climate change impacts on biodiversity has been limited. Here we compare forecasts of changes in patterns of ant biodiversity in North America derived from ensembles of single-species models to those from a multi-species modeling approach, Generalized Dissimilarity Modeling (GDM...... climate change impacts on biodiversity....

  9. Biodiversity in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered or replaced native ecosystems across more than three quarters of the terrestrial biosphere, creating new global patterns of biodiversity as a result of native species extinctions, domestication and anthropogenic introductions of nonnative species. These anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity have been portrayed as resulting primarily from recent and unprecedented human disturbances that are potentially indicative of catastrophic changes in the Earth system. Yet anthropogenic changes in species richness and community structure caused by human populations and their use of land have been widespread and profound in many regions since before the Holocene, and have been sustained for millennia in many regions, especially in the Temperate Zone. Beyond the anthropogenic megafaunal extinctions of the Pleistocene, habitat loss and fragmentation by agricultural land use has been sustained throughout the Holocene in many biomes at levels theoretically associated with major species extinctions. Anthropogenic patterns of species extinction differ greatly among taxa, with mammals and other larger fauna showing the greatest impacts. However, spatially explicit observations and models of contemporary global patterns of vascular plant species richness confirm that while native losses are likely significant across at least half of Earth's ice-free land, species richness has increased overall in most regional landscapes, mostly because nonnative species invasions tend to exceed native losses. Effective stewardship of biodiversity in the Anthropocene will require integrated global frameworks for observing, modeling and forecasting anthropogenic biodiversity change processes within the novel biotic communities created and sustained by human systems.; Percentage of terrestrial biomes converted to agricultural land over time. ; Conceptual diagram of biodiversity patterns associated with variations in population density, land use and land cover.

  10. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  11. Defining biodiversity resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gadgil, Madhav

    2000-01-01

    The scope of the Biological Diversity Bill, tabled in the monsoon 2000 session of the Indian Parliament is excessively wide covering all biological resources. Instead it should focus on diversity related end-uses such as drugs, industrial enzymes, cosmetics, dyestuffs, plant growth regulators, emulsifiers, oleoresins and genes used for improving crops and livestock through breeding and genetic intervention. It should seek to regulate collection and movement of such biodiversity resources and ...

  12. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ardura

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  13. Environmental services of biodiversity.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, N

    1996-01-01

    Humans derive many utilitarian benefits from the environmental services of biotas and ecosystems. This is often advanced as a prime argument to support conservation of biodiversity. There is much to be said for this viewpoint, as is documented in this paper through a summary assessment of several categories of environmental services, including regulation of climate and biogeochemical cycles, hydrological functions, soil protection, crop pollination, pest control, recreation and ecotourism, an...

  14. Biodiversity in Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, C; J. Wöllecke; M. Elmer; A. Quinkenstein; Freese, D.; Hüttl, Reinhard F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Large areas of the agricultural landscapes in the lowlands of Northern Germany are low-structured and monotonous due to a consequent removal of trees, shrubs or other landscape elements within the last decades. The lack of heterogeneity has a drawback on biodiversity. Many species of the open field use hedgerows as refuges when environmental conditions become to harsh. If such refuges do not exists, the population decreases. Furthermore, forest species that usually perceive agricultural lands...

  15. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  16. Biofuels and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The recent increase in liquid biofuel production has stemmed from a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, mitigate rising energy prices, promote rural economic development, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growth of this industry has important implications for biodiversity, the effects of which depend largely on which biofuel feedstocks are being grown and the spatial extent and landscape pattern of land requirements for growing these feedstocks. Current biofuel production occurs largely on croplands that have long been in agricultural production. The additional land area required for future biofuels production can be met in part by reclaiming reserve or abandoned croplands and by extending cropping into lands formerly deemed marginal for agriculture. In the United States, many such marginal lands have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing important habitat for grassland species. The demand for corn ethanOl has changed agricultural commodity economics dramatically, already contributing to loss of CRP lands as contracts expire and lands are returned to agricultural production. Nevertheless, there are ways in which biofuels can be developed to enhance their coexistence with biodiversity. Landscape heterogeneity can be improved by interspersion of land uses, which is easier around facilities with smaller or more varied feedstock demands. The development of biofuel feedstocks that yield high net energy returns with minimal carbon debts or that do not require additional land for production, such as residues and wastes, should be encouraged. Competing land uses, including both biofuel production and biodiversity protection, should be subjected to comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, so that incentives can be directed where they will do the most good.

  17. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  18. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  19. Patterns in Biodiversity: Spatial organisation of biodiversity in the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of biodiversity and its current threats is urgently needed, especially in the Netherlands where high population density, industrialisation, and intensive land-use have radically altered the natural landscape. Often, biodiversity research is seriously hampered by a lack of data

  20. Climate changes and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As some people forecast an average temperature increase between 1 and 3.5 degrees by the end of the century, with higher increases under high latitudes (it could reach 8 degrees in some regions of Canada), other changes will occur: precipitations, sea level rise, reductions in polar ice, extreme climatic events, glacier melting, and so on. The author discusses how these changes will impact biodiversity as they will threat habitat and living conditions of many species. Some studies assess a loss of 15 to 37 per cent of biodiversity by 2050. Moreover, physiology is influenced by temperature: for some species, higher temperatures favour the development of female embryos, or the increase of their population, or may result in an evolution of their reproduction strategy. Life rhythm will also change, for plants as well as for animals. Species will keep on changing their distribution area, but some others will not be able to and are therefore threatened. Finally, as the evolutions concern their vectors, some diseases will spread in new regions

  1. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches. PMID:22956430

  2. Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano B Beheregaray; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-01-01

    DNA studies are revealing the extent of hidden, or cryptic, biodiversity. Two new studies challenge paradigms about cryptic biodiversity and highlight the importance of adding a historical and biogeographic dimension to biodiversity research.

  3. Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, L.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Brown, G.G.

    2007-01-01

    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does conf

  4. Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated American and Taiwan undergraduate students' attitudes toward biodiversity. The survey questionnaire consisted of statements prompted by the question "To what extent do you agree with the following statements about problems with the biodiversity issues." Students indicated strongly disagree, disagree, agree,…

  5. Biodiversity: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Data from the fossil record are used to illustrate biodiversity in the past and estimate modern biodiversity and loss. This data is used to compare current rates of extinction with past extinction events. Paleontologists are encouraged to use this data to understand the course and consequences of current losses and to share this knowledge with researchers interested in conservation and ecology.

  6. Biodiversity: Who Knows, Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemits, Birut

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity is an abstract concept, attracting various responses from different people according to where they have come from and what ecosystems they have been closely linked to. In theory, most people would agree that protecting biodiversity is an important process, but in practice, few people commit to actions on a local level. This paper…

  7. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...... and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  8. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  9. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.;

    2009-01-01

    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  10. Net Present Biodiversity Value and the Design of Biodiversity Offsets

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Jacob McC.; Stephens, R. T. Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biod...

  11. An international biodiversity observation year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall; Adams; Mooney; Boxshall; Dobson; Nakashizuka

    2001-01-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY), which took place between July 1957 and December 1958, helped us to rethink the world. At a time when there was a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the physical world, the international collaboration of the IGY helped to reset the discipline. The International Biodiversity Observation Year (IBOY) is now occurring at a time when our dependence on, and understanding of, biodiversity is being acknowledged as a paradigm shift in our present view of the world. Although the benefits of IGY were initially intellectual with practical effects remaining unknown until many years later, the benefits of greater knowledge of biodiversity will support efforts towards sustainability and affect the quality of life, both now and in the future. By providing the framework for international collaborations between scientists involved in every aspect of life on Earth, IBOY has the potential to redefine our current understanding of biodiversity in a manner similar to how IGY helped redefine the geophysical world.

  12. MCBS Sites of Biodiversity Significance

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer represents areas with varying levels of native biodiversity that may contain high quality native plant communities, rare plants, rare animals,...

  13. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  14. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.;

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  15. Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D

    2007-05-16

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation.

  16. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  17. Ecotoxicology & Impact on Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanky Bhat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicology can be defined as the ‘study of impacts of pollutants on the structure and function of ecosystems’ it can be by manmade poisonous chemicals and their effect on the environment, it does not include the study of naturally occurring toxins or it is a scientific discipline combining the methods of ecology and toxicology in studying the effects of toxic substances and especially pollutants on the environment. Ecotoxicology is a mix of various discipline ecology, toxicology, analytical chemistry, physiology, molecular biology, and mathematics. Ecotoxicology looks at the impacts of contaminants including populations, pesticides on individuals, natural communities, and ecosystems. Communities of living things and the environments they live in form ecosystems.Ecosystems include rivers, ponds, deserts, grasslands, and forests, and they too can be affected by pesticides. Ecotoxicologists also study what happens to the pesticides themselves, where they go in the environment, how long they last, and how they finally break down. Herein we review what is ecotoxicology, different kinds of toxicants their impact on biodiversity, assessment of toxicity of environmental toxicant.

  18. Biodiversity, International Tourism and development

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We analyze whether biodiversity is increasing the receipts of tourism and beneficial for Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The underlying assumption is that a rich biodiversity provides a comparative advantage for most LDCs. We use a simple trade theory framework. The model is supported by an empirical analysis. The main findings are that first LDCs seem to have a comparative advantage in (sustainable) tourism, that second incidence of birds as the probably best explored taxonomic group has a...

  19. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  20. Biodiversity of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.1_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.1_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  2. Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Donald C; Kark, Salit

    2010-04-01

    In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed.

  3. Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Donald C; Kark, Salit

    2010-04-01

    In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in urban versus nonurban landscapes? The answer should depend on the goals that drive our conservation actions, yet proponents of urban conservation often fail to specify the motivation for protecting urban biodiversity. This is an important shortcoming on several fronts, including a missed opportunity to make a stronger appeal to those who believe conservation biology should focus exclusively on more natural, wilder landscapes. We argue that urban areas do offer an important venue for conservation biology, but that we must become better at choosing and articulating our goals. We explored seven possible motivations for urban biodiversity conservation: preserving local biodiversity, creating stepping stones to nonurban habitat, understanding and facilitating responses to environmental change, conducting environmental education, providing ecosystem services, fulfilling ethical responsibilities, and improving human well-being. To attain all these goals, challenges must be faced that are common to the urban environment, such as localized pollution, disruption of ecosystem structure, and limited availability of land. There are, however, also challenges specific only to particular goals, meaning that different goals will require different approaches and actions. This highlights the importance of specifying the motivations behind urban biodiversity conservation. If the goals are unknown, progress cannot be assessed. PMID:19775276

  4. Betterments to biodiversity optimal sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity sampling is pivotal in ecology and biology. It is a complex trade-off between the need to sample ecological info, and the need to do it at low effort. In this paper, I propose an improved new solution to this challenge, which takes into account numerous aspects of biodiversity survey activities. There are two outcomes of the proposed algorithm: a) the optimal number of sampling points, and b) their coordinates in the study area. Resulting sampling points can be used for a survey ...

  5. Data intensive computing for biodiversity

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Sarinder K

    2013-01-01

    This book is focused on the development of a data integration framework for retrieval of biodiversity information from heterogeneous and distributed data sources. The data integration system proposed in this book links remote databases in a networked environment, supports heterogeneous databases and data formats, links databases hosted on multiple platforms, and provides data security for database owners by allowing them to keep and maintain their own data and to choose information to be shared and linked. The book is a useful guide for researchers, practitioners, and graduate-level students interested in learning state-of-the-art development for data integration in biodiversity.

  6. Biodiverse planting for carbon and biodiversity on indigenous land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Martin, Tara G; May, Tracey; Polglase, Phil; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2014-01-01

    Carbon offset mechanisms have been established to mitigate climate change through changes in land management. Regulatory frameworks enable landowners and managers to generate saleable carbon credits on domestic and international markets. Identifying and managing the associated co-benefits and dis-benefits involved in the adoption of carbon offset projects is important for the projects to contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development and the provision of benefits to the local communities. So far it has been unclear how Indigenous communities can benefit from such initiatives. We provide a spatial analysis of the carbon and biodiversity potential of one offset method, planting biodiverse native vegetation, on Indigenous land across Australia. We discover significant potential for opportunities for Indigenous communities to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity goals through biodiverse plantings, largely in southern and eastern Australia, but the economic feasibility of these projects depend on carbon market assumptions. Our national scale cost-effectiveness analysis is critical to enable Indigenous communities to maximise the benefits available to them through participation in carbon offset schemes. PMID:24637736

  7. Biodiverse planting for carbon and biodiversity on indigenous land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Renwick

    Full Text Available Carbon offset mechanisms have been established to mitigate climate change through changes in land management. Regulatory frameworks enable landowners and managers to generate saleable carbon credits on domestic and international markets. Identifying and managing the associated co-benefits and dis-benefits involved in the adoption of carbon offset projects is important for the projects to contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development and the provision of benefits to the local communities. So far it has been unclear how Indigenous communities can benefit from such initiatives. We provide a spatial analysis of the carbon and biodiversity potential of one offset method, planting biodiverse native vegetation, on Indigenous land across Australia. We discover significant potential for opportunities for Indigenous communities to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity goals through biodiverse plantings, largely in southern and eastern Australia, but the economic feasibility of these projects depend on carbon market assumptions. Our national scale cost-effectiveness analysis is critical to enable Indigenous communities to maximise the benefits available to them through participation in carbon offset schemes.

  8. Global biodiversity monitoring: from data sources to essential biodiversity variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proenca, Vania; Martin, Laura J.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Fernandez, Miguel; McRae, Louise; Belnap, Jayne; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Garcia-Moreno, Jaime; Gregory, Richard D.; Honrado, Joao P; Jürgens, Norbert; Opige, Michael; Schmeller, Dirk S.; Tiago, Patricia; van Sway, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) consolidate information from varied biodiversity observation sources. Here we demonstrate the links between data sources, EBVs and indicators and discuss how different sources of biodiversity observations can be harnessed to inform EBVs. We classify sources of primary observations into four types: extensive and intensive monitoring schemes, ecological field studies and satellite remote sensing. We characterize their geographic, taxonomic and temporal coverage. Ecological field studies and intensive monitoring schemes inform a wide range of EBVs, but the former tend to deliver short-term data, while the geographic coverage of the latter is limited. In contrast, extensive monitoring schemes mostly inform the population abundance EBV, but deliver long-term data across an extensive network of sites. Satellite remote sensing is particularly suited to providing information on ecosystem function and structure EBVs. Biases behind data sources may affect the representativeness of global biodiversity datasets. To improve them, researchers must assess data sources and then develop strategies to compensate for identified gaps. We draw on the population abundance dataset informing the Living Planet Index (LPI) to illustrate the effects of data sources on EBV representativeness. We find that long-term monitoring schemes informing the LPI are still scarce outside of Europe and North America and that ecological field studies play a key role in covering that gap. Achieving representative EBV datasets will depend both on the ability to integrate available data, through data harmonization and modeling efforts, and on the establishment of new monitoring programs to address critical data gaps.

  9. Biodiverse planting for carbon and biodiversity on indigenous land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Martin, Tara G; May, Tracey; Polglase, Phil; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2014-01-01

    Carbon offset mechanisms have been established to mitigate climate change through changes in land management. Regulatory frameworks enable landowners and managers to generate saleable carbon credits on domestic and international markets. Identifying and managing the associated co-benefits and dis-benefits involved in the adoption of carbon offset projects is important for the projects to contribute to the broader goal of sustainable development and the provision of benefits to the local communities. So far it has been unclear how Indigenous communities can benefit from such initiatives. We provide a spatial analysis of the carbon and biodiversity potential of one offset method, planting biodiverse native vegetation, on Indigenous land across Australia. We discover significant potential for opportunities for Indigenous communities to achieve carbon sequestration and biodiversity goals through biodiverse plantings, largely in southern and eastern Australia, but the economic feasibility of these projects depend on carbon market assumptions. Our national scale cost-effectiveness analysis is critical to enable Indigenous communities to maximise the benefits available to them through participation in carbon offset schemes.

  10. Children prioritize virtual exotic biodiversity over local biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Ballouard

    Full Text Available Environmental education is essential to stem current dramatic biodiversity loss, and childhood is considered as the key period for developing awareness and positive attitudes toward nature. Children are strongly influenced by the media, notably the internet, about biodiversity and conservation issues. However, most media focus on a few iconic, appealing, and usually exotic species. In addition, virtual activities are replacing field experiences. This situation may curb children knowledge and concerns about local biodiversity. Focusing our analyses on local versus exotic species, we examined the level of knowledge and the level of diversity of the animals that French schoolchildren are willing to protect, and whether these perceptions are mainly guided by information available in the internet. For that, we collected and compared two complementary data sets: 1 a questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their knowledge and consideration to protect animals, 2 an internet content analysis (i.e. Google searching sessions using keywords was performed to assess which animals are the most often represented. Our results suggest that the knowledge of children and their consideration to protect animal are mainly limited to internet contents, represented by a few exotic and charismatic species. The identification rate of local animals by schoolchildren was meager, suggesting a worrying disconnection from their local environment. Schoolchildren were more prone to protect "virtual" (unseen, exotic rather than local animal species. Our results reinforce the message that environmental education must also focus on outdoor activities to develop conservation consciousness and concerns about local biodiversity.

  11. Eco-districts and biodiversity development

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    In a context of global changes, decline of biodiversity and increase of the urban population, the request of urban developers to integrate biodiversity into their practices is increasingly strong. My PhD thesis aimed to (1) make a review of the consideration of biodiversity in urban development, and (2) develop new tools to help developers to improve their practices. In the first part focused on biodiversity review, (1) we have expressed some doubts about the relevance of the use of current g...

  12. Analysis of Forest Biodiversity Changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By reference of the evaluative data of forest biodiversity changes in China from 1973 to 1998, the variation analysis models of the pressure index of forest biodiversity, forest ecosystem diversity and forest species diversity, as well as the general index of forest biodiversity are developed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Furthermore established is the relevant model of mutation of forest diversity potential functions. This paper points out that changes of forest biodiversity...

  13. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  14. Biodiversity Conservation in the REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Slik JW

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The tropics also harbour more than half the world's threatened species, raising the possibility that reducing GHG emissions by curtailing tropical deforestation could provide substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation. Here we explore the potential for such co-benefits in Indonesia, a leading source of GHG emissions from land cover and land use change, and among the most species-rich countries in the world. We show that focal ecosystems for interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia do not coincide with areas supporting the most species-rich communities or highest concentration of threatened species. We argue that inherent trade-offs among ecosystems in emission reduction potential, opportunity cost of foregone development and biodiversity values will require a regulatory framework to balance emission reduction interventions with biodiversity co-benefit targets. We discuss how such a regulatory framework might function, and caution that pursuing emission reduction strategies without such a framework may undermine, not enhance, long-term prospects for biodiversity conservation in the tropics.

  15. Reconciling methodologically different biodiversity assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemerden, BS; Etienne, RS; Olff, H; Hommel, PWFM; Van Langevelde, F; Gemerden, Barend S. van; Hommel, Patrick W.F.M.; Brown, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing large-scale habitat disturbance requires quick identification of conservation priorities such as targeting sites rich in species and/or endemics. Biodiversity assessments are time consuming and expensive, so surveys often rely on partial sampling. Optimal use should be made of all currently

  16. A National Biodiversity Offset Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Liberia had an estimated 4.3 million hectares of forests in 2011, comprising approximately 50 percent of Liberia’s landmass. These forests support very high levels of biodiversity, provide a wide range of ecosystem services (for example, bush meat, medicines, construction materials, and charcoal), and generate employment and revenue from commercial and chainsaw logging. Encouraging inward ...

  17. Benchmarking biodiversity performances of farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Dijk, van J.; Staats, H.; Musters, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers are the key players when it comes to the enhancement of farmland biodiversity. In this study, a benchmark system that focuses on improving farmers’ nature conservation was developed and tested among Dutch arable farmers in different social settings. The results show that especially tailored

  18. Teaching Biodiversity: A Successful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lynne; Brown, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    This article takes you on a journey through the authors' school course unit, the "Variety of Life," which aims to unpick the idea of biodiversity and its many facets. The aims and principles of each teaching topic are defined, teaching activities suggested, resources described and the skills each topic develops listed. Whilst aimed at 11- to…

  19. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee, co

  20. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. What is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Describes the term aquatic biodiversity, explains the factors that increase and decrease biodiversity in natural ecosystems, and discusses the value of biodiversity for the health of the environment and quality of life; document also includes web links on national and world biodiversity.

  1. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  2. Biodiversity optimal sampling: an algorithmic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity sampling is a very serious task. When biodiversity sampling is not representative of the biodiversity spatial pattern due to few data or uncorrected sampling point locations, successive analyses, models and simulations are inevitably biased. In this work, I propose a new solution to the problem of biodiversity sampling. The proposed approach is proficient for habitats, plant and animal species, in addition it is able to answer the two pivotal questions of biodiversity sampling: 1 how many sampling points and 2 where are the sampling points.

  3. Options for promoting high-biodiversity REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-11-15

    International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.

  4. Accounting for biodiversity in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Grant C

    2015-05-15

    Biodiversity is an essential part of properly functioning ecosystems, yet the loss of biodiversity currently occurs at rates unparalleled in the modern era. One of the major causes of this phenomenon is habitat loss and modification as a result of intensified agricultural practices. This paper provides a starting point for considering biodiversity within dairy production, and, although focusing primarily on the United States, findings are applicable broadly. Biodiversity definitions and assessments (e.g., indicators, tools) are proposed and reviewed. Although no single indicator or tool currently meets all the needs of comprehensive assessment, many sustainable practices are readily adoptable as ways to conserve and promote biodiversity. These practices, as well as potential funding opportunities are identified. Given the state of uncertainty in addressing the complex nature of biodiversity assessments, the adoption of generally sustainable environmental practices may be the best currently available option for protecting biodiversity on dairy lands.

  5. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahotra Sarkar; Anshu Aggarwal; Justin Garson; Chris R Margules; Juliane Zeidler

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use.

  6. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  7. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee, consisting of the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, Hivos, Rabobank Group, WWF-NL and Tropenbos Internationa...

  8. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the variety of…

  9. FOREST BIODIVERSITY PRESERVATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. BORLEA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity conservation strategy should include forest protected areas as important objectives. Important legislative and administrative measures should be taken in order to integrate the forestry better in the sustainable development of the natural capital of Romania. A list of the most valuable virgin and natural forests is included. The definitions given to forest indicators must be revived and adapted to the actual situation.

  10. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) biodiversity and grassland ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-WEI GUO; HONG-CHANG LI; YA-LING GAN

    2006-01-01

    Interesting results may arise by combining studies on the structure and function of ecosystems with that of biodiversity for certain species. Grasshopper biodiversity is the result of the evolution of grassland ecosystems; however, it also impacts on the structure and the function of those ecosystems. We consider there to be a close relationship between the health of grassland ecosystems and grasshopper biodiversity. The main problems involved in this relationship are likely to include: (i) grasshopper biodiversity and its spatial pattern; (ii) the effect of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems; (iii) the biodiversity threshold of grasshopper population explosions;(iv) the relationship between grasshopper biodiversity and the natural and human factors that affect grassland ecosystems; and (v) grasshopper biodiversity and the health of grassland ecosystems. The solutions to these problems may provide sound bases for controlling disasters caused by grasshoppers and managing grassland ecosystems in the west of China. In this paper, we introduced two concepts for grasshopper biodiversity, that is, "spatial pattern" and "biodiversity threshold". It is helpful to understand the action of the spatial pattern of grasshopper biodiversity on the ecological processes of grassland ecosystems and the effect of this spatial pattern on the health of those ecosystems, owing to the fact that, in the west of China, grasslands are vast and grasshoppers are widely distributed. Moreover, we inferred that the change in the level of component richness at each type of grasshopper biodiversity can make an impact on grassland ecosystems, and therefore, there is likely to be a threshold to grasshopper biodiversity for the stability and the sustainability of those ecosystems.

  11. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Walpole, Matt; Collen, Ben; Van Strien, Arco; Scharlemann, Jorn P.W.; Almond, Rosamunde E.A.; Baillie, Jonathan E.M.; Bomhard, Bastian; Brown, Claire; Bruno, John; Carpenter, Kent E.; Carr, Genevieve M.; Chanson, Janice; Chenery, Anna M.; Csirke, Jorge; Davidson, Nick C.; Dentener, Frank; Foster, Matt; Galli, Alessandro; Galloway, James N.; Genovesi, Piero; Gregory, Richard D.; Hockings, Marc; Kapos, Valerie; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Leverington, Fiona; Loh, Jonathan; McGeoch, Melodie A.; McRae, Louise; Minasyan, Anahit; Morcillo, Monica Hernandez; Oldfield, Thomasina E.E.; Pauly, Daniel; Quader, Suhel; Revenga, Carmen; Sauer, John R.; Skolnik, Benjamin; Spear, Dian; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Stuart, Simon N.; Symes, Andy; Tierney, Megan; Tyrrell, Tristan D.; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Watson, Reg

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing.

  12. International Tourism, development and Biodiversity: First Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Freytag; Christoph Vietze

    2006-01-01

    We analyse whether biodiversity can improve the economic growth of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by increasing the receipts of tourism as one of the world biggest and fastest growing industries. The intention of our examination is to present an alternative utilization of biodiversity, rather than hunting or the agricultural use of habitats. Our hypothesis is that tourism may be an important chance for economic growth in developing countries. We assume that biodiversity is an important fact...

  13. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  14. Biodiversity and environmental education: A contradiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    The need for the maintenance of biodiversity has become a much-debated environmental concern. However, calling for continued biodiversity exposes one to potential accusations of caring more for the natural environment than for people. This article briefly reviews the development of environmental education and provides an overview of the concepts “biodiversity”, “sustainable development” and “sustainable consumption”. Reasons for maintaining biodiversity while simultaneously allowing for susta...

  15. Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Henle, Klaus; Potts, Simon; Kunin, William; Matsinos,Yiannis; Simila, Jukka; Pantis, John; Grobelnik,Vesna; Penev, Lyubomir; Settele, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Human actions, motivated by social and economic driving forces, generate various pressures on biodiversity, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, land use related disturbance patterns, or species invasions that have an impact on biodiversity from the genetic to the ecosystem level. Each of these factors acts at characteristic scales, and the scales of social and economic demands, of environmental pressures, of biodiversity impacts, of scientific analysis, and of governmental...

  16. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    F. CROCETTA; Agius, D.; P. BALISTRERI; M. BARICHE; Y.K. BAYHAN; M. ÇAKIR; S. CIRIACO; M. CORSINI-FOKA; A. DEIDUN; R. EL ZRELLI; D. ERGÜDEN; Evans, J.; M. GHELIA; M. GIAVASI; P. KLEITOU

    2015-01-01

    The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel...

  17. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  18. Biodiversity and its fragility in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Ying-shan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; PU Li-na; HUI Chao-mao

    2007-01-01

    In Yunnan, 8 major aspects of biodiversity and fragility in landforms, ecosystems, distribution populations, alien invasion, segregation, pollution and maladministration with various menace factors causing biodiversity loss have been described. It is revealed that the facts that the biodiversity and fragility coexists in this paper. Accordingly, 6 major countermeasures for effective conservation and rational utilization of the provincial biodiversity were suggested on the basis of thescientific development concepts, principles of nature protection,conservation biology, resource management and ethnobotany and present status in Yunnan with rich intangible resources such as climatic,ethnical and cultural diversity, etc.

  19. Monitoring Biodiversity using Environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis

    of eDNA in monitoring of biodiversity in different settings. First, it is shown that a diversity of rare freshwater animals – representing amphibians, fish, mammals, insects and crustaceans – can be detected based on eDNA obtained directly from 15 ml water samples of lakes, ponds and streams....... For the amphibians there is a quantitative relationship between species-specific eDNA molecules and population sizes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that entire faunas of amphibians and fish can be detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of eDNA from pond water. Secondly, the method is applied in a marine...

  20. What drives biodiversity?: an empirical assessment of the relation between biodiversity and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Vietze, Christoph; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The environmental discussion is increasingly extended to the question of how to preserve biodiversity. As sensible regulation of biodiversity utilization uses politically set incentive schemes, it is required to discus the monetary value of biodiversity. Consequently, the relation between economic incentives and biodiversity is in the focus of our paper. By using bird species as bio indicators we derive first empirical results. In sum, one still may conclude that indeed economic growth is har...

  1. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    V. Anadon-Irizarry; D.C. Wege; A. Upgren; Young, R.; Boom, B; Y.M. Leon; Y. Arias; Koenig, K.; Morales, A.L.; Burke, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive nat...

  2. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  3. Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Jai; Daniels, R. J. Ranjit; Chandran, M. D. Subash; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gretchen C. Daily

    2008-01-01

    With intensifying demands for food and biofuels, a critical threat to biodiversity is agricultural expansion into native tropical ecosystems. Tropical agriculture, particularly intensive agriculture, often supports few native organisms, and consequently has been largely overlooked in conservation planning; yet, recent work in the Neotropics demonstrates that tropical agriculture with certain features can support significant biodiversity, decades after conversion to farmland. It remains unknow...

  4. On the Value of Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Falco, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Crop biodiversity is very important for both the functioning of ecological systems and the generation of a vast array of ecosystem services. More agricultural biodiversity is associated with higher agriculture production and lower risk exposure. This article explores the recent contributions on the economics of agrobiodiversity. The focus is (mostly) on the empirical literature. Future issues are also highlighted.

  5. Digital Geogames to foster local biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaal Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuing of biodiversity is considered to be a first step towards its conservation. Therefore, the aim of the BioDiv2Go project is to combine sensuous experiences discovering biodiversity with mobile technology and a game-based learning approach.

  6. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  7. Building a global observing system for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholes, R.J.; Walters, M.; Turak, E.; Saarenmaa, H.; Heip, C.H.R.; Tuama, E.Ó.; Faith, D.P.; Mooney, H.A.; Ferrier, S.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Harrison, I.J.; Yahara, T.; Pereira, H.M.; Larigauderie, A.; Geller, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) has been in formal existence for three years, following several years of design and discussion. It is the realisation of the biodiversity societal benefit area envisaged in the GEO System of Systems (GEOSS). GEO BON links tog

  8. A new sampling formula for neutral biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The neutral model of biodiversity, proposed by Hubbell (The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001) to explain the diversity of functionally equivalent species, has been subject of hot debate in community ecology. Whereas Hubbell stud

  9. Focus on biodiversity, health and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn; Athias, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 Environmental Research Letters (ERL) launched a focus series of research papers on the theme of biodiversity, health and well-being. It was the year of the second Rio Summit on Sustainable Development, a huge number of species had been made extinct and conservationists were making increasingly urgent calls for the protection of biodiversity. The situation is ever more critical. Since we started the issue more species have become extinct, and hundreds more have now become critically endangered. The focus issue highlighted the complexity of the links of biodiversity and health, and provides more evidence for the importance to human health of biodiversity on our planet. Research papers contrasted anthropocentric western scientific views of biodiversity and its ecosystem service to humans, with the more horizontal conceptions of indigenous communities in the Amazon—and as many cultures have recognized throughout history, they recognize that we are part of nature: nature does not exist for us.

  10. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  11. Cycad diversification and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent unexpected discovery that living Cycadales are not Jurassic-Cretaceous (200– 65 Mya relicts, as all their extant genera began to diversify during the Late Miocene (12 Mya, has challenged a classical evolutionary myth. This brief note shows how this finding may also provide new clues on the shaping of the high tropical biodiversity

    El reciente e inesperado descubrimiento de que las Cycadales actuales no son relictos Jurásico-Cretácicos (200-65 Mya, ya que todos sus géneros iniciaron su diversificación durante el Mioceno Tardío (12 Mya, ha puesto en entredicho un mito evolutivo clásico. En esta nota se expone como este hallazgo puede, además, proporcionar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la elevada biodiversidad tropical.

  12. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  13. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano;

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  14. Challenges of Biodiversity Education: A Review of Education Strategies for Biodiversity Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation has increasingly gained recognition in national and international agendas. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD has positioned biodiversity as a key asset to be protected to ensure our well-being and that of future generations. Nearly 20 years after its inception, results are not as expected, as shown in the latest revision of the 2010 CBD target. Various factors may affect the implementation of the CBD, including lack of public education and awareness on biodiversity-related issues. This paper explores how biodiversity education has been carried out and documents successes and failures in the field. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we identified four main challenges: the need to define an approach for biodiversity education, biodiversity as an ill-defined concept, appropriate communication, and the disconnection between people and nature. These represent obstacles to the achievement of educational targets, and therefore, to accomplishing conservation goals as set forth by the CBD.

  15. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON) project is an online mapping information system consisting of a large collection of species occurrence...

  16. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans.

  17. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  18. Coastal and marine biodiversity of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    marmorata, Holothuria scabra and H. spinifera are being exploited to a large extent in the Gulf of Mannar. All holothurians are now included under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Hemichordata Phylum Hemichordata is divided into three... whale) and the dugong in Schedule I of Wildlife Act 1972 (amended in 1991). The current inventory of coastal and marine biodiversity of India (Table 1) shows that many VENKATARAMAN & WAFAR: BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA 71 groups...

  19. Bulldozing Biodiversity: The Economics of Optimal Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2015-01-01

    Many conservationists have become enamoured with mainstream economic concepts and approaches, described as pragmatic replacements for appeals to ethics and direct regulation. Trading biodiversity using offsets is part of the resulting push for market governance that is promoted as a more efficient means of Nature conservation. In critically evaluationg this position I start by explaining the assumptions behind biodiversity and ecosystem valuation and how economic logic legitimi...

  20. Patterns of behavior in biodiversity preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Metrick, Andrew; Weitzman, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Conservation budgets are limited, so it is right to ask of biodiversity programs, What should be preserved? How much should be preserved? Where? Recent papers on optimal preservation policy have tried to integrate three considerations: the relative uniqueness of different species or habitats, the degree of risk to their continued survival, and the opportunity cost of the resources needed to enhance their prospects for survival. It is natural to ask, How are we doing? Have biodiversity conserv...

  1. A Macroeconomic Model of Biodiversity Protection

    OpenAIRE

    David Martin

    2013-01-01

    Many biodiversity researchers have responded to the financial constraints faced by policy makers to develop models based upon the “Noah’s Ark” metaphor, implying that society can save only a limited amount of biodiversity. Unfortunately, as Herman Daly (Land Economics, 1991) pointed out, such microeconomic rules can allow an ark to sink albeit in some optimal fashion. So, I step back to look at the macroeconomic question, how big should the ark be? I start with Norgaard’s (Ecological Economic...

  2. [Mechanism on biodiversity managing crop diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Shi, Zhu-Feng; Gao, Dong; Liu, Lin; Zhu, You-Yong; Li, Cheng-Yun

    2012-11-01

    Reasonable utilization of natural resource and protection of ecological environment is the foundation for implementing agricultural sustainable development. Biodiversity research and protection are becoming an important issue concerned commonly in the world. Crop disease is one of the important natural disasters for food production and safety, and is also one of the main reasons that confine sustainable development of agricultural production. Large-scale deployment of single highly resistant variety results in reduction of agro-biodiversity level. In this case, excessive loss of agro-biodiversity has become the main challenge in sustainable agriculture. Biodiversity can not only effectively alleviate disease incidence and loss of crop production, but also reduce pollution of agricultural ecological environment caused by excessive application of pesticides and fertilizers to the agricultural ecological environment. Discovery of the mechanism of biodiversity to control crop diseases can reasonably guide the rational deployment and rotation of different crops and establish optimization combinations of different crops. This review summarizes recent advances of research on molecular, physiological, and ecological mechanisms of biodiversity managing crop diseases, and proposes some research that needs to be strengthened in the future. PMID:23208136

  3. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services.

  4. The integration of biodiversity into One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, C; Cooper, H D; de Souza Dias, B F

    2014-08-01

    A better understanding of the links between biodiversity, health and disease presents major opportunities for policy development, and can enhance our understanding of how health-focused measures affect biodiversity, and conservation measures affect health. The breadth and complexity of these relationships, and the socio-economic drivers by which they are influenced, in the context of rapidly shifting global trends, reaffirm the need for an integrative, multidisciplinary and systemic approach to the health of people, livestock and wildlife within the ecosystem context. Loss of biodiversity, habitat fragmentation and the loss of natural environments threaten the full range of life-supporting services provided by ecosystems at all levels of biodiversity, including species, genetic and ecosystem diversity. The disruption of ecosystem services has direct and indirect implications for public health, which are likely to exacerbate existing health inequities, whether through exposure to environmental hazards or through the loss of livelihoods. One Health provides a valuable framework for the development of mutually beneficial policies and interventions at the nexus between health and biodiversity, and it is critical that One Health integrates biodiversity into its strategic agenda.

  5. Achievements and Prospects of Biodiversity Informatics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Biodiversity information is the basis for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.It not only helps us understand the status quo of biodiversity,but also reveals the relationships between its different components and hence their dynamic variations.Furthermore,it will help us predict the trend of future biodiversity development,and lay the basis for related analyses and scientific decision making on biodiversity conservation.

  6. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  7. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  8. Challenges of Biodiversity Education: A Review of Education Strategies for Biodiversity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Perez, Moramay; Tidball, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation has increasingly gained recognition in national and international agendas. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has positioned biodiversity as a key asset to be protected to ensure our well-being and that of future generations. Nearly 20 years after its inception, results are not as expected, as shown in the…

  9. Climate-smart management of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Fuller, Angela K.; Rosenblatt, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining where biodiversity is likely to be most vulnerable to climate change and methods to reduce that vulnerability are necessary first steps to incorporate climate change into biodiversity management plans. Here, we use a spatial climate change vulnerability assessment to (1) map the potential vulnerability of terrestrial biodiversity to climate change in the northeastern United States and (2) provide guidance on how and where management actions for biodiversity could provide long-term benefits under climate change (i.e., climate-smart management considerations). Our model suggests that biodiversity will be most vulnerable in Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia due to the combination of high climate change velocity, high landscape resistance, and high topoclimate homogeneity. Biodiversity is predicted to be least vulnerable in Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire because large portions of these states have low landscape resistance, low climate change velocity, and low topoclimate homogeneity. Our spatial climate-smart management considerations suggest that: (1) high topoclimate diversity could moderate the effects of climate change across 50% of the region; (2) decreasing local landscape resistance in conjunction with other management actions could increase the benefit of those actions across 17% of the region; and (3) management actions across 24% of the region could provide long-term benefits by promoting short-term population persistence that provides a source population capable of moving in the future. The guidance and framework we provide here should allow conservation organizations to incorporate our climate-smart management considerations into management plans without drastically changing their approach to biodiversity conservation.

  10. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost.

  11. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  12. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.;

    The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...

  13. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. PMID:26776057

  14. Biodiversity analysis in the digital era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Salle, John; Williams, Kristen J; Moritz, Craig

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in 'Big Data' biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framework. By overcoming the data scaling problem in ecology, this integrative framework will provide richer information and fast learning to enable a deeper understanding of biodiversity evolution and dynamics in a rapidly changing world. The Atlas of Living Australia is used as one example of the advantages of progressing towards this future. Living in this future will require the adoption of new ways of integrating scientific knowledge into societal decision making.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481789

  15. Educating for biodiversity conservation in urban parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to propose a procedure for learning about biodiversity in urban parks, as a contribution for educating conservation of natural resources. The procedure was named “Diagnosis of biodiversity conservation status in urban parks”. It comprises for stages describing the physic, geographic, socio-historic, and cultural study of the park as well as a taxonomic inventory of species, its distribution, presence in Cuba, and menaces they are subjected to. This facilitates to carry out educative activities. The introduction of the procedure is thought of from an ethno-biological and interdisciplinary perspective for training students in biological, geographical, historical, cultural and ethnological procedures, seeking a holistic approach to environment. The effectiveness of the proposal was appraised by accounting the experience of a class at “Casino Campestre” park in Camagüey City. Key words: biodiversity, urban parks, procedures, conservation training

  16. Biodiversity analysis in the digital era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores what the virtual biodiversity e-infrastructure will look like as it takes advantage of advances in ‘Big Data’ biodiversity informatics and e-research infrastructure, which allow integration of various taxon-level data types (genome, morphology, distribution and species interactions) within a phylogenetic and environmental framework. By overcoming the data scaling problem in ecology, this integrative framework will provide richer information and fast learning to enable a deeper understanding of biodiversity evolution and dynamics in a rapidly changing world. The Atlas of Living Australia is used as one example of the advantages of progressing towards this future. Living in this future will require the adoption of new ways of integrating scientific knowledge into societal decision making. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481789

  17. Biodiversity and the feel-good factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Irvine, Katherine N.; Skinner, Andrew M. J.;

    2012-01-01

    Over half of the world's human population lives in cities, and for many, urban greenspaces are the only places where they encounter biodiversity. This is of particular concern because there is growing evidence that human well-being is enhanced by exposure to nature. However, the specific qualities...... of greenspaces that offer the greatest benefits remain poorly understood. One possibility is that humans respond positively to increased levels of biodiversity. Here, we demonstrate the lack of a consistent relationship between actual plant, butterfly, and bird species richness and the psychological well......-being of urban greenspace visitors. instead, well-being shows a positive relationship with the richness that the greenspace users perceived to be present. One plausible explanation for this discrepancy, which we investigate, is that people generally have poor biodiversity-identification skills. The apparent...

  18. Fossil Biodiversity: Red Noise Plus Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, A L; Melott, Adrian L.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the Fourier power spectrum as well as the Hurst exponent of extinction, origination, and total biodiversity in the marine fossil record, using a recently improved geologic timescale. We find all of them strongly inconsistent with past claims of self-similarity as well as inconsistent with random walk behavior. Instead, they are dominated by low-frequency power, with approximate f^-2 power over one decade in frequency. The spectrum turns over at about 10^5 y, lending plausibility to connections with galactic dynamics. Even in the background of this low-frequency dominance, a previously noted 62 My biodiversity cycle stands out with better than 99% confidence above the noise level, accounting for about 35% of the total variance in the fossil biodiversity record.

  19. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics. PMID:27151103

  20. Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M

    2015-11-01

    Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by ecosystems. Much ecosystem monitoring and management is focused on the provision of ecosystem functions and services under current environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of ecosystem functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of ecosystem functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of ecosystem functions and the services that they underpin.

  1. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  2. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-05-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics.

  3. Impact of GM crops on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet E

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of GM crops on biodiversity has been a topic of interest both in general as well as specifically in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Agricultural biodiversity has been defined at levels from genes to ecosystems that are involved or impacted by agricultural production (www.cbd.int/agro/whatis.shtml). After fifteen years of commercial cultivation, a substantial body of literature now exists addressing the potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This review takes a biodiversity lens to this literature, considering the impacts at three levels: the crop, farm and landscape scales. Within that framework, this review covers potential impacts of the introduction of genetically engineered crops on: crop diversity, biodiversity of wild relatives, non-target soil organisms, weeds, land use, non-target above-ground organisms, and area-wide pest suppression. The emphasis of the review is peer-reviewed literature that presents direct measures of impacts on biodiversity. In addition, possible impacts of changes in management practises such as tillage and pesticide use are also discussed to complement the literature on direct measures. The focus of the review is on technologies that have been commercialized somewhere in the world, while results may emanate from non-adopting countries and regions. Overall, the review finds that currently commercialized GM crops have reduced the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, through enhanced adoption of conservation tillage practices, reduction of insecticide use and use of more environmentally benign herbicides and increasing yields to alleviate pressure to convert additional land into agricultural use.

  4. Biodiversity in a Florida Sandhill Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Robertson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This project compares two transects of land in the University of South Florida's Botanical Gardens for their biodiversity. The transects were chosen to represent a Florida sandhill ecosystem and the individual Longleaf Pine, Saw Palmetto, Turkey Oak, Laurel Oak and Live Oak specimens were counted. All other species above waist height were counted as "other"?. Once the individuals were counted, the Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indices were calculated. Since the Shannon-Wiener index incorporates several diversity characteristics, it is typically more reliable than Simpson's. However, both biodiversity indices agreed that transect B was more diverse than transect A.

  5. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...

  6. UNDERSTANDING LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OF AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DITCH SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlincx, Sven; Van Donk, Ellen; Declerck, Steven A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving aquatic biodiversity requires thorough understanding of the processes shaping biodiversity at the landscape level. Knowledge on the partitioning of diversity into local diversity (alpha) and differences between communities (beta) is of vital importance to understand the spatial structure

  7. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem multifunctionality across trophic levels and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Isbell, Forest; Gamfeldt, Lars; Griffin, John N; Eisenhauer, Nico; Hensel, Marc J S; Hector, Andy; Cardinale, Bradley J; Duffy, J Emmett

    2015-04-24

    The importance of biodiversity for the integrated functioning of ecosystems remains unclear because most evidence comes from analyses of biodiversity's effect on individual functions. Here we show that the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem function become more important as more functions are considered. We present the first systematic investigation of biodiversity's effect on ecosystem multifunctionality across multiple taxa, trophic levels and habitats using a comprehensive database of 94 manipulations of species richness. We show that species-rich communities maintained multiple functions at higher levels than depauperate ones. These effects were stronger for herbivore biodiversity than for plant biodiversity, and were remarkably consistent across aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Despite observed tradeoffs, the overall effect of biodiversity on multifunctionality grew stronger as more functions were considered. These results indicate that prior research has underestimated the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning by focusing on individual functions and taxonomic groups.

  8. Core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clement A

    2011-02-01

    Economic evaluations are essential for assessing the desirability of biodiversity conservation. This article highlights significant advances in theories and methods of economic evaluation and their relevance and limitations as a guide to biodiversity conservation; considers the implications of the phylogenetic similarity principle for the survival of species; discusses consequences of the Noah's Ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved; analyzes the extent to which the precautionary principle can be rationally used to support the conservation of biodiversity; explores the impact of market extensions, market and other institutional failures, and globalization on biodiversity loss; examines the relationship between the rate of interest and biodiversity depletion; and investigates the implications of intergenerational equity for biodiversity conservation. The consequences of changes in biodiversity for sustainable development are given particular attention.

  9. Core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Clement A

    2011-02-01

    Economic evaluations are essential for assessing the desirability of biodiversity conservation. This article highlights significant advances in theories and methods of economic evaluation and their relevance and limitations as a guide to biodiversity conservation; considers the implications of the phylogenetic similarity principle for the survival of species; discusses consequences of the Noah's Ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved; analyzes the extent to which the precautionary principle can be rationally used to support the conservation of biodiversity; explores the impact of market extensions, market and other institutional failures, and globalization on biodiversity loss; examines the relationship between the rate of interest and biodiversity depletion; and investigates the implications of intergenerational equity for biodiversity conservation. The consequences of changes in biodiversity for sustainable development are given particular attention. PMID:21332494

  10. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Imhoff; Taylor Ricketts

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal...

  11. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. PMID:25523624

  12. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  13. Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Keesing, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect ecological processes, including transmission of infectious pathogens. Here, we review recent research on diversity–disease relationships and identify future priorities. Growing evidence from experimental, observational and modelling studies indicates that biodiversity changes alter infection for a range of pathogens and through diverse mechanisms. Drawing upon lessons from the community ecology of free-living organisms, we illustrate how recent advances from biodiversity research generally can provide necessary theoretical foundations, inform experimental designs, and guide future research at the interface between infectious disease risk and changing ecological communities. Dilution effects are expected when ecological communities are nested and interactions between the pathogen and the most competent host group(s) persist or increase as biodiversity declines. To move beyond polarising debates about the generality of diversity effects and develop a predictive framework, we emphasise the need to identify how the effects of diversity vary with temporal and spatial scale, to explore how realistic patterns of community assembly affect transmission, and to use experimental studies to consider mechanisms beyond simple changes in host richness, including shifts in trophic structure, functional diversity and symbiont composition. PMID:26261049

  14. Unifying European Biodiversity Informatics (BioUnify)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Koureas; A. Hardisty; R.A. Vos; D. Agosti; C. Arvanitidis; P. Bogatencov; P.L. Buttigieg; Y. de Jong; F. Horvath; G. Gkoutos; Q.J. Groom; T. Kliment; U. Kõljalg; I. Manakos; A. Marcer; K. Marhold; D. Morse; P. Mergen; L. Penev; L.B. Pettersson; J.-C. Svenning; A. van de Putte; V.S. Smith

    2016-01-01

    In order to preserve the variety of life on Earth, we must understand it better. Biodiversity research is at a pivotal point with research projects generating data at an ever increasing rate. Structuring, aggregating, linking and processing these data in a meaningful way is a major challenge. The sy

  15. Business and Biodiversity: a frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Bogaardt, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that business has a key role to play in the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems. Various instruments are developed that enable businesses to assess their impact and dependence on ecosystem services. Actual use of these instruments remains limited. This paper uses discourse a

  16. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, C.J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.;

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands (“coal swamps”) has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland...

  17. Temperature Impacts on Deep-Sea Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, M.; Danovaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes.

  18. Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.; Araújo, M.B.;

    2007-01-01

    The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche...

  19. Calculating Biodiversity in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Melissa; Berger, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    One of the standards for life science addressed in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) is "Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics" (HS-LS2). A critical concept included in this core idea is biodiversity. To show competency, students are expected to design investigations, collect data, and…

  20. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  1. Problems of Biodiversity Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelago of 17.508 islands with land width of 1.9 millions km2 and sea of 3.1 millions km2, having many types of habitat and become one of biodiversity center in the world. There are about 28.000 plants species, 350.000 animals species and about 10.000 microbes predicted lived endemically in Indonesia. The country that represents only 1.32% of the world having 10% of total flowering plants, 12% of mammals, 16% reptiles and amphibian, 17% birds, 25% fishes and 15% of insects in the world. Most of the biodiversity were not investigated and utilized yet. The direct use of the biodiversity is not any risk, and in addition, between government, society and industries sometime does not have the same view and attitude. Habitat destruction and over-exploitation have caused Indonesia having long list of endangered species including 126 birds, 63 mammals and 21 reptiles. The extinction of some species occurred just few years ago like trulek jawa (Vanellus macropterus, insectivore bird (Eutrichomyias rowleyi in North Sulawesi, and tiger sub species (Panthera tigris in Java and Bali. It seems that now is time for all Indonesians to introspect and look for the way that can be used for preserving biodiversity.

  2. Ecology and evolution of mammalian biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kate E.; Safi, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have incredible biological diversity, showing extreme flexibility in eco-morphology, physiology, life history and behaviour across their evolutionary history. Undoubtedly, mammals play an important role in ecosystems by providing essential services such as regulating insect populations, seed dispersal and pollination and act as indicators of general ecosystem health. However, the macroecological and macroevolutionary processes underpinning past and present biodiversity patterns are on...

  3. Soil phosphorus constrains biodiversity across European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Stevens, Carly J; Duchateau, Luc; Jacquemyn, Hans; Gowing, David J G; Merckx, Roel; Wallace, Hilary; van Rooijen, Nils; Goethem, Thomas; Bobbink, Roland; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B; Dupré, Cecilia; Diekmann, Martin; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient pollution presents a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. In terrestrial ecosystems, the deleterious effects of nitrogen pollution are increasingly understood and several mitigating environmental policies have been developed. Compared to nitrogen, the effects of increased phosphorus have received far less attention, although some studies have indicated that phosphorus pollution may be detrimental for biodiversity as well. On the basis of a dataset covering 501 grassland plots throughout Europe, we demonstrate that, independent of the level of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil acidity, plant species richness was consistently negatively related to soil phosphorus. We also identified thresholds in soil phosphorus above which biodiversity appears to remain at a constant low level. Our results indicate that nutrient management policies biased toward reducing nitrogen pollution will fail to preserve biodiversity. As soil phosphorus is known to be extremely persistent and we found no evidence for a critical threshold below which no environmental harm is expected, we suggest that agro-environmental schemes should include grasslands that are permanently free from phosphorus fertilization.

  4. A review of marine biodiversity information resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangtsao Shao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biodiversity of marine remains high, it increasingly suffers from human interference and destruction. The world’s largest open, online, georeferenced database is the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS; it has information on a total of 120,000 species with 37 million records. The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS has collected taxonomic information on 220,000 global marine species. Besides these two large databases, three single-taxa databases were established for marine organisms—FishBase, AlgaeBase, and Hexacorallians of the World. Many databases on organisms are cross-taxa and include both terrestrial and marine species, such as Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, CoL (Species 2000 , Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS, Wikispecies, ETI Bioinformatics, Barcode of Life (BOL, GenBank, Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL, SeaLifeBase, Marine Species Identification Portal, and FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Fact Sheets. Above databases were mainly established to focus on taxonomy and species descriptions. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, Discover Life, AquaMaps, etc. can provide integrated ecological distribution data, user customized maps, and data for download. By changing the values of environmental factors such as water temperature and salinity in an established distribution model, the distribution of a species can be predicted with different parameters. Websites of other organizations, such as Google Earth Ocean, National Geographic, and NGOs such as ReefBase, aim to raise public awareness on ocean conservation with rich and diversified content. Google Images and Google Scholar are very useful in cooperating with keywords provided by marine biodiversity websites to complement the lack of images or references. Most of the above websites are linked to each other, and thus users can access and query data conveniently. To be useful for conservation, biodiversity databases need both to promote public

  5. The biodiversity and companies, from communication practices to organizational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald LACHAUD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a study on the role and the place of the biodiversity in the communication of the French companies. From an analysis of Web sites, it questions the presence of organizational conceptions of the biodiversity and the commensuration by the companies of the biodiversity.

  6. Biodiversity and Edge Effects: An Activity in Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Justin L.

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity and the conservation of biodiversity have received increased attention during the last few decades and these topics have been implemented into many G7-12 science curricula. This work presents an exercise that may be used in middle and high school classrooms to help students better understand spatial aspects of biodiversity. The…

  7. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...

  8. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Ulrich; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species' traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships

  9. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Ulrich; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) and its consequence for ecosystem services has predominantly been studied by controlled, short-term and small-scale experiments under standardized environmental conditions and constant community compositions. However, changes in biodiversity occur in real-world ecosystems with varying environments and a dynamic community composition. In this theme issue, we present novel research on BEF in such dynamic communities. The contributions are organized in three sections on BEF relationships in (i) multi-trophic diversity, (ii) non-equilibrium biodiversity under disturbance and varying environmental conditions, and (iii) large spatial and long temporal scales. The first section shows that multi-trophic BEF relationships often appear idiosyncratic, while accounting for species traits enables a predictive understanding. Future BEF research on complex communities needs to include ecological theory that is based on first principles of species-averaged body masses, stoichiometry and effects of environmental conditions such as temperature. The second section illustrates that disturbance and varying environments have direct as well as indirect (via changes in species richness, community composition and species' traits) effects on BEF relationships. Fluctuations in biodiversity (species richness, community composition and also trait dominance within species) can severely modify BEF relationships. The third section demonstrates that BEF at larger spatial scales is driven by different variables. While species richness per se and community biomass are most important, species identity effects and community composition are less important than at small scales. Across long temporal scales, mass extinctions represent severe changes in biodiversity with mixed effects on ecosystem functions. Together, the contributions of this theme issue identify new research frontiers and answer some open questions on BEF relationships

  10. Informing and influencing the interface between biodiversity science and biodiversity policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Neil R; Smith, Gideon F

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, as a megadiverse country (±21 700 vascular plants, 4800 vertebrates and 68 900 invertebrates described), is presently engaged with an extended, modified Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). The country is fortunate in having a strong tradition of systematics research and, inter alia, houses several million preserved plant specimens (±1 million databased and georeferenced), allowing taxonomists and conservationists to track both the occurrence and distribution of indigenous and naturalized plant species. These rich local resources have been extensively drawn upon to deliver, with varying degrees of success, the 16 outcome-oriented GSPC 2010 Targets. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA, 2004), the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF) have provided a robust legislative, enabling and policy framework for making operational and advancing GSPC-related efforts. However, within an emerging economy, the conservation of biodiversity has competed for government resources with housing, sanitation, primary education, basic health care and crime prevention, delivery of which translates to the currency of politicians: votes. A key challenge identified by local (and global) biodiversity scientists for the current GSPC phase is broad-scale advocacy, communicating the changing state of nature, and the inter-relatedness of biodiversity and human well-being. The nature of meeting this challenge is explored. PMID:22059250

  11. Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anadon-Irizarry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot is exceptionally important for global biodiversity conservation due to high levels of species endemism and threat. A total of 755 Caribbean plant and vertebrate species are considered globally threatened, making it one of the top Biodiversity Hotspots in terms of threat levels. In 2009, Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs were identified for the Caribbean Islands through a regional-level analysis of accessible data and literature, followed by extensive national-level stakeholder consultation. By applying the Vulnerability criterion, a total of 284 Key Biodiversity Areas were defined and mapped as holding 409 (54% of the region’s threatened species. Of these, 144 (or 51% overlapped partially or completely with protected areas. Cockpit Country, followed by Litchfield Mountain - Matheson’s Run, Blue Mountains (all Jamaica and Massif de la Hotte (Haiti were found to support exceptionally high numbers of globally threatened taxa, with more than 40 such species at each site. Key Biodiversity Areas, building from Important Bird Areas, provide a valuable framework against which to review the adequacy of existing national protected-area systems and also to prioritize which species and sites require the most urgent conservation attention.

  12. Enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming: towards a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When biomass is a substantial sustainable energy source, and special energy crops are grown on a large scale, land use and the environment of agriculture will be affected. Of these effects, biodiversity deserves special attention. The enhancement of biodiversity in energy farming via standard setting is the overall purpose of this project. In this study, the potential functionality of biodiversity in energy farming is proposed as a way of operationalising the rather abstract and broad concept of biodiversity. Functions of biodiversity are reviewed, and examples of functions are worked out, based on the current literature of nature in energy farming systems. (author)

  13. Fifteen forms of biodiversity trend in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brian J; Dornelas, Maria; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Magurran, Anne E

    2015-02-01

    Humans are transforming the biosphere in unprecedented ways, raising the important question of how these impacts are changing biodiversity. Here we argue that our understanding of biodiversity trends in the Anthropocene, and our ability to protect the natural world, is impeded by a failure to consider different types of biodiversity measured at different spatial scales. We propose that ecologists should recognize and assess 15 distinct categories of biodiversity trend. We summarize what is known about each of these 15 categories, identify major gaps in our current knowledge, and recommend the next steps required for better understanding of trends in biodiversity. PMID:25542312

  14. A one ocean model of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dor, Ronald K.; Fennel, Katja; Berghe, Edward Vanden

    2009-09-01

    The history of life is written in the ocean, and the history of the ocean is written in DNA. Geologists have shown us that hundreds of millions of years of ocean history can be revealed from records of a single phylum in cores of mud from abyssal plains. We are now accumulating genetic tools to unravel the relationships of hundreds of phyla to track this history back billions of years. The technologies demonstrated by the Census of Marine Life (CoML) mean that the ocean is no longer opaque or unknowable. The secrets of the largest component of the biosphere are knowable. The cost of understanding the history of ocean life is not cheap, but it is also not prohibitive. A transparent, open ocean is available for us to use to understand ourselves. This article develops a model of biodiversity equilibration in a single, physically static ocean as a step towards biodiversity in physically complex real oceans. It attempts to be quantitative and to simultaneously account for biodiversity patterns from bacteria to whales focusing on emergent properties rather than details. Biodiversity reflects long-term survival of DNA sequences, stabilizing "ecosystem services" despite environmental change. In the ocean, mechanisms for ensuring survival range from prokaryotes maintaining low concentrations of replicable DNA throughout the ocean volume, anticipating local change, to animals whose mobility increases with mass to avoid local change through movement. Whales can reach any point in the ocean in weeks, but prokaryotes can only diffuse. The high metabolic costs of mobility are offset by the dramatically lower number of DNA replicates required to ensure survival. Reproduction rates probably scale more or less inversely with body mass. Bacteria respond in a week, plankton in a year, whales in a century. We generally lack coherent theories to explain the origins of animals (metazoans) and the contributions of biodiversity to ecosystems. The One Ocean Model suggests that mobile

  15. Maximizing biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+: a decoupled approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current debates on biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+ are marked by considerable ambiguity and contention. Nevertheless, REDD+ continues to represent one of the most important opportunities for global biodiversity conservation, and the question of how best to achieve biodiversity co-benefits remains an important one. Thus far, most biodiversity conservation in the context of REDD+ is predicated on the notion that services are co-located on a landscape. In contrast, this letter argues that decoupling biodiversity and carbon services on a landscape through national-level planning is a better approach to biodiversity conservation under REDD+. We discuss the fundamental ecological differences between the two services and use principles of resource economics to demonstrate that a decoupled approach will be more efficient, more flexible, and better able to mobilize sufficient finance for biodiversity conservation than a coupled approach. (letter)

  16. Disaggregating the evidence linking biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Taylor H.; Watson, Keri B.; Koh, Insu; Ellis, Alicia M.; Nicholson, Charles C.; Posner, Stephen; Richardson, Leif L.; Sonter, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are an increasingly popular policy framework for connecting biodiversity with human well-being. These efforts typically assume that biodiversity and ES covary, but the relationship between them remains remarkably unclear. Here we analyse >500 recent papers and show that reported relationships differ among ES, methods of measuring biodiversity and ES, and three different approaches to linking them (spatial correlations, management comparisons and functional experiments). For spatial correlations, biodiversity relates more strongly to measures of ES supply than to resulting human benefits. For management comparisons, biodiversity of ‘service providers' predicts ES more often than biodiversity of functionally unrelated taxa, but the opposite is true for spatial correlations. Functional experiments occur at smaller spatial scales than management and spatial studies, which show contrasting responses to scale. Our results illuminate the varying dynamics relating biodiversity to ES, and show the importance of matching management efforts to the most relevant scientific evidence. PMID:27713429

  17. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N J; Austen, M C; Mangi, S C; Townsend, M

    2008-03-01

    Policy makers are increasingly recognising the role of environmental valuation to guide and support the management and conservation of biodiversity. This paper presents a goods and services approach to determine the economic value of marine biodiversity in the UK, with the aim of clarifying the role of valuation in the management of marine biodiversity. The goods and services resulting from UK marine biodiversity are detailed, and 8 of the 13 services are valued in monetary terms. It is found that a decline in UK marine biodiversity could result in a varying, and at present unpredictable, change in the provision of goods and services, including reduced resilience and resistance to change, declining marine environmental health, reduced fisheries potential, and loss of recreational opportunities. The results suggest that this approach can facilitate biodiversity management by enabling the optimal allocation of limited management resources and through raising awareness of the importance of marine biodiversity. PMID:18191954

  18. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, N J; Austen, M C; Mangi, S C; Townsend, M

    2008-03-01

    Policy makers are increasingly recognising the role of environmental valuation to guide and support the management and conservation of biodiversity. This paper presents a goods and services approach to determine the economic value of marine biodiversity in the UK, with the aim of clarifying the role of valuation in the management of marine biodiversity. The goods and services resulting from UK marine biodiversity are detailed, and 8 of the 13 services are valued in monetary terms. It is found that a decline in UK marine biodiversity could result in a varying, and at present unpredictable, change in the provision of goods and services, including reduced resilience and resistance to change, declining marine environmental health, reduced fisheries potential, and loss of recreational opportunities. The results suggest that this approach can facilitate biodiversity management by enabling the optimal allocation of limited management resources and through raising awareness of the importance of marine biodiversity.

  19. Key Biodiversity Areas identification in Japan Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Natori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Priority sites within Japan Hotspot were identified using Key Biodiversity Area (KBA criteria, based on vulnerability and irreplaceability. The identification process considered 217 trigger species from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and brackish water fishes and odonates, and focused on identifying gaps in Japan’s protected-area system. We identified 228 sites as KBAs and 50 rivers as candidate KBAs. Collectively, KBAs occupy 18% of the land, about half is not protected. Sites selected include natural and semi-natural environments, and appropriate form of protection is site-dependent. Twenty percent of Japanese terrestrial area is already protected, although to varying degrees, but additional 8% should also receive protection or proper management to strengthen the conservation of biodiversity in Japan.

  20. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts. PMID:19076875

  1. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J; Birks, H John B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    As rates of deforestation continue to rise in many parts of the tropics, the international conservation community is faced with the challenge of finding approaches which can reduce deforestation and provide rural livelihoods in addition to conserving biodiversity. Much of modern-day conservation is motivated by a desire to conserve 'pristine nature' in protected areas, while there is growing recognition of the long-term human involvement in forest dynamics and of the importance of conservation outside protected areas. Agroforestry -- intentional management of shade trees with agricultural crops -- has the potential for providing habitats outside formally protected land, connecting nature reserves and alleviating resource-use pressure on conservation areas. Here we examine the role of agroforestry systems in maintaining species diversity and conclude that these systems can play an important role in biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes.

  2. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts.

  3. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geo...

  4. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Carlos J Melián; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropica...

  5. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  6. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  7. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical ree...

  8. Voluntary biodiversity offset strategies in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Bidaud, C.; Hrabranski, M.; Méral, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine the institutional strategies and methods of biodiversity offset calculation employed by two mining companies in Madagascar. Much like the REDD+ mechanisms, these environmental projects are based on estimations of the past and predictions of the future, and require validation by international experts. They incorporate a set of standard indicators adapted to the affected habitats, and specially developed units of measurement to demonstrate ecological equivalence. The ...

  9. DNA and RNA technology in soil biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    DNA technology has come a long way and state of the art techniques are currently used in the analysis of soil biodiversity. Current methods will be presented and their strengths and limitations discussed. RNA technology, for the study of gene expression and potential activity of functional groups in the soil, is lagging behind, mostly due to the difficulties of extracting stable RNA from the soil. The potentials and challenges of adopting RNA technology for soil analysis will be discussed.

  10. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eSkirycz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystem associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas. Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese, canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200km2 of area spread over thousands of km2 of the Iron Quadrangle (MG and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration.Biodiversity mining is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP and dialogue between mining companies, government, society and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity , physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed.

  11. Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirycz, Aleksandra; Castilho, Alexandre; Chaparro, Cristian; Carvalho, Nelson; Tzotzos, George; Siqueira, Jose O

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystems associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG) and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas). Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese), canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200 km(2) of area spread over thousands of km(2) of the Iron Quadrangle (MG) and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration. "Biodiversity mining" is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product and dialog between mining companies, government, society, and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity, physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed. PMID:25505476

  12. Engaging the public in biodiversity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Novacek, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    To engage people in biodiversity and other environmental issues, one must provide the opportunity for enhanced understanding that empowers individuals to make choices and take action based on sound science and reliable recommendations. To this end, we must acknowledge some real challenges. Recent surveys show that, despite growing public concern, environmental issues still rank below many other problems, such as terrorism, health care, the economy, and (in the U.S.) family values. Moreover, m...

  13. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. PMID:27502382

  14. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  15. Causes of biodiversity loss in coastal ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    Although far less published than loss of biodiversity on land, the loss of marine genetic, species and ecosystem diversity is a global crisis in its own right. The coastal strip (the shallow water, the intertidal area and the immediately adjacent land) is the most vulnerable as well as the most abused marine zone. Coastal ecosystems are not only an important source for essential products for mankind, including foods, medicine, raw materials and recreational facilities, but also provide ecolog...

  16. Effects on herbicides on hedgerow biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Beate; Christensen, Kimmie K.

    2008-01-01

    Low dosages of herbicides may reduce the number of flowers on non-target plants. Effect of herbicides on flowering and on pollen and nectar production are relevant end-points for effect assessment on non-target species. Herbicides have the potential to reduce the number of flowers in hedgerow vegetation and thereby also decrease the availability of pollen, nectar and seeds that are important food for many insects and birds. The biodiversity of hedgerow bottom vegetation is lower at convention...

  17. Preserving Biodiversity: Ambiguity and Safety Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Giannis Vardas; Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2006-01-01

    Safety rules are developed, for biodiversity preservation. These rules are designed to take into account the impact of uncertainty and worst case scenarios, which when combined with unregulated ecosystem management decisions, might produce extinction of species. The safety rules take the form of fixed land allocation and fixed harvesting rules under uncertainty. We explore how model uncertainty affects these safety rules relative to the classic risk aversion case and how a measure of precauti...

  18. Rapid acoustic survey for biodiversity appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available Biodiversity assessment remains one of the most difficult challenges encountered by ecologists and conservation biologists. This task is becoming even more urgent with the current increase of habitat loss. Many methods-from rapid biodiversity assessments (RBA to all-taxa biodiversity inventories (ATBI-have been developed for decades to estimate local species richness. However, these methods are costly and invasive. Several animals-birds, mammals, amphibians, fishes and arthropods-produce sounds when moving, communicating or sensing their environment. Here we propose a new concept and method to describe biodiversity. We suggest to forego species or morphospecies identification used by ATBI and RBA respectively but rather to tackle the problem at another evolutionary unit, the community level. We also propose that a part of diversity can be estimated and compared through a rapid acoustic analysis of the sound produced by animal communities. We produced alpha and beta diversity indexes that we first tested with 540 simulated acoustic communities. The alpha index, which measures acoustic entropy, shows a logarithmic correlation with the number of species within the acoustic community. The beta index, which estimates both temporal and spectral dissimilarities, is linearly linked to the number of unshared species between acoustic communities. We then applied both indexes to two closely spaced Tanzanian dry lowland coastal forests. Indexes reveal for this small sample a lower acoustic diversity for the most disturbed forest and acoustic dissimilarities between the two forests suggest that degradation could have significantly decreased and modified community composition. Our results demonstrate for the first time that an indicator of biological diversity can be reliably obtained in a non-invasive way and with a limited sampling effort. This new approach may facilitate the appraisal of animal diversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Jai; Daniels, R J Ranjit; Chandran, M D Subash; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2008-11-18

    With intensifying demands for food and biofuels, a critical threat to biodiversity is agricultural expansion into native tropical ecosystems. Tropical agriculture, particularly intensive agriculture, often supports few native organisms, and consequently has been largely overlooked in conservation planning; yet, recent work in the Neotropics demonstrates that tropical agriculture with certain features can support significant biodiversity, decades after conversion to farmland. It remains unknown whether this conservation value can be sustained for centuries to millennia. Here, we quantify the bird diversity affiliated with agricultural systems in southwest India, a region continuously cultivated for >2,000 years. We show that arecanut palm (Areca catechu) production systems retain 90% of the bird species associated with regional native forest. Two factors promote this high conservation value. First, the system involves intercropping with multiple, usually woody, understory species and, thus, has high vertical structural complexity that is positively correlated with bird species richness. Second, the system encompasses nearby forests, where large quantities of leaf litter are extracted for mulch. The preservation of these forests on productive land traces back to their value in supplying inputs to arecanut cultivation. The long-term biodiversity value of an agricultural ecosystem has not been documented in South and Southeast Asia. Our findings open a new conservation opportunity for this imperiled region that may well extend to other crops. Some of these working lands may be able to sustain native species over long-time scales, indicating that conservation investments in agriculture today could pay off for people and for nature. PMID:18981411

  20. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  1. [Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

    2009-07-01

    Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

  2. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

  3. Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Elizabeth R; Turner, Will R; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G; Carpenter, Kent E; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity.

  4. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness.

  5. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  6. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives.

  7. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Hui Li; Ye Feng

    2014-01-01

    Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversi...

  8. Biodiversity at the Ecosystem Level - Patterns and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    levels of organization? How may GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) deal with ecosystem level data and informatics? The conference had two important goals. The first was to present an overview of contemporary research related to ecosystem level biodiversity and the second was to help GBIF......This publication contains the presentations and discussions from the second DanBIF conference, entitled Biodiversity at the Ecosystem Level – Patterns and Processes. The questions asked at this conference were: What is biodiversity at the ecosystem level? How is it related to biodiversity at other...... formulate a strategy for dealing with biodiversity above the species and molecular levels and make data available for the end-users....

  9. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  10. Biodiversity, climate change and poverty: exploring the links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Swiderska, Krystyna

    2008-02-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of all life, from genes and species to ecosystems — is intimately linked to Earth's climate and, inevitably, to climate change. Biodiversity and poverty are also inextricably connected. For instance, changes to natural ecosystems influence both climate change and people's ability to cope with some of its damaging impacts. And in their turn climate change, as well as people's responses to it, affect biodiversity. Unpicking all these strands clearly shows that conserving and managing biodiversity can help natural systems and vulnerable people cope with a shifting global climate. Yet compared to activities such as forest conservation and afforestation — widely noted as a way of sequestering carbon and cutting greenhouse gas emissions — biodiversity conservation is a neglected area. That must change: urgent support is needed for local solutions to biodiversity loss that provide benefits on all counts.

  11. Towards integrated long-term scenarios for assessing biodiversity risks

    OpenAIRE

    Spangenberg, Joachim H.

    2007-01-01

    From a policy point of view, the rapid loss of biodiversity (how ever measured) constitutes an urgent need to improve the ability to forecast possible changes in biodiversity. Scenario development and modelling are essential tools for studying changes of biodiversity and their impacts in order to provide well-founded policy options. However, so far no comprehensive model has been developed integrating the diverse relevant ecological, economic, individual and societal processes. Instead soc...

  12. Core Issues in the Economics of Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    Critically reviews the following core issues in the economics of biodiversity conservation: reliance on the stated preferences of individuals as a guide to biodiversity conservation, the relevance of the phylogenetic similarity principle (and other attributes of organisms) for the survival of species; the implications of the Noah’s ark problem for selecting features of biodiversity to be saved and the difficulties raised by criteria based on safe minimum populations of species or on minimum e...

  13. Contributions to biodiversity theory: the importance of formal rigor

    OpenAIRE

    L. Contoli; L. Luiselli

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, some consideration is given to the term biodiversity. We stress the need for a strong formal rigor in using this term in order to maintain the credibility by non-ecologists and environmental agencies over the scientific community involved in biodiversity studies. After a historical introduction to the use and concept of the term biodiversity, this paper presents some theoretical aspects, concrete methodological proposal, and discussion for the further sc...

  14. Business and biodiversity:The Next Step in Corporate Responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Rasmus Meyer; Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Despite the overall importance of biodiversity, the quality measures of biodiversity show worrying figures. Numerous human impacts on nature impose serious hazard to its inherent diversity. This expansion of human activities leaves the battle against loss of biodiversity to be a great challenge - a challenge that needs to be shared between conservationists, green organisations, public authorities, as well as the private sector. A new wave of green initiatives has emerged within the culture o...

  15. Emergence of biodiversity research and main progress from Ifremer

    OpenAIRE

    Desbruyeres, Daniel; Goulletquer, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Research needs and interests on biodiversity have drastically increased since the Rio Conference (1992). The main conclusions from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2001) carried out by the UN and the demonstration of the critical role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystems services have strengthened research interests on biodiversity. Moreover, the systemic approach generalization, complex system modeling, confluence of thematic prompting new scientific concepts, and multi-scalar ...

  16. All Is Not Loss: Plant Biodiversity in the Anthropocene

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Erle C.; Erica C Antill; Holger Kreft

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity are generally portrayed in terms of massive native species losses or invasions caused by recent human disturbance. Yet these biodiversity changes and others caused directly by human populations and their use of land tend to co-occur as long-term biodiversity change processes in the Anthropocene. Here we explore contemporary anthropogenic global patterns in vascular plant species richness at regional landscape scales by combining spatial...

  17. Financialisation, biodiversity conservation and equity: some currents and concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Sian

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary: When nature is viewed in monetary terms, is it the nature that is valued, or the money? And what implications does this have for ecosystems and equity, given a financialised economy that rewards money products and their brokers, and that tends towards speculative and volatile dynamics? The current biodiversity crisis is giving rise to calls for a massive mobilisation of financial resources to conserve biodiversity, and to reduce the drivers of biodiversity loss. The...

  18. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  19. All Is Not Loss: Plant Biodiversity in the Anthropocene

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Erle C.; Antill, Erica C.; Kreft, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity are generally portrayed in terms of massive native species losses or invasions caused by recent human disturbance. Yet these biodiversity changes and others caused directly by human populations and their use of land tend to co-occur as long-term biodiversity change processes in the Anthropocene. Here we explore contemporary anthropogenic global patterns in vascular plant species richness at regional landscape scales by combining spatially explicit ...

  20. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND BIODIVERSITY CONCERN: BEYOND THE ECOLOGICAL LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hiroo Saito

    2013-01-01

    This is a review article on environmental education. The focus of the discussion is the relationship between environmental education and Biodiversity concern and the emergence of the concept of Biodiversity education. The position described here configures as a disagreement of the insertion of these innovative terminology, defending the maintenance of the term environmental education and its general framework, reserving to Biodiversity concern a position of one issue to be coped by environmen...

  2. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  3. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversity based on the data of habitat area, as well as calculated the optimal price for forest biodiversity assessment. The result showed that forest biodiversity habitat assessment of the optimal price is 9,970 RMB Yuan/ha and there is a dynamic model for forest biodiversity assessment. Finally, the study suggested that studies of forest biodiversity assessment in China, in particular, studying of valuation of forest biodiversity should consider using shadow price and the social, economic and other factors should be taken into account

  4. Plant biodiversity impacts on soil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Iain; Quinton, John; Bardgett, Richard

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, growing threats to global biodiversity have raised awareness from the scientific community, with particular interest on how plant diversity impacts on ecosystem functioning. In the field of plant-soil interactions, much work has been done to research the implications of species loss, primarily focussing on biological processes such as plant productivity, microbial activity and carbon cycling. Consequently, virtually nothing is known about how plant diversity might impact on soil physical properties, and what mechanisms might be involved. This represents a serious gap in knowledge, given that maintaining soils with good structural integrity can reduce soil erosion and water pollution, and can lead to improved plant yield. Therefore, there is a need for a greater understanding of how plant communities and ecological interactions between plant roots and soils can play a role in regulating soil physical structure. Soil aggregation is an important process in determining soil stability by regulating soil water infiltration and having consequences for erodibility. This is influenced by both soil physical constituents and biological activity; including soil organic carbon content, microbial growth, and increased plant rooting. As previously mentioned, plant diversity influences carbon dynamics, microbial activity and plant growth, therefore could have substantial consequences for soil aggregate stability. Here, we present results from a series of plant manipulation experiments, on a range of scales, to understand more about how plant diversity could impact on soil aggregate stability. Soils from both a plant manipulation mesocosm experiment, and a long term biodiversity field study, were analysed using the Le Bissonnais method of aggregate stability breakdown. Increasing plant species richness was found to have a significant positive impact on soil aggregate stability at both scales. In addition to this, the influence of species identity, functional group

  5. Conservation of Biodiversity Through Tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Mathur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. Plant tissue culture comprises a set of in vitro techniques, methods and strategies that are part of the group of technologies called plant biotechnology. Tissue culture has been exploited to create genetic variability from which crop plants can be improved, to improve the state of health of the planted material and to increase the number of desirable germ plasms available to the plant breeder. Tissue-culture protocols are available for most crop species, although continued optimization is still required for many crops, especially cereals and woody plants. Tissue culture techniques, in combination with molecular techniques, have been successfully used to incorporate specific traits through gene transfer. In vitro techniques for the culture of protoplasts, anthers, microspores, ovules and embryos have been used to create new genetic variation in the breeding lines, often via haploid production. Cell culture has also produced somaclonal and gametoclonal variants with crop-improvement potential. The culture of single cells and meristems can be effectively used to eradicate pathogens from planting material and thereby dramatically improve the yield of established cultivars. Large-scale micropropagation laboratories are providing millions of plants for the commercial ornamental market and the agricultural, clonally-propagated crop market. With selected laboratory material typically taking one or two decades to reach the commercial market through plant breeding, this technology can be expected to have an ever increasing impact on crop improvement as we approach the new millenium.

  6. Biodiversity in cultivated Panax notoginseng populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Deborah HONG; Hwee-ling KOH; Ying-jun ZHANG; Chong-ren YANG; Yan HONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Panax notoginseng is a cultivated ginseng species highly valued for its various pharmacological activities mostly associated with triterpenoid saponin glycosides. It would be of great interest to understand biodiversity in this gin-seng species after its long history of domestication. Methods: We collected 92 random sampled 3-year-old P notoginseng plants from 4 counties of Wenshan prefecture in Yunnan province, China and documented their morphological fea-tures of plant height, stem color, number of leaves/leaflets and dry weight of tap root. Their genetic diversity was evaluated by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) analysis. Results: Among the samples collected, variable morphological features were observed. For these 4 populations (Zhulijie, Shangliuhe, Bazai and Jinbuhuan) analyzed by fAFLP, percentage of polymor-phic bands among the total number of 582 discrete bands were 74.05%, 45.36%, 38.83% and 51.89% respectively. Mean genetic heterozygosity were 0.166, 0.093, 0.094 and 0.125. On the other hand, Nei genetic distances among populations were all <0.03. Further analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) attributed most (93.5%) genetic diversity to within population variation. Principal coordi-nates analysis (PCA) did not group any population distinctively. Conclusion: This domesticated ginseng species still maintains a fair level of biodiversity and this conclusion is consistent with the local practice of non-selective collection of seeds for next season planting. There was no genetic drift in populations. Biodi-versity ofP notoginseng can be exploited to improve this important herb through breeding. Two possible strategies include inbreeding for pure lines and hybrid breeding with genetic divergent parents for hybrid vigor.

  7. Identification of the priority areas for marine biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlan Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the uneven distribution of organisms on earth, the identification of priority areas for marine biodiversity conservation has become a hot-topic of scientific research. One aim of this research is to allow the effective use of limited resources and reasonable protection of biodiversity. In this paper, priority areasfor biodiversity conservation are defined as those areas featuring abundant biodiversity, richness of endemic species, a concentration of rare and endangered species, and important ecological function and process. The techniques and methods used in selecting the priority areas of marine biodiversity conservation were analyzed in three respects, including marine zoning methods, indicator system construction and priority assessment of biodiversity conservation. Basic ideas for determining priority areas of marine biodiversity conservation in Chinese seas were then proposed based on the current status of marine biodiversity in China. Finally, in consideration of existing problems, some suggestions are given, such as the use of a biogeographic classification approach to partition the study area, the construction of an index system at species and ecosystem level, and the establishment of a biodiversity information system (database.

  8. Information technology challenges of biodiversity and ecosystems informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J.L.; Cushing, J.; Frame, M.; Frondorf, A.; Landis, E.; Maier, D.; Silberschatz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Computer scientists, biologists, and natural resource managers recently met to examine the prospects for advancing computer science and information technology research by focusing on the complex and often-unique challenges found in the biodiversity and ecosystem domain. The workshop and its final report reveal that the biodiversity and ecosystem sciences are fundamentally information sciences and often address problems having distinctive attributes of scale and socio-technical complexity. The paper provides an overview of the emerging field of biodiversity and ecosystem informatics and demonstrates how the demands of biodiversity and ecosystem research can advance our understanding and use of information technologies.

  9. Biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, C.; Bluhm, B.; Gallucci, V.;

    2012-01-01

    . These changes have important impacts on the chemical and biological processes that are at the root of marine food webs, influencing their structure, function and biodiversity. Here we summarise current knowledge on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and provide an overview of fundamental factors...... that structure ecosystem biodiversity in the Arctic Ocean. We also discuss climateassociated effects on the biodiversity of Arctic marine ecosystems and discuss implications for the functioning of Arctic marine food webs. Based on the complexity and regional character of Arctic ecosystem reponses...

  10. Global biodiversity loss: Exaggerated versus realistic estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, John C

    2016-01-01

    For the past 50 years, the public has been made to feel guilty about the tragedy of human-caused biodiversity loss due to the extinction of hundreds or thousands of species every year. Numerous articles and books from the scientific and popular press and publicity on the internet have contributed to a propaganda wave about our grievous loss and the beginning of a sixth mass extinction. However, within the past few years, questions have arisen about the validity of the data which led to the do...

  11. Geocoding LCSH in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Crozier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Reusing metadata generated through years of cataloging practice is a natural and pragmatic way of leveraging an institution's investment in describing its resources. Using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH, the Biodiversity Heritage Library generates new interfaces for browsing and navigating books in a digital library. LCSH are grouped into tag clouds and plotted on interactive maps using methods available within the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API. Code examples are included, and issues related to these interfaces and the underlying LCSH data are examined.

  12. Problems of Biodiversity Management in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2000-01-01

    Indonesia is an archipelago of 17.508 islands with land width of 1.9 millions km2 and sea of 3.1 millions km2, having many types of habitat and become one of biodiversity center in the world. There are about 28.000 plants species, 350.000 animals species and about 10.000 microbes predicted lived endemically in Indonesia. The country that represents only 1.32% of the world having 10% of total flowering plants, 12% of mammals, 16% reptiles and amphibian, 17% birds, 25% fishes and 15% of insects...

  13. Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research-exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsch, F.; Bonte, D.; Pe'er, G.; Reineking, B.; Leimgruber, P.; Balkenhol, N.; Schröder, B.; Buchmann, C.M.; Mueller, T.; Blaum, N.; Zurell, D.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Wiegand, T.; Eccard, J.A.; Hofer, H.; Reeg, J.; Eggers, U.; Bauer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emer

  14. Biodiversity in cities needs space: a meta-analysis of factors determining intra-urban biodiversity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninde, Joscha; Veith, Michael; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Understanding varying levels of biodiversity within cities is pivotal to protect it in the face of global urbanisation. In the early stages of urban ecology studies on intra-urban biodiversity focused on the urban-rural gradient, representing a broad generalisation of features of the urban landscape. Increasingly, studies classify the urban landscape in more detail, quantifying separately the effects of individual urban features on biodiversity levels. However, while separate factors influencing biodiversity variation among cities worldwide have recently been analysed, a global analysis on the factors influencing biodiversity levels within cities is still lacking. We here present the first meta-analysis on intra-urban biodiversity variation across a large variety of taxonomic groups of 75 cities worldwide. Our results show that patch area and corridors have the strongest positive effects on biodiversity, complemented by vegetation structure. Local, biotic and management habitat variables were significantly more important than landscape, abiotic or design variables. Large sites greater than 50 ha are necessary to prevent a rapid loss of area-sensitive species. This indicates that, despite positive impacts of biodiversity-friendly management, increasing the area of habitat patches and creating a network of corridors is the most important strategy to maintain high levels of urban biodiversity.

  15. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  16. Environmental Concerns: Biodiversity and Sustainable Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity is the science tha describes the great variety of living things, namely animals, plants and bacteria present on this planet and their successful adaptation to diverse habitats. In other words, it is the science designed to acquint us with the spectrum of animal and plant and other life inhabiting this earth. Simply stated, it means the variety and variability among living organisms and ecological complexes in which they live. Thus defined, biodiversity is important in the structuring of stable life-support systems on the planet. In a time when animal and plant species all over the world are increasingly subject to extinction and diminishing population sizes, it is important to understand something about this diversity (science) if anything is to be preserved (technology). The future of the human race may depend upon the study of science and technology of living organisms. This is because it is the total variety of living matter on which society depends for food, water and air. It is the environment

  17. Global biodiversity loss: Exaggerated versus realistic estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Briggs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, the public has been made to feel guilty about the tragedy of human-caused biodiversity loss due to the extinction of hundreds or thousands of species every year. Numerous articles and books from the scientific and popular press and publicity on the internet have contributed to a propaganda wave about our grievous loss and the beginning of a sixth mass extinction. However, within the past few years, questions have arisen about the validity of the data which led to the doom scenario. Here I show that, for the past 500 years, terrestrial animals (insects and vertebrates have been losing less than two species per year due to human causes. The majority of the extinctions have occurred on oceanic islands with little effect on continental ecology. In the marine environment, losses have also been very low. At the same time, speciation has continued to occur and biodiversity gain by this means may have equaled or even surpassed the losses. While species loss is not, so far, a global conservation problem, ongoing population declines within thousands of species that are at risk on land and in the sea constitute an extinction debt that will be paid unless those species can be rescued.

  18. Genomic approaches in marine biodiversity and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Pérez, Jorge A; Quezada, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  19. GEOSPATIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODIVERSITY: NEED AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Roy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Explaining the distribution of species and understanding their abundance and spatial distribution at multiple scales using remote sensing and ground based observation have been the central aspect of the meeting of COP10 for achieving CBD 2020 targets. In this respect the Biodiveristy Characterization at Landscape Level for India is a milestone in biodiversity study in this country. Satellite remote sensing has been used to derive the spatial extent and vegetation composition patterns. Sensitivity of different multi-scale landscape metrics, species composition, ecosystem uniqueness and diversity in distribution of biological diversity is assessed through customized landscape analysis software to generate the biological richness surface. The uniqueness of the study lies in the creation of baseline geo-spatial data on vegetation types using multi-temporal satellite remote sensing data (IRS LISS III, deriving biological richness based on spatial landscape analysis and inventory of location specific information about 7964 unique plant species recorded in 20,000 sample plots in India and their status with respect to endemic, threatened and economic/medicinal importance. The results generated will serve as a baseline database for various assessment of the biodiversity for addressing CBD 2020 targets.

  20. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  1. Characteristics and conservation of biodiversity in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伯荣; 张元明

    2002-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region covers nearly 1/6 territory of China, with vari-ous landscape patterns, environmental conditions and three key regions of biodiversity of China.The ecosystem here has a relatively simple structure and fragile ecological stability. The coverageof sparse vegetation here is only 2.1% which is far lower than 14%, the average coverage all overthe country. Although the fragile and unstable ecosystems are improved partly in the past, the totalsituation in Xinjiang has worsened (such as drying up of rivers and lakes, desertification andsalinization of soil, deterioration of meadow, reduction of biodiversity, etc.). Although the speciesnumbers of Xinjiang are few, the diversity of taxa is very high. The types of plant communities areabundant, and the flora abounds in one-species genus, one-genus family and few-species genus.Also, the fauna abounds in endangered species and endemic species, of which 108 species ofvertebrates were listed as nationally protected species. In addition, there are abundantanti-adversity gene pools. The present paper puts forwards several suggestions for biodiversityconservation in Xinjiang.

  2. PYCNOIB: biodiversity and biogeography of Iberian pycnogonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Soler-Membrives

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and biogeographic studies comparing the distribution patterns of benthic marine organisms across the Iberian Atlantic and Mediterranean waters are scarce. The Pycnogonida (sea spiders are a clear example of both endemicity and diversity, and are considered a key taxon to study and monitor biogeographic and biodiversity patterns. This is the first review that compiles data about abundance and diversity of Iberian pycnogonids and examines their biogeographic patterns and bathymetric constraints using GIS tools. A total of 17,762 pycnogonid records from 343 localities were analyzed and were found to contain 65 species, 21 genera and 12 families. Achelia echinata and Ammothella longipes (family Acheliidae were the most abundant comprising ~80% of the total records. The Acheliidae is also the most speciose in Iberian waters with 15 species. In contrast, the family Nymphonidae has 7 species but is significantly less abundant (<1% of the total records than Acheliidae. Species accumulation curves indicate that further sampling would increase the number of Iberian species records. Current sampling effort suggests that the pycnogonid fauna of the Mediterranean region may be richer than that of the Atlantic. The Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are recognized as species-rich areas that act as buffer zones between the Atlantic and Mediterranean boundaries. The deep waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula are poorly surveyed, with only 15% of the sampling sites located below 1000 m. Further deep-water sampling is needed mainly on the Iberian Mediterranean side.

  3. Willing and unwilling to share primary biodiversity data: results and implications of an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity studies and conservation programs increasingly depend on data sharing and integration. But many researchers resist sharing their primary biodiversity data. This international survey was conducted to study the attitudes, experiences and expectations regarding the sharing of biodiversity ...

  4. Predicting ecosystem stability from community composition and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazancourt, C.; Isbell, F.; Larocque, A.; Berendse, F.; Ruijven, van J.

    2013-01-01

    As biodiversity is declining at an unprecedented rate, an important current scientific challenge is to understand and predict the consequences of biodiversity loss. Here, we develop a theory that predicts the temporal variability of community biomass from the properties of individual component speci

  5. Systems in peril: Climate change, agriculture and biodiversity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reflects on the interplay amongst three closely linked systems - climate, agriculture and biodiversity - in the Australian context. The advance of a European style of agriculture has imperilled Australian biodiversity. The loss and degradation of biodiversity has, in turn, had negative consequences for agriculture. Climate change is imposing new pressures on both agriculture and biodiversity. From a policy and management perspective, though, it is possible to envisage mitigation and adaptation responses that would alleviate pressures on all three systems (climate, agriculture, biodiversity). In this way, the paper seeks to make explicit the important connections between science and policy. The paper outlines the distinctive features of both biodiversity and agriculture in the Australian context. The discussion then addresses the impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, followed by an overview of how climate change is impacting on both of these systems. The final section of the paper offers some commentary on current policy and management strategies that are targeted at mitigating the loss of biodiversity and which may also have benefits in terms of climate change.

  6. Energy mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity: Synergies and antagonisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the current impacts of different energy producers (and energy conservation) on biodiversity and investigate the potential for achieving positive biodiversity effects along with mitigation and adaptation objectives. Very few energy producers achieve all three aims - although it may be possible with careful choice of location and management. In some instances, energy conservation can provide mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity benefits. There is still a gap in knowledge regarding the effects of newer energy technologies on biodiversity. There is an additional concern that many supposedly 'green' renewable energy projects may actually harm biodiversity to such a degree that their overall human benefits are negated. The increasing understanding that ecosystem services are vital for human well-being though means that attempting positive mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the energy sector should be an imperative goal for international policy. Whilst research into synergies between mitigation and adaptation is established, there has been very little that has examined the impacts on biodiversity as well. Further work is required to identify and provide evidence of the best ways of optimising mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity in the energy sector.

  7. Biodiversity of the high seas. Final Report Lot 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Human activities in the areas outside national jurisdiction (High Seas and the Area) are increasing and may threaten marine biodiversity. This report presents a review of human activities and their potential impact on biodiversity of the high seas. For each activity, the technical details, the exten

  8. Peat Lands – Between Exploitation and Conservation of Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Anca ŞOTROPA; I. PĂCURAR; M. BUTA; C. IEDERAN; Sonia SÂNĂ; M. ŞUTEU

    2010-01-01

    Peat lands are important natural ecosystems with high value for biodiversity conservation, climate regulationand human welfare. Inappropriate management is leading to large-scale degradation of peat lands with majorenvironmental and social impacts.Rehabilitation and integrated management of peat lands can generate multiple benefits including decreasingpoverty, combating land-degradation, maintaining biodiversity, and mitigating climate change.

  9. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS FOR PRIVATELY OWNED FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, a large proportion of forest biodiversity exists on private land. Legal restrictions are often inadequate to prevent loss of habitat and encourage forest owners to manage areas for biodiversity, especially when these management actions require time, money, and ...

  10. Improving the Science-Policy Interface of Biodiversity Research Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neßhöver, C.; Timaeus, J.; Wittmer, H.; Krieg, A.; Geamana, N.; Van den Hove, S.; Young, J.; Watt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of a continuing biodiversity loss there is a strong need to improve the interfaces between science and policy. Many approaches for such interfaces exist, the most recent being the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). A less prominent appro

  11. What Lives Where & Why? Understanding Biodiversity through Geospatial Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; Makinster, James G.; Batek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using an interactive map-based PDF, students learn key concepts related to biodiversity while developing data-analysis and critical-thinking skills. The Bird Island lesson provides students with experience in translating geospatial data into bar graphs, then interpreting these graphs to compare biodiversity across ecoregions on a fictional island.…

  12. Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth's biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability.

  13. Participation in Biodiversity Conservation: Motivations and Barriers of Australian Landholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation programs that appeal to landholders' motivations and minimise their barriers to participation may result in both increased uptake rates and improved ecological outcomes. To understand their motivations and barriers to conserve biodiversity, qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 landholders who had participated in…

  14. The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) Data Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Gabriele; Barker, Katharine; Astrin, Jonas J; Bartels, Paul; Butler, Carol; Cantrill, David; Coddington, Jonathan; Forest, Félix; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Hobern, Donald; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Ó Tuama, Éamonn; Petersen, Gitte; Sanjur, Oris; Schindel, David; Seberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) was formed in 2011 with the principal aim of making high-quality well-documented and vouchered collections that store DNA or tissue samples of biodiversity, discoverable for research through a networked community of biodiversity repositories. This is achieved through the GGBN Data Portal (http://data.ggbn.org), which links globally distributed databases and bridges the gap between biodiversity repositories, sequence databases and research results. Advances in DNA extraction techniques combined with next-generation sequencing technologies provide new tools for genome sequencing. Many ambitious genome sequencing projects with the potential to revolutionize biodiversity research consider access to adequate samples to be a major bottleneck in their workflow. This is linked not only to accelerating biodiversity loss and demands to improve conservation efforts but also to a lack of standardized methods for providing access to genomic samples. Biodiversity biobank-holding institutions urgently need to set a standard of collaboration towards excellence in collections stewardship, information access and sharing and responsible and ethical use of such collections. GGBN meets these needs by enabling and supporting accessibility and the efficient coordinated expansion of biodiversity biobanks worldwide.

  15. Forsaking Nature? Contesting "Biodiversity" through Competing Discourses of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Biodiversity has developed the concept of "ecosystem services" and "natural resources" in order to describe ways in which humans benefit from healthy ecosystems. Biodiversity, conceived through the economic approach, was recognized to be of great social and economic value to both present and future…

  16. Engaging Pupils in Decision-Making about Biodiversity Conservation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Byrne, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Our pupils' generation will eventually have the daunting responsibility of making decisions about local and global biodiversity. School provides an early opportunity for them to enter into formal discussion about the science and values associated with biodiversity conservation; but the crowded curriculum offers little time for such activities.…

  17. Taxonomy, biodiversity and management of knowledge in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2002-01-01

    At the Biodiversity 2000 Kuching Conference in November 2000, I put forward the thesis that biodiversity is a knowledge resource, and that Asian societies have an attitude problem with respect to the management of knowledge (Ng, 2001). I offered the following evidence: In AD 304, Chi Han published h

  18. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....

  19. Conserving Earth's Biodiversity. [CD-ROM and] Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This CD-ROM is designed as an interactive learning tool to support teaching in highly interdisciplinary fields such as conservation of biodiversity. Topics introduced in the software include the impact of humans on natural landscapes, threats to biodiversity, methods and theories of conservation biology, environmental laws, and relevant economic…

  20. Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth's biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability. PMID:24639507

  1. Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Baisero, Daniele; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H M; Joppa, Lucas; Alkemade, Rob; Di Marco, Moreno; Santini, Luca; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi; Pressey, Robert L.; Arponen, Anni; Boitani, Luigi; Reside, April E.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, governments have set strategic objectives and have adopted indicators to monitor progress toward their achievement. Projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity of different policy decisions allows decision makers to understand if and how these tar

  2. Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Baisero, Daniele; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Joppa, Lucas; Alkemade, Rob; Marco, Di Moreno; Santini, Luca; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi; Pressey, Robert L.; Arponen, Anni; Boitani, Luigi; Reside, April E.; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, governments have set strategic objectives and have adopted indicators to monitor progress toward their achievement. Projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity of different policy decisions allows decision makers to understand if and how these

  3. The complexity of biodiversity: a biological perspective on economic valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnsworth, K.; Adenuga, A.H.; Groot, de R.S.

    2015-01-01

    To value something, you first have to know what it is. Bartkowski et al. (2015) reveal a critical weakness: that biodiversity has rarely, if ever, been defined in economic valuations of putative biodiversity. Here we argue that a precise definition is available and could help focus valuation studies

  4. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites...

  5. A Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard: Addressing Challenges to Monitoring Progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets Using Disaggregated Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L.; Young, Bruce E.; Brooks, Thomas M.; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Larsen, Frank W.; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C.; Turner, Will R.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's “Aichi Targets”. These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity “dashboard” – a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  6. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  7. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Han

    Full Text Available Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate, state of species (Red List Index, conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas, and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision. Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  8. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

  9. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve

    2008-05-15

    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  10. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied

  11. Biodiversity scenarios neglect future land-use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeux, Nicolas; Henle, Klaus; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Regos, Adrián; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R; Cramer, Wolfgang; Verburg, Peter H; Brotons, Lluís

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of biodiversity requires a forward-looking approach based on scenarios that explore biodiversity changes under future environmental conditions. A number of ecological models have been proposed over the last decades to develop these biodiversity scenarios. Novel modelling approaches with strong theoretical foundation now offer the possibility to integrate key ecological and evolutionary processes that shape species distribution and community structure. Although biodiversity is affected by multiple threats, most studies addressing the effects of future environmental changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat only. We examined the studies published during the last 25 years that developed scenarios to predict future biodiversity changes based on climate, land-use and land-cover change projections. We found that biodiversity scenarios mostly focus on the future impacts of climate change and largely neglect changes in land use and land cover. The emphasis on climate change impacts has increased over time and has now reached a maximum. Yet, the direct destruction and degradation of habitats through land-use and land-cover changes are among the most significant and immediate threats to biodiversity. We argue that the current state of integration between ecological and land system sciences is leading to biased estimation of actual risks and therefore constrains the implementation of forward-looking policy responses to biodiversity decline. We suggest research directions at the crossroads between ecological and environmental sciences to face the challenge of developing interoperable and plausible projections of future environmental changes and to anticipate the full range of their potential impacts on biodiversity. An intergovernmental platform is needed to stimulate such collaborative research efforts and to emphasize the societal and political relevance of taking up this challenge. PMID:26950650

  12. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  13. Self-Organized Criticality, Optimization and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onody, Roberto N.; de Castro, Paulo A.

    By driving to extinction species that are less or poorly adapted, the Darwinian evolutionary theory is intrinsically an optimization theory. We investigate two optimization algorithms with such evolutionary characteristics: the Bak-Sneppen and the Extremal Optimization. By comparing their mean fitness in the steady state regime, we conclude that the Bak-Sneppen dynamics is more efficient than the Extremal Optimization if the parameter τ is in the interval [0, 0.86]. The determination of the spatial correlation and the probability distribution of the avalanches show that the Extremal Optimization dynamics does not lead the system into a critical self-organized state. Through a discrete form of the Bak-Sneppen model we argue that biodiversity is an essential prerequisite to preserve the self-organized criticality.

  14. Non-neutral theory of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, G.; Ferretti, L.; Franz, S.

    2009-07-01

    We present a non-neutral stochastic model for the dynamics taking place in a meta-community ecosystems in the presence of migration. The model provides a framework for describing the emergence of multiple ecological scenarios and behaves in two extreme limits either as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity or as the Bak-Sneppen model. Interestingly, the model shows a condensation phase transition where one species becomes the dominant one, the diversity in the ecosystems is strongly reduced and the ecosystem is non-stationary. This phase transition extends the principle of competitive exclusion to open ecosystems and might be relevant for the study of the impact of invasive species in native ecologies.

  15. Coccolithophores: Functional Biodiversity, Enzymes and Bioprospecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Allen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is a single celled, marine phytoplankton with global distribution. As a key species for global biogeochemical cycling, a variety of strains have been amassed in various culture collections. Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an ‘in house‘ enzyme screening program, we have assessed the functional biodiversity within this species of fundamental importance to global biogeochemical cycling, whilst at the same time determining their potential for exploitation in biocatalytic applications. Here, we describe the screening of E. huxleyi strains, as well as a coccolithovirus infected strain, for commercially relevant biocatalytic enzymes such as acid/alkali phosphodiesterase, acid/alkali phosphomonoesterase, EC1.1.1-type dehydrogenase, EC1.3.1-type dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase.

  16. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  17. Current issues in cereal crop biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreta, Danilo E; Mathur, Prem Narain; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Amaya, Karen; Arango, Jacobo; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Dedicova, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The exploration, conservation, and use of agricultural biodiversity are essential components of efficient transdisciplinary research for a sustainable agriculture and food sector. Most recent advances on plant biotechnology and crop genomics must be complemented with a holistic management of plant genetic resources. Plant breeding programs aimed at improving agricultural productivity and food security can benefit from the systematic exploitation and conservation of genetic diversity to meet the demands of a growing population facing climate change. The genetic diversity of staple small grains, including rice, maize, wheat, millets, and more recently quinoa, have been surveyed to encourage utilization and prioritization of areas for germplasm conservation. Geographic information system technologies and spatial analysis are now being used as powerful tools to elucidate genetic and ecological patterns in the distribution of cultivated and wild species to establish coherent programs for the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. PMID:24352706

  18. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  19. Biodiversity and conservation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau) is a unique biogeographic region in the world, where various landscapes, altitudinal belts, alpine ecosystems, and endangered and endemic species have been developed. A total of 26 altitudinal belts, 28 spectra of altitudinal belts, 12,000 species of vascular plant, 5,000 species of epiphytes, 210 species of mammals, and 532 species of birds have been recorded. The plateau is also one of the centers of species formation and differentiation in the world. To protect the biodiversity of the plateau, about 80 nature reserves have been designated, of which 45 are national or provincial, covering about 22% of the plateau area. Most of the nature reserves are distributed in the southeastern plateau. Recently, the Chinese government has initiated the "Natural Forests Protection Project of China,' mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. "No logging" policies have been made and implemented for these areas.

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TSIAMIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native species include: the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii in Capri Island, Thyrrenian Sea; the bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus in the Adriatic Sea; a juvenile basking shark Cetorhinus maximus caught off Piran (northern Adriatic; the deep-sea Messina rockfish Scorpaenodes arenai in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (East Ionian Sea, Greece; and the oceanic puffer Lagocephalus lagocephalus in the Adriatic Sea.The new records of alien species include: the red algae Antithamnionella elegans and Palisada maris-rubri, found for the first time in Israel and Greece respectively; the green alga Codium parvulum reported from Turkey (Aegean Sea; the first record of the alien sea urchin Diadema setosum in Greece; the nudibranch Goniobranchus annulatus reported from South-Eastern Aegean Sea (Greece; the opisthobranch Melibe viridis found in Lebanon; the new records of the blue spotted cornetfish Fistularia commersonii in the Alicante coast (Eastern Spain; the alien fish Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus in Lipsi Island, Dodecanese (Greece; the first record of Stephanolepis diaspros from the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (western Sicily; a northward expansion of the alien pufferfish Torquigener flavimaculosus along the southeastern Aegean coasts of Turkey; and data on the occurrence of the Lessepsian immigrants Alepes djedaba, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Fistularia commersonii in Zakynthos Island (SE Ionian Sea, Greece.

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf. 

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.  

  3. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Lazarus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability debate, where it is often used for tracking human-induced pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Given its potential role as an indirect metric for biodiversity-related policies, this paper breaks down the Ecological Footprint into its components and analyzes resource and ecosystem service flows at an international level. We discuss its usefulness in tracking the underlying drivers of habitat impacts and biodiversity loss. We find that: China is a major net importer of all biomass biocapacity components; the largest net exporters of forest biocapacity are not low-income countries; a very high proportion of the Ecological Footprint of fishing grounds is traded internationally; Singapore and at least three Middle East countries are almost wholly reliant on net imports for the cropland biocapacity they consume.

  4. Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Craven, Dylan; Connolly, John; Loreau, Michel; Schmid, Bernhard; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bonin, Catherine; Bruelheide, Helge; de Luca, Enrica; Ebeling, Anne; Griffin, John N; Guo, Qinfeng; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Jürgen; Lanta, Vojtěch; Manning, Pete; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mori, Akira S; Naeem, Shahid; Niklaus, Pascal A; Polley, H Wayne; Reich, Peter B; Roscher, Christiane; Seabloom, Eric W; Smith, Melinda D; Thakur, Madhav P; Tilman, David; Tracy, Benjamin F; van der Putten, Wim H; van Ruijven, Jasper; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilsey, Brian; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-10-22

    It remains unclear whether biodiversity buffers ecosystems against climate extremes, which are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide. Early results suggested that the ecosystem productivity of diverse grassland plant communities was more resistant, changing less during drought, and more resilient, recovering more quickly after drought, than that of depauperate communities. However, subsequent experimental tests produced mixed results. Here we use data from 46 experiments that manipulated grassland plant diversity to test whether biodiversity provides resistance during and resilience after climate events. We show that biodiversity increased ecosystem resistance for a broad range of climate events, including wet or dry, moderate or extreme, and brief or prolonged events. Across all studies and climate events, the productivity of low-diversity communities with one or two species changed by approximately 50% during climate events, whereas that of high-diversity communities with 16-32 species was more resistant, changing by only approximately 25%. By a year after each climate event, ecosystem productivity had often fully recovered, or overshot, normal levels of productivity in both high- and low-diversity communities, leading to no detectable dependence of ecosystem resilience on biodiversity. Our results suggest that biodiversity mainly stabilizes ecosystem productivity, and productivity-dependent ecosystem services, by increasing resistance to climate events. Anthropogenic environmental changes that drive biodiversity loss thus seem likely to decrease ecosystem stability, and restoration of biodiversity to increase it, mainly by changing the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate events. PMID:26466564

  5. Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Craven, Dylan; Connolly, John; Loreau, Michel; Schmid, Bernhard; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bonin, Catherine; Bruelheide, Helge; de Luca, Enrica; Ebeling, Anne; Griffin, John N; Guo, Qinfeng; Hautier, Yann; Hector, Andy; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Jürgen; Lanta, Vojtěch; Manning, Pete; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mori, Akira S; Naeem, Shahid; Niklaus, Pascal A; Polley, H Wayne; Reich, Peter B; Roscher, Christiane; Seabloom, Eric W; Smith, Melinda D; Thakur, Madhav P; Tilman, David; Tracy, Benjamin F; van der Putten, Wim H; van Ruijven, Jasper; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilsey, Brian; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-10-22

    It remains unclear whether biodiversity buffers ecosystems against climate extremes, which are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide. Early results suggested that the ecosystem productivity of diverse grassland plant communities was more resistant, changing less during drought, and more resilient, recovering more quickly after drought, than that of depauperate communities. However, subsequent experimental tests produced mixed results. Here we use data from 46 experiments that manipulated grassland plant diversity to test whether biodiversity provides resistance during and resilience after climate events. We show that biodiversity increased ecosystem resistance for a broad range of climate events, including wet or dry, moderate or extreme, and brief or prolonged events. Across all studies and climate events, the productivity of low-diversity communities with one or two species changed by approximately 50% during climate events, whereas that of high-diversity communities with 16-32 species was more resistant, changing by only approximately 25%. By a year after each climate event, ecosystem productivity had often fully recovered, or overshot, normal levels of productivity in both high- and low-diversity communities, leading to no detectable dependence of ecosystem resilience on biodiversity. Our results suggest that biodiversity mainly stabilizes ecosystem productivity, and productivity-dependent ecosystem services, by increasing resistance to climate events. Anthropogenic environmental changes that drive biodiversity loss thus seem likely to decrease ecosystem stability, and restoration of biodiversity to increase it, mainly by changing the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate events.

  6. Towards a global platform for linking soil biodiversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil biodiversity is immense, with an estimated 10-100 million organisms belonging to over 5000 taxa in a handful of soil. In spite of the importance of soil biodiversity for ecosystem functions and services, information on soil species, from taxonomy to biogeographical patterns, is incomplete and there is no infrastructure to connect pre-existing or future data. Here, we propose a global platform to allow for greater access to soil biodiversity information by linking databases and repositories through a single open portal. The proposed platform would for the first time, link data on soil organisms from different global sites and biomes, and will be inclusive of all data types, from molecular sequences to morphology measurements and other supporting information. Access to soil biodiversity species records and information will be instrumental to progressing scientific research and education. Further, as demonstrated by previous biodiversity synthesis efforts, data availability is key for adapting to, and creating mitigation plans in response to global changes. With the rapid influx of soil biodiversity data, now is the time to take the first steps forward in establishing a global soil biodiversity information platform.

  7. Biodiversity enhances reef fish biomass and resistance to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Navarrete, Sergio A; Edgar, Graham J

    2016-05-31

    Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates, play key functional roles in aquatic ecosystems, and provide protein for a billion people, especially in the developing world. Those functions are compromised by mounting pressures on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Because of its economic and food value, fish biomass production provides an unusually direct link from biodiversity to critical ecosystem services. We used the Reef Life Survey's global database of 4,556 standardized fish surveys to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production relative to 25 environmental drivers. Temperature, biodiversity, and human influence together explained 47% of the global variation in reef fish biomass among sites. Fish species richness and functional diversity were among the strongest predictors of fish biomass, particularly for the large-bodied species and carnivores preferred by fishers, and these biodiversity effects were robust to potentially confounding influences of sample abundance, scale, and environmental correlations. Warmer temperatures increased biomass directly, presumably by raising metabolism, and indirectly by increasing diversity, whereas temperature variability reduced biomass. Importantly, diversity and climate interact, with biomass of diverse communities less affected by rising and variable temperatures than species-poor communities. Biodiversity thus buffers global fish biomass from climate change, and conservation of marine biodiversity can stabilize fish production in a changing ocean. PMID:27185921

  8. Toward equality of biodiversity knowledge through technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Monika; Collen, Ben

    2015-10-01

    To help stem the continuing decline of biodiversity, effective transfer of technology from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries is required. Biodiversity technology as defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a complex term, encompassing a wide variety of activities and interest groups. As yet, there is no robust framework by which to monitor the extent to which technology transfer might benefit biodiversity. We devised a definition of biodiversity technology and a framework for the monitoring of technology transfer between CBD signatories. Biodiversity technology within the scope of the CBD encompasses hard and soft technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, or make use of genetic resources, and that relate to all aspects of the CBD, with a particular focus on technology transfer from resource-rich to biodiversity-rich countries. Our proposed framework introduces technology transfer as a response indicator: technology transfer is increased to stem pressures on biodiversity. We suggest an initial approach of tracking technology flow between countries; charting this flow is likely to be a one-to-many relationship (i.e., the flow of a specific technology from one country to multiple countries). Future developments should then focus on integrating biodiversity technology transfer into the current pressure-state-response indicator framework favored by the CBD (i.e., measuring the influence of technology transfer on changes in state and pressure variables). Structured national reporting is important to obtaining metrics relevant to technology and knowledge transfer. Interim measures, that can be used to assess biodiversity technology or knowledge status while more in-depth indicators are being developed, include the number of species inventories, threatened species lists, or national red lists; databases on publications and project funding may provide measures of international cooperation. Such a

  9. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and marine capture fisheries production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Pathways for moving towards the goals of biodiversity conservation and food security in terrestrial systems include the application of trait-based ecology to develop highly productive agroecosystems with less negative effects on biodiversity. Although marine ecosystems have been impacted by human...... activity over several centuries, the changes have been unintentional and undirected; we have not learned how to enhance food production from the sea and are reliant, as hunter-gatherers, on natural production. The goals of maximising fisheries production and maintaining biodiversity may be difficult...

  10. Investing in Biodiversity Conservation: Proceedings of a Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A. McNeelly; Douglas Southgate; Smith, David C.; Marc J. Dourojeanni; Ken Newcombe

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of a one-day Workshop on Investing in Biodiversity Conservation held at the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C., on October 28, 1996. The first part of the workshop was dedicated to the presentation of key topics on biodiversity financing by five leaders in the field. The second part of the workshop was dedicated to a discussion and exchange of ideas on the role of the IDB in investing in biodiversity conservation. Three main recommendati...

  11. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...... the accuracy of the ability levels of local community in biodiversity and carbon stock monitoring. This paper presents the implementation plan and preliminary data in Kampung Birang and Kampung Merabu, in Berau district. Professional forester-led methods of biodiversity and carbon stock assessment follow...

  12. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, David; Arthington, Angela H; Gessner, Mark O; Kawabata, Zen-Ichiro; Knowler, Duncan J; Lévêque, Christian; Naiman, Robert J; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Soto, Doris; Stiassny, Melanie L J; Sullivan, Caroline A

    2006-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is the over-riding conservation priority during the International Decade for Action - 'Water for Life' - 2005 to 2015. Fresh water makes up only 0.01% of the World's water and approximately 0.8% of the Earth's surface, yet this tiny fraction of global water supports at least 100000 species out of approximately 1.8 million - almost 6% of all described species. Inland waters and freshwater biodiversity constitute a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. Their conservation and management are critical to the interests of all humans, nations and governments. Yet this precious heritage is in crisis. Fresh waters are experiencing declines in biodiversity far greater than those in the most affected terrestrial ecosystems, and if trends in human demands for water remain unaltered and species losses continue at current rates, the opportunity to conserve much of the remaining biodiversity in fresh water will vanish before the 'Water for Life' decade ends in 2015. Why is this so, and what is being done about it? This article explores the special features of freshwater habitats and the biodiversity they support that makes them especially vulnerable to human activities. We document threats to global freshwater biodiversity under five headings: overexploitation; water pollution; flow modification; destruction or degradation of habitat; and invasion by exotic species. Their combined and interacting influences have resulted in population declines and range reduction of freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Conservation of biodiversity is complicated by the landscape position of rivers and wetlands as 'receivers' of land-use effluents, and the problems posed by endemism and thus non-substitutability. In addition, in many parts of the world, fresh water is subject to severe competition among multiple human stakeholders. Protection of freshwater biodiversity is perhaps the ultimate conservation challenge

  13. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, David; Arthington, Angela H; Gessner, Mark O; Kawabata, Zen-Ichiro; Knowler, Duncan J; Lévêque, Christian; Naiman, Robert J; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Soto, Doris; Stiassny, Melanie L J; Sullivan, Caroline A

    2006-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is the over-riding conservation priority during the International Decade for Action - 'Water for Life' - 2005 to 2015. Fresh water makes up only 0.01% of the World's water and approximately 0.8% of the Earth's surface, yet this tiny fraction of global water supports at least 100000 species out of approximately 1.8 million - almost 6% of all described species. Inland waters and freshwater biodiversity constitute a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. Their conservation and management are critical to the interests of all humans, nations and governments. Yet this precious heritage is in crisis. Fresh waters are experiencing declines in biodiversity far greater than those in the most affected terrestrial ecosystems, and if trends in human demands for water remain unaltered and species losses continue at current rates, the opportunity to conserve much of the remaining biodiversity in fresh water will vanish before the 'Water for Life' decade ends in 2015. Why is this so, and what is being done about it? This article explores the special features of freshwater habitats and the biodiversity they support that makes them especially vulnerable to human activities. We document threats to global freshwater biodiversity under five headings: overexploitation; water pollution; flow modification; destruction or degradation of habitat; and invasion by exotic species. Their combined and interacting influences have resulted in population declines and range reduction of freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Conservation of biodiversity is complicated by the landscape position of rivers and wetlands as 'receivers' of land-use effluents, and the problems posed by endemism and thus non-substitutability. In addition, in many parts of the world, fresh water is subject to severe competition among multiple human stakeholders. Protection of freshwater biodiversity is perhaps the ultimate conservation challenge

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  15. Human impact gradient on mammalian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Munguía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drastic changes have been caused by human influence in natural landscapes, which may exert an intensive effect on species loss. However, species loss from human pressure is not random but depends on a series of environmentally associated factors. Linking species traits to environmental attributes may allow us to detect the ecological impacts of habitat so that meaningful habitat degradation gradients can be identified. The relationships between environmental factors and species traits provide the basis for identifying those biological traits that make species more sensitive to disturbance. These relationships are also helpful to detect the geographic distribution of latent risk to reveal areas where biodiversity is threatened. Here, we identify a “Human Impact Gradient for Biodiversity (HIGB” based on a three-table ordination method (RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis to identify key species traits that are associated with environmental gradient. Species distribution and environmental geographic data were gathered nationwide to analyze 68 localities, which represent 27% of Mexico’s surface, including 211 species of mammals. Nine environmental variables (including biophysical, geophysical and land-use impacts were analyzed by using the Geographic Information System. Three types of species’ traits were evaluated: locomotion, trophic habit and body size. We identified a human impact gradient, which was mainly determined by the percentage of the area that was covered by seedlings, the plant richness, the understory coverage percentage and the human settlement index. The most important species traits that are associated with non-human-impacted sites were carnivores, frugivores–herbivores and a body size that was greater than 17.8 kg; 25 species were selected by the decision criteria framework for species that were sensitive to degradation based on ecological function information. Conversely, granivores, fossorial and semifossorial

  16. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  17. Look both ways: mainstreaming biodiversity and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve; Roe, Dilys; Smith, Jessica

    2010-10-15

    The world's failure to meet its 2010 target to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss demonstrates that conservation efforts have so far been insufficient. They are too often undermined by seemingly more pressing economic and poverty goals — despite the frequent correlation of high biodiversity with high incidence of poverty. But it shouldn't be a competition. Biodiversity and poverty reduction are intrinsically linked and demand an integrated approach. The Convention on Biological Diversity has long emphasised the need for integrating, or 'mainstreaming', biodiversity into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies, most recently in its new Strategic Plan. Lessons learnt from wider experience of environmental mainstreaming can help parties to the Convention achieve this target in practice — they point to a six-step plan for the task.

  18. Status and strategies for marine biodiversity of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    coastal vegetation are some of the important, major components of marine biodiversity of Goa. Man made activities such as land reclamation, deforestation, industrialisation and overexploitation is posing threat to these marine biota and the ecosystem...

  19. Brown World Invertebrates Contradict Green World Biodiversity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity-productivity theory predicts that ecosystems with increased productivity due to excessive limiting-nutrient loading will have decreased taxonomic diversity. In this 4-year study, we elevated productivity by adding NPK fertilizer to 20 m diameter plots in an old-field grassland to test the effects of anthropogenically mediated nutrient loading on plant and epigeal arthropod communities. While plants responded as predicted by the biodiversity-productivity theory, the epigeal arthropod community had highest species richness within the fertilized high-productivity treatments. We conclude that the contradictory response of the largely detrital-based epigeal community should alter conventional biodiversity-productivity theory and could affect terrestrial biodiversity conservation strategies.

  20. In silico substrate dependence increases community productivity but threatens biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Aisling J.; Baetens, Jan M.; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The critical role that biodiversity plays in ecosystem functioning has motivated many studies of the mechanisms that sustain biodiversity, a notable example being cyclic competition. We extend existing models of communities with cyclic competition by incorporating variable community evenness and resource dependence in demographic processes, two features that have generally been neglected. In this way, we align previous approaches more closely with real-world microbial ecosystems. We demonstrate the existence of a trade-off between increasing biomass production and maintaining biodiversity. This supports experimental observations of a net negative biodiversity effect on biomass productivity, due to competition effects suffered by highly productive species in diverse communities. Our results also support the important role assigned by microbial ecologists to evenness in maintaining ecosystem stability, thus far largely overlooked in in silico approaches.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Biodiversity Conservation Metrics for Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Biodiversity Conservation...

  2. CULTURAL VALUES OF WETLANDS IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN NEPAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kirat Kamal Sampang Rai

    2006-01-01

    Nepal is rich in wetlands and its biodiversity due to diverse geography, ecology, ecosystem, and cultures. Participatory research methodology was used. More than 59 different traditional societies reside in various geographical belts with diverse and distinct language, culture, custom, religion, beliefs, social norms, knowledge and practices have significant roles in the protection and wise use of wetland biodiversity. Wetland ecology, landscape and cultural values may be accordance with the geographic and human dimension. The bio - cultural diversity supports to enhance wetlands and biodiversity richness from millennia. Traditional cultural, religious, spiritual values, customary lore, folklore, knowledge of the societies are playing important responsibility in wetland ecology, landscapes and biodiversity restoration, conservation and sustainable use, and they should be recognised, respected in National legislation.Themes of CBD, and RAMSAR should be respected and implemented to protect the cultural, religious, ritual, and customary contribution of the society.

  3. Mapping of biodiversity in the Mumbai port using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Joglekar, V.V.

    in the Mumbai port region with the objectives of rapid assessment for monitoring of biodiversity loss/gain and mapping of biological richness to understand its spatial nature that helps in planning and execution. STUDY AREA The ports of Mumbai...

  4. Khawa Karpo: Tibetan Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Denise M. Glover

    2014-01-01

    Review of Khawa Karpo: Tibetan Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation. Jan Salick and Robert K. Moseley. 2012. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. Pp. 273. US$55 (paperback). ISBN 978-1-935641-06-3.

  5. Preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the late winter and early springs 1995, we conducted a preliminary survey of biodiversity in New Chicago Marsh (NCM), at the south end of San Francisco Bay,...

  6. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  7. Ecological strategies shapes the insurance potential of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eMatias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is thought to provide insurance for ecosystem functioning under heterogeneous environments, however, such insurance potential is under serious threat following unprecedented loss of biodiversity. One of the key mechanism underlying ecological insurance is that niche differentiation allows asynchronous responses to fluctuating environments; although, the role of different ecological strategies (e.g. specialists vs generalists has yet to be formally evaluated. We combine here a simple model and experimental study to illustrate how different specialization-performance strategies shape the biodiversity-insurance relationship. We assembled microcosm of generalists and specialist bacteria over a gradient of salinity and found that, bacterial communities made up of generalists were more productive and more stable over time under environmental fluctuations. We argue that beyond species richness itself, it is essential to incorporate the distribution of ecological strategies across relevant environmental gradients as predictors of the insurance potential of biodiversity in natural ecosystems.

  8. Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Kundis Craig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine biodiversity has long suffered from lack of adequate information about the ocean’s many species and ecosystems. Nevertheless, even as we are learning much more about the ocean’s biodiversity and the impacts to it from stressors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and marine pollution, climate change is imposing new threats and exacerbating existing threats to marine species and ecosystems. Coastal nations could vastly improve their fragmented approaches to ocean governance in order to increase the protections for marine biodiversity in the climate change era. Specifically, three key governance improvements would include: (1 incorporation of marine spatial planning as a key organizing principle of marine governance; (2 working to increase the resilience of marine ecosystems be reducing or eliminating existing stressors on those ecosystems; and (3 anticipation of climate change’s future impacts on marine biodiversity through the use of anticipatory zoning and more precautionary regulation.

  9. Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

    2013-07-01

    Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits.

  10. Phylogenies support out-of-equilibrium models of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Marc; Lambert, Amaury; Morlon, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of studying models of biodiversity at equilibrium. These models, including the influential Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, have been successful at predicting major macroecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions. But they have failed to predict macroevolutionary patterns, such as those captured in phylogenetic trees. Here, we develop a model of biodiversity in which all individuals have identical demographic rates, metacommunity size is allowed to vary stochastically according to population dynamics, and speciation arises naturally from the accumulation of point mutations. We show that this model generates phylogenies matching those observed in nature if the metacommunity is out of equilibrium. We develop a likelihood inference framework that allows fitting our model to empirical phylogenies, and apply this framework to various mammalian families. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that biodiversity dynamics are out of equilibrium.

  11. Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: a sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    Full Text Available Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%, generic (70%, and species level (47.5%, the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each, 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.

  12. Co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, L J; Romaine, Suzanne; Mittermeier, Russell A; Walker-Painemilla, Kristen

    2012-05-22

    As the world grows less biologically diverse, it is becoming less linguistically and culturally diverse as well. Biologists estimate annual loss of species at 1,000 times or more greater than historic rates, and linguists predict that 50-90% of the world's languages will disappear by the end of this century. Prior studies indicate similarities in the geographic arrangement of biological and linguistic diversity, although conclusions have often been constrained by use of data with limited spatial precision. Here we use greatly improved datasets to explore the co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in regions containing many of the Earth's remaining species: biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Results indicate that these regions often contain considerable linguistic diversity, accounting for 70% of all languages on Earth. Moreover, the languages involved are frequently unique (endemic) to particular regions, with many facing extinction. Likely reasons for co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity are complex and appear to vary among localities, although strong geographic concordance between biological and linguistic diversity in many areas argues for some form of functional connection. Languages in high biodiversity regions also often co-occur with one or more specific conservation priorities, here defined as endangered species and protected areas, marking particular localities important for maintaining both forms of diversity. The results reported in this article provide a starting point for focused research exploring the relationship between biological and linguistic-cultural diversity, and for developing integrated strategies designed to conserve species and languages in regions rich in both. PMID:22566626

  13. African Fish Biodiversity, Fishbase and Fishculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (redescriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.

  14. Effect of streambed substrate on macroinvertebrate biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehua DUAN; Zhaoyin WANG; Shimin TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates are important components of stream ecosystems, and are often used as indicator spe-cies for the assessment of river ecology. Numerous studies have shown that substrate is the primary physical envir-onmental variable affecting the taxa richness and density of macroinvertebrates. The aim of this work is to study the effects of the characteristics of streambed substrate, such as grain size, shape, and roughness, on the composition and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. A field experi-ment was done on the Juma River, a second-order moun-tain stream in northern China. Substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, pebbles, coarse sand, and fine sand were used to replace the original gravel and sand bed in a stretch of 30 m in length. The sampling results indicated that the macroinvertebrate assemblage is significantly affected by the grain size, porosity and interstitial dimension of the substrate, while it is rarely affected by the shape and the surface roughness of the experimental substrata. Macroinvertebrate compositions in cobbles and hewn stones were stable and changed least over time. The taxa richness and density of individuals in the substrata of cobbles, hewn stones, and pebbles are much higher than in those of the coarse sand and fine sand.

  15. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  16. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Noel J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled “Joint Implementation,” whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a Jl project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically selfsustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

  17. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  18. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  19. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  20. Fair Biodiversity Politics With and Beyond Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bernhard Kleba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The access and benefit-sharing regime (ABS of the Convention on Biological Diversity has been criticised for focusing on entitlements and asset exchanges. In this regard, the Nagoya Protocol provides little advance. This work introduces new paths of research and reasoning debating the tensions between the Rawlsian concept of justice and the realm of ABS. A new original position to debate fair biodiversity politics would include the concepts of justice of non-Western cultures. Taking the case of indigenous and traditional peoples, the issue of cultural minority rights is raised, challenging the institutionalisation of legal pluralism and political recognition. Against Bell, and with and beyond Rawls, arguments are provided favouring an environmental constitutionalism. The least advantaged concept shifts from an economical focus towards realising citizenship and applied to the ABS regime. Concerning the destination of benefits in ABS agreements, I advocate a complement between entitlements and the systemic aims of the Convention, prioritising the latter. Finally, controversies about the equity of benefit sharing are examined. Whereas the difference principle is helpful in tackling the economical and political asymmetries in ABS negotiations, it leaves core questions open. The Nagoya Protocol has advanced in providing legal tools to realise citizenship. However, political justice demands more. Concerns to benefit the least advantaged should be included in policy, bioprospecting project design and ABS contracts.

  1. Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Climate Change on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, E. M.; Bowman, W. D.; Clark, C. M.; Compton, J. E.; Pardo, L. H.; Soong, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, between species and in ecosystems. Biodiversity contributes to regulating ecosystem services like climate, flood, disease, and water quality regulation. Biodiversity also supports and sustains ecosystem services that provide material goods like food, fiber, fuel, timber and water, and to non-material benefits like educational, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimated that the rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has been more rapid than at any other time in human history, and that many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing. The strongest drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen. Of these stressors, climate change and reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in consistent patterns of poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, causing changes in biodiversity. Warming has also resulted in changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events, migration, and lengthening of the growing season, disrupting predator-prey and plant-pollinator interactions. In addition to warming, elevated carbon dioxide by itself can affect biodiversity by influencing plant growth, soil water, tissue stoichiometry, and trophic interactions. Nitrogen enrichment also impacts ecosystems and biodiversity in a variety of ways. Nitrogen enhances plant growth, but has been shown to favor invasive, fast-growing species over native species adapted to low nitrogen conditions. Although there have been a limited number of empirical studies on climate change and nitrogen interactions, inferences can be drawn from observed responses to each stressor by itself. For

  2. Ecological strategies shape the insurance potential of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Miguel G.; Combe, Marine; Barbera, Claire; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity is thought to provide insurance for ecosystem functioning under heterogeneous environments; however, such insurance potential is under serious threat following unprecedented loss of biodiversity. One of the key mechanism underlying ecological insurance is that niche differentiation allows asynchronous responses to fluctuating environments, although the role of different ecological strategies (e.g., specialists vs. generalists) has yet to be formally evaluated. We present here a s...

  3. National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available National Forest Inventories are the most complete source of information on forests, and are also a potential important tool for assess and monitoring status and trends in forest biodiversity, Nevertheless, according to Chirici et al., the current inventories have some limitations and should be improved mainly to increase the harmonisation of the field protocols and to enhance the collection of non-tree forest information that are important for the biodiversity assessment.

  4. Birds in cork oak woodlands : improving management for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Isabel Camoez Leal da Encarnação, 1979-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Cork oak woodlands (montados) are agro-forestry-pastoral systems that, in general, conciliate social and economical value with a rich biodiversity, representing remarkable components of Mediterranean landscapes. The overall goal of this thesis was to investigate the effects on biodiversity of management practices widely used in montados. Passerine birds were used as models, since they are a promi...

  5. Temporal effects of organic farming on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has caused a dramatic decline of global biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Organic farming has been shown to partially counteract agricultural intensification by applying environmentally friendly and resource efficient farming practices, but opportunities to improve in efficiency still remain. This thesis investigates the contribution of organic farming to biodiversity and ecosystem services with focus on the effect of the time since transition (TST) ...

  6. Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Kundis Craig

    2012-01-01

    Governance of marine biodiversity has long suffered from lack of adequate information about the ocean’s many species and ecosystems. Nevertheless, even as we are learning much more about the ocean’s biodiversity and the impacts to it from stressors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and marine pollution, climate change is imposing new threats and exacerbating existing threats to marine species and ecosystems. Coastal nations could vastly improve their fragmented approaches to ocean gov...

  7. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; S. Trajanovski; Wilke, T.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and the...

  8. Biodiversity Governance: A Tower of Babel of Scales and Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Soberón; A Townsend Peterson

    2015-01-01

    The recently created Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), originally focused on multilateral and global issues, is shifting its focus to address local issues and to include in its assessments local stakeholders and indigenous and traditional systems of knowledge. Acknowledging that full biodiversity governance is unavoidably rooted in participation of local actors and their problems and knowledge, we suggest that to deal successfully with the complexity a...

  9. Biodiversity and traditional sheep grazing in the south Banat region

    OpenAIRE

    Grdović Svetlana; Savić Mila; Bečkei Ž.; Dimitrijević B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the capacity for reintroduction of traditional sheep breeds as key resources for biodiversity conservation systems in HNV farming system of the South Banat region was analyzed. Taking the vulnerability of the ecosystem into consideration when creating the optimal grazing system based on traditional rearing breeds, can contribute to the protection of biodiversity in the South Banat region. The representatives of Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Ro...

  10. Better Management of Wool Business and Native Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Jim; Crosthwaite, Jim; Dorrough, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Better ways of managing native biodiversity and farm business are examined on selected wool properties across the Central Victoria region in Australia, using the Ararat Hills as a case study. Future management options are being developed in close collaboration with each producer in order to enhance native biodiversity while maintaining or improving farm profitability. Detailed vegetation surveys have been carried out on each property, and a set of management options developed that are consist...

  11. Towards a comparative and critical analysis of biodiversity banks

    OpenAIRE

    Froger, G.; Menard, S.; Méral, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the concept of ecosystem services has triggered considerable discussion about the appropriate fools and institutional arrangements to provide ecosystem services. These tools include among others biodiversity "banks" that have been developed to provide biodiversity units or credits to offset environmental damage caused by economic development. So far, little attention has been focused on the design of offset schemes and on the variety of their institutional forms. The purpose ...

  12. A Future for Small Farms? Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Boyce

    2004-01-01

    Small farms play a crucial role in conserving the agricultural biodiversity that underpins long-term food security worldwide. Particularly in centers of crop genetic diversity – such as Mesoamerica in the case of maize (corn) and the Andean region in the case of potatoes – small farmers are the ‘keystone species’ in agricultural ecosystems of great value to humankind. Today, however, a formidable nexus of market forces and political forces threatens both small farmers and the biodiversity the...

  13. Impact of Olive Cultivation on Biodiversity in Messenia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellström, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The biggest threat and cause to loss of biodiversity have been found to be the intensification of agriculture under the 20th century. Messenia is one of the oldest olive cultivation areas in Greece and the landscape is dominated by olive groves characterized by extensive tillage, which causes serious erosion and might be a threat to plant diversity. Organic olive cultivation is an alternative that aims to preserve and support biodiversity. In this study the plant composition in the edge zones...

  14. Managing woodlands for conservation and biodiversity on private land

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, T

    2008-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development has become a central and fundamental aim of governments, and increasingly corporate strategy. Conservation and biodiversity are fundamental to this agenda. Although research has assessed the conflicts between sustainable development and biodiversity conservation at global, regional and landscape levels, few authors have focused on the local scale. Where privately owned land has significant ecological value, and future site re-development i...

  15. Seamounts are hotspots of pelagic biodiversity in the open ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, Telmo; Hoyle, Simon D.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of biodiversity hotspots and their management for conservation have been hypothesized as effective ways to protect many species. There has been a significant effort to identify and map these areas at a global scale, but the coarse resolution of most datasets masks the small-scale patterns associated with coastal habitats or seamounts. Here we used tuna longline observer data to investigate the role of seamounts in aggregating large pelagic biodiversity and to identify which...

  16. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    OpenAIRE

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Do...

  17. iBarcode.org: web-based molecular biodiversity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hajibabaei Mehrdad; Singer Gregory AC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background DNA sequences have become a primary source of information in biodiversity analysis. For example, short standardized species-specific genomic regions, DNA barcodes, are being used as a global standard for species identification and biodiversity studies. Most DNA barcodes are being generated by laboratories that have an expertise in DNA sequencing but not in bioinformatics data analysis. Therefore, we have developed a web-based suite of tools to help the DNA barcode research...

  18. Economic Evaluation and Biodiversity Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Fadlaoui, Aziz; Bertaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly declining biodiversity has made international and national policies focus on the question of how best to protect genetic resources. Loss of biodiversity does not only concern wildlife, but equally affects agriculturally used species. These species, of foremost importance for the subsistence of humankind, are subject to pressures sometimes similar and sometimes very distinct from those of their wild counterparts. And so are the losses implied by this decline in diversity. This handbook...

  19. Cyanobacterial biodiversity from different freshwater ponds of Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumar, Chinnasamy; Muralitharan, Gangatharan; Vijayakumar, Ramasamy; Panneerselvam, Annamalai; Thajuddin, Nooruddin

    2007-01-01

    Cyanobacterial biodiversity from different freshwater ponds of Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Studies on the cyanobacterial biodiversity of 5 different freshwater ponds in and around Thanjavur, Tamilnadu during summer month (June, 2004) has been made and compared their variations among five different ponds. In addition, certain physico-chemical parameters of pond waters such as dissolved oxygen, net productivity, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, inorganic phospho...

  20. Evaluation of predator-proof fenced biodiversity projects

    OpenAIRE

    Doelle, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent debate over the role of predator-proof fences in the management of New Zealand’s biodiversity. The debate has arisen due to concern that investments in fenced sanctuaries are less productive than are alternative ways to manage biodiversity. Predator-proof fences are costly and budget constraints limit the area of habitat that can be fenced. The area of habitat enclosed within fences, and number of individuals of species supported, determines project’s ability to contribu...

  1. Pensoft Data Publishing Policies and Guidelines for Biodiversity Data

    OpenAIRE

    Penev, Lyubomir; Mietchen, Daniel; Chavan, Vishwas; Hagedorn, Gregor; Remsen, David; Smith, Vincent; Shotton, David

    2016-01-01

    The current document describes the data publishing policies of Pensoft Publishers, with an emphasis on biodiversity and biodiversity-related ecological data. Publishing the data associated with research articles is strongly encouraged in all Pensoft’s journals. Data publishing in this digital age is the act of making data available on the Internet, so that they can be downloaded, analysed, re-used and cited by people and organisations other than the creators of the data. This can be achie...

  2. Agriculture and biodiversity: a better balance benefits both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Erisman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is an important component of many of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals agreed upon by the UN in 2015 (https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs. However, the trend in agriculture is moving in the opposite, non-sustainable direction. Agriculture is one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss. Next to biodiversity loss due to habitat destruction by conversion of natural lands into agriculture, intensification of agriculture has led to a strong decline of specific farmland biodiversity. Furthermore, many agricultural landscapes face pollution by pesticides and fertilizers, and encounter depleted soils and erosion due to unsustainable farming practices. This is threatening not only biodiversity but also complete ecosystems and the ecosystem services on which agriculture itself depends. Moreover, the pressure of feeding an increasing number of people in combination with a change in diets towards more animal protein puts a lot of additional pressure on the current available agricultural lands and nature areas.We propose a holistic approach that contributes to the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural practices that both make use and support biodiversity and ecosystem services both in agricultural and in semi-natural areas. An agricultural system based on the full potential of (functional agro biodiversity provides opportunities to create a resilient system in which both food production and nature can thrive.

  3. Economic prosperity, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conservationists contend that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are incompatible goals. Some economists contest this viewpoint, arguing that wealthier countries have the luxury of investing more heavily in efforts to conserve biodiversity. Under this assumption, we expect a U-shaped relationship between per capita wealth and proportion of species conserved. We test this environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using estimates of per capita income and deforestation rates (index of biodiversity threat) for 35 tropical countries. A prior analysis [Dietz, S., Adger, W.N., 2003. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. Journal of Environmental Management, 68:23-35] using conventional regression techniques failed to provide any support for the parabolic relationship predicted by the EKC hypothesis. Here, we introduce the use of quantile regression and spatial filtering to reanalyze this data, addressing issues of heteroskedasticity and spatial autocorrelation. We note that preliminary analysis using these methods provides some initial evidence for an EKC. However, a series of panel analyses with country-specific dummy variables eliminated or even reversed much of this support. A closer examination of conservation practices and environmental indicators within the countries, particularly those countries that drove our initial support, suggests that wealth is not a reliable indicator of improved conservation practice. Our findings indicate that an EKC for biodiversity is overly simplistic and further exploration is required to fully understand the mechanisms by which income affects biodiversity. (author)

  4. Naturalness Consumption and Biodiversity in an Ecoregion of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape naturalness and landscape biodiversity are closely connected with ecosystem sustainability. In this study, “naturalness consumption” and “induced biodiversity” created by human interference were evaluated in an ecoregion of Central Italy that represents a meaningful local example of land-use pattern in a Mediterranean environment. A core set of selected indicators and indexes applied to the database produced by GIS was used first to evaluate the landscape naturalness for each phyto-climatic unit and then to calculate the naturalness consumption. Moreover, the landscape biodiversity of each phyto-climate was evaluated, considering the ecomosaic space organization and taking into account the presence of some important ecological structures like ecotones and hedges. In the naturalness analysis, the highest naturalness consumption occurred in phyto-climates with a higher presence of cultivated areas. In the biodiversity analysis, the phyto-climates with a lower naturalness and a higher presence of agricultural land showed higher values of landscape biodiversity in comparison with the other phyto-climatic units. The results suggest that biodiversity in agro-ecosystems can compensate for naturalness consumption in terms of landscape sustainability. Indeed, natural landscapes carry out a conservative role, while more bio-diverse landscapes offer a balance between human requirements and native ecosystem conditions in a frame of co-evolutionary development.

  5. Naturalness Consumption and Biodiversity in an Ecoregion of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape naturalness and landscape biodiversity are closely connected with ecosystem sustainability. In this study, “naturalness consumption” and “induced biodiversity” created by human interference were evaluated in an ecoregion of Central Italy that represents a meaningful local example of land-use pattern in a Mediterranean environment. A core set of selected indicators and indexes applied to the database produced by GIS was used first to evaluate the landscape naturalness for each phyto-climatic unit and then to calculate the naturalness consumption. Moreover, the landscape biodiversity of each phyto-climate was evaluated, considering the ecomosaic space organization and taking into account the presence of some important ecological structures like ecotones and hedges. In the naturalness analysis, the highest naturalness consumption occurred in phyto-climates with a higher presence of cultivated areas. In the biodiversity analysis, the phyto-climates with a lower naturalness and a higher presence of agricultural land showed higher values of landscape biodiversity in comparison with the other phyto-climatic units. The results suggest that biodiversity in agro-ecosystems can compensate for naturalness consumption in terms of landscape sustainability. Indeed, natural landscapes carry out a conservative role, while more bio-diverse landscapes offer a balance between human requirements and native ecosystem conditions in a frame of co-evolutionary development.

  6. Can we detect oceanic biodiversity hotspots from space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Soccodato, Alice; Alvain, Séverine; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the variability of marine biodiversity is a central issue in microbiology. Current observational programs are based on in situ studies, but their implementation at the global scale is particularly challenging, owing to the ocean extent, its temporal variability and the heterogeneity of the data sources on which compilations are built. Here, we explore the possibility of identifying phytoplanktonic biodiversity hotspots from satellite. We define a Shannon entropy index based on patchiness in ocean color bio-optical anomalies. This index provides a high resolution (1 degree) global coverage. It shows a relation to temperature and mid-latitude maxima in accordance with those previously evidenced in microbiological biodiversity model and observational studies. Regional maxima are in remarkable agreement with several known biodiversity hotspots for plankton organisms and even for higher levels of the marine trophic chain, as well as with some in situ planktonic biodiversity estimates (from Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise). These results encourage to explore marine biodiversity with a coordinated effort of the molecular, ecological and remote sensing communities.

  7. All is not loss: plant biodiversity in the anthropocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erle C Ellis

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic global changes in biodiversity are generally portrayed in terms of massive native species losses or invasions caused by recent human disturbance. Yet these biodiversity changes and others caused directly by human populations and their use of land tend to co-occur as long-term biodiversity change processes in the Anthropocene. Here we explore contemporary anthropogenic global patterns in vascular plant species richness at regional landscape scales by combining spatially explicit models and estimates for native species loss together with gains in exotics caused by species invasions and the introduction of agricultural domesticates and ornamental exotic plants. The patterns thus derived confirm that while native losses are likely significant across at least half of Earth's ice-free land, model predictions indicate that plant species richness has increased overall in most regional landscapes, mostly because species invasions tend to exceed native losses. While global observing systems and models that integrate anthropogenic species loss, introduction and invasion at regional landscape scales remain at an early stage of development, integrating predictions from existing models within a single assessment confirms their vast global extent and significance while revealing novel patterns and their potential drivers. Effective global stewardship of plant biodiversity in the Anthropocene will require integrated frameworks for observing, modeling and forecasting the different forms of anthropogenic biodiversity change processes at regional landscape scales, towards conserving biodiversity within the novel plant communities created and sustained by human systems.

  8. Economic prosperity, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Julianne H.; Waite, Thomas A. [Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 300 Aronoff Laboratory, 318 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Many conservationists contend that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are incompatible goals. Some economists contest this viewpoint, arguing that wealthier countries have the luxury of investing more heavily in efforts to conserve biodiversity. Under this assumption, we expect a U-shaped relationship between per capita wealth and proportion of species conserved. We test this environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using estimates of per capita income and deforestation rates (index of biodiversity threat) for 35 tropical countries. A prior analysis [Dietz, S., Adger, W.N., 2003. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. Journal of Environmental Management, 68:23-35] using conventional regression techniques failed to provide any support for the parabolic relationship predicted by the EKC hypothesis. Here, we introduce the use of quantile regression and spatial filtering to reanalyze this data, addressing issues of heteroskedasticity and spatial autocorrelation. We note that preliminary analysis using these methods provides some initial evidence for an EKC. However, a series of panel analyses with country-specific dummy variables eliminated or even reversed much of this support. A closer examination of conservation practices and environmental indicators within the countries, particularly those countries that drove our initial support, suggests that wealth is not a reliable indicator of improved conservation practice. Our findings indicate that an EKC for biodiversity is overly simplistic and further exploration is required to fully understand the mechanisms by which income affects biodiversity. (author)

  9. Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Schmid, Bernhard; Petermann, Jana S; Yadav, Varuna; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Flynn, Dan F B

    2014-11-01

    In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant-soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term.

  10. Supporting the Construction of Workflows for Biodiversity Problem-Solving Accessing Secure, Distributed Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, J.S.; Jones, A. C.; White, R.J.; BURGESS, M.; Gray, W.A.; Fiddian, N. J.; Smith, R. O.; Hardisty, A.R.; Sutton, T.; Brewer, P; Yesson, C.; Caithness, N.; Culham, A.; Bisby, F.A.; Scoble, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the Biodiversity World (BDW) project we have created a flexible and extensible Web Services-based Grid environment for biodiversity researchers to solve problems in biodiversity and analyse biodiversity patterns. In this environment, heterogeneous and globally distributed biodiversity-related resources such as data sets and analytical tools are made available to be accessed and assembled by users into workflows to perform complex scientific experiments. One such experiment is bioclimatic m...

  11. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  12. Compensating biodiversity loss : Dutch companies’ experience with biodiversity compensation, including their supply chain : the ‘BioCom’ project

    OpenAIRE

    Bie, de, R.W.; Schaick, van, J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensation for damage to biodiversity is a relatively new topic in the business environment. Most private sector companies dealing with compensation do so because of a legal obligation. Companies are increasingly becoming aware, though, that our welfare and well-being depend on healthy ecosystems and biodiversity. Also, from a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) point of view, companies start to realize that securing continued access to natural resources is a key factor to their profitabi...

  13. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species–energy and species–area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect. (letter)

  14. Scenarios for future biodiversity loss due to multiple drivers reveal conflict between mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W. R.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2013-06-01

    We assess the potential for future biodiversity loss due to three interacting factors: energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change. We develop four scenarios to 2050 with different combinations of high or low agricultural efficiency and high or low meat diets, and use species-energy and species-area relationships to estimate their effects on biodiversity. In our scenarios, natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the increasing dietary demands of the global population. Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is used as a means of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere (and offsetting fossil fuel emissions). BECCS is based on waste biomass, with the addition of bio-energy crops only when already managed land is no longer needed for food production. Forecast biodiversity loss from natural biomes increases by more than a factor of five in going from high to low agricultural efficiency scenarios, due to destruction of productive habitats by the expansion of pasture. Biodiversity loss from energy withdrawal on managed land varies by a factor of two across the scenarios. Biodiversity loss due to climate change varies only modestly across the scenarios. Climate change is lowest in the ‘low meat high efficiency’ scenario, in which by 2050 around 660 million hectares of pasture are converted to biomass plantation that is used for BECCS. However, the resulting withdrawal of energy from managed ecosystems has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Although the effects of energy withdrawal and climate change on biodiversity cannot be directly compared, this suggests that using bio-energy to tackle climate change in order to limit biodiversity loss could instead have the opposite effect.

  15. Conference on wind energy development and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind energy development and biodiversity. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 90 participants exchanged views on the existing regulatory systems for nature protection in a wind energy context in both countries. In particular, birds fauna and chiropters protection were in the center of the debates. The question of wind energy development in a forest environment was addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The development of onshore wind farms and the French environmental Code (Arnaud Gossement); 2 - Wind energy development priority - recent advances in environmental regulation (Lionel Prevors); 3 - environmental legislation and wind power deployment in Germany: An overview (Paul-Bastian Nagel); 4 - Avifauna and wind energy plants - To bring the expansion of wind energy in line with environmental issues (Iris Otto) 5 - environmental impact study in France and Germany: what challenges and what bird fauna specificities? (Fabrice Gourat); 6 - How to take into account the chiropters' aspect in authorization procedures? Regional scale experience feedback: the Champagne-Ardenne case (Nicolas Sornin-Petit); 7 - France and Germany - a comparison of bat monitoring experience (Volker Kelm, Yannick Beucher); 8 - Bat-friendly operation algorithms: reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines in central Europe (Oliver Behr); 9 - Wind energy use in forests? specifics from an environmental planning perspective (Sonja Rosenthal); 10 - expansion of wind energy in the Bavarian State Forest (Reinhard Strobl); 11 - Environmental impact assessment and environmental follow-up study for the forest wind farms: experience feedback (Sonia Kozlowski); 12 - German aviation light regulations - German aviation light regulations. Case study: eno 92 at wind farm Schoenerlinde (Thomas Herrholz); 13 - Welcome to

  16. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  17. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Butler

    Full Text Available The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.

  18. Large-area mapping of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jennings, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The age of discovery, description, and classification of biodiversity is entering a new phase. In responding to the conservation imperative, we can now supplement the essential work of systematics with spatially explicit information on species and assemblages of species. This is possible because of recent conceptual, technical, and organizational progress in generating synoptic views of the earth's surface and a great deal of its biological content, at multiple scales of thematic as well as geographic resolution. The development of extensive spatial data on species distributions and vegetation types provides us with a framework for: (a) assessing what we know and where we know it at meso-scales, and (b) stratifying the biological universe so that higher-resolution surveys can be more efficiently implemented, coveting, for example, geographic adequacy of specimen collections, population abundance, reproductive success, and genetic dynamics. The land areas involved are very large, and the questions, such as resolution, scale, classification, and accuracy, are complex. In this paper, we provide examples from the United States Gap Analysis Program on the advantages and limitations of mapping the occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate species and dominant land-cover types over large areas as joint ventures and in multi-organizational partnerships, and how these cooperative efforts can be designed to implement results from data development and analyses as on-the-ground actions. Clearly, new frameworks for thinking about biogeographic information as well as organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The Gap Analysis experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  19. Student Teachers' Understanding of the Terminology, Distribution, and Loss of Biodiversity: Perspectives from a Biodiversity Hotspot and an Industrialized Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Florian; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is one of the most urgent global environmental problems of our time. Public education and awareness building is key to successful biodiversity protection. Knowledgeable and skilled student teachers are a key component for the successful implementation of biodiversity education in schools. Yet, little empirical evidence…

  20. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  1. Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity protection in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Wheeler, Charlotte; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2014-07-01

    With the rapidly expanding ecological footprint of agriculture, the design of farmed landscapes will play an increasingly important role for both carbon storage and biodiversity protection. Carbon and biodiversity can be enhanced by integrating natural habitats into agricultural lands, but a key question is whether benefits are maximized by including many small features throughout the landscape ('land-sharing' agriculture) or a few large contiguous blocks alongside intensive farmland ('land-sparing' agriculture). In this study, we are the first to integrate carbon storage alongside multi-taxa biodiversity assessments to compare land-sparing and land-sharing frameworks. We do so by sampling carbon stocks and biodiversity (birds and dung beetles) in landscapes containing agriculture and forest within the Colombian Chocó-Andes, a zone of high global conservation priority. We show that woodland fragments embedded within a matrix of cattle pasture hold less carbon per unit area than contiguous primary or advanced secondary forests (>15 years). Farmland sites also support less diverse bird and dung beetle communities than contiguous forests, even when farmland retains high levels of woodland habitat cover. Landscape simulations based on these data suggest that land-sparing strategies would be more beneficial for both carbon storage and biodiversity than land-sharing strategies across a range of production levels. Biodiversity benefits of land-sparing are predicted to be similar whether spared lands protect primary or advanced secondary forests, owing to the close similarity of bird and dung beetle communities between the two forest classes. Land-sparing schemes that encourage the protection and regeneration of natural forest blocks thus provide a synergy between carbon and biodiversity conservation, and represent a promising strategy for reducing the negative impacts of agriculture on tropical ecosystems. However, further studies examining a wider range of ecosystem

  2. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  3. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  4. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development. PMID:27376939

  5. CForBio: a network monitoring Chinese forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Feng; Xiangcheng Mi; Hui Yan; Frank Yonghong Li; Jens-Christian Svenning; Keping Ma

    2016-01-01

    China harbors a rich variety of forest types and forest-associated biodiversity,linked to both historical and contemporary environmental factors.However,being a country with a large population and rapid economic development,its diverse forest is facing unprecedent challenges.The Chinese Forest Biodiversity Network (CForBio) was initiated 12 years ago to study the maintenance of biodiversity in China's forest ecosystems.In this review,we first summarize research progress in CForBio,and then give suggestions for future research.In the past 12 years,the research based on CForBio mainly focused on local ecological factors,such as environment filtering,biotic interactions and small-scale dispersal limitation.We suggest that future studies in CForBio should (1) continue research on trees,but expand more on insects,birds,mammals,microbes and other organism groups;(2)investigate the effects of widespread defaunation on forest biodiversity,structure and functioning;(3) evaluate the diverse effects of climate change on forest composition,structure and functioning;(4) include new technologies,such as remote sensing,to better monitor and study forest biodiversity change and maintenance.

  6. Biodiversity under threat in glacier-fed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Milner, Alexander M.; Brown, Lee E.; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is under threat across the globe, with climate change being a significant contributor. One impact of climate change is the rapid shrinking of glaciers, resulting in a reduction in glacial meltwater contribution to river flow in many glacierized catchments. These changes potentially affect the biodiversity of specialized glacier-fed river communities. Perhaps surprisingly then, although freshwater biodiversity is a major conservation priority, the effects of shrinkage and disappearance of glaciers on river biodiversity have hitherto been poorly quantified. Here we focus on macroinvertebrates (mainly insect larvae) and demonstrate that local (α) and regional (γ) diversity, as well as turnover among reaches (β-diversity), will be consistently reduced by the shrinkage of glaciers. We show that 11-38% of the regional species pools, including endemics, can be expected to be lost following complete disappearance of glaciers in a catchment, and steady shrinkage is likely to reduce taxon turnover in proglacial river systems and local richness at downstream reaches where glacial cover in the catchment is less than 5-30%. Our analysis demonstrates not only the vulnerability of local biodiversity hotspots but also that extinction will probably greatly exceed the few known endemic species in glacier-fed rivers.

  7. Comparative biodiversity along a gradient of agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burel, Françoise; Baudry, Jacques; Butet, Alain; Clergeau, Philippe; Delettre, Yannick; Le Coeur, Didier; Dubs, Florence; Morvan, Nathalie; Paillat, Gilles; Petit, Sandrine; Thenail, Claudine; Brunel, Etienne; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare biodiversity in contrasted landscape units within a small region. In western France agricultural intensification leads to changes in landscape structure: permanent grasslands are ploughed, fields enlarged and surrounding hedgerows removed or deteriorated, brooks are straightened and cleaned. South of Mont Saint Michel Bay, four landscape units have been identified along an intensification gradient. Several taxonomic groups (small mammals, birds, insects and plants) have been used to evaluate the characteristics of biodiversity along this gradient. The hypothesis that intensification of agricultural practices lead to changes in biodiversity has been tested. Biodiversity is measured by the species richness, Shannon's diversity index, equitability and similarity indexes. Our results show that intensification of agriculture does not always lead to a decrease in species richness, but to several functional responses according to taxonomic groups, either no modification, or stability by replacement of species, or loss of species. For most of the studied taxonomic groups species richness does not vary greatly along the gradient. Depending on the landscape structure and farming systems this gradient is probably truncated and does not allow to show major changes in species richness. An alternative hypothesis is that used indexes are not sensitive enough to reveal changes in biodiversity. Nevertheless, similarity indexes reveal that sensitivity to changes varies, invertebrates being more likely to perceive the dynamics of the landscapes studied than vertebrates or plants. These points have to be taken into consideration when elaborating policies for sustainable agriculture or nature conservation.

  8. A new freshwater biodiversity indicator based on fish community assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Clavel

    Full Text Available Biodiversity has reached a critical state. In this context, stakeholders need indicators that both provide a synthetic view of the state of biodiversity and can be used as communication tools. Using river fishes as model, we developed community indicators that aim at integrating various components of biodiversity including interactions between species and ultimately the processes influencing ecosystem functions. We developed indices at the species level based on (i the concept of specialization directly linked to the niche theory and (ii the concept of originality measuring the overall degree of differences between a species and all other species in the same clade. Five major types of originality indices, based on phylogeny, habitat-linked and diet-linked morphology, life history traits, and ecological niche were analyzed. In a second step, we tested the relationship between all biodiversity indices and land use as a proxy of human pressures. Fish communities showed no significant temporal trend for most of these indices, but both originality indices based on diet- and habitat- linked morphology showed a significant increase through time. From a spatial point of view, all indices clearly singled out Corsica Island as having higher average originality and specialization. Finally, we observed that the originality index based on niche traits might be used as an informative biodiversity indicator because we showed it is sensitive to different land use classes along a landscape artificialization gradient. Moreover, its response remained unchanged over two other land use classifications at the global scale and also at the regional scale.

  9. Biodiversity hotspots: A shortcut for a more complicated concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Marchese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of human activities, global environmental changes, habitat loss and species extinction, conservation strategies are a crucial step toward minimizing biodiversity loss. For instance, oceans acidification and land use are intensifying in many places with negative and often irreversible consequences for biodiversity. Biodiversity hotspots, despite some criticism, have become a tool for setting conservation priorities and play an important role in decision-making for cost-effective strategies to preserve biodiversity in terrestrial and, to some extent, marine ecosystems. This area-based approach can be applied to any geographical scale and it is considered to be one of the best approaches for maintaining a large proportion of the world’s biological diversity. However, delineating hotspots includes quantitative criteria along with subjective considerations and the risk is to neglect areas, such as coldspots, with other types of conservation value. Nowadays, it is widely acknowledged that biodiversity is much more than just the number of species in a region and a conservation strategy cannot be based merely on the number of taxa present in an ecosystem. Therefore, the idea that strongly emerges is the need to reconsider conservation priorities and to go toward an interdisciplinary approach through the creation of science-policy partnerships.

  10. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  11. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, J; Macdonald, A J; Poulton, P R; Scott, T; Köhler, I H; Schnyder, H; Goulding, K W T; Crawley, M J

    2015-12-17

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to 'bounce back' in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  12. Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, J.; MacDonald, A. J.; Poulton, P. R.; Scott, T.; Köhler, I. H.; Schnyder, H.; Goulding, K. W. T.; Crawley, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The negative effect of increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollution on grassland biodiversity is now incontrovertible. However, the recent introduction of cleaner technologies in the UK has led to reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with concomitant decreases in N deposition. The degree to which grassland biodiversity can be expected to ‘bounce back’ in response to these improvements in air quality is uncertain, with a suggestion that long-term chronic N addition may lead to an alternative low biodiversity state. Here we present evidence from the 160-year-old Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, that shows a positive response of biodiversity to reducing N addition from either atmospheric pollution or fertilizers. The proportion of legumes, species richness and diversity increased across the experiment between 1991 and 2012 as both wet and dry N deposition declined. Plots that stopped receiving inorganic N fertilizer in 1989 recovered much of the diversity that had been lost, especially if limed. There was no evidence that chronic N addition has resulted in an alternative low biodiversity state on the Park Grass plots, except where there has been extreme acidification, although it is likely that the recovery of plant communities has been facilitated by the twice-yearly mowing and removal of biomass. This may also explain why a comparable response of plant communities to reduced N inputs has yet to be observed in the wider landscape.

  13. Sparing land for biodiversity at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eEkroos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach to the conservation of farmland biodiversity and the promotion of multifunctional landscapes, particularly in landscapes containing only small remnants of non-crop habitats, has been to maintain landscape heterogeneity and reduce land-use intensity. In contrast, it has recently been shown that devoting specific areas of non-crop habitats to conservation, segregated from high-yielding farmland (‘land sparing’, can more effectively conserve biodiversity than promoting low-yielding, less intensively managed farmland occupying larger areas (‘land sharing’. In the present paper we suggest that the debate over the relative merits of land sparing or land sharing is partly blurred by the differing spatial scales at which it is suggested that land sparing should be applied. We argue that there is no single correct spatial scale for segregating biodiversity protection and commodity production in multifunctional landscapes. Instead we propose an alternative conceptual construct, which we call ‘multiple-scale land sparing’, targeting biodiversity and ecosystem services in transformed landscapes. We discuss how multiple-scale land sparing may overcome the apparent dichotomy between land sharing and land sparing and help to find acceptable compromises that conserve biodiversity and landscape multifunctionality.

  14. Splash-like marine biodiversity additions after the cambrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Phanerozoic biotic radiations in the marine realm led to marine biodiversity additions, i.e., increases in the global number of genera to unprecedented levels. Each of the two alternative biodiversity curves implies five post-Cambrian events of this kind, which coincided with parts of the biotic radiations. However, differences between these curves do not allow to find coherent marine biodiversity additions with the only exception of those occurred at the interval of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification. The attempted interpretations indicate that the marine biodiversity additions increased the number of marine genera by 10-30 % (from the previous unprecedented level to that new. All additions were relatively brief and occurred as splashes throughout the Phanerozoic. Peculiar intrinsic and extrinsic factors, as well as the speed of diversification should be considered when triggers of these events are looked for. Undoubtedly, splash-like marine biodiversity additions played an important role in the evolution of life in the sea, but a lot of research is required in order to understand their true nature.

  15. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  16. Dear readers of and contributors to Biodiversity and Natural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D. Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of Biodiversity and Natural History, a peer-reviewed, open-access and electronic journal published by the Centro de Estudios en Biodiversidad de Chile (Center for Studies in Biodiversity. The journal was created in 2009 under the name of Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile with the aim of being a contribution to the dissemination of the Chilean biodiversity and natural history. True to its original purpose, the journal only published Chilean manuscripts in the early years. However, as time went by, the journal also started to receive and publish manuscripts coming from elsewhere in the planet. Accordingly, the journal gradually became an international channel for the scientific promotion and dissemination of biodiversity and natural history and thus, the name of the journal, as well as its original scope and goals were no longer representative.Because of this, in late 2014 the Editorial Board decided to change the original name of the journal to Biodiversity and Natural History a...

  17. Economic valuation of biodiversity conservation: the meaning of numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Benayas, Javier

    2008-06-01

    Recognition of the need to include economic criteria in the conservation policy decision-making process has encouraged the use of economic-valuation techniques. Nevertheless, whether it is possible to accurately assign economic values to biodiversity and if so what these values really represent is being debated. We reviewed 60 recent papers on economic valuation of biodiversity and carried out a meta-analysis of these studies to determine what factors affect willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation. We analyzed the internal variables of the contingent-valuation method (measure of benefits, vehicle of payment, elicitation format, or timing of payment) and anthropomorphic, anthropocentric and scientific factors. Funding allocation mostly favored the conservation of species with anthropomorphic and anthropocentric characteristics instead of considering scientific factors. We recommend researchers and policy makers contemplate economic valuations of biodiversity carefully, considering the inherent biases of the contingent-valuation method and the anthropomorphic and anthropocentric factors resulting from the public's attitude toward species. Because of the increasing trend of including economic considerations in conservation practices, we suggest that in the future interdisciplinary teams of ecologists, economists, and social scientists collaborate and conduct comparative analyses, such as we have done here. Use of the contingent-valuation method in biodiversity conservation policies can provide useful information about alternative conservation strategies if questionnaires are carefully constructed, respondents are sufficiently informed, and the underlying factors that influence willingness to pay are identified.

  18. A comparison of proxy performance in coral biodiversity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe T.

    2013-03-01

    The productivity and health of coral reef habitat is diminishing worldwide; however, the effect that habitat declines have on coral reef biodiversity is not known. Logistical and financial constraints mean that surveys of hard coral communities rarely collect data at the species level; hence it is important to know if there are proxy metrics that can reliably predict biodiversity. Here, the performances of six proxy metrics are compared using regression analyses on survey data from a location in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Results suggest generic richness is a strong explanatory variable for spatial patterns in species richness (explaining 82 % of the variation when measured on a belt transect). The most commonly used metric of reef health, percentage live coral cover, is not positively or linearly related to hard coral species richness. This result raises doubt as to whether management actions based on such reefscape information will be effective for the conservation of coral biodiversity.

  19. Resobio. Management of forest residues: preserving soils and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Resobio project (management of forest slash: preservation of soils and biodiversity) aimed at updating knowledge available at the international level (with a focus on temperate areas) on the potential consequences of forest slash sampling on fertility and on biodiversity, and at identifying orientations for recommendations for a revision of the ADEME guide of 2006 on wise collecting of forest slash. The first part of this report is a synthesis report which gives an overview of results about twenty issues dealing with the nature of wood used for energy production and the role of slash, about the consequences of this type of collecting for soil fertility and species productivity, and about impacts on biodiversity. Based on these elements, recommendations are made for slash management and for additional follow-up and research. The second part contains five scientific and technical reports which more deeply analyse the issue of fertility, and technical documents on slash management (guides) published in various countries

  20. Darwin Core: an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wieczorek

    Full Text Available Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations.

  1. Towards a data publishing framework for primary biodiversity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Chavan, Vishwas S

    2009-01-01

      Background Currently primary scientific data, especially that dealing with biodiversity, is neither easily discoverable nor accessible. Amongst several impediments, one is a lack of professional recognition of scientific data publishing efforts. A possible solution is establishment of a ‘Data...... Publishing Framework' which would encourage and recognise investments and efforts by institutions and individuals towards management, and publishing of primary scientific data potentially on a par with recognitions received for scholarly publications.   Discussion This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of...... primary biodiversity data publishing, and conceptualises a ‘Data Publishing Framework' that would help incentivise efforts and investments by institutions and individuals in facilitating free and open access to biodiversity data. It further postulates the institutionalisation of  a ‘Data Usage Index (DUI...

  2. Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed

  3. Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2001-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed.

  4. Uncertainty in biodiversity science, policy and management: a conceptual overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Haila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The protection of biodiversity is a complex societal, political and ultimately practical imperative of current global society. The imperative builds upon scientific knowledge on human dependence on the life-support systems of the Earth. This paper aims at introducing main types of uncertainty inherent in biodiversity science, policy and management, as an introduction to a companion paper summarizing practical experiences of scientists and scholars (Haila et al. 2014. Uncertainty is a cluster concept: the actual nature of uncertainty is inherently context-bound. We use semantic space as a conceptual device to identify key dimensions of uncertainty in the context of biodiversity protection; these relate to [i] data; [ii] proxies; [iii] concepts; [iv] policy and management; and [v] normative goals. Semantic space offers an analytic perspective for drawing critical distinctions between types of uncertainty, identifying fruitful resonances that help to cope with the uncertainties, and building up collaboration between different specialists to support mutual social learning.

  5. Loss of native rocky reef biodiversity in Australian metropolitan embayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Barrett, Neville S; Fowles, Amelia E; Hill, Nicole A; Cooper, Antonia T; Myers, Andrew P; Oh, Elizabeth S; Pocklington, Jacqui B; Thomson, Russell J

    2015-06-15

    Urbanisation of the coastal zone represents a key threat to marine biodiversity, including rocky reef communities which often possess disproportionate ecological, recreational and commercial importance. The nature and magnitude of local urban impacts on reef biodiversity near three Australian capital cities were quantified using visual census methods. The most impacted reefs in urbanised embayments were consistently characterised by smaller, faster growing species, reduced fish biomass and richness, and reduced mobile invertebrate abundance and richness. Reef faunal distribution varied significantly with heavy metals, local population density, and proximity to city ports, while native fish and invertebrate communities were most depauperate in locations where invasive species were abundant. Our study adds impetus for improved urban planning and pollution management practises, while also highlighting the potential for skilled volunteers to improve the tracking of changes in marine biodiversity values and the effectiveness of management intervention. PMID:25882229

  6. Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James M; Aronson, James; Newton, Adrian C; Pywell, Richard F; Rey-Benayas, Jose M

    2011-10-01

    Ecological restoration is becoming regarded as a major strategy for increasing the provision of ecosystem services as well as reversing biodiversity losses. Here, we show that restoration projects can be effective in enhancing both, but that conflicts can arise, especially if single services are targeted in isolation. Furthermore, recovery of biodiversity and services can be slow and incomplete. Despite this uncertainty, new methods of ecosystem service valuation are suggesting that the economic benefits of restoration can outweigh costs. Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes could therefore provide incentives for restoration, but require development to ensure biodiversity and multiple services are enhanced and the needs of different stakeholders are met. Such approaches must be implemented widely if new global restoration targets are to be achieved.

  7. Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world's largest reforestation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Xinlei; Fisher, Brendan; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo; Tang, Ya; Yu, Douglas W.; Wilcove, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China's Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world's largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP's biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that GFGP reforestation results in modest gains (via mixed forest) and losses (via monocultures) of bird diversity, along with major losses of bee diversity. Moreover, all current modes of GFGP reforestation fall short of restoring biodiversity to levels approximating native forests. However, even within existing modes of reforestation, GFGP can achieve greater biodiversity gains by promoting mixed forests over monocultures; doing so is unlikely to entail major opportunity costs or pose unforeseen economic risks to households. PMID:27598524

  8. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  9. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Larsen

    Full Text Available Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits--in terms of a climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO(2 emissions from deforestation; b freshwater services to downstream human populations; c retention of option value; and d benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity--significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being.

  10. Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    With the current loss of biodiversity and threats to freshwater ecosystems, it is crucial to identify hot-spots of biodiversity and on which spatial scale they can be resolved. Conservation and management of these important ecosystems needs insight into whether most of the regional biodiversity (i...... of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...

  11. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  12. Reconciling agriculture, carbon and biodiversity in a savannah transformation frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L D; Searchinger, T; Spiegel, M; Tian, D; Sichinga, S; Mwale, M; Kehoe, L; Kuemmerle, T; Berven, A; Chaney, N; Sheffield, J; Wood, E F; Caylor, K K

    2016-09-19

    Rapidly rising populations and likely increases in incomes in sub-Saharan Africa make tens of millions of hectares of cropland expansion nearly inevitable, even with large increases in crop yields. Much of that expansion is likely to occur in higher rainfall savannas, with substantial costs to biodiversity and carbon storage. Zambia presents an acute example of this challenge, with an expected tripling of population by 2050, good potential to expand maize and soya bean production, and large areas of relatively undisturbed miombo woodland and associated habitat types of high biodiversity value. Here, we present a new model designed to explore the potential for targeting agricultural expansion in ways that achieve quantitatively optimal trade-offs between competing economic and environmental objectives: total converted land area (the reciprocal of potential yield); carbon loss, biodiversity loss and transportation costs. To allow different interests to find potential compromises, users can apply varying weights to examine the effects of their subjective preferences on the spatial allocation of new cropland and its costs. We find that small compromises from the objective to convert the highest yielding areas permit large savings in transportation costs, and the carbon and biodiversity impacts resulting from savannah conversion. For example, transferring just 30% of weight from a yield-maximizing objective equally between carbon and biodiversity protection objectives would increase total cropland area by just 2.7%, but result in avoided costs of 27-47% for carbon, biodiversity and transportation. Compromise solutions tend to focus agricultural expansion along existing transportation corridors and in already disturbed areas. Used appropriately, this type of model could help countries find agricultural expansion alternatives and related infrastructure and land use policies that help achieve production targets while helping to conserve Africa's rapidly transforming

  13. A decadal view of biodiversity informatics: challenges and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Alex; Roberts, Dave; Addink, Wouter; Aelterman, Bart; Agosti, Donat; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Ariño, Arturo H; Arvanitidis, Christos; Backeljau, Thierry; Bailly, Nicolas; Belbin, Lee; Berendsohn, Walter; Bertrand, Nic; Caithness, Neil; Campbell, David; Cochrane, Guy; Conruyt, Noël; Culham, Alastair; Damgaard, Christian; Davies, Neil; Fady, Bruno; Faulwetter, Sarah; Feest, Alan; Field, Dawn; Garnier, Eric; Geser, Guntram; Gilbert, Jack; Grosche; Grosser, David; Hardisty, Alex; Herbinet, Bénédicte; Hobern, Donald; Jones, Andrew; de Jong, Yde; King, David; Knapp, Sandra; Koivula, Hanna; Los, Wouter; Meyer, Chris; Morris, Robert A; Morrison, Norman; Morse, David; Obst, Matthias; Pafilis, Evagelos; Page, Larry M; Page, Roderic; Pape, Thomas; Parr, Cynthia; Paton, Alan; Patterson, David; Paymal, Elisabeth; Penev, Lyubomir; Pollet, Marc; Pyle, Richard; von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Robert, Vincent; Roberts, Dave; Robertson, Tim; Rovellotti, Olivier; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Schalk, Peter; Schaminee, Joop; Schofield, Paul; Sier, Andy; Sierra, Soraya; Smith, Vince; van Spronsen, Edwin; Thornton-Wood, Simon; van Tienderen, Peter; van Tol, Jan; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Uetz, Peter; Vaas, Lea; Vignes Lebbe, Régine; Vision, Todd; Vu, Duong; De Wever, Aaike; White, Richard; Willis, Kathy; Young, Fiona

    2013-04-15

    Biodiversity informatics plays a central enabling role in the research community's efforts to address scientific conservation and sustainability issues. Great strides have been made in the past decade establishing a framework for sharing data, where taxonomy and systematics has been perceived as the most prominent discipline involved. To some extent this is inevitable, given the use of species names as the pivot around which information is organised. To address the urgent questions around conservation, land-use, environmental change, sustainability, food security and ecosystem services that are facing Governments worldwide, we need to understand how the ecosystem works. So, we need a systems approach to understanding biodiversity that moves significantly beyond taxonomy and species observations. Such an approach needs to look at the whole system to address species interactions, both with their environment and with other species.It is clear that some barriers to progress are sociological, basically persuading people to use the technological solutions that are already available. This is best addressed by developing more effective systems that deliver immediate benefit to the user, hiding the majority of the technology behind simple user interfaces. An infrastructure should be a space in which activities take place and, as such, should be effectively invisible.This community consultation paper positions the role of biodiversity informatics, for the next decade, presenting the actions needed to link the various biodiversity infrastructures invisibly and to facilitate understanding that can support both business and policy-makers. The community considers the goal in biodiversity informatics to be full integration of the biodiversity research community, including citizens' science, through a commonly-shared, sustainable e-infrastructure across all sub-disciplines that reliably serves science and society alike.

  14. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  15. Biodiversity governance: a Tower of Babel of scales and cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soberón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently created Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, originally focused on multilateral and global issues, is shifting its focus to address local issues and to include in its assessments local stakeholders and indigenous and traditional systems of knowledge. Acknowledging that full biodiversity governance is unavoidably rooted in participation of local actors and their problems and knowledge, we suggest that to deal successfully with the complexity and diversity of local issues, including indigenous knowledge systems, IPBES must recognize a key role of local institutions.

  16. Agroecology and biodiversity of the catchment area of Swat River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)

  17. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H Williams; C R Margules; D W Hilbert

    2002-07-01

    The data needed to prioritize areas for biodiversity protection are records of biodiversity features – species, species assemblages, environmental classes – for each candidate area. Prioritizing areas means comparing candidate areas, so the data used to make such comparisons should be comparable in quality and quantity. Potential sources of suitable data include museums, herbariums and natural resource management agencies. Issues of data precision, accuracy and sampling bias in data sets from such sources are discussed and methods for treating data to minimize bias are reviewed.

  18. A BIODIVERSITY HUB: SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adesh Kumar; Amita Kanaujia; Sonika Kushwaha; Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Diversity refers variety in nature i.e. the variety of life on Earth and its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. Sandi Bird sanctuary was developed and conserved in the year 1990 as natural biodiversity hub for aquatic vegetation as well as local residents and migratory birds. This Sanctuary has an area of 309 hectares. A study of faunal diversity in Sandi Bird Sanctuary was done during January 2013 to March 2014. Sandi Bird Sanctuary is well known as popular tourist...

  19. Biodiversity governance: a Tower of Babel of scales and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend

    2015-03-01

    The recently created Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), originally focused on multilateral and global issues, is shifting its focus to address local issues and to include in its assessments local stakeholders and indigenous and traditional systems of knowledge. Acknowledging that full biodiversity governance is unavoidably rooted in participation of local actors and their problems and knowledge, we suggest that to deal successfully with the complexity and diversity of local issues, including indigenous knowledge systems, IPBES must recognize a key role of local institutions. PMID:25764504

  20. Rocky road in the Rockies: Challenges to biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.

    2002-01-01

    To people worldwide, the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada represent a last bastion of nature in its purest and rawest form-unspoiled forests teeming with elk and deer stalked by mountain lions and grizzly bears; bald eagles nesting near lakes and rivers; fat, feisty native trout in rushing mountain streams; and dazzling arrays of wildflowers in lush meadows. In fact, the total biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is considerable, with relatively high diversity in birds, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, and conifers (Ricketts et al. 1999) and with geographic variation in the flora and fauna of alpine, forest, foothill, and adjacent shortgrass prairie and shrub communities over more than 20 degrees of latitude and more than 10' of longitude. Although the biodiversity of most North American regions has declined because of anthropogenic influences, the perception remains that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is intact. This view exists in part because the Rocky Mountains are remote from urban centers, in part because so much of the land comprises protected areas such as national parks and wilderness areas, and in part because of wishful thinking-that nothing bad could happen to the biodiversity that is so much a part of the history, national self-image, legends, nature films, and movies of the United States and Canada. Despite modern technology and the homogenization and globalization of their cities and towns, at heart North Americans still regard their land as the New World, with pristine nature and untamed landscapes epitomized by the Rockies. The reality is that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains has not been free of anthropogenic influences since the West was settled in the 1800s, and in fact it was altered by Native Americans for centuries prior to settlement. A number of escalating problems and consequences of management choices are currently changing Rocky Mountain ecological communities at a dizzying pace. In Order to maintain some

  1. Enriched biodiversity data as a resource and service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balech, Bachir; Beard, Niall; Blissett, Matthew; Brenninkmeijer, Christian; van Dooren, Tom; Eades, David; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin John; Hamann, Thomas D.; Hettling, Hannes; Hoehndorf, Robert; Holleman, Ayco; Hovenkamp, Peter; Kelbert, Patricia; King, David; Kirkup, Don; Lammers, Youri; DeMeulemeester, Thibaut; Mietchen, Daniel; Miller, Jeremy A.; Mounce, Ross; Nicolson, Nicola; Page, Rod; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Pereira, Serrano; Penev, Lyubomir; Richards, Kevin; Sautter, Guido; Shorthouse, David Peter; Tähtinen, Marko; Weiland, Claus; Williams, Alan R.; Sierra, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent years have seen a surge in projects that produce large volumes of structured, machine-readable biodiversity data. To make these data amenable to processing by generic, open source “data enrichment” workflows, they are increasingly being represented in a variety of standards-compliant interchange formats. Here, we report on an initiative in which software developers and taxonomists came together to address the challenges and highlight the opportunities in the enrichment of such biodiversity data by engaging in intensive, collaborative software development: The Biodiversity Data Enrichment Hackathon. Results: The hackathon brought together 37 participants (including developers and taxonomists, i.e. scientific professionals that gather, identify, name and classify species) from 10 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK, and the US. The participants brought expertise in processing structured data, text mining, development of ontologies, digital identification keys, geographic information systems, niche modeling, natural language processing, provenance annotation, semantic integration, taxonomic name resolution, web service interfaces, workflow tools and visualisation. Most use cases and exemplar data were provided by taxonomists. One goal of the meeting was to facilitate re-use and enhancement of biodiversity knowledge by a broad range of stakeholders, such as taxonomists, systematists, ecologists, niche modelers, informaticians and ontologists. The suggested use cases resulted in nine breakout groups addressing three main themes: i) mobilising heritage biodiversity knowledge; ii) formalising and linking concepts; and iii) addressing interoperability between service platforms. Another goal was to further foster a community of experts in biodiversity informatics and to build human links between research projects and institutions, in response to recent calls to further such

  2. Entangled in the web of life: biodiversity and the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Mike

    2008-05-15

    Biodiversity — the variety of genes, species and ecosystems on the planet — is disappearing faster than at any time since the demise of the dinosaurs. The implications are profound, for humanity and for our efforts to tackle poverty and climate change. Yet the media has under-reported this urgent environmental challenge, partly because researchers and policymakers have failed to communicate the issues in a way that is relevant to most people. This briefing explains why biodiversity loss will be an increasingly important story in the coming years. It suggests ways for journalists to improve their reporting and make it mean more to their audiences.

  3. DNA Barcodes for Marine Biodiversity: Moving Fast Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana E. Radulovici

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Biodiversity’ means the variety of life and it can be studied at different levels (genetic, species, ecosystem and scales (spatial and temporal. Last decades showed that marine biodiversity has been severely underestimated at all levels. In order to investigate diversity patterns and underlying processes, there is a need to know what species live in the marine environment. An emerging tool for species identification, DNA barcoding can reliably assign unknown specimens to known species, also flagging potential cryptic species and genetically distant populations. This paper will review the role of DNA barcoding for the study of marine biodiversity at the species level.

  4. Adaptive Management on Danube Delta’s Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Ioan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is a heritage of life that could hold the information needed for the wellbeing of human kind. The challenge of biodiversity preservation was addressed by various management solutions, the newest being the adaptive management. The paper aims to give insights for the application of adaptive management and to reveal its potential for increasing the effectiveness of ecosystem management in the Danube Delta. Carefully designed adaptive management action plans could allow important improvements in the information base that support decisions related to reed valuation.

  5. Enriched biodiversity data as a resource and service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Vos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent years have seen a surge in projects that produce large volumes of structured, machine-readable biodiversity data. To make these data amenable to processing by generic, open source “data enrichment” workflows, they are increasingly being represented in a variety of standards-compliant interchange formats. Here, we report on an initiative in which software developers and taxonomists came together to address the challenges and highlight the opportunities in the enrichment of such biodiversity data by engaging in intensive, collaborative software development: The Biodiversity Data Enrichment Hackathon. Results: The hackathon brought together 37 participants (including developers and taxonomists, i.e. scientific professionals that gather, identify, name and classify species from 10 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK, and the US. The participants brought expertise in processing structured data, text mining, development of ontologies, digital identification keys, geographic information systems, niche modeling, natural language processing, provenance annotation, semantic integration, taxonomic name resolution, web service interfaces, workflow tools and visualisation. Most use cases and exemplar data were provided by taxonomists. One goal of the meeting was to facilitate re-use and enhancement of biodiversity knowledge by a broad range of stakeholders, such as taxonomists, systematists, ecologists, niche modelers, informaticians and ontologists. The suggested use cases resulted in nine breakout groups addressing three main themes: i mobilising heritage biodiversity knowledge; ii formalising and linking concepts; and iii addressing interoperability between service platforms. Another goal was to further foster a community of experts in biodiversity informatics and to build human links between research projects and institutions, in response to recent calls to further

  6. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and food security: scientific challenges for a new agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, L.; Caron, P.; Campbell, B.; Lipper, L.; Mainka, S.; Rabbinge, R.; Didier, D.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Production ecology and conservation biology have long focused on providing the knowledge base for intensive food production and biodiversity conservation, respectively. With increasing global food insecurity and continuing biodiversity decline, we show that the largely separate development of these

  7. Biodiversity funds and conservation needs in the EU under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Lung, Tobias; Meller, Laura; van Teeffelen, Astrid; Thuiller, Wilfried; Cabeza, Mar

    2014-01-01

    Despite ambitious biodiversity policy goals, less than a fifth of the European Union’s (EU) legally protected species and habitats show a favorable conservation status. The recent EU biodiversity strategy recognizes that climate change adds to the challenge of halting biodiversity loss, and that an optimal distribution of financial resources is needed. Here, we analyze recent EU biodiversity funding from a climate change perspective. We compare the allocation of funds to the distribution of b...

  8. Cost Assessment of the Field Measurement of Biodiversity: a Farm-scale Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Targetti, Stefano; Viaggi, Davide; Cuming, David

    2010-01-01

    Attention to the effects of agriculture on biodiversity is currently increasing. Yet the measurement of biodiversity is both time-consuming and costly. Considering the limited budgets available for biodiversity conservation, it is timely to focus on the cost analysis of biodiversity indicators in order to ensure the optimization of the scarce funds available. We present the cost analysis of operational data from the fieldwork efforts undertaken in the measurement of biodiver...

  9. The interdependence between biodiversity and socioeconomic variables on a local level: Evidence for german counties

    OpenAIRE

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research shows that in addition to geography, agriculture is one major determinant of biodiversity status. However, the impact of regional socioeconomic structures on biodiversity should not be underestimated. S...

  10. Re-thinking on the role of business in biodiversity conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Barna, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Today we face the challenge of building biodiversity business. There is a need to develop new business models and market mechanisms for biodiversity conservation, while also raising awareness and persuading the public and policy-makers that biodiversity can be conserved on a commercial basis. In this context the present paper is analyzing the arise of a new economic concept ‘business biodiversity’, focusing on the strategic importance of biodiversity for business and also presenting some busi...

  11. Importance of Baseline Specification in Evaluating Conservation Interventions and Achieving No Net Loss of Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, J. W.; Gordon, A.; Law, E A; Suttle, K. B.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the ...

  12. Biodiversity Business fron India to Peru; Insights into successes and chellenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vollaard, B.; Verweij, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development recently released the report 'Biodiversity Business from India to Peru'. The study, commissioned by Hivos, provides new insights in the impacts and success factors of the upcoming concept of biodiversity-friendly enterprise across the globe. By means of a case study of 30 biodiversity businesses, the report aims to inform and inspire a broad audience about the promising pro-biodiversity market in order to promote its growth as an integrated ...

  13. Measurement Models of Forest Biodiversity Variation and Its Controlling Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    According to the evaluative data of forest biodiversity variation in China from 1973 to 1998, not only the gray model GM( 1,2), but also the status spatial characterization model with the optimal control model for forest biodiversity variation is developed by using some mathematic approaches and knowledge in economic cybernetics. Furthermore, the structural characteristics of forest biodiversity variation are analyzed. The paper points out that the variation of forest biodiversity is instable, but it ca...

  14. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Mudgal, S.; Turbé, A.; Toni, de A.; Lavelle, P.; Benito, P.; Ruiz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Human societies rely on the vast diversity of benefits provided by nature, such as food, fibres, construction materials, clean water, clean air and climate regulation. All the elements required for these ecosystem services depend on soil, and soil biodiversity is the driving force behind their regul

  15. Biodiversity and its use at taunsa barrage wildlife sanctuary, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibi, F.; Ali, Z.; Qaisrani, S.N.; Shelly, S.Y.; Andleeb, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the livelihood conditions of the peoples of three villages (Bait Qaimwala, Basti Allahwali and Jannu) and their dependency on biodiversity of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan from 2009 to 2011. For socio-economic status, Participatory Human Resource Interaction Appra

  16. Hypothetical pear production system innovation through promotion of soil biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der M.P.; Heijne, B.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a hypothetical view on a pear production system innovation through promotion of soil biodiversity. Two types of measures form the central idea of the innovation. The first type of measure is to replace part of the current 100% mineral fertilisation by compost plus targeted use of specia

  17. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  18. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed. PMID:17255031

  19. [From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits?

  20. Decline in biodiversity of copepods in coastal waters of Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, V.R.

    on ICM: Lessons Learned to Address New Challenges 30 Oct - 03 Nov 2013, Marmaris, Turkey, E. Ozhan (Editor) Decline in Biodiversity of Copepods in Coastal Waters of Mumbai Rosamma Stephen'<', K.V. Jayalakshmy'<' and Vij ayalakshmi R. Nair(3) (1) National...

  1. The cryogenic collection of fruit biodiversity in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of the biodiversity of fruit crops is important to the future of horticulture in Kazakhstan. A field collection of fruit germplasm with more than 4000 cultivars and wild selections is grown in the Pomological Garden of the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture near Almaty, to preser...

  2. Molecular biodiversity of mycotoxigenic fungi that threaten food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal biodiversity is one of the most important contributors to the occurrence and severity of mycotoxin contamination of crop plants. Phenotypic and metabolic plasticity has enabled mycotoxigenic fungi to colonize a broad range of agriculturally important crops and to adapt to a range of environme...

  3. Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational and international initiatives, and efforts to promote sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. Suggestions for future research are also provided

  4. The geomatic like a tool for biodiversity analysis in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current biodiversity research recognizes geographic information and its variability in space as an essential characteristic that helps understand the relationships between the components of biological communities and their environment. The description and quantification of their spatial and temporal attributes adds important elements for their adequate management. The biological diversity convention (biological diversity convention, law 165 of 1994) reassured the importance of biodiversity and the necessity of its conservation and sustainable use and emphasized that its components should be characterized and monitored, and the data and information related with them should be maintained and organized. The biological research institute Alexander von Humboldt is the Colombian entity in charge of promoting, coordinating and undertaking research that helps in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, this institution has defined the inventory of all the fauna and flora resources in the country as one of its priority research lines. Using geomatic techniques, Humboldt institute has implemented and developed technologies to capture, debug, geocode and analyze geographic data related with biodiversity (Armenteras, 2001) among others, this has helped in the development, structure and management of projects such as the ecosystems mapping of the Colombian amazonic, Andean and Orinoco ecosystems (GIS -RS), finding conservation opportunities in rural landscapes (GIS-RS) biological localities Gazetteer (GIS, databases, programming), development of models that predict and explain species distribution (GIS, database management, modeling techniques), conservation weakness (GIS-RS) and environmental indicators (GIS, geostatistical analysis)

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Thacker; M.C. Díaz; N.J. de Voogd; R.W.M. van Soest; C.J. Freeman; A.S. Mobley; J. LaPietra; K. Cope; S. McKenna

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishe

  6. Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is both a cause and an effect of biodiversity change. Along with anthropogenic dispersion, climate change is the main driver of change in the geographical distribution of both beneficial and harmful species, crops, livestock, harvested wild species, pests, predators and pathogens. And the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to climate change depends on the diversity of species t...

  7. Selecting appropriate methods of knowledge synthesis to inform biodiversity policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullin, Andrew; Frampton, Geoff; Jongman, Rob; Kohl, Christian; Livoreil, Barbara; Lux, Alexandra; Pataki, György; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Podhora, Aranka; Saarikoski, Heli; Santamaria, Luis; Schindler, Stefan; Sousa-pinto, Isabel; Vandewalle, Marie; Wittmer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Responding to different questions generated by biodiversity and ecosystem services policy or management requires different forms of knowledge (e.g. scientific, experiential) and knowledge synthesis. Additionally, synthesis methods need to be appropriate to policy context (e.g. question types, budget

  8. The major importance of 'minor' resources: Women and plant biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding women’s influence on plant biodiversity is essential to our ability to conserve plant genetic resources, especially those plants that are useful to humans. Contrary to previous thinking, it is becoming clear that women know most about these plants because, throughout history, women’s d

  9. Digital Libraries for Biodiversity and Natural History Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Miguel; Kramer-Duffield, Jacob; Greenberg, Jane; Hall, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    5 p. This panel aims to discuss the importance of creating digital libraries for biodiversity and natural history collections, the state of the art in terms of standards, best practices and the challenges that natural history museums and herbaria face when trying to digitize their collections, and the creation and management of personal digital libraries for botanical learning.

  10. A decadal view of biodiversity informatics: challenges and priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hardisty; D. Roberts; W. Addink; B Aelterman; D. Agosti; L. Amaral-Zettler; A.H. Ariño; C. Arvanitidis; T. Backeljau; N. Bailly; L. Belbin; W. Berendsohn; N. Bertrand; N. Caithness; D. Campbell; G. Cochrane; N. Conruyt; A. Culham; C. Damgaard; N. Davies; B. Fady; S. Faulwetter; A. Feest; D. Field; E. Garnier; G. Geser; J. Gilbert; B. Grosche; D. Grosser; B. Herbinet; D. Hobern; A. Jones; Y. de Jong; D. King; S. Knapp; H. Koivula; W. Los; C Meyer; R.A. Morris; N. Morrison; D. Morse; M. Obst; E. Pafilis; L.M. Page; R. Page; T. Pape; C. Parr; A. Paton; D. Patterson; E. Paymal; L. Penev; M. Pollet; R. Pyle; E. von Raab-Straube; V. Robert; T. Robertson; O. Rovellotti; H. Saarenmaa; P. Schalk; J. Schaminee; P. Schofield; A. Sier; S. Sierra; V. Smith; E. van Spronsen; S. Thornton-Wood; P. van Tienderen; J. van Tol; É.Ó. Tuama; P. Uetz; L. Vaas; R. Vignes Lebbe; T. Vision; D. Vu; A. De Wever; R. White; K. Willis; F. Young

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity informatics plays a central enabling role in the research community's efforts to address scientific conservation and sustainability issues. Great strides have been made in the past decade establishing a framework for sharing data, where taxonomy and systematics has been perceived as the

  11. A decadal view of biodiversity informatics : challenges and priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardisty, Alex; Roberts, Dave; Addink, Wouter; Aelterman, Bart; Agosti, Donat; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Ariño, Arturo H; Arvanitidis, Christos; Backeljau, Thierry; Bailly, Nicolas; Belbin, Lee; Berendsohn, Walter; Bertrand, Nic; Caithness, Neil; Campbell, David; Cochrane, Guy; Conruyt, Noël; Culham, Alastair; Damgaard, Christian; Davies, Neil; Fady, Bruno; Faulwetter, Sarah; Feest, Alan; Field, Dawn; Garnier, Eric; Geser, Guntram; Gilbert, Jack; Grosche, [No Value; Grosser, David; Hardisty, Alex; Herbinet, Bénédicte; Hobern, Donald; Jones, Andrew; de Jong, Yde; King, David; Knapp, Sandra; Koivula, Hanna; Los, Wouter; Meyer, Chris; Morris, Robert A; Morrison, Norman; Morse, David; Obst, Matthias; Pafilis, Evagelos; Page, Larry M; Page, Roderic; Pape, Thomas; Parr, Cynthia; Paton, Alan; Patterson, David; Paymal, Elisabeth; Penev, Lyubomir; Pollet, Marc; Pyle, Richard; von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Robert, Vincent; Roberts, Dave; Robertson, Tim; Rovellotti, Olivier; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Schalk, Peter; Schaminee, Joop; Schofield, Paul; Sier, Andy; Sierra, Soraya; Smith, Vince; van Spronsen, Edwin; Thornton-Wood, Simon; van Tienderen, Peter; van Tol, Jan; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Uetz, Peter; Vaas, Lea; Vignes Lebbe, Régine; Vision, Todd; Vu, Duong; De Wever, Aaike; White, Richard; Willis, Kathy; Young, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity informatics plays a central enabling role in the research community's efforts to address scientific conservation and sustainability issues. Great strides have been made in the past decade establishing a framework for sharing data, where taxonomy and systematics has been perceived as the

  12. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  13. [From biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    This paper explores the relations between economy and ecology in the last quarter of the 20th century with the example of biodiversity. From its definition in the 1980s, the concept of biodiversity responded not only to conservational concerns but also to hopes and demands of economic profitability. The paper argues that archival systems of inventorying and surveying nature, the biodiversity database and the biodiversity portfolio, changed the view on nature from a resource to an investment. The paper studies the alliances of ecologists and environmental economists in managing nature according to economic principles of successful asset management, "diversification", with the aim to distribute risk, minimize ecological loss and maximize overall ecosystem performance. Finally, the paper discusses the assumptions and the consequences of transferring principles from financial risk management to landscape management. How has the substitution of the existential values of nature by shareholder value affected the relations between ecology, environment, and ecosystem conservation? Who gains and who looses in exchanging natural capital and financial capital, yields, and profits? PMID:24988757

  14. Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, I Tanya; Aerts, Rien; Berendse, Frank; Berg, Matty P; Bruder, Andreas; Butenschoen, Olaf; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O; Jabiol, Jérémy; Makkonen, Marika; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Scheu, Stefan; Schmid, Bernhard; van Ruijven, Jasper; Vos, Veronique C A; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales.

  15. Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2010-06-01

    We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.

  16. Challenges and Remedies to Biodiversity in Singhason Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni-et Teronpi,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Singhason hill range in Assam is a cultural landscape with rich biodiversity and implications for conservation of biodiversity. In recent years, the hill range has been under pressure particularly from human interference that poses considerable threats to biodiversity and the landscape. There is no previous study on environment of Singhason hills due to which biodiversity status, agricultural practices and other related aspects of the hill are unknown. In the present paper, drivers of environmental deterioration in Singhason landscape and opportunities for its conservation are discussed. Data collection included interview and participant observations; informant responses on drivers of environmental deterioration have been presented as Relative Frequency. Over-harvesting is the most potent driver with RF score of 91.7% followed by mining of lime stone and coal (83.3%, monoculture with rubber and teak (35.4% and shifting cultivation (12.5%. Overexploitation is the major cause of degradation of agar-wood, cinnamon, black dammar, rattans and bamboo resources. Agroforestry with local plants such as black dammar, cinnamon, broom grass, orange, pineapple and pear hold promises for food production, food security, nutrition, health and socio-cultural benefits.

  17. Sample Course Material for Biodiversity and Sustainable Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    This study was done in a period when there are attempts to develop a framework for the sustainable development and sustainable education in order to emphasize the universal significance of biodiversity, sustainable development, and sustainable education. The research reported here is a case study carried out in the spring semester of 2012-2013…

  18. Spectral Analysis of Biodiversity Cycles and Galactic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Bruce; Melott, Adrian

    2007-04-01

    We have analyzed the power spectral and phase relationships of fluctuations in biodiversity, species origination, extinction rate, and motion of the solar system normal to the galactic plane over the last ˜500 My. The period of the dominant spectral component is the same 62 My for all these except extinction. It is also the same as the rate of gene duplication events (as determined by Ding et al.), suggesting some sort of causal relationship. The spectra suggest that the biodiversity cycle is more closely related to origination rates than extinction rates. Biodiversity and solar motion are offset by π, with gene duplication and origination lagging and leading biodiversity by ˜2 radians. A picture emerges consistent with a rising rate of mutation and stress on the biosphere as the solar system moves to galactic north, possibly exposed to higher cosmic rays from a galactic bow shock, as proposed elsewhere, and increasing species origination as it returns to the magnetic shielding of the galactic disk.

  19. Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N.; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Senior, Rebecca A.; Börger, Luca; Bennett, Dominic J.; Choimes, Argyrios; Collen, Ben; Day, Julie; de Palma, Adriana; Díaz, Sandra; Echeverria-Londoño, Susy; Edgar, Melanie J.; Feldman, Anat; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L. K.; Alhusseini, Tamera; Ingram, Daniel J.; Itescu, Yuval; Kattge, Jens; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Kleyer, Michael; Correia, David Laginha Pinto; Martin, Callum D.; Meiri, Shai; Novosolov, Maria; Pan, Yuan; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Purves, Drew W.; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Tuck, Sean L.; Weiher, Evan; White, Hannah J.; Ewers, Robert M.; Mace, Georgina M.; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Purvis, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear--a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and related changes. Here we show that in the worst-affected habitats, these pressures reduce within-sample species richness by an average of 76.5%, total abundance by 39.5% and rarefaction-based richness by 40.3%. We estimate that, globally, these pressures have already slightly reduced average within-sample richness (by 13.6%), total abundance (10.7%) and rarefaction-based richness (8.1%), with changes showing marked spatial variation. Rapid further losses are predicted under a business-as-usual land-use scenario; within-sample richness is projected to fall by a further 3.4% globally by 2100, with losses concentrated in biodiverse but economically poor countries. Strong mitigation can deliver much more positive biodiversity changes (up to a 1.9% average increase) that are less strongly related to countries' socioeconomic status.

  20. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tscharntke, T.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Rand, T.A.; Didham, R.K.; Fahrig, L.; Batáry, P.; Bengtsson, J.; Clough, Y.; Crist, T.O.; Dormann, C.F.; Ewers, R.M.; Fründ, J.; Holt, R.D.; Holzschuh, A.; Klein, A.M.; Kleijn, D.; Kremen, C.; Landis, D.A.; Laurance, W.; Lindenmayer, D.; Scherber, C.; Sodhi, N.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Thies, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Westphal, C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which

  1. Soil biodiversity and DNA barcodes: opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orgiazzi, A.; Bonnet Dunbar, M.; Panagos, P.; Groot, de G.A.; Lemanceau, P.

    2015-01-01

    Soils encompass a huge diversity of organisms which mostly remains to be characterized due to a number of methodological and logistical issues. Nonetheless, remarkable progress has been made in recent years toward developing strategies to characterize and describe soil biodiversity, especially thank

  2. Distributional (in)congruence of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Mulder; A. Boit; S. Mori; J.A. Vonk; S.D. Dyer; L. Faggiano; S. Geisen; A.L. González; M. Kaspari; S. Lavorel; P.A. Marquet; A.G. Rossberg; R.W. Sterner; W. Voigt; D.H. Wall

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning in laboratories has concentrated on a few traits, but there is increasing evidence from the field that functional diversity controls ecosystem functioning more often than does species number. Given the importance of traits as predictors

  3. Deep-sea sponge grounds: Reservoirs of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hogg; O.S. Tendal; K.W. Conway; S.A. Pomponi; R.W.M. van Soest; J. Gutt; M. Krautter; J.M. Roberts

    2010-01-01

    This report draws together scientific understanding of deep-water sponge grounds alongside the threats they face and ways in which they can be conserved. Beginning with a summary of research approaches, sponge biology and biodiversity, the report also gives up-to-date case studies of particular deep

  4. Transgenic Crops: Implications for Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Alice; Altieri, Miguel A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for genetically modified (GM) crops to threaten biodiversity conservation and sustainable agriculture is substantial. Megadiverse countries and centers of origin and/or diversity of crop species are particularly vulnerable regions. The future of sustainable agriculture may be irreversibly jeopardized by contamination of in situ…

  5. Novel margin management to enhance Auchenorrhyncha biodiversity in intensive grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, R.J.; Woodcock, B.A.; Ramsay, A. J.; Pilgrim, E.S.; Brown, V. K.; Tallowin, J.R.; Potts, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification, including changes in cutting, grazing and fertilizer regimes, has led to declines in UK and NW European grassland biodiversity. We aimed to develop field margin management practices that would support invertebrate diversity and abundance on intensively managed grassland farms, focusing on planthoppers and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha). Replicated across four farms in south-west England, we manipulated conventional management practices (inorganic fertilizer, cutti...

  6. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act is held up both as an example of strict legislation working to guard biodiversity preservation (Yaffee, 1982) and an uneconomical law that creates perverse incentives that may actually reduce such preservation (Brown and Shogren, 1998; Lueck & Michael, 2003; List e...

  7. Effect of nitrogen deposition reduction on biodiversity and carbon sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Schouwenberg, E.P.A.G.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and loss of biodiversity are among the most prominent environmental issues of our time. Large sums are spent to reduce their causes, the emission of CO2 and nitrogen compounds. However, the results of such measures are potentially conflicting, as the reduction of nitrogen deposition m

  8. Towards next-generation biodiversity assessment using DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pompanon, Francois;

    2012-01-01

    Virtually all empirical ecological studies require species identification during data collection. DNA metabarcoding refers to the automated identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample containing entire organisms or from a single environmental sample containing degraded DNA (soil,...... potential to boost data acquisition in biodiversity research....

  9. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring.

  10. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  11. The Biodiversity Community Action Project: An STS Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidin, Amirshokoohi; Mahsa, Kazempour

    2010-01-01

    The Biodiversity Community Action Project is a stimulating and vigorous project that allows students to gain an in-depth understanding of the interconnection between organisms and their environments as well as the connection of science to their lives and society. It addresses key content standards in the National Science Education Standards and…

  12. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  13. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitello, David J; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A; Ortega, C Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-07-14

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant-herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production.

  14. Biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems: a new conservation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-01-01

    It is almost certainly the case that many populations have always existed as metapopulations, leading to the conclusion that local extinctions are common and normally balanced by migrations. This conclusion has major consequences for biodiversity conservation in fragmented tropical forests and the agricultural matrices in which they are embedded. Here we make the argument that the conservation paradigm that focuses on setting aside pristine forests while ignoring the agricultural landscape is a failed strategy in light of what is now conventional wisdom in ecology. Given the fragmented nature of most tropical ecosystems, agricultural landscapes should be an essential component of any conservation strategy. We review the literature on biodiversity in tropical agricultural landscapes and present evidence that many tropical agricultural systems have high levels of biodiversity (planned and associated). These systems represent, not only habitat for biodiversity, but also a high-quality matrix that permits the movement of forest organisms among patches of natural vegetation. We review a variety of agroecosystem types and conclude that diverse, low-input systems using agroecological principles are probably the best option for a high-quality matrix. Such systems are most likely to be constructed by small farmers with land titles, who, in turn, are normally the consequence of grassroots social movements. Therefore, the new conservation paradigm should incorporate a landscape approach in which small farmers, through their social organizations, work with conservationists to create a landscape matrix dominated by productive agroecological systems that facilitate interpatch migration while promoting a sustainable and dignified livelihood for rural communities.

  15. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Rampal S.; Alonso, David; McKane, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the a

  16. Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa

    2010-06-01

    We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters. PMID:20866445

  17. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring. PMID:26457535

  18. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...

  19. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  20. The international year of biodiversity: a celebration and cogitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazoul, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2010-01-01

    To both celebrate and reflect upon this International Year of Biodiversity, Biotropica has invited opinion articles from a number of scientists across the globe. As lightly edited personal opinions, the commentaries reflect the diversity of passionate and often controversial views expressed across t

  1. Data-Intensive Science: A New Paradigm for Biodiversity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Steve; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fink, Daniel; Riedewald, Mirek; Caruana, Rich; Ballard, Grant; Hooker, Giles

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of massive volumes of scientific data requires new synthetic analysis techniques to explore and identify interesting patterns that are otherwise not apparent. For biodiversity studies, a "data-driven" approach is necessary because of the complexity of ecological systems, particularly when viewed at large spatial and…

  2. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Lees

    Full Text Available Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  3. Young People's Views on the Importance of Conserving Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Sharp, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the findings of a study of the views of 15 and 16 year-olds on the importance of biodiversity conservation. Reports general disapproval for human economic activities that might threaten wildlife with extinction, although significantly fewer boys than girls held this view. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. International cooperation for biodiversity conservation : an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity decline poses significant threats to current and future generations. Although species extinction has been a natural process since the formation of Earth, recent rates of extinction are estimated to be from 100 to 1000 times larger when compared to fossil records. Almost all of the Earth

  5. Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N; Hill, Samantha L L; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Senior, Rebecca A; Börger, Luca; Bennett, Dominic J; Choimes, Argyrios; Collen, Ben; Day, Julie; De Palma, Adriana; Díaz, Sandra; Echeverria-Londoño, Susy; Edgar, Melanie J; Feldman, Anat; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Alhusseini, Tamera; Ingram, Daniel J; Itescu, Yuval; Kattge, Jens; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Kleyer, Michael; Correia, David Laginha Pinto; Martin, Callum D; Meiri, Shai; Novosolov, Maria; Pan, Yuan; Phillips, Helen R P; Purves, Drew W; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Tuck, Sean L; Weiher, Evan; White, Hannah J; Ewers, Robert M; Mace, Georgina M; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear--a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and related changes. Here we show that in the worst-affected habitats, these pressures reduce within-sample species richness by an average of 76.5%, total abundance by 39.5% and rarefaction-based richness by 40.3%. We estimate that, globally, these pressures have already slightly reduced average within-sample richness (by 13.6%), total abundance (10.7%) and rarefaction-based richness (8.1%), with changes showing marked spatial variation. Rapid further losses are predicted under a business-as-usual land-use scenario; within-sample richness is projected to fall by a further 3.4% globally by 2100, with losses concentrated in biodiverse but economically poor countries. Strong mitigation can deliver much more positive biodiversity changes (up to a 1.9% average increase) that are less strongly related to countries' socioeconomic status.

  6. The fragmentation of Pangaea and Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    During the Mesozoic (242-66 million years ago), terrestrial regions underwent a massive shift in their size, position and connectivity. At the beginning of the era, the land masses were joined into a single supercontinent called Pangaea. However, by the end of the Mesozoic, terrestrial regions had become highly fragmented, both owing to the drifting apart of the continental plates and the extremely high sea levels that flooded and divided many regions. How terrestrial biodiversity was affected by this fragmentation and large-scale flooding of the Earth's landmasses is uncertain. Based on a model using the species-area relationship (SAR), terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity would be expected to nearly double through the Mesozoic owing to continental fragmentation, despite a decrease of 24% in total terrestrial area. Previous studies of Mesozoic vertebrates have generally found increases in terrestrial diversity towards the end of the era, although these increases are often attributed to intrinsic or climatic factors. Instead, continental fragmentation over this time may largely explain any observed increase in terrestrial biodiversity. This study demonstrates the importance that non-intrinsic effects can have on the taxonomic success of a group, and the importance of geography to understanding past biodiversity. PMID:27651536

  7. Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, I Tanya; Aerts, Rien; Berendse, Frank; Berg, Matty P; Bruder, Andreas; Butenschoen, Olaf; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O; Jabiol, Jérémy; Makkonen, Marika; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Scheu, Stefan; Schmid, Bernhard; van Ruijven, Jasper; Vos, Veronique C A; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales. PMID:24805346

  8. Observations of Everyday Biodiversity: a New Perspective for Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Caroline Prevot-Julliard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is one of the keys to achieving biodiversity conservation goals. Increasing public involvement in conservation activities requires investigation into what makes people more aware of nature, especially in an ordinary and local context, in their everyday lives. Among the initiatives developed to increase the public's awareness of conservation issues and individual environmental practices, citizen-science programs are based on an invitation to observe and survey nature. In our study, we examined the consequences of participation in a participative citizen-science program that takes place in an everyday-life context on individuals' knowledge and beliefs about biodiversity. This program, the French Garden Butterflies Watch, is addressed to the non-scientifically literate public and is run by the French National Museum of Natural History (MNHN. We examined the ways increased knowledge or strengthened beliefs or ideas about biodiversity can foster pro-conservation attitudes and behavior. We explored how repeated interactions with nature influence the development of knowledge in this area, and how these repeated observations of biodiversity become integrated into complex cognitive processes over time and space. We showed that repeated observations of nature can increase individual knowledge and beliefs. Our results brought out three important conclusions: (1 conservation issues must be integrated into a wider network of social relationships; (2 observing everyday nature often makes people consider its functional and evolutionary characteristics; and (3 scientific knowledge seems necessary to help people to develop their own position on ecosystems.

  9. Does biodiversity of estuarine phytoplankton depend on hydrology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, JG; Wolff, WJ; Simas, TC; Bricker, SB

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth in estuaries is controlled by factors such as flushing, salinity tolerance, light, nutrients and grazing. Here, we show that biodiversity of estuarine phytoplankton is related to flushing, and illustrate this for some European estuaries. The implications for the definition of re

  10. Status of marine biodiversity of the China seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Liu

    Full Text Available China's seas cover nearly 5 million square kilometers extending from the tropical to the temperate climate zones and bordering on 32,000 km of coastline, including islands. Comprehensive systematic study of the marine biodiversity within this region began in the early 1950s with the establishment of the Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since that time scientists have carried out intensive multidisciplinary research on marine life in the China seas and have recorded 22,629 species belonging to 46 phyla. The marine flora and fauna of the China seas are characterized by high biodiversity, including tropical and subtropical elements of the Indo-West Pacific warm-water fauna in the South and East China seas, and temperate elements of North Pacific temperate fauna mainly in the Yellow Sea. The southern South China Sea fauna is characterized by typical tropical elements paralleled with the Philippine-New Guinea-Indonesia Coral triangle typical tropical faunal center. This paper summarizes advances in studies of marine biodiversity in China's seas and discusses current research mainly on characteristics and changes in marine biodiversity, including the monitoring, assessment, and conservation of endangered species and particularly the strengthening of effective management. Studies of (1 a tidal flat in a semi-enclosed embayment, (2 the impact of global climate change on a cold-water ecosystem, (3 coral reefs of Hainan Island and Xisha-Nansha atolls, (4 mangrove forests of the South China Sea, (5 a threatened seagrass field, and (6 an example of stock enhancement practices of the Chinese shrimp fishery are briefly introduced. Besides the overexploitation of living resources (more than 12.4 million tons yielded in 2007, the major threat to the biodiversity of the China seas is environmental deterioration (pollution, coastal construction, particularly in the brackish waters of estuarine environments, which are

  11. Biodiversity and organic farming. Strengthening the interactions between agriculture and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Sylvaine

    2010-01-01

    The interactions between organic farming and biodiversity show that the organic approach can be proposed as an agricultural system that may best benefit but also provide biodiversity in the agroecosystem, thus minimising the trade-off between production aims and biodiversity preservation and restoration.

  12. 78 FR 19353 - Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction; Notice of Public Meeting ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY... biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. DATES: The public meeting will be held on April 23, 2013... negotiations on marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, such as the meeting of the UN BBNJ...

  13. 77 FR 6820 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Creating Stewardship Through Biodiversity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Biodiversity Discovery in National Parks AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice; request... of Biodiversity Discovery efforts. To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and as a part...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Biodiversity Discovery refers to a variety of efforts to discover...

  14. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  15. Biodiversity Conservation through Environmental Education for Sustainable Development--A Case Study from Puducherry, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Alexandar; Poyya Moli, Gopalsamy

    2011-01-01

    Promoting students commitment to protect local biodiversity is an important goal of education for sustainable development in India and elsewhere. The main focus of the biodiversity education was to create knowledge, interest and necessary skills to solve various biodiversity problems with reference to the local context. In order to develop the…

  16. Experiencing biodiversity as a bridge over the science-society communication gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinard, Yves; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-06-01

    Drawing on the idea that biodiversity is simply the diversity of living things, and that everyone knows what diversity and living things mean, most conservation professionals eschew the need to explain the many complex ways in which biodiversity is understood in science. On many biodiversity-related issues, this lack of clarity leads to a communication gap between science and the general public, including decision makers who must design and implement biodiversity policies. Closing this communication gap is pivotal to the ability of science to inform sound environmental decision making. To address this communication gap, we propose a surrogate of biodiversity for communication purposes that captures the scientific definition of biodiversity yet can be understood by nonscientists; that is, biodiversity as a learning experience. The prerequisites of this or any other biodiversity communication surrogate are that it should have transdisciplinary relevance; not be measurable; be accessible to a wide audience; be usable to translate biodiversity issues; and understandably encompass biodiversity concepts. Biodiversity as a learning experience satisfies these prerequisites and is philosophically robust. More importantly, it can effectively contribute to closing the communication gap between biodiversity science and society at large.

  17. Beaver dams maintain fish biodiversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity throughout a low-gradient stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph M.; Mather, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between heterogeneity and biodiversity is an active focus of ecological research. Although habitat heterogeneity is conceptually linked to biodiversity, the amount and configuration of heterogeneity that maintains biodiversity within ecosystems is not well understood, especially for an entire stream network.

  18. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Imhoff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four “priority sets” of 6–16 ecoregions (8–21% of the total number where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.

  19. The forest biodiversity artery: towards forest management for saproxylic conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of forest conservation is the set aside of unharvested areas. However, the fragmentation and lack of connectivity of protected areas make the integration of conservation measures in productive forests essential. Strategies to integrate conservation of saproxylic biodiversity in forest management have been developed, but often considering only specific aspects or remaining preliminary otherwise. As the impact of climate change and anthropogenic stresses increases, the development and the synthesis of this approach is crucial. We reviewed the key literature on forest management for biodiversity conservation, integrating forest science perspective to provide a practical management framework. Our goal is to present a management framework that could contribute to the effective preservation of forest insect biodiversity at the landscape scale, without high economic efforts, and addressing the conflicts that still jeopardize sustainable forest management. The results of our review support the creation of micro-reserves inside productive forests, to support large reserves in landscape conservation strategies. Micro-reserves increase the resilience of forest ecosystems to anthropogenic disturbances, through the development of a heterogeneous structure, maximizing microhabitat availability. Modeling forest management and harvest on local natural disturbance would extend the benefits of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in productive forests. Variable retention harvest systems, applied at the landscape scale, are a feasible and adaptable strategy to preserve and increase biodiversity, safeguarding structural legacies such as senescent trees and deadwood inside the productive matrix. The operational shift, from the stand to the forest landscape, is fundamental to extend the benefits of conservation measures. The Forest Biodiversity Artery, composed by several micro-reserves or îlots de senescence, connected by corridors of habitat trees

  20. Group decisions in biodiversity conservation: implications from game theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decision analysis and game theory have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each agent pursuing individual self-interest leads to a worse outcome for all, relative to other feasible outcomes. Three case studies from biodiversity conservation contexts showing this feature are modeled to demonstrate how game-theoretical representation can inform group decision-making. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mathematical theory of games is used to model three biodiversity conservation scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria: (i a two-agent case involving wild dogs in South Africa; (ii a three-agent raptor and grouse conservation scenario from the United Kingdom; and (iii an n-agent fish and coral conservation scenario from the Philippines. In each case there is reason to believe that traditional mechanism-design solutions that appeal to material incentives may be inadequate, and the game-theoretical analysis recommends a resumption of further deliberation between agents and the initiation of trust--and confidence--building measures. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Game theory can and should be used as a normative tool in biodiversity conservation contexts: identifying scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria enables constructive action in order to achieve (closer to optimal conservation outcomes, whether by policy solutions based on mechanism design or otherwise. However, there is mounting evidence that formal mechanism-design solutions may backfire in certain cases. Such scenarios demand a return to group deliberation and the creation of reciprocal relationships of trust.

  1. THE ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

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    Malabika Roy Pathak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity provides the variety of life on the Earth and can be defined as the variability among and between the living organisms and species of surrounding ecosystems and ecological complexes of their life support. It has been estimated that one third of the global plant species are threatened in different level according to the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN.The major threat to rapid loss and extinction of genetic diversity due to habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, invasion of exotic species, human population pressure, ever increasing agricultural pressure and practices, life style change etc. are well-known. Biodiversity conservation is a global concern. All member states of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD took measure to preserve both native and agricultural biodiversity. The global concern of biodiversity conservation initiated either by in situ or ex situ methods. In situ methods protect both plants and their natural habitat. On the other hand, ex situ methods involves preservation and maintenance of plant species or plant parts (such as seeds, cuttings, rhizomes, tubers etc. outside their natural habitat for the purpose of developing seed banks or more preciously gene banks following classical / advanced methods of plant propagation. Classical methods of plant propagations have certain limitations in terms of rapid production of plants or plant propagules and their long term conservation. So, the biotechnological methods such as plant tissue culture, plant cell culture, anther culture, embryo culture etc. are quite applicable and useful techniques for ex situ conservation. On the other hand, the production of superior quality seeds has enhanced by the application of plant biotechnology. So, plant biotechnology offers new means of improving biodiversity conservation rather than threatening biodiversity in various ways.

  2. Comparing wildlife habitat and biodiversity across green roof type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, R.R. [Oklahoma Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2007-07-01

    Green roofs represent restorative practices within human dominated ecosystems. They create habitat, increase local biodiversity, and restore ecosystem function. Cities are now promoting this technology as a part of mitigation for the loss of local habitat, making the green roof necessary in sustainable development. While most green roofs create some form of habitat for local and migratory fauna, some systems are designed to provide specific habitat for species of concern. Despite this, little is actually known about the wildlife communities inhabiting green roofs. Only a few studies have provided broad taxa descriptions across a range of green roof habitats, and none have attempted to measure the biodiversity across green roof class. Therefore, this study examined two different vegetated roof systems representative of North America. They were constructed under alternative priorities such as energy, stormwater and aesthetics. The wildlife community appears to be a result of the green roof's physical composition. Wildlife community composition and biodiversity is expected be different yet comparable between the two general types of green roofs, known as extensive and intensive. This study recorded the community composition found in the two classes of ecoroofs and assessed biodiversity and similarity at the community and group taxa levels of insects, spiders and birds. Renyi family of diversity indices were used to compare the communities. They were further described through indices and ratios such as Shannon's, Simpson's, Sorenson and Morsita's. In general, community biodiversity was found to be slightly higher in the intensive green roof than the extensive green roof. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

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    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available.

  4. Enhancing the Biodiversity of Ditches in Intensively Managed UK Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Feber, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Drainage ditches, either seasonally flooded or permanent, are commonly found on intensively managed lowland farmland in the UK. They are potentially important for wetland biodiversity but, despite their ubiquity, information on their biodiversity and management in the wider countryside is scarce. We surveyed 175 ditches for their physical and chemical characteristics, spatial connectivity, plant communities and aquatic invertebrates in an area of intensively managed farmland in Oxfordshire, UK and collected information on ditch management from farmer interviews. Water depth and shade had a small impact on the diversity of plant and invertebrate communities in ditches. Increased shade over the ditch channel resulted in reduced taxonomic richness of both channel vegetation and aquatic invertebrates and channel vegetation cover was lower at shaded sites. Invertebrate taxonomic richness was higher when water was deeper. Spatial connectivity had no detectable impact on the aquatic invertebrate or plant communities found in ditches. The number of families within the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT), which contain many pollution-sensitive species, declined with decreasing pH of ditch water. As time since dredging increased, the number of EPT families increased in permanent ditches but decreased in temporary ditches. Whether or not a ditch was in an agri-environment scheme had little impact on the reported management regime or biodiversity value of the ditch. Measures for increasing the amount of water in ditches, by increasing the water depth or promoting retention of water in ditches, could increase the biodiversity value of ditches in agricultural land. Some temporary ditches for specialised species should be retained. Reducing the amount of shade over narrow ditches by managing adjacent hedgerows is also likely to increase the species diversity of plant and invertebrate communities within the ditch. We recommend that to preserve or enhance the

  5. A new system for understanding the biodiversity in different nature reserves:capacity,connectivity and quality of biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenji LI; Jiakuan CHEN; Yunqiu RUAN; Ying CHANG; Wen WE; Luzhen CHEN; Dongliang ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new system for understanding the biodiversity in different conservation areas.It includes three aspects:the capacity,the connectivity and the quality.The capacity refers to the numbers of biodiversity,including absolute and relative richness of the vegetation types Nv and Dv = (Nv-1)/lnA,species numbers S and richness of species dGI = (S- 1)/lnA,and germ plasm resources within a nature reserve,and also the potential biological living space offered by the natural resource.It comprises the total biological resources in a nature reserve.The connectivity refers to the flux of biodiversity,including similarity and connected status of the vegetation types SILi = 2z/(x + y) and species numbers SIc = 2z/(x + y) among different nature reserves.The quality refers to the stability of biodiversity,including relative species richness index RSLi = d/dmax,relative vegetation richness index RVLi =Dv/Dmaxv,fastness to invasion species fLi = 1-Si/St,weighted values,representativeness and vulnerability of special vegetations,special species,CITES species and rare species as the protected targets.

  6. Landscape Fire, Biodiversity Decline and a Rapidly Changing Milieu: A Microcosm of Global Issues in an Australian Biodiversity Hotspot

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    A. Malcolm Gill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Adelaide-Mt Lofty Region of South Australia is an exemplar, in microcosm, of the issues confronting biodiversity conservation in a world of increasing population and a drying, fire-prone environment. At just 0.1% of Australia’s terrestrial land mass, this area is largely peninsular and oriented along a spine of ranges to 730-m elevation. Annual average rainfall varies from over 1100 mm in the hills to less than 500 mm on the plains in the north. The original vegetation varied from grasslands to shrublands to grassy and shrubby woodlands to forests, but now includes a major capital city and a mixed farming hinterland. Biodiversity in the region is in decline, and many species’ extinctions have been recorded. With increasing population and a drying climate, fire antecedents, like ignition and fire danger, are predicted to increase the area burned in the wetter regions, but such predictions may be offset by increasing the fire protection of the expanding population and their economic and social assets. While the existing system of many small reserves will remain the backbone of biodiversity conservation in the region, wider recognition of the all-tenure, whole-of-landscape, whole-of-community approach to biodiversity conservation and fire management is needed if the probability of further extinctions is to be reduced.

  7. Biodiversity, climate change and complexity: An opportunity for securing co-benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Dilys

    2006-10-15

    Climate change and biodiversity loss are both major environmental concerns, yet the links between them often go unrecognised. Not only does the science of climate change and biodiversity share similar characteristics, but climate change both affects, and is affected by biodiversity. Diversity confers far greater resilience on natural systems, thus reducing their vulnerability – and the vulnerability of the people that depend upon them – to climate change. Yet climate adaptation and mitigation strategies that are blind to biodiversity can undermine this natural and social resilience. Ignoring the links between biodiversity and climate risks exacerbates the problems associated with climate change and represents a missed opportunity for maximising co-benefits.

  8. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

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    Philippe Archambault

    Full Text Available Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea, and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to

  9. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5%) could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v) biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi) eco-insularity within the Ohrid Basin occurs

  10. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hauffe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes.

    In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5% could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics:

    (i within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi eco

  11. The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund effective invasive species control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, David A; Warburton, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Compensating for biodiversity losses in 1 location by conserving or restoring biodiversity elsewhere (i.e., biodiversity offsetting) is being used increasingly to compensate for biodiversity losses resulting from development. We considered whether a form of biodiversity offsetting, enhancement offsetting (i.e., enhancing the quality of degraded natural habitats through intensive ecological management), can realistically secure additional funding to control biological invaders at a scale and duration that results in enhanced biodiversity outcomes. We suggest that biodiversity offsetting has the potential to enhance biodiversity values through funding of invasive species control, but it needs to meet 7 key conditions: be technically possible to reduce invasive species to levels that enhance native biodiversity; be affordable; be sufficiently large to compensate for the impact; be adaptable to accommodate new strategic and tactical developments while not compromising biodiversity outcomes; acknowledge uncertainties associated with managing pests; be based on an explicit risk assessment that identifies the cost of not achieving target outcomes; and include financial mechanisms to provide for in-perpetuity funding. The challenge then for conservation practitioners, advocates, and policy makers is to develop frameworks that allow for durable and effective partnerships with developers to realize the full potential of enhancement offsets, which will require a shift away from traditional preservation-focused approaches to biodiversity management.

  12. Global Biodiversity Informatics: setting the scene for a “new world” of ecological forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Perez Canhos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in information and communication technology are allowing new experiences in the integration, analysis and visualization of biodiversity information, and are leading to development of a new field of research, biodiversity informatics. Although this field has great potential in diverse realms, including basic biology, human economics, and public health, much of this potential remains to be explored. The success of several concerted international efforts depends largely on broad deployment of biodiversity informatics information and products. Several global and regional efforts are organizing and providing data for conservation and sustainable development research, including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, the European Biodiversity Information Network, and the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network. Critical to development of this field is building a biodiversity information infrastructure, making primary biodiversity data freely and openly available over the Internet. In addition to specimen and taxonomic data, access to non-biological environmental data is critical to spatial analysis and modeling of biodiversity. Adoption of standards and protocols and development of tools for collection management, data-cleaning, georeferencing, and modeling tools, are allowing a quantum leap in the area. Open access to research data and open-source tools are leading to a new era of web services and computational frameworks for spatial biodiversity analysis, bringing new opportunities and dimensions to novel approaches in ecological analysis, predictive modeling, and synthesis and visualization of biodiversity information.

  13. The relationship among biodiversity, governance, wealth, and scientific capacity at a country level: Disaggregation and prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Soberón, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    At a global level, the relationship between biodiversity importance and capacity to manage it is often assumed to be negative, without much differentiation among the more than 200 countries and territories of the world. We examine this relationship using a database including terrestrial biodiversity, wealth and governance indicators for most countries. From these, principal components analysis was used to construct aggregated indicators at global and regional scales. Wealth, governance, and scientific capacity represent different skills and abilities in relation to biodiversity importance. Our results show that the relationship between biodiversity and the different factors is not simple: in most regions wealth and capacity varies positively with biodiversity, while governance vary negatively with biodiversity. However, these trends, to a certain extent, are concentrated in certain groups of nations and outlier countries. We discuss our results in the context of collaboration and joint efforts among biodiversity-rich countries and foreign agencies.

  14. Biodiversity Indicators for Sustainability Evaluation of Conventional and Organic Agro-ecosystems

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    Concetta Vazzana

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest widespread positive responses of biodiversity to organic farming. However, the effect of organic farming management on biodiversity over time needs to be better understood and this paper aims to compare agricultural biodiversity in a long-term experiment including three different agroecosystem management patterns (old organic, young organic and conventional. The level of agroecosystem sustainability related to plants has been assessed both for the structural and the associated biodiversity, using biodiversity Indicators. The data collected in three years (2003-2005 show that the system under organic agriculture management is better than conventional one for every indicator and it improves each aspect over the time. This trend holds especially for the associated biodiversity while the planned biodiversity can still be improved.

  15. Biodiversity Sustainability Assessment of Principal Ecosystems in Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongmei; QIAN Jinping; ZHANG Xiulan; HE Xiubin

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at providing theoretical basis for effective protection of biodiversity, the study presents a cascade method whichcombines both qualitative and quantitative methods, incorporatesbasic data with RS(remote sense) technology, and ranks the ecosystems according to its ability of biodiversity sustainability inHebei Province. The results indicate that the most important areasfor protection in Hebei Province are forest and meadow ecosystems in some highlands around Xiaowutai Mountain, WulingMountain, North Hebei, Taihang Mountain and East Hebei; grassecosystems in part of plateau area and North Hebei; and somescattered wetlands in the plain and inshore areas. This method issuitable for undertaking large-scale investigations especially whenthe data are not adequate or unevenly distributed spatially.

  16. Conservation archaeogenomics: ancient DNA and biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing consensus that we have entered the Anthropocene, a geologic epoch characterized by human domination of the ecosystems of the Earth. With the future uncertain, we are faced with understanding how global biodiversity will respond to anthropogenic perturbations. The archaeological record provides perspective on human-environment relations through time and across space. Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses of plant and animal remains from archaeological sites are particularly useful for understanding past human-environment interactions, which can help guide conservation decisions during the environmental changes of the Anthropocene. Here, we define the emerging field of conservation archaeogenomics, which integrates archaeological and genomic data to generate baselines or benchmarks for scientists, managers, and policy-makers by evaluating climatic and human impacts on past, present, and future biodiversity. PMID:26169594

  17. Uncertainty in projected impacts of climate change on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.

    are difficult to model. The effect of such bias against narrow-ranging species is often overlooked in assessments of biodiversity impacts, but our results for sub-Saharan African amphibians show that it trickles down to conservation strategies. Finally, assumptions about the climatic tolerance of species......, their dispersal ability, and other characteristics are also shown to alter model projections for sub-Saharan African amphibians. Despite numerous calls to address the uncertainty challenge, appropriate treatment of uncertainty has yet to be formalised in assessments of biodiversity impacts under climate change...... information about the variability of projections in the ensemble. The second example examines model outputs for sub-Saharan African amphibians in the light of species' vulnerability to climate change. An analytical framework is developed for distinguishing between different climatic threats and opportunities...

  18. Studying biodiversity: is a new paradigm really needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Cooch, Evan G.; Nichols, Jonathan M.; Sauer, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Authors in this journal have recommended a new approach to the conduct of biodiversity science. This data-driven approach requires the organization of large amounts of ecological data, analysis of these data to discover complex patterns, and subsequent development of hypotheses corresponding to detected patterns. This proposed new approach has been contrasted with more-traditional knowledge-based approaches in which investigators deduce consequences of competing hypotheses to be confronted with actual data, providing a basis for discriminating among the hypotheses. We note that one approach is directed at hypothesis generation, whereas the other is also focused on discriminating among competing hypotheses. Here, we argue for the importance of using existing knowledge to the separate issues of (a) hypothesis selection and generation and (b) hypothesis discrimination and testing. In times of limited conservation funding, the relative efficiency of different approaches to learning should be an important consideration in decisions about how to study biodiversity.

  19. [Effect of transgenic plants on biodiversity of agroecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chengrong; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming

    2003-08-01

    The effect of transgenic plants on the biodiversity of agroecosystem is an important environmental issue. There are many researches in this field at home and abroad recently. This paper reviewed the advances of the researches based on three levels of biodiversity as genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. They included following aspects: the effect of insect-resistant transgenic crops on target pest; the effect of herbicide-resistant transgenic crops on crops and wild weedy relatives; the effect of virus-resistant transgenic crops on virus; and the effect of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. This paper also discussed the effect of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem and crop genetic diversity. Their potential risks included uncontrolled flows of genes to wild relatives; development of herbicide, insect, and virus resistance in wild relatives; reduced crop genetic diversity; and adverse effects on organisms that were not pests, such as beneficial insects.

  20. Biodiversity As An Ecological Safety Condition. The European Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RZEŃCA AGNIESZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research concerning the benefits (services of the ecosystems (environment confirm the rank and significance of the natural environment and its resources for shaping humanity's well-being. Particularly highlighted is the need to protection of live natural resources to preserve biodiversity, which is essential for retaining the basic ecological processes and providing the sustainability of usage of these resources. Consequently, protection of biodiversity is not only an environmental issue, but also an economic and social issue involving the well-being and quality of life of society. Thus, biological diversity is an essential condition for providing ecological safety, retaining the continuity of natural processes, and conditions the quality of life and economic potential.