WorldWideScience

Sample records for biodiesel

  1. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  2. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  3. Biodiesel Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. What are the greatest challenges facing the biodiesel industry today? The greatest challenges are probably related to the amount of feedstock being available if the current expansion in biodiesel production and use continues. This challenge is addressed below under question 2 regarding the hur...

  4. Biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  5. Biodiesel and its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It consists mainly of the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils or other triacylglycerol feedstocks. This chapter provides a background on biodiesel as well as an overview of biodiesel production, analysis, and pr...

  6. Market penetration of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG was used to predict market penetration of biodiesel, given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and carbon dioxide equivalent prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, diesel fuel prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel industry. The higher the diesel fuel prices, the more biodiesel is produced. However, given the most favorable circumstances, the maximum biodiesel market penetration is 9% in 2030 with a wholesale diesel price of $4 per gallon. Second, the two dominant sources of biodiesel are from corn and soybeans. Sources like tallow and yellow grease are more limited, because they are byproducts of other industries. Third, GHG prices have an expansionary impact on the biodiesel prices, because biodiesel is quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on biodiesel production, and increase market penetration at least an additional 3%.

  7. FEATURES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Рябцев, Геннадій Леонідович; Литвиненко, Євгеній Юрійович; Бурлаков, Володимир Михайлович

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages compared with conventional fuels, both environmental and operational. But these benefits should not be offset by the potential negative environmental impacts associated with land use or improper use of obsolete technologies.Biodiesel is not a panacea for energy diseases. Its implementation requires solving a number of problems: biodiesel are usually made from plant material, the scope of which is limited to the needs of the food industry; use of energy efficie...

  8. Biodiesel potential in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowska, Swietlana, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    The importance of increasing the global share of biofuels in transportation goes without saying. Iceland, where the consumption of fossil fuels is considerable, has a viable potential for introducing biodiesel in its otherwise exceptional renewable overall energy portfolio. In this study, a full picture of the possibilities of biodiesel production in Iceland was provided. After the theoretical introduction of allmajor aspects of a biodiesel economy, an assessment of i...

  9. Biodiesel: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Angelo C.; Guarieiro, Lilian L.N.; Rezende, Michelle J.C.; Ribeiro, Nubia M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Torres, Ednildo A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Lopes, Wilson A.; Pereira, Pedro A. de P.; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], Email: jailsong@ufba.br

    2005-07-01

    The importance of biodiesel production was analyzed based on scientific articles and patents. A critical analysis was presented on the most used oil sources, the catalysts and the methods to verify the transesterification yields. Also analyzed were the comparative studies on emissions from pure fossil diesel and mixtures with biodiesel in variable proportions. Finally some challenges and considerations focused on technological, agronomic and infrastructure aspects of biodiesel production were indicated. (author)

  10. Market penetration of biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk, Bruce A. McCarl

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting biodiesel for diesel #2. This endeavor examines three areas. First, the benefits of biodiesel are examined, and the technical problems of large-scale implementation. Second, the biodiesel production possibilities are examined for soybean oil, corn oil, tallow, and yellow grease, which are the largest sources of feedstocks for the United States. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows to identity the ...

  11. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  12. ARS Biodiesel Research Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel activities within ARS are concerned with the production, quality, and properties of this alternative fuel from agriculturally derived fats and oils. Currently, in the absence of tax incentives, biodiesel production when using refined fats and oils and conventional alkali transesterificati...

  13. NMR analysis of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually analyzed by the various methods called for in standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is not one of these methods. However, NMR, with 1H-NMR commonly applied, can be useful in a variety of applications related to biodiesel. These include monit...

  14. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted. PMID:22085921

  15. BIODIESEL – ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A limited quantity of oil, the purchase of which also involves major expenses has become an important factor for intensive search and use of alternative fuels. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines, and is manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled edible oils. The production and use of biodiesel are very important not only because of its economic and strategic connotations but also because of its environmental advantages. Favourable conditions in Croatia give good opportunities for a self-sufficient oil rape production, possibility for its intensification and employment of a number of people in both the agricultural production and biodiesel production plants. This paper presents a survey of the biodiesel fuel production, the characteristics and impacts it has on the biodiesel engine features as well as its impact on the environment.

  16. Biodiesel from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Aullón Alcaine, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this project we will travel back in time to the nineteenth century to discover the inventor of the diesel engine, Rudolf Diesel, and his renewable fuel vision that is only now being realized. Biodiesel has received considerable attention in recent years as it is biodegradable, renewable and non-toxic fuel. It emits less gaseous pollutants than conventional diesel fuel, and can work directly in diesel engines with no required modifications. The most common way to produce biodiesel is by tra...

  17. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi Zakaria; W. Mahmood Mat Yunus; Monir Norozi; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Mohd Maarof Moksin; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the the...

  18. Biodiesel production, properties and feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel has many important technical advantag...

  19. Business management for biodiesel producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpen, Jon Van [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  20. Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Danilović Bojana R.; Avramović Jelena M.; Ćirić Jovan T.; Savić Dragiša S.; Veljković Vlada B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be...

  1. Biodiesel: Current Trends and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Several current issues affecting biodiesel that are briefly discussed include the role of new feedstocks in meeting increased demand for biodiesel and circumventing the...

  2. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids. PMID:27060442

  3. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  4. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  5. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  6. Proceedings of the 2008 marine biodiesel symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to producing lower hydrocarbon emissions, marine biodiesel is biodegradable and does not harm fish. This symposium was held to discuss current marine biodiesel applications and examine methods of increasing the use of biodiesel in marine environments in British Columbia (BC). Biofuel policies and mandates in the province were reviewed, and methods of expanding the biodiesel market were explored. Updates on the use of biodiesel in ferries, tugboats, and smaller marine diesel engine applications were provided. Biodiesel projects in the United States were discussed. The environmental impacts of marine biodiesel were evaluated, and federal policies and standards for biodiesel were also outlined. The symposium was divided into the following 5 main sessions: (1) policy, (2) overviews, (3) using biodiesel in marine engines, (4) biodiesel in larger marine vessels, and (5) biodiesel quality and environmental considerations. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Progress in biodiesel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to the widely used petroleum-derived diesel fuel since it can be generated by domestic natural sources such as soybeans, rapeseeds, coconuts, and even recycled cooking oil, and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources. The injection and atomization characteristics of the vegetable oils are significantly different than those of petroleum-derived diesel fuels, mainly as the result of their high viscosities. Modern diesel engines have fuel-injection system that is sensitive to viscosity change. One way to avoid these problems is to reduce fuel viscosity of vegetable oil in order to improve its performance. The conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel is an effective way to overcome all the problems associated with the vegetable oils. Dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis, and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Transesterification is the most common method and leads to monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and fats, now called biodiesel when used for fuel purposes. The methyl ester produced by transesterification of vegetable oil has a high cetane number, low viscosity and improved heating value compared to those of pure vegetable oil which results in shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration and hence low particulate emissions.

  8. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  9. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  10. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  11. Biodiesel lubricity and other properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an “alternative” diesel fuel that is becoming accepted in a steadily growing number of countries worldwide. Since the source of biodiesel varies with the location, and other sources such as recycled oils are continuousl...

  12. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  13. Predicting various biodiesel fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several essential fuel properties of biodiesel are largely determined by the properties of the fatty esters which are its main components. These include cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, and cold flow which are contained in almost all biodiesel standards but also other propert...

  14. Bio-diesel: uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel in a renewable source of energy. It is also less polluting in terms of emission of pollutants like CO2, CO, NO and particulate matter than the standard diesel. As it contains no sulfur, it emits no SO2. However its claim for environmental protection is disputed and its high production cost makes it economically unattractive. Present status of biodiesel production and research studies going on to cut the cost and to improve the quality of biodiesel are reviewed. Increasing yield of vegetable oils, using animal fats and frying oil wastes and improving the esterification process used for producing biodiesel from vegetable oils are some of the ways to cut the cost. To improve the quality of biodiesel, attempts are being made to produce biodiesel with a lower glycerin content so that clogging of injection nozzles during combustion is reduced and performance of biodiesel is improved. Biotechnological developments are in the direction of generically modifying oil plants to produce new types of oil to specifications. Controversy in the European Economic Community regarding giving subsidies to biofuel and exemption from fossil fuel taxes is described. (M.G.B.)

  15. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements. (author)

  16. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements.

  17. Er biodiesel en god ide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel opfattes som en grøn miljøvenlig teknologi. Men har dette 'grønne' alternativ til konventionel diesel en skjult bagside af medaljen? Og kan det være, at man i stedet for at få et bedre miljø, medvirker til øgede miljøpåvirkninger i form af emissioner og naturødelæggelse, når man skifter...... til biodiesel? I artiklen belyses nogle af de mest sejlivede myter omkring biodiesel. Udgivelsesdato: Januar...

  18. Obtention and characterization of biodiesel; Obtencao e caracterizacao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonidas B.O. dos; Caitano, Moises; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an ester resulting from the transesterification reaction of an alcohol and an oil obtained from biomass. The products of the transesterification are an ester and the glycerol. The biodiesel and the petroleum commercial diesel have similar properties, and they can be mixed and used in diesel motors. The use of biodiesel will allow a better exploration of the energetic potential of our cultures. The biodiesel has some advantages compared to others combustibles, such as adaptability to usual diesel motors and non-generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} compounds. Many experiments with biodiesel have been made in Brazil since the 70's. This work made samples of biodiesel by transesterification batch reactions to many blends of soybean oil and residual fry oil, at room temperature, using mechanical mixture or magnetic agitation by a magnetic stirrer, using as catalysts sodium methoxide and potassium hydroxide. For each obtained sample tests to determine the Acidity Index (ABNT-MB-74), Saponification Index (ABNT-MB-75), Iodine Wijz Index (ABNT-MB- 77), thermal analysis by DTA and TG (TA Instruments SDT 2960, 30 to 800 deg C, 10 deg C/min at nitrogen atmosphere) and rheological test (Haake RS 150 Rheo Stress rheometer) were done. (author)

  19. Availability of oilseed rape for biodiesel; Beschikbaarheid koolzaad voor biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, B.; Prins, H.; Van der Voort, M.; Meeusen, B.M. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Wageningen (Netherlands); Smit, B.; Annevelink, B. [Agrotechnology en Food Innovations, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    This report provides an insight into the conditions under which the Dutch agricultural industry will cultivate oilseed rape for biodiesel. The Dutch agricultural entrepreneur occupies a central role in this. The possibilities relating to the cultivation of oilseed rape are assessed from the perspective of the Dutch farmer, within the framework of the EU directive regarding the substitution of 2% of transport fuels with bio transport fuels in the Netherlands. Along with bio-ethanol, biodiesel is an important bio transport fuel. One of the raw materials used in the production of biodiesel is (cultivated) oilseed rape. [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft inzicht in de voorwaarden waaronder het Nederlandse landbouwbedrijfsle-ven koolzaad zullen telen voor biodiesel. Daarbij staat de Nederlandse landbouwondernemer centraal. Vanuit het perspectief van de Nederlandse landbouwer worden de mogelijkheden voor koolzaadteelt beoordeeld. Dit in het kader van de EU-richtlijn om te komen tot een vervanging van 2% van de transportbrandstoffen door biotransportbrandstoffen in Nederland. Naast bio-ethanol is biodiesel daarin een belangrijke (bio)transportbrandstof. Een van de grondstoffen voor biodiesel is (geteelde) koolzaad.

  20. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  1. New technologies in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of biodiesel is nowadays affected by the cost of the raw materials, because the currently used method of preparation requires highly refined vegetable oils containing very low amounts of free fatty acids and moisture. Alternatively, less expensive technologies are possible using heterogeneous catalysts. In the present paper examples of these new technologies, based on the use of heterogeneous catalysts, in the production of biodiesel are described and discussed.

  2. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Biodiesel Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Svilans, Miķelis; Blūms, Aivars; Kampare, Rūta

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of absorption and fluorescencespectroscopy for monitoring biodiesel aging is assessed. Changesrecorded in the UV/VIS and IR spectra during accelerated agingexperiments are analysed with respect to corresponding changesin a selection of chemical and physical properties of biodiesel,namely, induction period, viscosity and acid number. A novelapproach for evaluating fluorescence spectral data is presented.It is determined that fluorescence spectroscopy provides excellentsensitivi...

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  4. DETERMINATION OF HIGHER HEATING VALUE OF BIODIESELS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sivaramakrishnan; Dr.P.RAVIKUMAR

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel can be used in diesel engine as neat or blended with diesel. The physiochemical properties of fuel are important in design of fuel system for compression ignition engine run on diesel,biodiesel or biodiesel blend. The HHV is an important property which characterizes the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity, density, flash point and highe...

  5. Cold Flow Properties and Performance of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is defined as a fatty acid alkyl ester mixture obtained by reacting vegetable oil or fat with a short chain (C1-C4) alcohol. The cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on the fatty acid composition of its feedstock as well as alcohol chain-length. Increasing biodiesel production in the...

  6. Fuel and physical properties of biodiesel components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used oils. Specifically, biodiesel is the methyl or other alkyl esters of these oils or fats. Biodiesel also contains minor components such as free fatty acids and acylglycerols. Important fuel properties of biodi...

  7. Ecological Impact of Biodiesel Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper presents a study of biodiesel application and its ecological impacts. Our study is based on the comparison of exhaust emission composition produced by the combustion of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and conventional diesel fuel (DD) and its blends in a direct injection diesel engine XD2P (YTT). The engine was tested in biofuels laboratory of LUA Motor Vehicle Institute. Fuelling the engine with biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend reduced oxides of nitrogen by 17.5% (100RME) and by 5.6% (35RME) and carbon monoxide by 49.8% (100RME) and by 45.3% (35RME). Fuelling the engine with biodiesel and different biodiesel/diesel blends reduced the absorbtion coefficient by 33.9% (5RME), by 44.3% (20RME) and by 51.2% (100RME) on free acceleration regime. In these tests soot reduced by 28...76.7% at full opened throttle position with 100RME. (Authors)

  8. Marine biodiesel use in the Puget Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation explored the use of marine biodiesel in the Puget Sound region. Marine vessels are now adopting biodiesel fuels as a means of expressing corporate commitments to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the environmental impacts of hydrocarbons released into marine environments. Various biodiesel blends have been designed for use in small commercial, recreational, and research vessels. Biodiesel has also been adopted by charter and whale watching vessels in the Puget Sound. The Guemes Island Ferry has recently been re-configured to use biodiesel fuels, with 2 fuel tanks capable of receiving 2200 gallons at a time. The ferry adopted biodiesel after receiving soot complaints from marinas, and hopes to serve as a model for other vessels in the region. Four fueling docks supply the biodiesel blend to marine vessels. The sale of biodiesel has doubled in some marinas over the last 5 years. Deterrents to biodiesel use include parts incompatibilities and warranty problems. Some marinas have stopped selling biodiesel as a result of low sales and high prices. It was concluded that educational programs are needed to ensure the widespread adoption of biodiesel in the Puget Sound. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. As a renewable energy, biodiesel has been receiving increasing attention because of the relevance it gains from the rising petroleum price and its environmental advantages. This review highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing opportunities and challenges of biodiesel. This review is divided in three parts. First overview is given on developments of biodiesel in past and present, especially for the different feedstocks and the conversion technologies of biodiesel industry. More specifically, an overview is given on possible environmental and social impacts associated with biodiesel production, such as food security, land change and water source. Further emphasis is given on the need for government's incentives and public awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management. (author)

  10. Biodiesel/Petrodiesel blends: analytical determination of biodiesel percentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of biodiesel/petrodiesel blends is of interest both for technical and fiscal reasons. Several methods have been developed to carried out this kind of analysis, most of team based on chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Recently, a new method based on natural abundance radiocarbon analysis has been proposed and validated and could be extended for more complex samples

  11. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO2 evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO2 evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO2 evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO2. The test substances were examined for BOD5 and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD5 and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD5 and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p 5 value

  12. What ails India's biodiesel programme?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 95% of India's surface transport dependent on imported fossil fuel, India has made a concerted effort to promote biofuel. The newly announced biofuel policy of India stipulates a blending target of 20% for both bioethanol and biodiesel. In the case of biodiesel, complement to fossil fuel diesel, India's predominant transport fuel, this target is to be achieved by cultivating non-edible oil seed plants in wastelands and fallow land. In spite of best effort, very little progress has been made on the ground. As the result, the deadline for blending target of 20% for biodiesel has been postponed from 2011–2012 to 2006–2017. This paper makes an attempt to understand the factors behind the tardy progress in India's biodiesel scene and suggests policy remedies. - Highlights: ► Even after a decade of efforts in promoting biofuel, India's achievement does not augur well. ► Objective is to understand the factors behind tardy progress. ► Suggests policy remedies.

  13. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  14. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continual rise in demand for and cost of petroleum fuels has resulted in an increased demand for alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the e...

  15. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  16. Optimizing biodiesel composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats or other oil-containing materials. While it is technically competitive with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum, some of its fuel properties still require improvement. This article briefly summarizes the t...

  17. The Analysis of Biodiesel Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stability is one of the major technical issues facing biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used frying oils. The content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with bis-allylic methylene positions, is the main cause of this problem. Besi...

  18. Industrial Products from Biodiesel Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in cost of petroleum fuels has caused an increased interest in alternative fuels. This has resulted in a worldwide surge in the use of biodiesel, a renewable fuel derived from oils and fats, with world production projected to approach 1 billion gallons by the end of 2006. This rapid growt...

  19. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  20. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atadashi, I.M.; Aroua, M.K.; Aziz, A. Abdul [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  1. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  2. New regulatory landmark for biodiesel use; Novo marco regulatorio para usos de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rosangela Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Biodiesel Production and Use of Biodiesel - PNPB, made possible the insert of Biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix. The National Agency of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP was responsible to create the outline regulatory that established the rules for entrance and commercialization of this new fuel in the country. This work seeks to present the effects of the implantation of the new relative rules to the biodiesel use. (author)

  3. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  4. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    OpenAIRE

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI; M. F. M. GUNAM RESUL; R. YUNUS; T. C. SHEAN YAW

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR) is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing b...

  5. Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Marta M.; Fernandes, Valter J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Combustiveis, Natal, RN, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970 (Brazil); Candeia, Roberlucia A.; Bezerra, Aline F.; Souza, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento Quimica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, Fernando C. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    The castor oil seed has 47-49% of oil. Biodiesel obtained from castor oil has a lower cost compared to the ones obtained from other oils, as due its solvability in alcohol transesterification occurs without heating. The use of biodiesel will allow a reduction on the consumption of petroleum-derived fuels minimizing the harmful effects on the environment. This work wants to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of castor oil and biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil. Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (author)

  6. Three years operational experience with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TSI Terminal Systems Inc. is the largest container terminal operator in Canada, and has an annual payroll exceeding $150 million. The company started a biodiesel test program with the Canadian Bioenergy Corporation in order to assess the emission reduction impacts of using biodiesel. The pilot was tested with 6 different pieces of equipment used at the terminal over an initial period of 3 weeks. Emissions testing was then conducted for different biodiesel blend levels and compared with baseline data in relation to particulate matter, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxides (NOx). Results of the tests confirmed that the biodiesel blends significantly reduced emissions at the terminal and confirmed the operability of biodiesel. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fuel is now being used in all the company's equipment. The use of the biodiesel has not resulted in any engine failures or power losses. tabs., figs

  7. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  8. Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Processing Using Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Susilo

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is predicted to be able to accelerate the chemical reaction, to increase the conversion of plant oil into biodiesel, and to decrease the need of catalyst and energy input. The application of ultrasound for processing of biodiesel and the mathematical model were conducted in this research. The result of the experiments showed that the ultrasound increased reaction rate and the conversion of palm oil into biodiesel up to 100%. It was better than the process with mechanical stirrer th...

  9. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  10. Boiler Retrofit for the Utilization of Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Leily Nurul Komariah; Marwani Marwani

    2016-01-01

    Fuel oil used in the boiler is able to substitute with biodiesel. In lower blends, there are no engine modification needed, but some researchers recommended some technical adjustments in order to maintain the boiler's performance and equipment durability. This study consists of the comparison between the performance of boiler before and after retrofitting on the use of biodiesel. The diesel oil was introduced in biodiesel blends of 10% (B10), 20% (B20) and 25% (B25). A fire tube boiler was us...

  11. Costs of biodiesel supply chain in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesels has already become reality in Latvia, but still not are extensively used due to number of reasons. Cost reduction would be one of the most efficient tools that could encourage wider use of biodiesel. Identifying costs in biodiesel supply chain and evaluating their weight in total cost of final product is the first step to finding most costly elements and potential for cost reduction. General cost breakdown in final price is calculated and analysed in this study (authors)

  12. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, YuHua

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes in...

  13. Structure of the Canola and Biodiesel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.; Duchsherer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The biodiesel industry in the United States has grown significantly in recent years. Production increased from 25 million gallons in 2004 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006, and many new plants are being built. Most biodiesel in the United States is produced from soybean oil, but canola offers characteristics which make it a favorable feedstock for biodiesel production. Characteristics of canola oil also make it an increasingly popular choice for human consumption. This study examine...

  14. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed. PMID:25902752

  15. Effect of Biodiesel on Thermal NO Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraja, J.; Mehta, P. S.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative to diesel fuel which is renewable in nature. This fuel has excellent lubricity, low smoke and potential for replacement of fossil diesel without major engine modifications or requirement of any additives. However, a higher nitric oxide (NO) emission from biodiesel is widely cited as their undesired emission characteristics. The present study analyses and describes the various reasons for higher NO formation with biodiesel relative to diesel fuel. To explore this so called biodiesel NO penalty, experiments were conducted on a four cylinder compression ignition engine with neat Karanja biodiesel and fossil diesel. Neat Karanja implies an unblended pure biodiesel. The experimental NO concentration with biodiesel and diesel fuel is validated using extended Zeldovich mechanism. Results suggest that the increase in NO emission with biodiesel fuel could not be opined to a change in a single fuel property but rather, it is the result of a number of coupled pathways whose effects may dominate or cancel one another under different conditions, depending on biodiesel compositional characteristics.

  16. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  17. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  18. Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

  19. Fuel Properties and Performance of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    When being used as "alternative" diesel fuel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats are referred to as biodiesel. Biodiesel is playing an increasingly important role in the fuel landscape, with production and use growing exponentially and standards established around the world. Co...

  20. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Critical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several types of fuels can be obtained from lipid feedstocks. These include biodiesel and what is termed renewable diesel. While biodiesel retains the ester moiety occurring in triacylglycerols in converted form as mono-alkyl esters, the composition of renewable diesel, hydrocarbons, emulates that ...

  1. Biodiesel With Optimized Fatty Ester Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is largely composed of the mono-alkyl esters, usually methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats with its fatty acid profile corresponding to that of the parent oil or fat. The different fatty esters have varying properties of relevance to biodiesel. The feedstock-dependent variatio...

  2. Applications of NMR to Biodiesel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats or used frying oils, is technically competitive with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Technical issues facing biodiesel include oxidative stability, improvement of cold flow properties and reduction of nitrogen oxides exha...

  3. Antioxidants for improving storage stability of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fat that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. The chemical nature of biodiesel makes it more susceptible to oxidation or autoxidation during long-term storage than conventional petroleum-based diesel (petr...

  4. Cold weather properties and performance of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fat that can be employed in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel is more prone to start-up and operability problems during cold weather than conventional diesel fuels (petrodiesel). This work reviews impacts that exposu...

  5. The uses of biodiesel in buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2001 in Naukseni, Valmiera district the biodiesel - methyl ester of rapeseed oil (RME) - plant first in Latvia and in all Baltic States began to work. The production capacity of the plant is 2500 t of biodiesel per year. In the summer and autumn period of the last year the first experiment using 100% RME on one city bus line was carried out. The bus Ikarus-280 in total turned 30700 km consuming 11 tons or 12600 litres of biodiesel. The fuel consumption with biodiesel was 0.9 kg/h (14.2%) or 3.01/100 km higher as with fossil diesel fuel. The engine power and the driving speed on the line were practically unchanged in spite that the heat capacity of biodiesel is lower than of ordinary diesel fuel (according 37.1 l and 42.1 MJ/kg). Using biodiesel the toxicity of the exhaust gases dropped down very essentially. It was controlled regularly by measuring the absorption coefficient and smokiness. At the end of second month of the experiment the absorption coefficient was 2.09 m-1 and 47.8%. This shows that by the influence of biodiesel the compression chambers of the engine clean from burnt parts and the combustion process most completely thanks to the oxygen content in the biodiesel (authors)

  6. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  7. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  8. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing

  9. Biodiesel from Sesame oil: Base catalysed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A process for the production of methyl ester from Sesame oil containing 6.1% free fatty acid (FFA for the use as a biodiesel was studied. These studies were carried out on transesterification reaction of Sesame oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The reaction parameters such as Methanol/Oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were optimized for the production of sesame oil methyl ester (SOME. Conversion of triglyceride has been monitored from viscosity measurement and also by measuring produced glycerin concentration. Pseudo first order kinetic model has been proposed for the transesterification of Sesame oil to biodiesel and the data are fitted with the model to evaluate the kinetic parameters. Biodiesel properties such as cetane number, kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point are measured and compared with biodiesel and petro-diesel standard.

  10. Current biodiesel production technologies: A comparative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In this paper we review the technologies related to biodiesel production. ► 4 Primary approaches reviewed are direct use and blending of oils, micro-emulsions, pyrolysis and transesterification method. ► Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed. ► The most common technology of biodiesel production is transesterification of oils. ► Selection of a transesterification method depends on the amount of FFA and water content of the feedstock. - Abstract: Despite the high energy demand in the industrialized world and the pollution problems caused by widespread use of fossil fuels, the need for developing renewable energy sources with less environmental impacts are increasing. Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid and extensive technological reforms in industries and academia. The major obstacle in production and biodiesel commercialization path is production cost. Thus, in previous years numerous studies on the use of technologies and different methods to evaluate optimal conditions of biodiesel production technically and economically have been carried out. In this paper, a comparative review of the current technological methods so far used to produce biodiesel has been investigated. Four primary approaches to make biodiesel are direct use and blending of vegetable oils, micro-emulsions, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and transesterification. Transesterification reaction, the most common method in the production of biodiesel, is emphasized in this review. The two types of transestrification process; catalytic and non-catalytic are discussed at length in the paper. Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed.

  11. DETERMINATION OF HIGHER HEATING VALUE OF BIODIESELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SIVARAMAKRISHNAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel can be used in diesel engine as neat or blended with diesel. The physiochemical properties of fuel are important in design of fuel system for compression ignition engine run on diesel,biodiesel or biodiesel blend. The HHV is an important property which characterizes the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The biodiesels were characterized for their physical and main fuel properties including viscosity, density, flash point and higher heating value. The viscosities of biodiesels were much less than those of pure oils and their HHV’s of approximately 42 MJ/kg were 10% less than those of petro diesel fuels. The HHVs of vegetable oils and their biodiesels were measured and correlated using linear least square regression analysis. An equation was developed relating HHV and thermal properties. The predicted higher heating values compare well with the measured Higher Heating Values. This work establishes the general dependence of higher heating value on thermal properties of biodiesel.

  12. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. PMID:23247566

  13. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  14. Optimization of biodiesel production and purification for maximizing biodiesel yield from camelina oil

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xuan; 吴璇

    2012-01-01

    Because of the depletion of the world’s petroleum reserves and the increasing environmental concerns, biodiesel, as a low-emission renewable fuel and one of the best substitutes for petro-diesel fuel, has attracted great public interest over the past decades. At present, camelina oil has been considered as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production because of its high oil content and environmental benefits. In the present study, the optimization of biodiesel production and purificatio...

  15. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  16. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  17. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  18. TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongolo Mulumba; Ihab H. Farag

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year). However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR) was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of d...

  19. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang;

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  20. Engineering challenges in biodiesel production from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Ana-Maria; Bassi, Amarjeet; Saxena, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the not too distant exhaustion of fossil fuels is becoming apparent. Apart from this, the combustion of fossil fuels leads to environmental concerns, the emission of greenhouse gases and issues with global warming and health problems. Production of biodiesel from microalgae may represent an attractive solution to the above mentioned problems, and can offer a renewable source of fuel with fewer pollutants. This review presents a compilation of engineering challenges related to microalgae as a source of biodiesel. Advantages and current limitations for biodiesel production are discussed; some aspects of algae cells biology, with emphasis on cell wall composition, as it represents a barrier for fatty acid extraction and lipid droplets are also presented. In addition, recent advances in the different stages of the manufacturing process are included, starting from the strain selection and finishing in the processing of fatty acids into biodiesel. PMID:22804334

  1. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  2. Fleet Services makes the switch to biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    West, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    As part of their Green Fleet Initiative and in an effort to meet customer's demand for alternative fuel sources, Virginia Tech Fleet Services will begin using B-10 Biodiesel for diesel powered vehicles.

  3. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  4. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias;

    This work explores the control of biodiesel production via an enzymatic catalyst. The process involves the transesterification of oils/fats with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol), using enzymatic catalysts to generate mono-alkyl esters (the basis of biodiesel) and glycerol as by......-product. Current literature indicates that enzymatic processing of oils and fats to produce biodiesel is technically feasible and developments in immobilization technology indicate that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology...... is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process designs, which do not use the full potential of the catalysts in a cost-efficient way. Furthermore is it unclear what process variables need to be monitored and controlled to ensure optimal economics...

  5. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  6. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  7. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. PMID:20580809

  8. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Martinez-Guerra; Veera Gnaneswar Gude

    2016-01-01

    Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final p...

  9. Production of Biodiesel by Enzymatic Transesterification: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The research on the production of biodiesel has increased significantly in recent years because of the need for an alternative fuel which endows with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Plant oils, animal fats, microalgal oils and waste products such as animal rendering, fish processing waste and cooking oils have been employed as feedstocks for biodiesel production. In order to design an economically and environmentally sustainable biodiesel production process, a proper understanding of the factors affecting the process and their relative importance is necessary. Approach: A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of biodiesel production was carried out. Traditionally biodiesel has been produced using either acid or base catalysts. The multi-step purification of end products, wastewater treatment and energy demand of the conventional process has lead to search for alternative option for production of biodiesel. The use the enzyme lipase as a biocatalyst for the transesterification reaction step in biodiesel production has been extensively investigated. Lipase is produced by all living organisms and can be used intracellularly or extracellularly. Conclusion: To date, the most popular microbes used for their lipases have been filamentous fungi and recombinant bacteria. A summary of lipases used in transesterification and their optimum operating conditions is provided. In addition to the choice of lipase employed, factors which make the transesterification process feasible and ready for commercialization are: enzyme modification, the selection of feedstock and alcohol, use of common solvents, pretreatment of the lipase, alcohol to oil molar ratio, water activity/content and reaction temperature. Optimization of these parameters is necessary in order to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Use of no/low cost waste materials as feedstocks will have double environmental benefits by reducing the

  10. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  11. Environmental sustainability of biodiesel in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel production in Brazil has grown from 736 m3 in 2007 to 2.7 Mm3 in 2012. It is an emergent bioenergy for which it is important to guarantee environmental sustainability. The objective of this article is to characterise the biodiesel production chain in Brazil, to identify potential environmental impacts and to analyse key drivers and barriers for biodiesel environmental sustainability. This article explores these aspects and focusses on the increasing demand for the main feedstocks for biodiesel production in Brazil: soybean oil and beef tallow. The impacts of land use and land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and water, as well as the energy balance, were found to be critical for the environmental sustainability assessment and development of biodiesel chains. Increasing agriculture yields, diversifying feedstocks and adopting ethyl transesterification can contribute to minimise environmental impacts. It was also found that environmental impacts could be mitigated by appropriate policies aiming at an integrated optimisation of food and bioenergy production and through agro-economic–ecological zoning, allowing adequate use of land for each purpose. Despite the limitation and weakness of some sustainability tools and initiatives, certification and zoning can play an important role in the sustainability of the emerging biodiesel production in Brazil

  12. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel an

  13. Five Approaches to Improving the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Including "Designer" Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils or animal fats or used cooking oils by a transesterification reaction with an alcohol, usually methanol, to give the corresponding mono-alkyl esters with glycerol as co-product. With a few exceptions, most common biodiesel feedstocks possess fatty a...

  14. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  15. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. PMID:27209457

  16. Biodiesel from alternative oilseed feedstocks: camelina and field pennycress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyl esters derived from plant oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel possesses several technical advanta...

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  18. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Mesokarp Buah Sawit dengan Teknologi Reactive Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Pascalis Novalina

    2015-01-01

    The conventional method for biodiesel production required oil that was extracted from the biomass before it can be transesterified into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Reactive extraction can be used to produce biodiesel to achieve high yields, low production costs, reduce the reaction time and the use of reagents as well as co-solvent, so it simplify to produce biodiesel. In this study, reactive extraction applied to produce biodiesel of CPO in palm fruit fiber from mesocarp using dimethyl ...

  19. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Vanwechel, Tamara; Gustafson, Cole R.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. biodiesel industry is rapidly expanding due to energy production concerns, environmental concerns, and recent legislation. The most common type of biodiesel in the United States is derived from soybean oil. Soybeans are a major crop in North Dakota and could easily supply a 5 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. Potential market segments of a biodiesel facility in North Dakota include agriculture, construction, and state fleet sectors based on current diesel use. However, wit...

  20. Pengujian Performansi Motor Diesel Dengan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Jarak Pagar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagalung, Adrian Bismarck

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang dapat diperbaharui dan ramah terhadap lingkungan. Pengolahan biodiesel dapat dilakukan dengan proses esterifikasi dan transterifikasi. Pengujian prestasi dan emisi gas buang dilakukan pada motor diesel 4-langkah 4-silinder ( TecQuipment type. TD4A 001 ) tanpa melakukan modifikasi. Campuran bahan bakar antara solar dan biodiesel divariasikan pada kandungan biodiesel 20% dan 10%. Perubahan putaran poros dari 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 2600 dan ...

  1. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  2. The algae biodiesel physical property and spray parameters modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Колодницька, Руслана Віталіївна; Васильєв, Руслан

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of micro-algae biodiesel density, viscosity and surface tension was performed. The spray middle diameters of droplets in diesel engine were counted.   It was shown that the property of algae biodiesel can be compare with  traditional biodiesel based on rapeseed oil.

  3. Optimization of Biodiesel Composition and Comparison to Renewable Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is technically competitive with petrodiesel fuel. Biodiesel is obtained from an oil or fat by means of a transesterification reaction with glycerol as a co-product. Problems when using biodiesel include oxidative stabili...

  4. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  5. Systematic sustainable process design and analysis of biodiesel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad Imran; Babi, Deenesh Kavi;

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is a promising fuel alternative compared to traditional diesel obtained from conventional sources such as fossil fuel. Many flowsheet alternatives exist for the production of biodiesel and therefore it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives using defined criteria and also from...... a biodiesel production case study....

  6. Fuel Properties of Biodiesel/Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel and fuel extender made from transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol or ethanol. The National Biodiesel Board estimated that biodiesel production in the United States increased from 250 million gal in 2006 to 450 million gal in 2007. In 20...

  7. Effects on Fuel Properties of Various Biodiesel Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is generally defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. As a result, the fatty acid composition of biodiesel corresponds to that of the parent oil or fat. Besides the fatty esters as the major components of biodiesel, minor components such as free fatty acids as w...

  8. Economic feasibility of biodiesel production from Macauba in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the economic feasibility of biodiesel production in Brazil by using the Macauba oil as raw matter is studied. The software SIMB-E, in which a cash flow model applied to biodiesel production is implemented, was used during simulations. Economic indexes related to biodiesel production features, as well as the competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel were considered. It was found that all of the 8 simulated scenarios were potentially profitable, but only 2 of them presented competitive biodiesel selling prices, being considered as worthwhile projects. These were seed-oil plants with alkaline transesterification. Results also indicated that the success of biodiesel production still requires additional revenues beyond that derived from biodiesel itself, including income from the feedstock coproducts and glycerol. Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. However, the domestication and improvement on processing of this species are indispensable to ensure its availability of long-term use. - Highlights: • Competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel was the main evaluated criterion. • The main criterion to suggest worthwhile projects was the biodiesel selling price. • Biodiesel plants with integrated oil mill and alkaline transesterification were profitable. • Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. • The domestication and improvement on processing of Macauba are indispensable

  9. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M; S.M.A Sujan; M.S. Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation s...

  10. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML. An integrated analysis considering both agricultural and industrial sectors was identified as a key requirement to the system. Therefore, farmers and industry are the main actors in the use case diagram. As the raw material represents around 70% of the industrial cost of biodiesel production, the price negotiation of raw material (oilseeds is the central use case. Configuration, agriculture, industry, results and scenarios are the modules, which encompass the functionalities derived from the UML diagrams. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has made the BiodieselFAO available, free of charge, to around 180 professionals from 17 Latin American countries. Additionally, the developing team has supported the usage of the BiodieselFAO in several biodiesel investment analyses throughout Latin America. The system was also useful in the design and analysis of policy related to biodiesel industry in Brazil.

  11. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  12. Some Technical Aspects for Sustainable Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Paryanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Brundtland Commission (1987, sustainability means the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations’ abilities to meet their own needs. The term of sustainability has multi-dimensional objectives of social, environmental and economic. Without ignoring the importance of social, environmental, and economical aspects of sustainability, this study will only highlight some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production and, of course, the final goal will target the implication of improved social, environmental and economical conditions. Some technical aspects for sustainable biodiesel production cover the multi-discipline activities at the design stage and at the operation stage of biodiesel production plant. The design stage can be divided into conceptual design, basic engineering design and detailed engineering design. At this stage, the design parameters should consider the selection of the type and availability of raw material, biodiesel plant capacity and location, the efficient production process, the availability of utilities and supporting infrastructures, waste (environmental treatment, and raw material and product handling facilities. And during the operation of biodiesel plant, some important technical issues are the production process activities according to the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP, awareness of safety and Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP, scheduled maintenance activity, waste management, product quality control, and further, if possible, efficiency improvement in the production line through R&D activities and technological advances.

  13. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  14. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  15. Enzymatisk omestring til produktion af biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2007-01-01

      Biodiesel er i dag sammen med bioethanol et bud på, hvordan transportsektoren kan nedbringe sin netto CO2-emission til atmosfæren og lagrene af fossilt brændstof kan strækkes. På verdensplan forventes der en produktion af biodiesel på 7,9 mio. tons i 2007. Ved den industrielle fremstilling af...... biodiesel benyttes i dag kemiske katalysatorer såsom H2SO4, NaOH, MeONa eller KOH, der efterfølgende fjernes fra den producerede biodiesel med store mængder vand og derved produceres store mængder spildevand. Ved at benytte enzymer i processen kan man reducere mængden af spildevand, der skal renses. Enzymer...... benyttes ikke i de eksisterende processer, men det forventes, at udviklingen af processerne vil øge deres anvendelse i biodieselproduktion. I artiklen præsenteres fordele og ulemper ved anvendelse af enzymer til biodiesel produktion....

  16. Processing Coconut Fiber and Shell to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Aulia Novita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on research conducted, liquid smoke coming from the husk and coconut shell containing 58-70% Methyl Ester as biodiesel-forming compounds. Then conducted research for the manufacture of methyl esters of liquid smoke based on differences in their boiling points. The purpose of this research is the development of tools producing liquid smoke, liquid smoke processing into biodiesel, biodiesel testing with the diesel engine and the determination of the proper blending between biodiesel. The method used in this study is a phase of making tools, raw material preparation, testing tools  for liquid smoke production, purification, separation of methyl esters and methyl esters testing by blending in diesel engines. Obtained from research conducted work capacity device of liquid smoke 1:22 kg / hour with a yield of 32.17%. Performance test  by blending biodiesel B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100 with a 6.5 HP engine capable of running a diesel engine with performance that is not much different, more smoke clear, odorless and lighter engine speed.

  17. Comparative characterization of Jatropha, soybean and commercial biodiesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvain-Didier B. Kouame

    2011-01-01

    Oil was extracted from seeds of Jatropha Curcas, in high yields (up to 40% by weight). The extracted Jatropha oil was converted in a laboratory reactor to biodiesel by transesterification. Analysis of Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel by GC/MS and GC/SIMDIS showed that Jatropha oil could be readily converted to a biodiesel product through NaOH catalyzed transesterification.The resulting biodiesel has desirable properties such as high cetane number and low flash point, which are major improvements over the properties of commercial biodiesel fuels.

  18. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  19. Biodiesel as a motor fuel price stabilization mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article studies the capacity of biofuels to reduce motor fuel price fluctuations. For this purpose, we study dependence between crude oil and biodiesel blend prices in Spain. Copula models are used for this purpose. Results suggest that the practice of blending biodiesel with diesel can protect consumers against extreme crude oil price increases. - Highlights: ► We study the capacity of biofuels to reduce fuel price fluctuations. ► We focus on Spanish biodiesel market. ► Biodiesel and crude oil price dependence is studied using copula functions. ► Biodiesel can protect consumers against extreme crude oil price increases.

  20. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  1. TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongolo Mulumba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year. However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of dry algal biomass per liter of medium within 12 days, with a lipid content of 12% approximately. Healthy algal culture grew well in the TPBR reaching 56x106 cells/mL of culture medium. The 10 fold increase is higher than those reported for open ponds and helical photobioreactor.

  2. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  3. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...... of non-renewable resources over regional impacts like acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone to more local impacts like ecotoxicity and physical impacts like land use, to allow judging on the overall environmental sustainability of the biodiesel and to support identification of the main...

  4. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  5. Improving the low temperature properties of biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhale, Purnanand Vishwanathrao; Deshpande, Nishikant V.; Thombre, Shashikant B. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering, South Ambazari Road, Near Bajaj Nagar, 440011 Nagpur, Maharashtra (India)

    2009-03-15

    The use of biodiesel as a diesel fuel extender and lubricity improver is rapidly increasing. While most of the properties of biodiesel are comparable to petroleum based diesel fuel, improvement of its low temperature flow characteristic still remains one of the major challenges when using biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The biodiesel fuels derived from fats or oils with significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds will display higher cloud points and pour points. This paper is aimed to investigate the cold flow properties of 100% biodiesel fuel obtained from Madhuca indica, one of the important species in the Indian context. In this paper, the cold flow properties of biodiesel were evaluated with and without pour point depressants towards the objectives of identifying the pumping and injecting of these biodiesel in CI engines under cold climates. Effect of ethanol, kerosene and commercial additive on cold flow behavior of this biodiesel was studied. A considerable reduction in pour point has been noticed by using these cold flow improvers. The performance and emission with ethanol blended Mahua biodiesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blended Mahua biodiesel fuel have also been studied. A considerable reduction in emission was obtained. Ethanol blended biodiesel is totally a renewable, viable alternative fuel for improved cold flow behavior and better emission characteristics without affecting the engine performance. (author)

  6. Fremtidens Biodiesel: Kom fedtaffald i tanken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    Mange tror måske, at det er svært for menigmand at lave biobrændstof. Det er faktisk forkert, fordi biodiesel nemt kan laves af kemikalier, der er ret almindelige i laboratorier og hos købmanden og materialisten. Det kræver blot en såkaldt om-estring af planteolie eller fedt med methanol, samt...... kaliumhydroxid som katalysator. Herved opnås de såkaldte fedtsyre-methylestere, der er bedre kendt som biodiesel. I denne artikel gennemgås fremstillingsprocessen og sætter biodieselfremstillingen i perspektiv....

  7. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy;

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...... and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40°C for the two systems has been determined to -9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and - 9.3 ± 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol is used....

  8. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  9. Biodiesel de microalgas: avanços e desafios Biodiesel from microalgae: progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Custódio Franco; Ivon Pinheiro Lôbo; Rosenira Serpa da Cruz; Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa Teixeira; José Adolfo de Almeida Neto; Rafael Silva Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from...

  10. Biodiesel production via non-catalytic SCF method and biodiesel fuel characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable oil (m)ethyl esters, commonly referred to as 'biodiesel,' are prominent candidates as alternative Diesel fuels. Biodiesel is technically competitive with or offers technical advantages compared to conventional petroleum Diesel fuel. The vegetable oils, as alternative engine fuels, are all extremely viscous with viscosities ranging from 10 to 20 times greater than that of petroleum Diesel fuel. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Transesterifications of vegetable oils in supercritical methanol are performed without using any catalyst. The most important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main obstacle to commercialization of the product. With cooking oils used as raw material, the viability of a continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol as a biodiesel by product are primary options to be considered to lower the cost of biodiesel. Supercritical methanol has a high potential for both transesterification of triglycerides and methyl esterification of free fatty acids to methyl esters for a Diesel fuel substitute. In the supercritical methanol transesterification method, the yield of conversion increases to 95% in 10 min. The viscosity values of vegetable oils are between 27.2 and 53.6 mm2/s, whereas those of vegetable oil methyl esters are between 3.59 and 4.63 mm2/s. The flash point values of vegetable oil methyl esters are much lower than those of vegetable oils. An increase in density from 860 to 885 kg/m3 for vegetable oil methyl esters or biodiesels increases the viscosity from 3.59 to 4.63 mm2/s. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any Diesel engine without modification

  11. Experimental Performance Analysis of Biodiesel, Traditional Diesel and Biodiesel with Glycerine

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Muammer; ERGENÇ, Alp T.; DENİZ, Orhan

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel, traditional Diesel and biodiesel with glycerine were used as the fuel of a direct injection compression ignition engine. The torque, brake power and fuel consumption values associated with these fuels were determined under certain operating conditions. Effective efficiency, effective pressure and SFC values were calculated according to the formulae given in the Appendix. The obtained results were compared and it was noted that all fuels yielded similar results at some poi...

  12. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). An integrated analysis considering both agri...

  13. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchori Luqman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA(CB3–k2(CC(CD3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist. It found that SNI 01-3555-1998 method was the easier and the acurate measurement. The classification of alcohol used was methanol andethanol to compare the action both of them. Methanol produces the higher conversion than ethanol. The reactionin a batch reactor with temperature 40, 50, and 60°C in atmospheric pressure as the operation condition tolooking for kinetics parameter of trans-etherification. Coefficient reaction rate and activation energy were lookinto kinetics study. Reaction rate was a mathematics model as a function of concentration and time which solvedby Runge-Kutta, multivariable optimization and SSE (some square error method using Matlab. The activationenergy (Ea and impact factor (A obtained by linier regression method. The result of study obtained the kineticsparameter of trans-etherification with methanol k1=1.9313x1031exp (-41.940/RT average error 0.0010 andk2=2.7678x1025exp(-37.362/ RT average error 0.0003. While kinetics parameter of trans-etherification withethanol obtained k1=1.168x1019exp(-24.588/ RT average error 0.0306 and k2=4.9966x106exp(-10.328/RTaverage error 0.1589. It means, more reactive alcohol then bigger the value of kinetics parameter.

  14. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  15. Thermodegradation of biodiesel: thermoanalytical and rheological characterization; Degradacao termica de biodiesel: caracterizacao termoanalitica e reologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everson L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Gilmar T.; Gadelha, Tatiana S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is a country of extensive agricultural land and great oil consumption and these factors favor biodiesel production in this country. In order for diesel/biodiesel mixtures to be effectively employed in diesel engines, a rigid quality control of these mixtures is needed. Biodiesel and mixtures must have their quality monitored with respect to oxidative resistance, thermal stability, fluidity and volatility, properties which can be modified by the adverse transport and stock conditions prior to consumption. Oxidation is the main degradation mechanism of products under transport and stock conditions, which can lead to significant economical losses. In this work sought the thermal degradation of neat biodiesel, synthesized in our laboratories was monitored. Thermal aging was conducted at 210 deg C for up to 1000 h. Virgin and thermally degraded samples were characterized by rheological measurements (in different shear conditions); FTIR; density and by color changes. We concluded that the soy biodiesel was successfully synthesized and that thermal exposure caused thermal-oxidative degradation of the biodiesel sample, significantly changing its properties as a function of thermal exposure times. (author)

  16. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  17. Evaluation of Biodiesel Obtained from Cottonseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitutes for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide a fuel with more benign environmental properties. In this work biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil by transesterification with methanol, us...

  18. Cetane numbers of biodiesel and its components

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cetane number is one of the prime fuel quality indicators of a petrodiesel or biodiesel fuel as it relates to the tendency of the fuel to ignite in the combustion chamber. It has been established that compound structure, including chain length, branching, and the presence of double bonds, is a m...

  19. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  20. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied

  1. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternatives to petroleum-based fuels has led to the development of fuels from various sources, including renewable feedstocks such as fats and oils. Several types of fuels can be derived from these triacylglycerol-derived feedstocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is defined as the ...

  2. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  3. ANALYZING BIODIESEL: STANDARDS AND OTHER METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel occupies a prominent position among the alternatives to conventional petrodiesel fuel due to various technical and economic factors. It is obtained by reacting the parent vegetable oil or fat with an alcohol (transesterification) in the presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding mon...

  4. Methods to improve oxidative stability of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative degradation is one of the chief technical deficiencies of biodiesel relative to petrodiesel. Traditional methods to mitigate susceptibility to oxidation include employment of synthetic antioxidants, switching to more stable feedstocks, reducing the storage time of the fuel, and improving t...

  5. A New Source of Biodiesel: Field Pennycress

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the current debate about fuel versus food issues, alternative non-food feedstocks for biodiesel production are an important area of current research. Traditionally considered to be an agricultural weed by farmers, field pennycress has many positive agronomic characteristics that make ...

  6. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  7. BIODIESEL IN THE WILD BLUE YONDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel derived from transesterification of agricultural lipids with a simple alcohol. It has many on- and off-road applications including transportation, locomotive, underground mining, marine, power generation and home heating oil fuels. Recently, the formulation of alte...

  8. Recent developments in the biodiesel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, continues to find increasing interest as an alternative to petrodiesel fuel. In this connection, a significant issue affecting more widespread use and commercialization has been that of supply and availability. This has le...

  9. Will biodiesel fuels derived from algae perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The issue of sufficient supply and availability of feedstock is one of the major non-technical issues affecting the widespread commercialization of biodiesel. Another aspect is the food vs. fuel issue that biofuels should not be produced from edible feedstocks. In these connections, lipid-producin...

  10. TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCED BIODIESEL ECONOMICS - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall goal of this project is to complete the research and development of an innovative process technology to enhance the economics of biodiesel production, through upgrading the byproduct glycerol to a propane fuel (LPG), which (a) is widely used today, (b) has an exist...

  11. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Blending biodiesel in fishing boat fuels for improved fuel characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan eLin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable, clean, alternative energy source with advantages such as excellent lubricity, superior biodegradability and high combustion efficiency. Biodiesel is considered for mixing with fishing boat fuels to adjust their fuel characteristics so that toxic pollutants and greenhouse-effect gas emissions from such shipping might be reduced. The effects of blending fishing boat fuels A and B with various weight proportions of biodiesel are experimentally investigated in this study. The results show that biodiesel blending can significantly improve the inferior fuel properties of both fishing boat fuels and particularly fuel B. The flash points of both of these fuels increases significantly with the addition of biodiesel and thus enhances the safety of transporting and storing these blended fuels. The flash point of fishing boat fuel B even increases by 16% with 25 wt% biodiesel blending. The blending of biodiesel with no sulfur content is found to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the high sulfur content of fishing boat fuel, resulting in a reduction in the emission of sulfur oxides. The addition of only 25 wt% biodiesel decreased the sulfur content of the fishing boat fuel by 37%. The high kinematic viscosity of fishing boat fuel B was also observed to be reduced by 63% with the blending of just 25 wt% biodiesel. However, biodiesel blending caused a slight decrease in heating value around 1% to 4.5%.

  13. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NOx, and SO2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  14. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  15. Degradation of nitrile rubber fuel hose by biodiesel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays biodiesel is becoming an increasingly important and popular fuel, obtained from renewable sources, and contributes to pollutant emissions reduction and decreasing fossil fuels dependence. However, its easier oxidation and faster degradation in comparison to diesel led to compatibility problems between biodiesel and various metallic and polymeric materials contacted. Therefore, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of different mixtures diesel–biodiesel (fuel type B5, B10, B20) used in Baja California, Mexico on the resistance of nitrile rubber fuel hoses at temperatures of 25 °C and 70 °C applying gravimetric tests, tensile strength measurements and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The factors affecting the material mass change were identified using an experimental design analysis. It was found that the fuel temperature did not conduct to significant mass loss of nitrile rubber fuel hose, while biodiesel concentration affected the properties of the elastomer, causing the phenomenon of swelling. The exposure of hoses to fuel with increasing concentrations of biodiesel led to tensile strength decrease. - Highlights: • The biodiesel oxidation led to problems with polymeric materials. • The degradation of a nitrile rubber fuel hose in biodiesel blends was assessed. • The nitrile rubber showed greater affinity for biodiesel than diesel. • The elastomer swelled, cracked and lost its mechanical properties by biodiesel. • SEM analysis confirmed surface morphology changes in higher biodiesel blends

  16. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Belo Leite, Dal, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.

  17. Influence of biodiesel blending on physicochemical properties and importance of mathematical model for predicting the properties of biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short identification of selected biodiesel feedstock. • Review of physicochemical properties for blended biodiesel. • Mathematical model for predicting properties of various biodiesel blends. - Abstract: The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in engine. The research is still continuing for improving the biodiesel usage level. Recently, it is found that the blended biodiesel from more than one feedstock provides better performance in engine. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties of different biodiesel blends obtained from various feedstocks with a view to properly understand the fuel quality. Moreover, a short description of each feedstock is given along with graphical presentation of important properties for various blend percentages from B0 to B100. Finally, mathematical model is formed for predicting various properties of biodiesel blend with the help of different research data by using polynomial curve fitting method. The results obtained from a number of literature based on this work shows that the heating value of biodiesel is about 11% lower than diesel except coconut (14.5% lower) whereas kinematic viscosity is in the range of 4–5.4 mm2/s. Flash point of all biodiesels are more than 150 °C, except neem and coconut. Cold flow properties of calophyllum, palm, jatropha, moringa are inferior to others. This would help to determine important properties of

  18. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Biofuel Research Laboratory, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand- 247667 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essential to explore non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha curcas and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. The oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil is very poor. Therefore the aim of the present paper is to study the oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blend. Also the effectiveness of various antioxidants is checked with respect to various blends of biodiesel with diesel.

  19. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jain, M.P. Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essential to explore non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha curcas and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. The oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil is very poor. Therefore the aim of the present paper is to study the oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blend. Also the effectiveness of various antioxidants is checked with respect to various blends of biodiesel with diesel.

  20. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  1. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Mat; Rubyatul Adawiyah Samsudin; Mahadhir Mohamed; Anwar Johari

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development ...

  2. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has...

  3. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono; W Widayat

    2012-01-01

    Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA) whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours). Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applicati...

  4. Corrosion behavior of aluminum exposed to a biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Ballote, L.; Maldonado-Lopez, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida Yucatan, 97310 (Mexico); Lopez-Sansores, J.F. [Facultad de Quimica, UADY, Merida Yucatan, 97310 (Mexico); Garfias-Mesias, L.F. [Corrosion and Materials Technology Laboratory, DNV/CCT, Dublin, Ohio, 43017 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Aluminum was exposed to biodiesel with different levels of contaminants and impurities, and its corrosion behavior was evaluated by conventional electrochemical techniques. It was found that the corrosion behavior of aluminum in biodiesel contaminated with alkalis is similar to the corrosion behavior of aluminum in aqueous solutions. In addition, it was demonstrated that corrosion of aluminum can be used as a quantitative indication of the biodiesel purity. (author)

  5. Producción de biodiesel asistida por ultrasonidos

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Bastante, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The continuous increase of fossil fuel prices has raised interest in searching for new forms of energy to power internal combustion engines. Among the most promising options is biodiesel. According to ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials Standard) specifications, biodiesel is described as monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipids such as vegetable oils or animal fats used in ignition engines. The process leading to biodiesel is called ...

  6. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le;

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  7. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  8. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  9. Biodiesel in Brazil: A Market Analysis and Its Economic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Santana Silva; Francisco Lima Cruz Teixeira; Ednildo Andrade Torres; Angela Machado Rocha; Francisco Gaudêncio Mendonça Freires; Tito Britto Santos; Pieter de Jong

    2014-01-01

    The commercial production of biodiesel in Brazil began in 2005 and increased in such a way that the country has become one of the largest producers in terms of volume in 2012. This study aims to analyze the biodiesel market in Brazil and its socio-economic effects resulting from the mandatory addition of biodiesel in the distribution system of mineral diesel. This work is characterized as a qualitative and exploratory study. The technical procedures adopted include literature research and dat...

  10. Analysis, Design and Implementation of Biodiesel Projects in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Junior, Aziz Galvao; Perez, Ronaldo; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Osorio

    2008-01-01

    During the oil crisis of the seventies, Brazil has developed a successful program for gasoline substitution by ethanol (Proálcool). Nowadays the biomass accounts for 27% of total national energy consumed in Brazil and the ethanol participates with 40% of the total national fuel consumption of Otto cycle vehicles. In 2004, the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Biodiesel Program) was launched. One priority of the Biodiesel Program is the inclusion of family agriculture a...

  11. The U.S. biodiesel use mandate and biodiesel feedstock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of individual biodiesel feedstocks or broad approaches that lump animal fats and vegetable oils into a single aggregate straddle the true case of imperfect but by no means inconsequential substitution among fats and oils by different users. United States biofuel policy includes a biodiesel use mandate that rises to almost 4 hm3 by 2012, calling for biomass feedstock analysis that recognizes the complex interdependence among potential feedstocks and competition for food and industrial uses. We model biodiesel input markets to investigate the implications of the mandate for quantities and prices with and without a provision disallowing biodiesel made from soybean oil. Findings suggest a hierarchy of price effects that tends to be largest for cheaper fats and oils typically used for industrial and feed purposes and smallest for fats and oils traditionally used exclusively for direct consumption, with the cross-commodity effects and other key economic parameters playing a critical part in determining the scale in each case. Although sensitive to the exact parameters used, our results argue against overly simplifying feedstock markets by holding prices constant when considering the economics of a particular feedstock or if estimating the broader impacts of rising biodiesel production on competing uses. (author)

  12. Study about the particularities of biodiesel in Brazil; Estudo sobre as particularidades do biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia Franca Ribeiro Fernandes dos [Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao; Souza, Cristina Gomes de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern associated with the impending shortage of oil, which is pressing to raise the price of the barrel, has forced governments and society to seek alternatives that will replace the use of fossil fuels. The biodiesel, in particular, has been set up as an alternative energy by it of fuel come from renewable sources, and less polluting the environment. In this context, the objective of this article is to present some features of the production of biodiesel in Brazil, identifying the characteristics of the main oil used, as well as regional motivations for the use of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology adopted in this study was exploratory in nature based on a literature search and documentary from a survey of information available in literature. The main results, the article points out that: unlike alcohol, which is in sugar cane their ideal raw material, biodiesel is still in a stage of intensive research and development in order to identify the most appropriate its oil production - with emphasis on soybean and castor bean, and the motivations for regional use of biodiesel are different for the Brazilian regions. The study aims to contribute to the discussion on the subject, emphasizing that technological research should be directed taking into consideration the conditions and needs of Brazil. (author)

  13. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  15. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  16. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. PMID:20100653

  17. Critical technical areas for future improvement in biodiesel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyses critical technical areas that currently limit the success of biodiesel as a fuel. The production process is currently shifting from homogeneous to heterogeneous using solid catalysts for a cleaner process and ease of product separation. The free fatty acid and moisture contents in the raw materials must be sufficiently low to avoid soap formation. The production of biodiesel with full compliance with ASTM D6751-07 or EN 14214:2003 is an uphill task. Current technologies for biodiesel production still do not provide more significant energy surplus. Biodiesel has relatively lower energy content, causing higher fuel consumption. Biodiesel has a drawback in terms of its cold flow properties. A high iodine value can cause degradation and polymerization of biodiesel components. Unconverted monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride impurities will affect the engine performance. The alcohol content in biodiesel can attack rubber seals and gaskets. Biodiesel also can undergo chemical and biological modification to affect its quality in long-term storage. Biodiesel is also associated with high-level NOx emission, a fact that needs special attention

  18. Spectroscopic Analysis of Structural Transformation in Biodiesel Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jiang; Chen Boshui; Fang Jianhua; Wang Jiu

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of three biodiesels of different origins, viz. rapesee d oil derived biodiesel, soybean oil derived biodiesel and waste oil based biodiesel, were tested on an oxidation tester. The chemical compositions of the biodie-sels were characterized by gas chromatography. Thereafter, the structural transformation of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of the biodiesels was analyzed by an infrared spectrometer and an ultraviolet absorption spectrometer. The results demon-strated that the oxidation behavior of biodiesels of different origins was closely related to the composition and distribution of FAMEs. Higher concentration of unsaturated FAME with multi-double bonds exhibited poorer oxidation resistance. Fur-thermore, cis-trans isomerization transformation occurred in the unsaturated FAME molecules and conjugated double-bond produced during the oxidation process of biodiesel. Greater cis-trans variations corresponded to deeper oxidation degree. The higher the content of unsaturated FAME with multi-double bonds in a biodiesel, the more the conjugated double bonds was formed.

  19. Biodiesel from soybean promotes cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D

    2016-08-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100μgmL(-1). In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel's organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses. PMID:27179667

  20. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

  1. Assessment of the biodiesel distribution infrastructure in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's biodiesel industry is in its infancy, and must work to achieve the demand needed to ensure its development. This assessment of Canada's biodiesel distribution infrastructure was conducted to recommend the most efficient infrastructure pathway for effective biodiesel distribution. The study focused on the establishment of a link between biodiesel supplies and end-users. The current Canadian biodiesel industry was discussed, and future market potentials were outlined. The Canadian distillate product distribution infrastructure was discussed. Technical considerations and compliance issues were reviewed. The following 2 scenarios were used to estimate adaptations and costs for the Canadian market: (1) the use of primary terminals to ensure quality control of biodiesel, and (2) storage in secondary terminals where biodiesel blends are prepared before being transported to retail outlets. The study showed that relevant laboratory training programs are needed as well as proficiency testing programs in order to ensure adequate quality control of biodiesel. Standards for biodiesel distribution are needed, as well as specifications for the heating oil market. It was concluded that this document may prove useful in developing government policy objectives and identifying further research needs. 21 refs., 12 tabs., 13 figs

  2. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Both wear and friction decrease with the increase of biodiesel concentration. ► Wear and friction appear to decrease more at the range of 10–20% biodiesel in diesel blend. ► The wear of steel ball in biodiesel (B100) was 20% lower than that in diesel (B0). ► Lubricity in terms of wear and friction decreases with the increase of rotating speed. - Abstract: Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased with the increase of biodiesel concentration. The wear of steel ball in B100 was appeared to be 20% lower than that in diesel (B0)

  3. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  4. Biodiesel production from sediments of a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments from eutrophic reservoir Bugach (Siberia, Russia) were tested for possibility to produce biodiesel. We supposed that the sediments could be a promising biodiesel producer. The major reason of high price of biodiesel fuel is cost of a raw material. The use of dredging sediments for biodiesel production reduces production costs, because the dredging sediments are by-products which originated during lake restoration actions, and are free of cost raw materials. Lipid content in sediments was 0.24% of dry weight. To assess the potential of from sediments as a substitute of diesel fuel, the properties of the biodiesel such as cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion were calculated. All of this parameters complied with limits established by EN 14214 and EN 14213 related to biodiesel quality. -- Highlights: → Dredging sediments were considered as a new feedstock for biodiesel production. → Lipid and fatty acid content in the sediments were determined. → Main properties of the biodiesel were calculated basing on fatty acid composition. → The properties well complied with limits established in biodiesel standards.

  5. Thermal behavior of diesel/biodiesel blends of biodiesel obtained from buriti oil=Comportamento térmico de blendas de diesel/biodiesel de biodiesel obtido a partir do óleo de buriti

    OpenAIRE

    Rômulo Davi Albuquerque Andrade; Ellen Pozzebom; Elaine Alves Faria; Francisco Dantas Filho; Paulo Anselmo Ziani Suarez; Alexandre Gustavo Soares do Prado

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has been obtained from methanolysis of buriti oil. This biodiesel was added in fossil diesel in order to obtain diesel/biodiesel blends. Thermal analysis of blends were carried on 30-600oC range at rate of 10oC min.-1. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy (Ea), pre-exponential factor (A), Gibbs energy (≠G), enthalpy (≠H) and entropy (≠S) of activation were determined by using Coats–Redfern equation. The Ea, ≠H and ≠G values presented a linear increase with biodiesel amo...

  6. Comparative study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled by Emulsified Biodiesel/Diethyl Ether Blended Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marappan; T.K. Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels are playing important role in recent decades as substitutes for petro diesel. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils are found to give comparable performance and emission characteristics. In this paper a comparative study has been done between two fuels combinations i.e., emulsified biodiesel and DEE (Diethyl Ether) blended biodiesel to find the suitable combination of fuel in reducing the emissions and improving the performance of the diesel engine. Experiments have been conducted in...

  7. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product.

  8. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Kastaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation on transesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed by integrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the useof methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that the reactor that applied the glycerol separation was able to compensate for the decreased use of the reactant methanol from 6:1 to 5:1 molar ratio, and changed the mass balance in the product, including: (i the increase of biodiesel production from 42.37% to 49.34%, and (ii the reduction of methanol in excess from 42.37% to 32.89%. The results suggested that the efficiency of biodiesel production could be increased with the glycerol separation engineering.

  9. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  10. An experimental investigation of biodiesel steam reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stefan; Kraaij, Gerard; Ascher, Torsten; Wails, David; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recently, liquid biofuels have attracted increasing attention as renewable feedstock for hydrogen production in the transport sector. Since the lack of hydrogen infrastructure and distribution poses an obstacle for the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the market, it is reasonable to consider using liquid biofuels for on-board or on-site hydrogen generation. Biodiesel offers the advantage of being an environmentally friendly resource while also having high gravimetric and volumetric energ...

  11. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  12. Boiler Retrofit for the Utilization of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Nurul Komariah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil used in the boiler is able to substitute with biodiesel. In lower blends, there are no engine modification needed, but some researchers recommended some technical adjustments in order to maintain the boiler's performance and equipment durability. This study consists of the comparison between the performance of boiler before and after retrofitting on the use of biodiesel. The diesel oil was introduced in biodiesel blends of 10% (B10, 20% (B20 and 25% (B25. A fire tube boiler was used for the test with pressure of 3 bar and heat input capacity of 60,000 kcal. The boiler retrofit is conducted by fine tuning the fan damper scale (FDS and adding a heating feature on fuel system. It was specifically intended to maintain the quality of combustion and boiler efficiency as well as to avoid an increase in fuel consumption. The combustion behaviour was monitored by exhaust emissions of CO, NOx, and SO2. The fan damper scale (FDS and fuel temperature is adjusted by the increasing portion of biodiesel used. The fuel heating apparatus was set at temperature of 40oC for the use of B10, and 60oC for B20 and B25. The FDS adjustment was successfully resulted a reduction in rate of combustion air by average of 9.2%. The boiler retrofitting for the utilization of B10, B20 and B25 showed an increase in boiler efficiency by 0.64%, 0.42% and 2.6% respectively. The boiler retrofitting is surprisingly reduced the fuel consumption by average of 11.2%.

  13. Biodiesel Projects Helpful to Ease Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nearly 7,000 hectares of biodiesel forest will take shape in the northern province of Hebei in 2008, part of a national campaign to fuel the fast growing economy in a green way. In no more than five years, the Pistacia chinensis Bunge, whose seeds have an oil content of up to 40 percent, will yield five tons of fruit and contribute about two tons of high-quality biological diesel oil,according to the provincial forestry administration.

  14. Sustainability of rapeseed biodiesel using LCA method

    OpenAIRE

    Finco, Adele; Bentivoglio, Deborah; Rasetti, Michele; Padella, Monica; Polla, Piergiuseppe; Cortesi, Davide

    2012-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol and the EU Directive 2009/28/EC focus their attention on the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The use of biofuels in the transport sector is one of the main measures proposed. This paper evaluates the environmental impact, in terms of GHG emissions, of the production and use of rapeseed biodiesel, comparing the results with conventional diesel. The methodology used is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The results of the analysis show that the production of rape...

  15. Property modification of jatropha oil biodiesel by blending with other biodiesels or adding antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of biodiesel production from jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil was investigated with respect to the biodiesel blending properties and its oxidation stability with antioxidants. The JME (jatropha oil methyl esters) had the cetane number of 54, cold filter plugging point of -2 oC, density of 881 kg/m3 at 15 oC, ester content of 99.4 wt.%, iodine value of 96.55 g I2/100 g, kinematic viscosity of 4.33 mm2/s at 40 oC, and oxidation stability of 3.86 h. Furthermore, the JME was blended with palm oil biodiesel and soybean oil biodiesel at various weight ratios and evaluated for fuel properties as compared to the relevant specifications. In addition, several antioxidants at concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm were studied for their potential to improve the oxidation stability of the JME. The relationship between the IP (induction period) in the measurement of the oxidation stability associated with the antioxidant consumption in the JME was described by first-order reaction rate kinetics. Moreover, the ln IP (natural logarithm of the IP) at various concentrations of pyrogallol showed a linear relationship with the test temperature. The oxidation stability at ambient temperatures was predicted on the basis of an extrapolation of the temperature-dependent relationship. -- Highlights: → Jatropha oil methyl esters had satisfactory biodiesel properties except for the oxidation stability. → The oxidation stability and cold filter plugging point of the jatropha-based biodiesel blends cannot meet the EN 14214 requirements simultaneously. → The addition of pyrogallol was recommended for the stabilization of the jatropha oil methyl esters with a concentration of 100-250 ppm.

  16. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  17. Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakinaz A. El Sherbiny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures because of its environmentally beneficial attributes and its renewable nature. Non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha oil, produced by seed-bearing shrubs, can provide an alternative and do not have competing food uses. However, these oils are characterized by their high free fatty acid contents. Using the conventional transesterification technique for the production of biodiesel is well established. In this study an alternative energy stimulant, “microwave irradiation”, was used for the production of the alternative energy source, biodiesel. The optimum parametric conditions obtained from the conventional technique were applied using microwave irradiation in order to compare the systems. The study showed that the application of radio frequency microwave energy offers a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with the advantages of enhancing the reaction rate (2 min instead of 150 min and of improving the separation process. The methodology allows for the use of high free fatty acid content feedstock, including Jatropha oil. However, this emerging technology needs to be further investigated for possible scale-up for industrial application.

  18. Potential of oilseed rape for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the concept of using oilseed rape as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the southeastern US Average oil yields from test plots over eight southeastern locations in 1992 were 1,033 liters per hectare. Seed and oil yields of Humus, a cultivar developed specifically for biofuel use, were below average at all test locations. Progress in increasing yield and thereby reducing unit costs of seed production, has been significant during the last six years. The single most important factor influencing the economic viability of biodiesel is oil yield, a function of seed yield and oil content. Other important factors include co-product credits and federal farm program benefits. Farmland idled in the southeastern US including both 10-year CRP and annual farm program hectarage is about 2.4 million hectares for the 13 states. Using the average yield of 1,033 litters, approximately 2.4 billion liters of biodiesel could be produced by fully employing this land resource annually. These data assume the use of a locally well-adapted cultivar by an experienced producer

  19. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  20. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  1. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50-60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5-10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less number

  2. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  3. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. → Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. → The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. → Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  4. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  6. Production and properties of biodiesel from algal oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel (petrodiesel). A major issue facing biodiesel is sufficient supply of feedstock to replace significant amounts of petrodiesel. This issue has caused a search for sources of triacylglycerol-based oils with high production poten...

  7. Evaluation of properties and storage stability of Madhuca indica biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilan, N; Ashok Babu, T P; Reddy, R P

    2009-01-01

    Mahua Oil (MO) is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in India. In the present work, biodiesel was derived from the MO by the transesterification process. The fuel properties of the MO biodiesel were found to be within the limits of biodiesel specifications of many countries. The chemical nature of biodiesel makes it more susceptible to oxidation during long-term storage which leads to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. The effect of long storage condition on the stability of the MO biodiesel was studied in the present work. The biodiesel samples were stored in plastic containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 12 months and the test sample was kept in the darkness. From the experimental results, it was observed that the acid value and viscosity increases with the storage time, but the iodine value decreased with increasing storage time. This is due to the presence of the double bond in the molecule of the biodiesel which produce a high level of reactivity. This high level reactivity produces formation of hydroperoxides, soluble polymers and other secondary products. From the experimental results, a slight difference in the acid value, iodine value and viscosity of the MO biodiesel stored for a period of 30 days was observed. But after this period, the differences were significant. PMID:19915318

  8. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  9. Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the energy flows associated with biodiesel production. A similar study conducted previously (Sheehan et al., Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, Publication NREL/SR-580-24089, National Renewable Ener...

  10. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kamarudin, S.K., E-mail: ctie@eng.ukm.m [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaakub, Z. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. {yields} Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. {yields} The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. {yields} Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  11. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  12. Effect of temperature on oil stability index (OSI) of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is primarily composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel suppliers, terminal operators and users are becoming more concerned with monitoring and maintaining good biodiesel fuel quality with respect to oxidative degradation during storage. Oil stability index (OSI)...

  13. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  14. Partitioning Behavior of Petrodiesel/Biodiesel Blends in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning behavior of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100, where B100 is 100% unblended biodiesel) in water was investigated at various oil loads by the 10-fold dilution method. Five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C20 n

  15. Water Consumption Estimates of the Biodiesel Process in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, biodiesel has been widely used in the US and around the world. Along with the rapid development of the biodiesel industry, its potential impact on water resources should also be evaluated. This study investigates water consumption f...

  16. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Kiss; A.C. Dimian; G. Rothenberg

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  17. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant, and a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. The properties of biodiesel are largely compet...

  18. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  19. Research on Biodiesel and Vegetable Oil Fuels - Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetable oil was used as diesel fuel for the first time in 1900 and the first biodiesel dates from the 1930's. Significant insights into fuel properties were already gained in those times. This article briefly discusses such results and relates the author's own recent work on biodiesel fuel pro...

  20. Improving Biodiesel Fuel Properties by Modifying Fatty Ester Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel composed of alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other feedstocks such as used cooking oils. The fatty acid profile of biodiesel corresponds to that of its feedstock. Most feedstocks possess fatty acid profiles consisting mainl...

  1. Designing a Biodiesel Fuel with Optimized Fatty Acid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, although it can replace only a few percent of current petrodiesel production. It is technically competitive with petrodiesel. Technical problems with biodiesel are oxidative stability, cold flow increased nitrogen oxides (NOx) exhaust em...

  2. Modeling the Crystallization Behavior of Biodiesel at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common form of biodiesel is made by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat fatty acids with methanol (FAME). Biodiesel from feedstocks such as palm oil (PME), rapeseed oil (RME), soybean oil (SME) or used cooking oil (UCOME) is susceptible to performance issues during cold weat...

  3. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. → Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. → Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  4. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL/JET FUEL BLENDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Biodiesel has fuel properties comparable to those of conventional diesel fuel and is known...

  5. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  6. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  7. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different bioreacto

  8. The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M., E-mail: jmarchetti@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Influence of the mayor economic parameters for biodiesel production. {yields} Variations of profitability of a biodiesel plant due to changes in the market scenarios. {yields} Comparison of economic indicators of a biodiesel production facility when market variables are modified. - Abstract: Biodiesel appears as one of the possible alternative renewable fuels to substitute diesel fuel derived from petroleum. Several researches have been done on the technical aspects of biodiesel production in an attempt to develop a better and cleaner alternative to the conventional process. Economic studies have been carried out to have a better understanding of the high costs and benefits of different technologies in the biodiesel industry. In this work it is studied the effect of the most important economic variables of a biodiesel production process over the general economy of a conventional plant which employs sodium methoxide as catalyst. It has been analyzed the effect of the oil price, the amount of free fatty acid, the biodiesel price, the cost of the glycerin, the effect due to the modification on the methanol price, the washing water price, and several others. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases.

  9. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  10. Evaluation of Several Horticultural Plants as Biodiesel Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a non-petroleum-based fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (generally methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterification of a vegetable oil or an animal fat which can either be used alone, or blended with petroleum diesel in conventional diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel has better l...

  11. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  12. 10 CFR 490.707 - Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.707 Increasing the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component. DOE may increase the qualifying volume of the biodiesel component of fuel for purposes...

  13. 10 CFR 490.706 - Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage... TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.706 Procedure for modifying the biodiesel component percentage. (a) DOE may, by rule, lower the 20 percent biodiesel volume requirement of this subpart...

  14. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO3 + SrO + Sr (OH)2) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  15. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  17. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  18. Uso da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC×GC na caracterização de misturas biodiesel/diesel: aplicação ao biodiesel de sebo bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvana A Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of biodiesel market and the implementation of regulations related to biodiesel production and biodiesel/diesel blending has encouraged the development of appropriate analytical methods to control the composition of this type of mixture. In this study, an evaluation of the potential of GC×GC for the characterization of samples of beef tallow biodiesel and the composition of blends of biodiesel/diesel is presented. The methodology was applied to beef tallow biodiesel and its mixtures with petrodiesel, ranging from B2 to B50. Results allowed not only the identification and quantification of the biodiesel esters, but also the biodiesel percentage in biodiesel/diesel blends.

  19. Microtox Aquatic Toxcity of Petrodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: The Role of Biodiesel's Autoxidation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10 - C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and tota...

  20. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  1. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  2. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  3. Prospects and grounds for the application of a biodiesel in marine power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shuytasov Nariman Nurullaevich; Tamandzha Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The essence for the application of a biodiesel in marine power plants is considered in the paper. Basic characteristics of a biodiesel are analyzed; rec-ommendations concerning peculiarities of its storage, preparation and organiza-tion of a working process of the engine while using the biodiesel are given. The influence of the biodiesel on the parameters of the marine power plant is investi-gated. Main advantages of biodiesel fuel compared to the traditional diesel fuel are considered. Basic...

  4. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jingzheng Ren; Alessandro Manzardo; Anna Mazzi; Andrea Fedele; Antonio Scipioni

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as t...

  5. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  6. Purificação do biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O desenvolvimento de polímeros com matérias-prima de origem renovável tem recebido atenção nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho é apresentado o desenvolvimento de poliuretanos (PUs) com carboidratos e com uma carga inorgânica (bauxita) para serem utilizados no processo de purificação a seco do biodiesel, visando a diminuição dos contaminantes presentes. Dessa maneira foram preparados três sistemas: (a) espumas flexíveis de PU com carboidratos; (b) espumas flexíveis de PU com bauxita e (c)...

  7. Biorefinery for Glycerol Rich Biodiesel Industry Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha

    2016-06-01

    The biodiesel industry has the potential to meet the fuel requirements in the future. A few inherent lacunae of this bioprocess are the effluent, which is 10 % of the actual product, and the fact that it is 85 % glycerol along with a few impurities. Biological treatments of wastes have been known as a dependable and economical direction of overseeing them and bring some value added products as well. A novel eco-biotechnological strategy employs metabolically diverse bacteria, which ensures higher reproducibility and economics. In this article, we have opined, which organisms and what bioproducts should be the focus, while exploiting glycerol as feed. PMID:27570302

  8. Prospects of biodiesel production from microalgae in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shakeel A.; Hussain, Mir Z.; Prasad, S. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rashmi; Banerjee, U.C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Biotechnology), National Institute of Pharmaceutical and Education Research (NIPER), Sector 67, Phase X, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali 160062, Punjab (India)

    2009-12-15

    Energy is essential and vital for development, and the global economy literally runs on energy. The use of fossil fuels as energy is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and also due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment. Renewable and carbon neutral biodiesel are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel demand is constantly increasing as the reservoir of fossil fuel are depleting. Unfortunately biodiesel produced from oil crop, waste cooking oil and animal fats are not able to replace fossil fuel. The viability of the first generation biofuels production is however questionable because of the conflict with food supply. Production of biodiesel using microalgae biomass appears to be a viable alternative. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms which convert sunlight, water and CO{sub 2} to sugars, from which macromolecules, such as lipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be obtained. These TAGs are the promising and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgal biorefinery approach can be used to reduce the cost of making microalgal biodiesel. Microalgal-based carbon sequestration technologies cover the cost of carbon capture and sequestration. The present paper is an attempt to review the potential of microalgal biodiesel in comparison to the agricultural crops and its prospects in India. (author)

  9. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  10. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:20954390

  11. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  12. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  14. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Husnawan, M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala, Jl. S. Abd. Rauf No. 7, Darussalam - Banda Aceh (Indonesia)

    2011-01-15

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  15. Assessment of boundary lubrication in biodiesels by nanotribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale measurements using atomic force microscopy are performed in order to scrutinize the friction phenomena observed in microscale ball-on-disc tribological tests under (boundary lubrication) BL regime. Two reference biodiesels, one derived from a vegetable source (soybean) and the other from animal fat, are compared. A linear dependence of the friction coefficient (μ) with the Stribeck parameter (S = viscosity × velocity/load) is observed: μ = 0.11 − 26.54 × S for the animal fat and μ = 0.12 − 51.56 × S for the soybean biodiesel. The nanotribological tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction force in the BL regime that is associated to the intrinsic characteristics of the biodiesels, the respective friction coefficients being μ = 0.0206 for the animal fat and μ = 0.0233 for the soybean biodiesel. The better lubricity of the animal fat biodiesel compared to the soybean observed in microscale is attributed to the presence of sulfur and to the higher amount of mono- and di-glycerides contaminants in it. The polarity and/or chemical affinity of the respective sulfur and OH groups facilitate them to reacting with the steel surfaces during the rubbing action. At nanoscale level, the same ranking in friction is observed among the biodiesels, being that here the friction phenomena are attributed to the cohesive forces other than those related to viscosity. - Highlights: • The frictional behavior of standard reference biodiesels is studied. • Nanotribology tests help scrutinizing microscale friction in boundary lubrication. • AFM tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction in the BL regime. • Animal fat biodiesel promotes lower and more stable friction than soybean biodiesel

  16. Combustion of biodiesel in a large-scale laboratory furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion tests in a large-scale laboratory furnace were carried out to assess the feasibility of using biodiesel as a fuel in industrial furnaces. For comparison purposes, petroleum-based diesel was also used as a fuel. Initially, the performance of the commercial air-assisted atomizer used in the combustion tests was scrutinized under non-reacting conditions. Subsequently, flue gas data, including PM (particulate matter), were obtained for various flame conditions to quantify the effects of the atomization quality and excess air on combustion performance. The combustion data was complemented with in-flame temperature measurements for two representative furnace operating conditions. The results reveal that (i) CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel combustion are rather similar and not affected by the atomization quality; (ii) NOx emissions increase slightly as spray quality improves for both liquid fuels, but NOx emissions from biodiesel combustion are always lower than those from diesel combustion; (iii) CO emissions decrease rapidly for both liquid fuels as the excess air level increases up to an O2 concentration in the flue gas of 2%, beyond which they remain unchanged; (iv) NOx emissions increase with an increase in the excess air level for both liquid fuels; (v) the quality of the atomization has a significant impact on PM emissions, with the diesel combustion yielding significantly higher PM emissions than biodiesel combustion; and (vi) diesel combustion originates PM with elements such as Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel combustion produces PM with elements such as Ca, Mg and Fe. - Highlights: • CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel tested are similar. • NOx emissions from biodiesel tested are lower than those from diesel tested. • Diesel tested yields significantly higher PM (particulate matter) emissions than biodiesel tested. • Diesel tested originates PM with Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel tested produces PM with Ca, Mg and Fe

  17. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  18. ANALYSIS OF NOME (NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER) FOR BIODIESEL GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    P Lakshmi Kandan*, R Magendra Varma

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel derived from the neem oil has been proved as an alternative fuel sources. Since neem is most common edible and medicinal plant could be grown at any places in India, it was selected for the biodiesel purpose. Selected grades of neem seeds are collected and they are dried for some time. Dried seeds are crushed and the oil was extracted in the oil mill. Collected oil was tested to know their various properties. Since it was found to be more suitable for biodiesel then it was trans-est...

  19. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Cunha, Michele Espinosa; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Almeida, Suelen Rodrigues; Caramao, Elina Bastos [Chemistry Institute/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS - Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacques, Rosangela Assis [Federal University of Pelotas/Federal University of Pampa (UFPel/UNIPAMPA-Bage) (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves [Department of Organic Chemistry (DQO), Chemistry Institute (IQ), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitario, s/n - Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas/RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality and also with a good conversion rate. The process is possible but the economical viability must be improved by recovering methanol and glycerin. The obtained results have been used for industrial scale up of the process. (author)

  20. Cynara cardunculus as an alternative crop for biodiesel production.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualino, Jorgelina Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    El biodiesel es un combustible de origen renovable que se obtiene a partir de aceites vegetales ygrasas animales y posee propiedades similares a las del gasoil. Se produce mediante latransesterificación de los triglicéridos con un alcohol de cadena corta, en presencia de uncatalizador, obteniendo biodiesel y glicerol en dos fases separadas. Los aceites más utilizados en laproducción de biodiesel son los de soja, colza, girasol y palma, aunque existen alternativas comolos aceites de fritura re...

  1. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  2. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  3. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, G. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica; Tinaut, F.V.; Perez, C. [Universidad de Valladolid (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica; Briceno, Y.; Castano, V.; Ramirez, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Automocion, Valladolid (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels. (author)

  4. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass, such...... that exist for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are...

  5. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  6. Biodiesel production through transesterification over natural calciums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Nunthasanti, Pramwit; Tanachai, Sithikorn; Bunyakiat, Kunchana [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) with methanol over various natural calciums, including limestone calcite, cuttlebone, dolomite, hydroxyapatite, and dicalcium phosphate, has been investigated at 60 C and 1 atm. The study showed that dolomite, mainly consisting of CaCO{sub 3} and MgCO{sub 3}, is the most active catalyst. The calcination temperature largely affected the physicochemical properties, as evidenced by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, TGA, SEM and XRD, and the transesterification performance of the resultant catalysts. It was found that the calcination of dolomite at 800 C resulted in a highly active mixed oxide. CaO was suggested to be the catalytically active site responsible for the methyl ester formation. Under the suitable reaction conditions, the amount of dolomite calcined at 800 C = 6 wt.% based on the weight of oil, the methanol/oil molar ratio = 30, and the reaction time = 3 h, the methyl ester content of 98.0% can be achieved. The calcined dolomite can be reused many times. The analyses of some important fuel properties indicated that the biodiesel produced had the properties that meet the standard of biodiesel and diesel fuel issued by the Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy, Thailand. (author)

  7. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  8. Digital image-based classification of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Almeida, Valber Elias; Araújo, Thomas Souto Policarpo; Melo, Jessica Priscila; Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Véras, Germano

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive methodology based on digital images and pattern recognition techniques for classification of biodiesel according to oil type (cottonseed, sunflower, corn, or soybean). For this, differing color histograms in RGB (extracted from digital images), HSI, Grayscale channels, and their combinations were used as analytical information, which was then statistically evaluated using Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), and variable selection using the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA). Despite good performances by the SIMCA and PLS-DA classification models, SPA-LDA provided better results (up to 95% for all approaches) in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. The variables selected Successive Projections Algorithm clearly contained the information necessary for biodiesel type classification. This is important since a product may exhibit different properties, depending on the feedstock used. Such variations directly influence the quality, and consequently the price. Moreover, intrinsic advantages such as quick analysis, requiring no reagents, and a noteworthy reduction (the avoidance of chemical characterization) of waste generation, all contribute towards the primary objective of green chemistry. PMID:25882407

  9. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE OVER HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Tuncer; E. S. Umdu; E. Kursat; G. Yilmaz; E. Seker [Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Guelbahce Campus, Izmir (Turkey); Y. Durmaz; S. Gokpinar [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Aquaculture, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this study is to produce biodiesel from yellow green algae (Nannochloropsis oculata) by using heterogeneous catalysts. Nannochloropsis oculata was preferred due to its high triglyceride content. N. oculata were grown in a batch culture using a flat plate type photobioreactor. After reaching the stationary phase, the algae were harvested, centrifuged and vacuum dried. Its lipid was extracted by using n-hexane. Finally, lipid-hexane mixture was subjected to the transesterification at 50 C using methanol and alumina supported CaO and MgO catalysts. We found that CaO nano-crystals were obtained on 80 wt.% CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, hence resulting in a high CaO dispersion. Our activity results show that the biodiesel yield obtained using CaO and MgO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts was a factor of two higher than that obtained with NaOH catalyst under the same reaction condition.

  10. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  11. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmer

  12. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  13. Uso da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC×GC) na caracterização de misturas biodiesel/diesel: aplicação ao biodiesel de sebo bovino

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Silvana A Moraes; Claudia A Zini; Carolina B Gomes; Janaína H Bortoluzzi; Carin von Mühlen; Elina B. CARAMÃO

    2011-01-01

    The growth of biodiesel market and the implementation of regulations related to biodiesel production and biodiesel/diesel blending has encouraged the development of appropriate analytical methods to control the composition of this type of mixture. In this study, an evaluation of the potential of GC×GC for the characterization of samples of beef tallow biodiesel and the composition of blends of biodiesel/diesel is presented. The methodology was applied to beef tallow biodiesel and its mixtures...

  14. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  15. A global comparison of national biodiesel production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matt; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a consistent, national-level evaluation of potential biodiesel volumes and prices, replicated across 226 countries, territories, and protectorates. Utilizing all commercially exported lipid feedstocks from existing agricultural lands, we compare the upper-limit potential for expanded biodiesel production in terms of absolute biodiesel volumes, profitable potential from biodiesel exports, and potential from expanded vegetable oil production through agricultural yield increases. Country findings are compared across a variety of economic, energy, and environmental metrics. Our results show an upper-limit worldwide volume potential of 51 billion liters from 119 countries; 47 billion of which could be produced profitably at today's import prices. Also significant production gains are possible through increasing agricultural yields: a 12-fold increase over existing potential, primarily hinging on better management of tropical oilseed varietals. PMID:18186324

  16. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  18. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. (NREL); Camobreco, V. (Ecobalance); Duffield, J. (USDA); Shapouri, H. (USDA); Graboski, M. (CIFER); Tyson, K. S. (NREL Project Manager)

    2000-04-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  19. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  20. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 oC, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature.

  1. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi;

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  2. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  3. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafrallah, Touria; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation...... of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having...... on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal....

  4. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  5. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  6. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  7. Application of thermal lens technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of biodiesel blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Noor, A. S. M.; Mehdipour, Lotf Ali; Noura, Amin; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2015-04-01

    Thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel blends was measured using a thermal lens double beam setup. Palm biodiesel blends were prepared from a mixture of normal palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel with the percentage of the mixture set in the range of 10-90 %. The thermal diffusivity of the palm biodiesel blends consistently increased by increasing the concentration of palm biodiesel from 0.784 × 10-7 to 1.056 × 10-7 m2/s and average of measurement limitation was 0.629 × 10-7 m2/s. Hence, thermal lens technique is suitable and accurate to assess the thermal diffusivity of palm biodiesel.

  8. An evaluation of marine based biodiesel using GHGenius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-25

    A project was conducted to add the commercial harvesting of fish and its reduction to proteins and oils to GHGenius, a model developed to analyze the emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of traditional and alternative transportation fuels. The project also added the generic production of biodiesel from marine oils to GHGenius to compare results to a specific Canadian operation, Ocean Nutrition, which produces marine oil biodiesel. A biodiesel pathway was added to the model, utilizing marine oils as feedstock. The GHGenius was modified and expanded to allow the use of ethanol rather than methanol in the biodiesel production system. Another objective of the project was to address allocation issues raised by the co-production of biodiesel and the high value Omega-3 oils produced in the Ocean Nutrition process. A new pathway was fully integrated and used to analyze a number of cases including: a generic marine biodiesel case; the ocean nutrition case with system boundary conditions; and a more narrow interpretation of the Ocean Nutrition situation, treating oil from Omega 3 production as a by-product. Results indicated that emission benefits from the specific Ocean Nutrition case were about 65 per cent of the benefits of soy biodiesel because of the reduced co-product credit and the use of ethanol rather than methanol. The narrower view of the system boundary for the Ocean Nutrition process resulted in GHG emission reductions similar to soy biodiesel. Challenges to the development of marine biodiesel include the wide variations in harvesting practices and efficiencies of fisheries; different oil yields; and difficulties in arriving at a case that models the global fishery. It was concluded that governments should be careful about encouraging the development of marine based biodiesel. There was little net gain in the availability of diesel fuel as a result of the production and use of marine based biodiesel. Other considerations were that

  9. TECHNICAL REPORT 1: ANALYZING THE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    DE BONI, Luis Alcides Brandini; GOLDANI, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The gradual increase in the productive chain of Biodiesel in Brazil comes requiring professionals enabled to its expansion and improvements. This fact is related to constants and increase demands of the biofuels, to attempt the percentages of mixture to diesel oil which will increase in the next years. In this way, this work compels comments of Tchê Química Group researchers, done in recent years, regarding the commercialized synthetic fuels fluid production like biodiesel. This material look...

  10. Marketing Risk Management of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Agroindustry

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Bagus Udayana

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is fuel generates from vegetable oils that have properties similar to diesel oil. The advantages of biodiesel compared to diesel is an environmentally friendly fuel because it produces much lower emissions (sulfur free, low smoke number) in accordance with global issues, higher cetane number (> 57) so that the combustion efficiency is better than diesel, lubrication properties of the piston engine; biodegradable, a renewable energy because it is made from natural materials, and i...

  11. Modeling of a membrane bioreactor for production of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the use of an enzymatic catalyst lipase, produced by Candida Antarctica a membrane bioreactor was modeled and simulated to obtain biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol. A conversion of 0.97 was reached for a residence time of 10.64 min. The membrane bioreactor was compared to a CSTR reactor, where a conversion of 0.76 was obtained. It was concluded that the membrane bioreactor is a better way of producing biodiesel than the CSTR

  12. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Kolesárová; Miroslav Hutňan; Igor Bodík; Viera Špalková

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple o...

  13. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    OpenAIRE

    ODAGIU Antonia; I. OROIAN; Sonia SANĂ; VÂRBAN D. I.; P. BURDUHOS

    2010-01-01

    Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fu...

  14. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production:A Thermodynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Güzel, Günduz

    2012-01-01

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biod...

  15. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao; Nguyen Thanh Tin; Bui Xuan Thanh

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan).  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol) with ...

  16. Biodiesel de microalgas: avanços e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Custódio Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the procedures used to obtain biomass.

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  18. Microalgae downstream processing and economical approaches of biodiesel producton processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Sergio Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae oil has been identified as a reliable resource for biodiesel production due to its high lipid productivity and potential cultivation in non-fertile locations. However, high scale production of microalgae based biodiesel depends on the optimization of the entire process to be economically feasible. The present work combine the optimization of microalgae downstream processes with computational tools for the modeling of different scenarios of the harvesting, oil extraction and transes...

  19. Biodiesel de microalgas: avanços e desafios

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Custódio Franco; Ivon Pinheiro Lôbo; Rosenira Serpa da Cruz; Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa Teixeira; José Adolfo de Almeida Neto; Rafael Silva Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from...

  20. High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Peer M.; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Holger Schuhmann

    2012-01-01

    Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Ma...

  1. Moving towards a Competitive Fully Enzymatic Biodiesel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cesarini; F. I. Javier Pastor; Per M. Nielsen; Pilar Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis can solve several problems posed by the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification but it has the drawback of being too expensive to be considered competitive. Costs can be reduced by lipase improvement, use of unrefined oils, evaluation of soluble/immobilized lipase preparations, and by combination of phospholipases with a soluble lipase for biodiesel production in a single step. As shown here, convenient natural tools have been developed that allow synthesis of hi...

  2. Moving towards a Competitive Fully Enzymatic Biodiesel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cesarini; F. I. Javier Pastor; Per M. Nielsen; Pilar Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis can solve several problems posed by the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification but it has the drawback of being too expensive to be considered competitive. Costs can be reduced by lipase improvement, use of unrefined oils, evaluation of soluble/immobilized lipase preparations, and by combination of phospholipases with a soluble lipase for biodiesel production in a single step. As shown here, convenient natural tools have been developed that allow synthesis of hig...

  3. Use of ionic liquids in biodiesel production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREANI, L; Rocha, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of the use of ionic liquids as catalysts in the biodiesel production field, describing some studies already published in the literature on this theme. Ionic liquids are regarded as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry, with several uses in different commercial segments. However only a few publications involving this topic can be found in the literature addressing the manufacture of biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats. Through the...

  4. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OIL USING HYDRODINAMIC CAVITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Dani Supardan; Satriana; Mahlinda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study biodiesel production from low cost feedstock of waste cooking oil (WCO) using hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus. A two-step processes esterification process and transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodiesel from WCO is presented. The first step is acid-catalyzed esteri-fication process for reducing free fatty acid (FFA) content of WCO and followed by base-catalyzed transesterification process for converting WCO ...

  5. Biodiesel production from neem oil –an alternate approach

    OpenAIRE

    B. Karunanithi; Kelmy Thomas Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this study, neem oil which is one of the abundant non-edible oils in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and bangladesh is used for biodiesel production. The conventional 2-step transesterification production of biodiesel using sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts is carried out. The optimum process parameters like reaction time, temperature, catalyst loading and methanol-oil molar ratio were investigated with respect to maximum yield. A maximum yield of 88% biodie...

  6. Biodiesel development from high free fatty acid Punnakka oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraju A.; Ashok Kumar T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Punnakka oil, non-edible oil available in India, was esterified to produce biodiesel. The procedure involves a two stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification. The oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 19.8%. The acid value of the oil was reduced by acid esterification. The product from this stage was subjected to alkaline esterification to produce biodiesel. The effects of important parameters like methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentr...

  7. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Jain, M.P. Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essenti...

  8. Process intensification technologies for biodiesel production reactive separation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, A A

    2014-01-01

    This book is among the first to address the novel process intensification technologies for biodiesel production, in particular the integrated reactive separations. It provides a comprehensive overview illustrated with many industrially relevant examples of novel reactive separation processes used in the production of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters): reactive distillation, reactive absorption, reactive extraction, membrane reactors, and centrifugal contact separators. Readers will also learn about the working principles, design and control of integrated processes, while also getting a

  9. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rafiqul Islam; K. Chris Watts; Chhetri, Arjun B.

    2008-01-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was ...

  10. A skeletal mechanism for biodiesel blend surrogates combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A skeletal biodiesel reaction mechanism with 112 species was constructed. • The developed mechanism contains the CO, NOx and soot formation kinetics. • It was well validated against detailed reaction mechanism and experimental results. • The mechanism is suitable to simulate biodiesel, diesel and their blend fuels. - Abstract: A tri-component skeletal reaction mechanism consisting of methyl decanoate, methyl-9-decenoate, and n-heptane was developed for biodiesel combustion in diesel engine. It comprises 112 species participating in 498 reactions with the CO, NOx and soot formation mechanisms embedded. In this study, a detailed tri-component biodiesel mechanism was used as the start of mechanism reduction and the reduced mechanism was combined with a previously developed skeletal reaction mechanism for n-heptane to integrate the soot formation kinetics. A combined mechanism reduction strategy including the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), peak concentration analysis, isomer lumping, unimportant reactions elimination and reaction rate adjustment methods was employed. The reduction process for biodiesel was performed over a range of initial conditions covering the pressures from 1 to 100 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and temperatures from 700 to 1800 K, whereas for n-heptane, ignition delay predictions were compared against 17 shock tube experimental conditions. Extensive validations were performed for the developed skeletal reaction mechanism with 0-D ignition delay testing and 3-D engine simulations. The results indicated that the developed mechanism was able to accurately predict the ignition delay timings of n-heptane and biodiesel, and it could be integrated into 3-D engine simulations to predict the combustion characteristics of biodiesel. As such, the developed 112-species skeletal mechanism can accurately mimic the significant reaction pathways of the detailed reaction mechanism

  11. The engine tests of biodiesel from used frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly and a renewable alternative diesel fuel that can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. Used frying oil is one of the raw materials which can be used for biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of used frying oil originated from biodiesel on engine performance and emissions in a Fiat Doblo 1.9 DS, four-cylinder, four-stroke, 46 kW power capacity diesel engine. Comparative measurements with no. 2 diesel fuel were conducted on both engine power and emission characteristics of each of the fuel used. Biodiesel, when compared to no. 2 diesel fuel, showed reduction in wheel force over 3.35% and it also reduced the wheel power by over 2.03%. In the acceleration tests, 40-100 km/h and 60-100 km/h acceleration periods were measured and a reduction of 7.32% and 8.78% were observed, respectively. According to emission tests, as a result of biodiesel consumption, a reduction of 8.59% in CO emission and an increase of 2.62% were observed in CO2 emission. Also, NOx emissions increased by 5.03% as a result of biodiesel consumption. HC emissions and particulate emissions have a significant effect on air pollution. As a result of biodiesel usage, HC and particulate emissions decreased by 30.66% and 63.33%, respectively. When the fuel consumption amounts are compared, it was observed that biodiesel consumption was 2.43% less than that of no. 2 diesel fuel. (Author)

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabia M.; Correa, Paulo C.; Martins, Marcio A.; Santos, Silmara B.; Damian, Amanda D. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: copace@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, syllmara@vicosa.ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP). Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol. The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable␣oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  14. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A MINLP model for designing sustainable biodiesel supply network is developed. • Emergy sustainability index is used as the objective to be maximized. • Multiple alternatives in each stage of biodiesel supply network are considered. • Life cycle perspective is incorporated in the design of biodiesel supply network. - Abstract: Sustainability is an important and difficult consideration for the stakeholders/decision-makers when planning a biofuel supply network. In this paper, a Mixed-Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) model was developed with the aim to help the stakeholders/decision-maker to select the most sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains

  15. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  16. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  17. Biodiesel production from neem oil –an alternate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Karunanithi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, neem oil which is one of the abundant non-edible oils in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and bangladesh is used for biodiesel production. The conventional 2-step transesterification production of biodiesel using sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts is carried out. The optimum process parameters like reaction time, temperature, catalyst loading and methanol-oil molar ratio were investigated with respect to maximum yield. A maximum yield of 88% biodiesel is obtained via this method. A novel technique to produce biodiesel via complete hydrolysis followed by acid esterification is developed. Optimum reaction conditions were found to be 100ml 0.5N sulphuric acid loading, reaction temperature of 40ºC and reaction time of 2 hours. This resulted in a maximum FFA of 82%. Then acid esterification was carried out at the following reaction conditions of 0.55:1 v/v methanol-oil-ratio, 0.5% v/v H2SO4 acid catalyst loading, 50˚C and 4 hours reaction time. A maximum biodiesel yield of 92% was obtained by this method. The viscosity of biodiesel produced by this method as well as the other physicochemical properties, were found to be in compliance with international standard.

  18. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  19. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  20. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  1. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO2 emissions practically remain constants

  2. Characteristics of paddy operations with biodiesel fuelled tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S.H.; Kim, C.K.; Im, D.H.; Kim, H.J.; Chung, S.C. [National Academy of Agricultural Science, Seodundong, Suwon (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Daedong Industrial Co., Chang Nyong-Kun, Kyungnam (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which biofuels were tested for their power and competitiveness in various paddy operations, such as plowing and rotary tilling of paddy fields. The study considered the use of diesel fuel as well as 20 per cent biodiesel (BD20) and 100 per cent biodiesel (BD100) as an alternative fuel for tractors. Ignition problems or abrupt stopping were not monitored during operations of plowing, rotary tilling and travelling on the road. According to tractor power take-off (PTO) test codes, there was no considerable power difference between the 3 fuels. However, fuel consumption rates were quite different between the biodiesels and diesel fuel in the paddy works. Fuel consumption increased when biodiesel content increased. Approximately 35 to 40 per cent more fuel was needed for rotary tilling operations than plowing operations. Within the operations, the maximum difference occurred during the rotary tilling of wet paddy fields. This difference was as high as 20 per cent , between BD100 and diesel fuel. In terms of exhaust gases, more carbon dioxide was discharged from diesel fuel than biodiesels, but more nitrous oxide was discharged with biodiesels. It was difficult to differentiate quantities of carbon monoxide between the 3 different fuels.

  3. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  4. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  5. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  6. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  7. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  8. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota. PMID:23726006

  9. Two novel approaches used to produce biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Chen, F. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Wang, X. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Biochemistry

    2010-07-01

    The cost of feedstock has a significant effect of the economic viability of biodiesel production. The paper discussed a preliminary study looking at 2 approaches used to economically produce biodiesel, one from waste cooking oil (WCO) and the other from flaked cottonseed. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis was used to produce biodiesel from WCO, and in situ transesterification was used to produce biodiesel from the flaked cottonseed. The use of WCO solves the problem of waste disposal and also generates an environmentally benign fuel while at the same time lowering the costs involved in producing biodiesel. Ultrasonification has proven to be an efficient, low-cost, energy saving means of producing biodiesel. In situ transesterification makes solvent extraction and oil cleanup prior to biodiesel synthesis unnecessary, thereby simplifying the reaction steps. Based on the results of gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography tests, both approaches are feasible for the production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Biodegradability of Biodiesel obtained by Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Y. P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources. No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of crude oil-based diesel. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbon species when biodiesel fuels were used. In the present work, biodiesel is produced by both conventional and non-conventional methods to determine the biodegradability effect using microorganisms obtained from soil collected from the vicinity of a petrol bunk. Also, effect on biodegradability of the biodiesel is studied by the addition of additives and on biodiesel blends especially Honge oil. The distinct advantage of using the oil was that it was cheaper and highly economical in the long run

  11. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  12. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  13. Relationships among the physical properties of biodiesel and engine fuel system design requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Lakshmi Narayana Rao, A.S. Ramadhas, N. Nallusamy, P.Sakthivel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel can be used in diesel engines as neat or blended with diesel. The physio-chemical properties of fuel are important in design of fuel system for compression ignition engines run on diesel, biodiesel or biodiesel blends. Biodiesel (B100 standards specify the limit values of these properties for blending with diesel. However, there are variations in the properties of biodiesel. The properties of biodiesel vary depending on the feedstock, vegetable oil processing, production methods and degree of purification. The objective of this study is to estimate the mathematical relationships between viscosity, density, heating values and flash point among various biodiesel samples. There is a high regression between various properties of biodiesel and the relationships between them are observed to be considerably regular.

  14. Effects of NOx-inhibitor agent on fuel properties of three-phase biodiesel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is one of the more promising alternative clean fuels to fossil fuel, which can reduce the emissions of fossil fuel burning, and possibly resolve the energy crisis caused by the exhaustion of petroleum resources in the near future. The burning of biodiesel emits much less gaseous emissions and particulate matter primarily because of its dominant combustion efficiency. However, the high oxygen content in biodiesel not only promotes the burning process but also enhances NOx formation when biodiesel is used as fuel. Biodiesel emulsion and the additive of NOx-inhibitor agent are considered to reduce levels of NOx emissions in this experimental study. The biodiesel was produced by transesterification reaction accompanied with peroxidation process. A three-phase biodiesel emulsion of oil-in water drops-in oil (O/W/O) and an O/W/O biodiesel emulsion containing aqueous ammonia were prepared afterwards. The effect of the existence of NOx-inhibitor agent on the fuel properties and the emulsion characteristics of the O/W/O biodiesel emulsions were investigated. The experimental results show that the burning of the O/W/O biodiesel emulsion and the O/W/O biodiesel emulsion containing aqueous ammonia had larger fraction of fuel burnt and thus larger heat release than the neat biodiesel if water content is not considered for the calculation of heating value. The addition of aqueous ammonia within the dispersed phase of the O/W/O biodiesel emulsion appeared to deteriorate the emulsification characteristics. A smaller quantity of emulsion and greater kinematic viscosity were formed while a larger carbon residue and actual reaction-heat release also appeared for this O/W/O biodiesel emulsion. Aqueous ammonia in the O/W/O biodiesel emulsion produces a higher pH value as well. In addition, the number as well as the volumetric fraction of the dispersed water droplets is reduced for the O/W/O biodiesel emulsion that contains aqueous ammonia. (author)

  15. Biodiesel production by microalgae and macroalgae from north littoral portuguese coast

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, André; Castro, Joana Daniela Fernandes de; Vilarinho, Cândida; Castro, F.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel. Biodiesel feedstocks derived from microalgae and macroalgae have emerged as one of the most promising alternative sources of lipid for use in biodiesel ...

  16. Chitosan and Its Derivatives Applied in Harvesting Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: An Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyi Chen; Liu Zhao; Yun Qi; Yuan-Lu Cui

    2014-01-01

    Although oil-accumulating microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, large-scale biodiesel production is not yet economically feasible. As harvesting accounts for an important part of total production cost, mass production of microalgae biodiesel requires an efficient low-energy harvesting strategy so as to make biodiesel production economically attractive. Chitosan has emerged as a favorable flocculating agent in harvesting of microalgae. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  17. Dynamics of Peroxy and Alkenyl Radicals Undergoing Competing Rearrangements in Biodiesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, Theodore S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Biodiesel fuel is increasingly being used worldwide. Although we have a fair understanding of the molecular details of the chemistry of peroxy radicals derived from alkanes, biodiesel fuels contain ester and olefin groups which significantly impact the thermodynamics and kinetics of biodiesel ignition. The broader goal of this research is to carry out systematic computational studies of the elementary kinetics of the chemistry of ROO•, QOOH and •OOQOOH compounds that are models for biodiesel ignition.

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Biodiesel Deposits Formed on a Hot Metal Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Westberg, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the formation of deposits from thermally degraded biodiesel on a hot metal surface under the influence of sodium or copper contaminations. Biodiesel or Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) is a widely utilized biofuel with the potential to replace fossil fuels, however, issues regarding the thermal and oxidative stability prevent the progress of biodiesel for utilization as vehicle fuel. The thermal degradation of biodiesel causes formation of deposits often occurr...

  19. Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Avocado (Persea gratissima) Seed Oil Using Base Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Rachimoellah; Dyah Ayu Resti; Ali Zibbeni; I Wayan Susila

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is produced through a chemical process called transesterification, which refers to a catalysed chemical reaction involving vegetable oil and alcohol to yield fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerol as a by product. Biodiesel is petroleum substitution in which its quantity continually decreases due to increasing of demand. Plenty of plants could be used as raw material for biodiesel, for example is avocado (Persea gratissima) seed. This is a waste that being thrown out after...

  20. Les biocarburants en Argentine : facteurs et enjeux de la production de biodiesel de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Guibert Martine; Carrizo Silvina Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, Argentina has sanctioned a national law to regulate biofuel production and consumption. Since 2007, soybean actors started producing biodiesel for international market -especially to Europe- and the country quickly became the major biodiesel exporter. In 2010, around twenty processing units started supplying the domestic market. Diesel sold in Argentina contained 5% of biodiesel. The obligation to add 5% of biodiesel to diesel has passed to 7% and the goal is to increase this percent...

  1. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kwangdinata; Indah Raya; Muhammad Zakir

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extracti...

  2. Performance and emission study on waste cooking oil biodiesel and distillate blends for microturbine application

    OpenAIRE

    Ee Sann Tan; Kumaran Palanisamy; Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia; Kunio Yoshikawa

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is defined as domestic renewable energy resource, which can be derived from natural oils through the transesterification. The implementation of biodiesel is essential due to the energy depletion crisis and the impact on exacerbating environment caused by rapid consumption of conventional diesel. Waste cooking oil (WCO) was used as the raw material to produce biodiesel in order to reduce wastes polluting the environment. This paper studies the technical potential of WCO biodiesel to ...

  3. Biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass--prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Abu

    2012-11-01

    Biodiesel can be a potential alternative to petroleum diesel, but its high production cost has impeded its commercialization in most parts of the world. One of the main drivers for the generation and use of biodiesel is energy security, because this fuel can be produced from locally available resources, thereby reducing the dependence on imported oil. Many countries are now trying to produce biodiesel from plant or vegetable oils. However, the consumption of large amounts of vegetable oils for biodiesel production could result in a shortage in edible oils and cause food prices to soar. Alternatively, the use of animal fat, used frying oils, and waste oils from restaurants as feedstock could be a good strategy to reduce the cost. However, these limited resources might not meet the increasing demand for clean, renewable fuels. Therefore, recent research has been focused the use of residual materials as renewable feedstock in order to lower the cost of producing biodiesel. Microbial oils or single cell oils (SCOs), produced by oleaginous microorganisms have been studied as promising alternatives to vegetable or seed oils. Various types of agro-industrial residues have been suggested as prospective nutritional sources for microbial cultures. Since the most abundant residue from agricultural crops is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB), this byproduct has been given top-priority consideration as a source of biomass for producing biodiesel. But the biological transformation of lignocellulosic materials is complicated due to their crystalline structure. So, pretreatment is required before they can be converted into fermentable sugar. This article compares and scrutinizes the extent to which various microbes can accumulate high levels of lipids as functions of the starting materials and the fermentation conditions. Also, the obstacles associated with the use of LCB are described, along with a potentially viable approach for overcoming the obstacles that currently preclude the

  4. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Wu, Xuan; Leung, M.K.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Biodiesel is a low-emissions diesel substitute fuel made from renewable resources and waste lipid. The most common way to produce biodiesel is through transesterification, especially alkali-catalyzed transesterification. When the raw materials (oils or fats) have a high percentage of free fatty acids or water, the alkali catalyst will react with the free fatty acids to form soaps. The water can hydrolyze the triglycerides into diglycerides and form more free fatty acids. Both of the above reactions are undesirable and reduce the yield of the biodiesel product. In this situation, the acidic materials should be pre-treated to inhibit the saponification reaction. This paper reviews the different approaches of reducing free fatty acids in the raw oil and refinement of crude biodiesel that are adopted in the industry. The main factors affecting the yield of biodiesel, i.e. alcohol quantity, reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration, are discussed. This paper also described other new processes of biodiesel production. For instance, the Biox co-solvent process converts triglycerides to esters through the selection of inert co-solvents that generates a one-phase oil-rich system. The non-catalytic supercritical methanol process is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and lesser purification steps but requires high temperature and pressure. For the in situ biodiesel process, the oilseeds are treated directly with methanol in which the catalyst has been preciously dissolved at ambient temperatures and pressure to perform the transesterification of oils in the oilseeds. This process, however, cannot handle waste cooking oils and animal fats. (author)

  5. Prediction of class membership of biodiesels using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zylia; Milina, Rumyana; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, serious scientific and technological attention is paid to creation of alternative energy sources, including biofuels. The assessment of the quality of the biofuels produced and of the raw materials needed for the production technology is an important scientific challenge. One of the major sources for biodiesel production is plant oils material (sunflower, rapeseed, palm, soya etc.). Since plants are complex system from the biota it is not easy to find specific chemical components responsible for their ability to serve as biodiesels. The characterization and classification of plant sources as biofuel material could be reliably estimated only by the use of multivariate statistical approaches (chemometrics). The chemometric expertise makes it possible not only to classify different biofuel sources into similarity classes but also to predict the membership of unknown by origin chemically analyzed samples to already existing classes. The present study deals with the prediction of the class membership of several unknown by origin samples, which are included in a large data set with FAME profiles of biodiesel plant sources. Using a data set from chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profiles (FAME) of different plant biodiesel sources and applying the chemometric technique know as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS - DA) a pattern recognition procedure is developed to: I. Model classes of similarity of biodiesel plant sources using their FAME profiles not taking into account the samples with unknown origin; II. Classify correctly the samples with unknown origin to the previously defined classes of biodiesel sources (palm oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and maize oil). The prediction is successfully achieved for all samples with previously unknown origin. This pattern recognition approach is applied for the first time in the field of biodiesel classification and modeling tasks. PMID:25438133

  6. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  7. Meta-Analysis of Soybean-based Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Bailey, Lisa M; Hengen, Tyler J; Clay, David E; Stone, James J

    2015-07-01

    Biofuel policy changes in the United States have renewed interest in soybean [ (L.) Merr.] biodiesel. Past studies with varying methodologies and functional units can provide valuable information for future work. A meta-analysis of nine peer-reviewed soybean life cycle analysis (LCA) biodiesel studies was conducted on the northern Great Plains in the United States. Results of LCA studies were assimilated into a standardized system boundary and functional units for global warming (GWP), eutrophication (EP), and acidification (AP) potentials using biodiesel conversions from peer-reviewed and government documents. Factors not fully standardized included variations in NO accounting, mid- or end-point impacts, land use change, allocation, and statistical sampling pools. A state-by-state comparison of GWP lower and higher heating values (LHV, HHV) showed differences attributable to variations in spatial sampling and agricultural practices (e.g., tillage, irrigation). The mean GWP of LHV was 21.1 g·CO-eq MJ including outliers, and median EP LHV and AP LHV was 0.019 g·PO-eq MJ and 0.17 g·SO-eq MJ, respectively, using the limited data available. An LCA case study of South Dakota soybean-based biodiesel production resulted in GWP estimates (29 or 31 g·CO-eq MJ; 100% mono alkyl esters [first generation] biodiesel or 100% fatty acid methyl ester [second generation] biodiesel) similar to meta-analysis results (30.1 g·CO-eq MJ). Meta-analysis mean results, including outliers, resemble the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard for soybean biodiesel default value without land use change of 21.25 g·CO-eq MJ. Results were influenced by resource investment differences in water, fertilizer (e.g., type, application), and tillage. Future biofuel LCA studies should include these important factors to better define reasonable energy variations in regional agricultural management practices. PMID:26437085

  8. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  9. Biodiesel Derived from a Feedstock Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous vegetable oils, animal fats or other feedstocks have been investigated for obtaining biodiesel, defined as the mono alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. While biodiesel is competitive with petrodiesel, technical problems facing biodiesel include cold flow and oxidative stability...

  10. Quantitative Investigations of Biodiesel Fuel Using Infrared Spectroscopy: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment for Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P.; Pomeroy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel has gained attention in recent years as a renewable fuel source due to its reduced greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, and it can be produced within the United States. A laboratory experiment designed for students in an upper-division undergraduate laboratory is described to study biodiesel production and biodiesel mixing with…

  11. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 306 - Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuels A Appendix A to Part 306 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER... Part 306—Summary of Labeling Requirements for Biodiesel Fuels (Part 1 of 2) Fuel type Blends of 5 percent or less Blends of more than 5 but not more than 20 percent Header Text Color Biodiesel No...

  12. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  13. Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics And Mineralization Of Six Petrodiesel/Soybean-Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerobic biodegradation kinetics and mineralization of six petrodiesel/soybean-biodiesel blends (B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100), where B100 is 100% biodiesel, were investigated by acclimated cultures. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of biodiesel were found to undergo ...

  14. Low-temperature Flow Properties of Biodiesel/Jet Fuel (BioJet) Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that is made from transesterification of vegetable oil, animal fat or other lipid feedstocks with a simple alcohol such as methanol. Biodiesel may be blended with jet fuel (JP-8) to reduce dependence on petroleum imports and improve ground-level emissions. Biodiesel i...

  15. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%. The HM biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt%. • HM biodiesel satisfied ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards, with the exception of OS. • The transportation safety and cold flow properties of HM biodiesel were excellent. • After treatment with 400 ppm TBHQ, the OS of HM biodiesel satisfied EN 14214. - Abstract: Using inexpensive and high-quality oil feedstock is an effective means to produce low-cost biodiesel. This work investigated the production and fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa (HM). The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%, which is much higher than that of many potential oil plants. With traditional base-catalyzed transesterification, biodiesel was readily prepared from HM seed oil. The biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt% from HM seed oil. Biodiesel derived from HM met all ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications, except for oxidative stability (OS). The OS specifications of the two biodiesel standards were met after treatment of HM biodiesel with 400 ppm tertbutyl hydroquinone. The biodiesel exhibited excellent transportation safety and cold flow properties, with flash point of 153 °C, pour point of −9 °C, and cold filter plugging point of −7 °C

  16. French bio-diesel demand and promoting measures analysis by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The researches presented aim at assessing bio-diesel promoting measures under consideration in France by 2010. This assessment is based on a deep study of French bio-diesel demand. The use of a linear model for optimizing the whole French refining industry costs allow us to take into account the physicochemical characteristics of bio-diesel useful for gas oil blending operation. This researches show that bio-diesel can be incorporated up to 27% blend in volume to diesel fuel without major technical problem. A decomposition of the value allotted to the bio-diesel by French refiners according to its physicochemical characteristics shows that energy content is the most disadvantageous characteristics for bio-diesel incorporation and, up to 17%, density become also constraining. However, the low bio-diesel sulphur content could become interesting from now to 2010. On the basis of this bio-diesel demand analysis, we proceed to an external coupling of an agro-industrial model of bio-diesel supply with the French refining model. Thus, we study the impact of the 2010 French bio-diesel consumption objective on agricultural surface need, the competitiveness of the bio-diesel, the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and the trade balance of the petroleum products. On this basis, we propose a critical analysis of French bio-diesel promoting measures under consideration by 2010. (author)

  17. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M.; Huang, Grace L.; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Biodiesels are methyl esters of fatty acids that are usually produced by base catalyzed transesterification of triacylglyerol with methanol. Some lipase enzymes are effective catalysts for biodiesel synthesis and have many potential advantages over traditional base or acid catalyzed transesterification. Natural lipases are often rapidly inactivated by the high methanol concentrations used for biodiesel synthesis, however, ...

  18. Effects of monoacylglycerols on low-temperature viscosity and cold filter plugging point of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is composed of mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from the transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol. Biodiesel must meet rigorous standard fuel specifications (ASTM D 6751; CEN EN 14214) to be classified as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, biodiesel that...

  19. INNOVATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: A SOLUTION TO THE SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL, AND EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola's STEP students completed over 20 team projects: Developed a business plan for biodiesel production, created the LUC biodiesel website, created the Bio­shorts documentaries, tabled at environmental events, publicized and put on two Biodiesel Forums (2nd one pending,...

  20. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King) SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

    OpenAIRE

    Astrilia Damayanti; Siti Bariroh

    2013-01-01

    Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king). Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikas...

  1. Use of clays for purification of biodiesel; Utilizacao de argilas para purificacao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Andreia Juliana Almeida de; Kruegel, Marlus; Miranda, Joao Paulo; Rossi, Luciano Fernando dos Santos; Costa Neto, Pedro Ramos da, E-mail: pedroneto@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Depts. de Quimica, Biologia e Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the results of the purification of methyl biodiesel, obtained by oxidized soybean oil, using different methods. After the ester separation from the glycerin by decanting, the ester was purified each time with distillation, washing with water and adsorption with bauxite, bentonite and attapulgite. The removal of total contamination, unsaponifiable material, concentrations of free glycerin and soap were analyzed in the purified ester phase. The best result of purification was observed with the use of bentonite and bauxite, in the removal of soap and free glycerin respectively. (author)

  2. Determination of antioxidant content in biodiesel by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Keurison F.; Caires, Anderson R.L. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica Aplicada; Oliveira, Samuel L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Grupo de Optica e Fotonica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel composed by mono-alkyl esters obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats. Due to its chemical structure, biodiesel is highly susceptible to oxidation which leads to formation of insoluble gums and sediments that can block the filter system of fuel injection. Biodiesel made from vegetable oils typically has a small amount of natural antioxidants so that it is necessary to add synthetic antioxidants to enhance its stability and retain their properties for a longer period. The main antioxidants are synthetic phenolic compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) as well as natural antioxidants as tocopherols. The fluorescence spectroscopy has been applied for determination of phenolic compounds in oils. Here, a method based on fluorescence is proposed to quantify the BHA and TBHQ antioxidant concentration in biodiesel produced from sunflower and soybean oils. Soybean and sunflower biodiesel were obtained by transesterification of fatty alcohol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. The reactions were carried out in the molar ratio of 6:1 methanol/oil. After the production and purification, biodiesel samples were stored. Biodiesel samples with BHA and TBHQ concentrations from 1000 to 8000 ppm (m/m) were pre- pared. These samples were diluted in ethanol (95%) in order to measure the fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence and excitation spectra of the solutions were recorded at room temperature using a spectrofluorimeter. The emission spectra were obtained under excitation at about 310nm and fluorescence in the 320-800nm range was evaluated. Biodiesel samples without BHA and TBHQ showed fluorescence band at about 420nm, which can be attributed to tocopherols inherent to the vegetable oils used in the biodiesel production. The addition of BHA and/or TBHQ is responsible for the appearance of a fluorescence band around 330nm. It was verified that the fluorescence

  3. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H2SO4. • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H2SO4) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which are

  4. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  5. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  6. An alternative fuel for urban buses-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Weber, J.A.; Russell, M.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative biodiesel fueling performance and operational data have been collected from urban mass transit buses at Bi-State Development Agency in St. Louis Missouri. A total of 10 vehicles were selected for fueling; 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel engines have been fueled with a 20/80 biodiesel/diesel fuel blend and 5-6V92 TA Detroit Diesel control vehicles have been fueled on petroleum based low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD). The real-world impact of a biodiesel blend on maintenance, reliability, cost, fuel economy and safety compared to LSD will be presented. In addition, engine exhaust emissions data collected by the University of West Virginia Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored mobile emissions laboratory will be presented. Operational data from Bi-State Development Agency is collected by the University of Missouri and quality control procedures are performed prior to placing the data in the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). The AFDC is maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. This effort, which enables transit operators to review a real-world comparison of biodiesel and LSD, has been funded by the National Biodiesel Board with funds provided by the United Soybean Board with national checkoff dollars and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  7. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel–oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel–methanol samples, respectively. (paper)

  8. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakesh Sarin; Meeta Sharma; S. Sinharay; R.K. Malhotra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Faridabad (India). R& amp; D Centre

    2007-07-15

    Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2t abs.

  9. Influence of economical variables on a supercritical biodiesel production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production from supercritical process. • Economical analysis. • Influence of market variables. - Abstract: Biodiesel has becoming more and more relevant in today’s society and economy due to its environmental advantages such as biodegradability, lower CO and CO2 emissions as well as less particulate pollutants. In this work the study of market and economic variables is presented and their effects compared when biodiesel is being produced using a supercritical technology. The production process is based on a supercritical technology with no catalyst and no co-solvent. Price for the raw materials, such as price for the alcohol as well as the oil has been studied. Also, selling price for biodiesel as well as glycerin has been analyzed and compared with prices from other biodiesel production technologies. Economic decisions such as percentage of failure in the production process, investment in research and development, and advertisement have been evaluated; also it has been considered the influence of the tax incentives on the global economy of the production process. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases

  10. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes. PMID:19180600

  11. Preparation and characterization of biodiesel produced from recycled canola oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R.; Austic, G. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The high cost of virgin vegetable oil means that many biodiesel products are not economically competitive. This paper evaluated the feasibility of using recycle canola oil to produce ASTM standard biodiesel. Experiments were conducted to test a 2-step reaction comprised of an acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. The processes were used to reduce the high level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the recycled canola oil. Tests demonstrated that the produced biodiesel met ASTM standards in relation to kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C; acid number; flash point; water and sediment; cold soak filtration tests; oxidation stability; and free and total glycerin. The glycerol byproducts produced during the process were also characterized. Results of the study indicated that the recycled canola oil can be used as a raw feedstock for biodiesel production. It was concluded that the purification and sale of the glycerol byproduct will increase the overall profitability of the biodiesel production process. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  13. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to producecavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system forimproving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was usedunder constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound canreduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describecorrelation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 –7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  14. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  15. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Font de Mora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%–1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.

  16. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal effects of direct sonication on transesterification reaction were studied. • Ultrasonics may effectively transesterify waste oils without external heating. • Intense mixing with temperature rise completes transesterification instantly. • Plug flow process reactor design with ultrasound may prove energy efficient. • Process optimization and biodiesel conversion analysis was presented. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of direct sonication in conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Waste cooking oils may cause environmental hazards if not disposed properly. However, waste cooking oils can serve as low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Ultrasonics, a non-conventional process technique, was applied to directly convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel in a single step. Ultrasonics transesterify waste cooking oils very efficiently due to increased mass/heat transfer phenomena and specific thermal/athermal effects at molecular levels. Thus, energy and chemical consumption in the overall process is greatly reduced compared to conventional biodiesel processes. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with effects of different ultrasonic, energy intensities and energy density are reported. Optimization of process parameters such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time are also presented. It was observed that small reactor design such as plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction due to increased energy density and ultrasonic intensity

  17. Noncatalytic biodiesel fuel production from croton megalocarpus oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-11-15

    Biodiesel is currently considered as the most promising substitute for diesel fuel because of its similar properties to diesel. This study presents the use of the supercritical methanol method in the production of biodiesel from Croton megalocarpus oil. The reaction parameters such as methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were varied to obtain the optimal reaction conditions by design of experiment, specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design with {alpha}=2. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve methyl ester yields as high as 74.91 % with reaction conditions such as 50:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 330 C reaction temperature and a reaction period of 20 min. However, Croton-based biodiesel did not sustain higher temperatures due to decomposition of polyunsaturated methyl linoleate, which is dominant in biodiesel. Lower yields were observed when higher temperatures were used during the optimization process. The supercritical methanol method showed competitive biodiesel yields when compared with catalytic methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the systems of biodiesel production. ► LLE data for multicomponent FAME and FAEE from (303.15 to 333.15) K. ► Experimental data correlated using the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: This work reports (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the systems of interest in soybean biodiesel production. Numerical data for LLE were obtained for binary, ternary and quaternary systems comprising fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from soybean oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. Quantification of compounds in equilibrium in both phases was determined by analytical methods whereas solubility curves (binodal) were obtained by the cloud-point method. For all systems investigated, good alignments were obtained between phase compositions and the initial as well as overall compositions hence indicating low deviations from the mass balance. Experimental results were correlated using the UNIQUAC model with satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory

  19. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Hechun Cao; Zhiling Zhang; Xuwen Wu; Xiaoling Miao

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% a...

  20. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  1. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  2. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties. PMID:20585897

  3. Test run of biodiesel in public transport system in Belgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to our strong dependency on fossil fuels, i.e. greenhouse effect, energy dependency, urban pollution, are of growing importance in recent years. European Union (EU) Action plan of 2003, which had originated from Kyoto Agreement, defined a strategy for substitution of 20% of conventional fuel with the alternative one by 2020. Proved advantages of biodiesel usage in the system of public transport of passengers, with regard to exhaust gases emission above all, have been the decisive determinants for the actual promotion of biodiesel as ecologically 'clean' fuel, while its wider usage gives important contribution to sustainable development of cities. This paper presents results of biodiesel-test run in Belgrade, as a part of the project BIO-PEX, which relates to the usage of this alternative fuel in real operating conditions in urban public transport system, with special emphasis on technical, ecological and operational aspects of biofuel usage.

  4. Biodiesel from jatropha: Can India meet the 20% blending target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for biofuels, particularly liquid ones like ethanol and biodiesel, has been felt by most of the countries and their governments have been trying to promote these fuels. Following in line with global trend, India declared its biofuel policy in which biodiesel, primarily from jatropha, would meet 20% of the diesel demand beginning with 2011-2012. In spite of the efforts made by the state, production of biodiesel, however, has not picked up at all. Doubt arises as to whether the country will be able to meet the target. It is felt that the government policy, particularly regarding land utilization, organizing cultivation of jatropha and pricing of jatropha seeds, needs to be more clear. This paper attempts to make an assessment of the state of India's biofuel programme and to identify the hurdles that policy-maker need to overcome to achieve the goal.

  5. Biodegradation of diesel/biodiesel blends in saturated sand microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisiecki, Piotr; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the biodegradation extent of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions in saturated sandy microcosm spiked with diesel/biodiesel blends (D, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B60, B70, B80, B90 and B100, where D is commercial petroleum diesel fuel and B is...... commercial biodiesel blend) augmented with a bacterial consortium of petroleum degraders. The biodegradation kinetics for blends were evaluated based on measuring the amount of emitted CO2 after 578 days. Subsequently, the residual aromatic and aliphatic fractions were separated and determined by employing...... GC-FID and GC _ GC–TOF-MS. Additionally, the influence of biodiesel-amendment on the community dynamics was assessed based on the results of real-time PCR analyzes. Our results suggest that the biodegradation extents of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon were uninfluenced by the addition of...

  6. Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (Madhuca indica) biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Raheman; S.V. Ghadge [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Agricultural and Food Engineering Department

    2007-11-15

    The performance of biodiesel obtained from mahua oil and its blend with high speed diesel in a Ricardo E6 engine has been presented in this paper together with some of its fuel properties. These properties were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and European standards. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emissions (CO, smoke density and NOx) were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The reductions in exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption together with increase brake power, brake thermal efficiency made the blend of biodiesel (B20) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Use of ionic liquids in biodiesel production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andreani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of the use of ionic liquids as catalysts in the biodiesel production field, describing some studies already published in the literature on this theme. Ionic liquids are regarded as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry, with several uses in different commercial segments. However only a few publications involving this topic can be found in the literature addressing the manufacture of biodiesel from vegetable oils or animal fats. Through the analysis of the data generated in the studies reviewed, it is possible to affirm that ionic liquids present great potential as catalysts for biodiesel production, but there are some challenges to be faced, such as the production of ionic liquids with low cost, easy recovery and with the possibility of reutilization of the catalyst for several cycles.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis with different acyl acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The aim of the present work was to investigate novel acyl acceptors for biodiesel production. 2-Propanol and n-butanol have a less negative effect on lipase stability, and they also improve low temperature properties of the fuel. However, excess alcohol leads to inactivation of the enzyme, and glycerol, a major byproduct, can block the immobilized enzyme, resulting in low enzymatic activity. This problem was solved by using methyl acetate as acyl acceptor. Triacetylglycerol is produced instead of glycerol, and it has no negative effect on the activity of the lipase.

  9. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  10. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  11. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  12. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  13. Biodiesel as a lubricity additive for ultra low sulfur diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subongkoj Topaiboul1 and 2,*

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide trend to reduce emission from diesel engines, ultra low sulfur diesel has been introduced with thesulfur concentration of less than 10 ppm. Unfortunately, the desulfurization process inevitably reduces the lubricity of dieselfuel significantly. Alternatively, biodiesel, with almost zero sulfur content, has been added to enhance lubricity in an ultralow sulfur diesel. This work has evaluated the effectiveness of the biodiesel amount, sourced from palm and jatropha oil,and origin in ultra low sulfur diesel locally available in the market. Wear scar from a high-frequency reciprocating rig isbenchmarked to the standard value (460 m of diesel fuel lubricity. It was found that very small amount (less than 1% ofbiodiesel from either source significantly improves the lubricity in ultra low sulfur diesel, and the biodiesel from jatropha oilis a superior lubricity enhancer.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Bulk Frying Oil with Ultrasound Assisted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to optimize of biodiesel production with ultrasound assisted. Optimization was used central composite design methods. Biodiesel was produced from frying oil with KOH catalyst and ultrasonic assisted. The variables were investigated temperature, catalyst concentration and ratio of methanol to oil. Biodiesel was separated from reactant and impurities with decantation process and distillation process. The results of research obtained optimum conversion 85.95% in operation condition are methanol/oil 5.05:1, catalyst concentration 1.65% and temperature reaction 50°C. Mathematic modeling for describe in this process like expressed; Y = 86.2107 - 7.4287X1 + 1.0661X2 + 0.6289X3 - 2.5319X12 - 2.0603X22 - 1.0618X32.

  15. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on the development of heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA) containing Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). Solid base and acid catalysts were prepared and tested for transesterification in a batch reactor under mild reaction conditions. Mixtures of solid base and acid catalysts were also tested for single-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification. More soap formation was found to be the main problem for calcium oxide (CaO) and lithium doped calcium oxide (Li-CaO) catalysts during the reaction of jatropha oil and methanol than for the rapeseed oil (RSO). CaO with Li doping showed increased conversion to biodiesel than bare CaO as a catalyst. La2O3/ZnO, La2O3/Al2O3 and La0.1Ca0.9MnO3 catalysts were also tested and among them La2O3-ZnO showed higher activity. Mixture of solid base catalysts (CaO and Li-CaO) and solid acid catalyst (Fe2(SO4)3) were found to give complete conversion to biodiesel in a single-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification process. -- Highlights: →Various heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of high free fatty acid (FFA) containing jatropha oil to biodiesel.→First ever approach with simultaneous esterification and transesterification using solid base and solid acid catalysts.→Characterization of surface properties of catalysts and the properties of the oil and biodiesel.→Experimental validation and biodiesel production under mild reaction conditions.

  17. A comprehensive combustion model for biodiesel-fueled engine simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakora, Jessica L.

    Engine models for alternative fuels are available, but few are comprehensive, well-validated models that include accurate physical property data as well as a detailed description of the fuel chemistry. In this work, a comprehensive biodiesel combustion model was created for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations, specifically the KIVA3v R2 code. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. A reduced mechanism was generated from the methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl-9-decenoate (MD9D) mechanism developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was combined with a multi-component mechanism to include n-heptane in the fuel chemistry. The biodiesel chemistry was represented using a combination of MD, MD9D and n-heptane, which varied for a given fuel source. The reduced mechanism, which contained 63 species, accurately predicted ignition delay times of the detailed mechanism over a range of engine-specific operating conditions. Physical property data for the five methyl ester components of biodiesel were added to the KIVA library. Spray simulations were performed to ensure that the models adequately reproduce liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Fuel composition impacted liquid length as expected, with saturated species vaporizing more and penetrating less. Distillation curves were created to ensure the fuel vaporization process was comparable to available data. Engine validation was performed against a low-speed, high-load, conventional combustion experiments and the model was able to predict the performance and NOx formation seen in the experiment. High-speed, low-load, low-temperature combustion conditions were also modeled, and the emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and fuel consumption were well-predicted for a sweep of injection timings. Finally, comparisons were made between the results of biodiesel

  18. Combustion, emission and engine performance characteristics of used cooking oil biodiesel - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Rutto, H.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    As the environment degrades at an alarming rate, there have been steady calls by most governments following international energy policies for the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels whose use is rapidly expanding is biodiesel. One of the economical sources for biodiesel production which doubles in the reduction of liquid waste and the subsequent burden of sewage treatment is used cooking oil (UCO). However, the products formed during frying, such as free fatty acid and some polymerized triglycerides, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to collect and analyze published works mainly in scientific journals about the engine performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of UCO biodiesel on diesel engine. Overall, the engine performance of the UCO biodiesel and its blends was only marginally poorer compared to diesel. From the standpoint of emissions, NOx emissions were slightly higher while un-burnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions were lower for UCO biodiesel when compares to diesel fuel. There were no noticeable differences between UCO biodiesel and fresh oil biodiesel as their engine performances, combustion and emissions characteristics bear a close resemblance. This is probably more closely related to the oxygenated nature of biodiesel which is almost constant for every biodiesel (biodiesel has some level of oxygen bound to its chemical structure) and also to its higher viscosity and lower calorific value, which have a major bearing on spray formation and initial combustion. (author)

  19. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  20. Technoeconomic analysis of an integrated microalgae photobioreactor, biodiesel and biogas production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As fossil fuel prices increase and environmental concerns gain prominence, the development of alternative fuels from biomass has become more important. Biodiesel produced from microalgae is becoming an attractive alternative to share the role of petroleum. Currently it appears that the production of microalgal biodiesel is not economically viable in current environment because it costs more than conventional fuels. Therefore, a new concept is introduced in this article as an option to reduce the total production cost of microalgal biodiesel. The integration of biodiesel production system with methane production via anaerobic digestion is proved in improving the economics and sustainability of overall biodiesel stages. Anaerobic digestion of microalgae produces methane and further be converted to generate electricity. The generated electricity can surrogate the consumption of energy that require in microalgal cultivation, dewatering, extraction and transesterification process. From theoretical calculations, the electricity generated from methane is able to power all of the biodiesel production stages and will substantially reduce the cost of biodiesel production (33% reduction). The carbon emissions of biodiesel production systems are also reduced by approximately 75% when utilizing biogas electricity compared to when the electricity is otherwise purchased from the Victorian grid. The overall findings from this study indicate that the approach of digesting microalgal waste to produce biogas will make the production of biodiesel from algae more viable by reducing the overall cost of production per unit of biodiesel and hence enable biodiesel to be more competitive with existing fuels. (author)

  1. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de óleo de girassol com antioxidantes Evaluation of oxidation stability of sunflower oil biodiesel with antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Aparecida Ferrari; Waleska Lemes de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel can contain unsaturated fatty acids, which are susceptible to oxidation, being able to change into polymerized compounds. In this work biodiesel was characterized according to physical-chemistry parameters and the antioxidant activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) added to biofuel was analyzed. Biodiesel was submitted to accelerate oxidation in the Schaal oven test, and peroxide value was analyzed.The absorptivity...

  2. Biodiesel for Brazilian development: current situation and challenges for a sustainable future; Biodiesel para o desenvolvimento brasileiro: situacao atual e desafios para um futuro sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Aleksandra Sliwowska; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This article aims at analyzing the state of art and trends of biodiesel in Brazil, with resort to the Industry Strategic Map, a tool developed by National Industry Federation (CNI). The situation of biodiesel will be analyzed considering : Bases for Development, Processes and Activities, Market and Results for Country. At the beginning is presented the evolution of biodiesel in Brazil e are explained the construction of the Strategic Map by CNI. (author)

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyun; Yassine, Mohamad H; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-10-01

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel). Results indicate that the biodiesel could be effectively biodegraded in the presence or absence of petrodiesel, whereas petrodiesel could not be biodegraded at all under sulfate-reducing conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation of individual Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) compounds and their accompanying sulfate-reduction rates were studied using a serum bottle test. As for the biodegradation of individual FAME compounds, the biodegradation rates for the saturated FAMEs decreased with increasing carbon chain length. For unsaturated FAMEs, biodegradation rates increased with increasing number of double bonds. The presence of petrodiesel had a greater effect on the rate of biodegradation of biodiesel than on the extent of removal. PMID:27448319

  4. Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, A.L.; Yasin, N.H. Mat; Derek, C.J.C.; Lim, J.K. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Of the three generations of biodiesel feedstocks described in this paper, food crops, non-food crops and microalgae-derived biodiesel, it was found that the third generation, microalgae, is the only source that can be sustainably developed in the future. Microalgae can be converted directly into energy, such as biodiesel, and therefore appear to be a promising source of renewable energy. This paper presents a comparison between the use of microalgae and palm oil as biodiesel feedstocks. It was found that microalgae are the more sustainable source of biodiesel in terms of food security and environmental impact compared to palm oil. The inefficiency and unsustainability of the use of food crops as a biodiesel source have increased interest in the development of microalgae species to be used as a renewable energy source. In this paper, the main advantages of using microalgae for biodiesel production are described in comparison with other available feedstocks, primarily palm oil. (author)

  5. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  6. Novel process integration for biodiesel blend in membrane reactive divided wall (MRDW column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhre Vandana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel process integration for biodiesel blend in the Membrane assisted Reactive Divided Wall Distillation (MRDW column. Biodiesel is a green fuel and grade of biodiesel blend is B20 (% which consist of 20% biodiesel and rest 80% commercial diesel. Instead of commercial diesel, Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (TAEE was used as an environment friendly fuel for blending biodiesel. Biodiesel and TAEE were synthesized in a pilot scale reactive distillation column. Dual reactive distillation and MRDW were simulated using aspen plus. B20 (% limit calculation was performed using feed flow rates of both TAEE and biodiesel. MRDW was compared with dual reactive distillation column and it was observed that MRDW is comparatively cost effective and suitable in terms of improved heat integration and flow pattern.

  7. Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C.; Mbarawa, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of biodiesel fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material, mostly neat vegetable oil. Used cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to review various technological methods of biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The analytical methods for high quality biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil like GC, TLC, HPLC, GPC and TGA have also been summarized in this paper. In addition, the specifications provided by different countries are presented. The fuel properties of biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil were also reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. (author)

  8. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF ADULTERANT AND ALCOHOL ROUTE IN BIODIESEL USING MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryleide Ventura da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze soybean oil, ethylic and methylic soybean biodiesel, and blends prepared with soybean oil mixed with biodiesel, in order to evaluate this method as an alternative to assess oil as impurities or adulterant in biodiesel. We also aimed to determine whether the biodiesel was prepared by the ethyl or methyl routes, by inspecting the infrared spectra. The C-O functional groups between 1100 and 1200 cm-1 are different for oil and biodiesel, which allows them to be used to distinguish impurities (residual oil in biofuel. The peak C-O-C at 1017 cm-1 is characteristic for methylic biodiesel, and the peak O-C-C at 1035 cm-1 for ethylic biodiesel. These vibrational modes can therefore be used to indicate the route used to prepare the biofuel. Results indicated that infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for monitoring the quality of biofuel for commercial sale.

  10. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF BIOMASS POTENTIALLY USEFUL FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL

    OpenAIRE

    GERARDO CABRERA CIFUENTES; JUAN CARLOS BURBANO JARAMILLO; JOSÉ ISIDRO GARCIA MELO

    2011-01-01

    Considerando que el biodiesel se está convirtiendo en una solución viable para algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales, la investigación de materias primas para su producción es un tema de creciente interés. Este estudio presenta los resultados de una investigación dedicada al análisis preliminar de varias especies vegetales (biomasa), potencialmente útiles para producir biodiesel. La zona de bioprospección es una región de la costa pacifica colombiana. Las especies promisorias recol...

  11. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  12. Moving towards a Competitive Fully Enzymatic Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cesarini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis can solve several problems posed by the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification but it has the drawback of being too expensive to be considered competitive. Costs can be reduced by lipase improvement, use of unrefined oils, evaluation of soluble/immobilized lipase preparations, and by combination of phospholipases with a soluble lipase for biodiesel production in a single step. As shown here, convenient natural tools have been developed that allow synthesis of high quality FAMEs (EN14214 from unrefined oils in a completely enzymatic single-step process, making it fully competitive.

  13. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Camobreco, Vince [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duffield, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graboski, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapouri, Housein [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  14. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitutecurrent fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17%of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, howeverthe utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from currentsources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oilcannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed asthe new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  15. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitute current fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17% of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, however the utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from current sources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oil cannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed as the new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  16. Biodiesel Manufacture from Curcas Oil using Estrans Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudradjat, H.R. (Center for Forest Products Research and Development, Jl. Gunung Batu NO.5 Bogor (Indonesia))

    2008-10-15

    This research deals with manufacture of biodiesel from curcas oil using esterification-transesterification (estrans) process. The results showed that estrans process was successful to overcome high free fatty acid that cause inhibition in conversion the FFA to methyl ester. The optimum process condition in esterification stage obtained by using methanol 10% (v/v), HCl 1 % (v/v), temperature 60 deg C, and reaction time 120 minute. While for transesterification using methanol 10% (v/v) and NaOH 0.5% (v/v), temperature 60 deg C and reaction time 60 minute. All physico-chemistry characteristics of biodiesel were met the ASTM Standard PS-121

  17. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  18. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias;

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production....

  19. Model Feed for Hydrotreating of Fat for Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biodiesel production by the transesterification of oils and fats with an alcohol to fatty acid alkyl esters is rapidly increasing worldwide. Plant oils are usually suited for transesterification, but feedstocks from waste products like trap greases and abattoir wastes are difficult to react due...... resulted in lower conversions and a much higher degree of hydrogenation than with the Pt catalyst. This protocol represents a facile method of studying hydrotreating of waste fats and oils for biodiesel production, which may be a viable alternative to current dominating transesterification technology. 1...

  20. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production...

  1. Mechanistic Modelling of Biodiesel Production using a Liquid Lipase Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Hofmann, Björn; Silva, Vanessa T. L.;

    2014-01-01

    , with respect to the industrial production of biodiesel. The developed kinetic model, coupled with a mass balance of the system, was fitted to and validated on experimental results for the fed-batch transesterification of rapeseed oil. The confidence intervals of the parameter estimates, along...... that constrains the amount of methanol in the reactor was computed and the predictions experimentally validated. Monte-Carlo simulations were then used to characterize the effect of the parameter uncertainty on the model outputs, giving a biodiesel yield, based on the mass of oil, of 90.8 ± 0.55 mass %. © 2014...

  2. Enzymatic Production of FAME Biodiesel with Soluble Lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Heltborg, Carsten Kirstejn; Yang, V;

    Biodiesel is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, and biocatalysis is gaining interest as a greener process. We focus on converting oils to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) using soluble lipases, which offer an advantage compared to immobilized enzymes by cost efficiency and ease of implementation...... the defined operating space concerning: temperature, water content, initial methanol concentration and enzyme content. The identified optimum range was experimentally evaluated, and model findings were confirmed. Another barrier in lipase use in biodiesel production is the higher melting point (m...

  3. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    OpenAIRE

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd; Shalaby, Emad A; Shanab, Sanaa M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga) were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v)) and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v)). Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments) percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v) extraction so...

  4. Simulation, optimization and analysis of cost of biodiesel plant pot route enzymatic; Simulacao, otimizacao e analise de custo de planta de biodiesel via rota enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jocelia S.; Ferreira, Andrea L.O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Silva, Giovanilton F. [Tecnologia Bioenergetica - Tecbio, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work ware simulation, optimization and to find the biodiesel production cost produced by enzymatic route. Consequently, it was carried out a methodology of economic calculations and sensitivity analyses for this process. It was used a computational software from balance equations for obtaining the biodiesel cost. The economical analysis was obtained by capital cost of biofuel. The whole process was developed according analysis of fixed capital cost, total manufacturing cost, raw material cost, and chemical cost. The results of economic calculations to biodiesel production showed efficient. The model was meant for use in assessing the effects on estimated biodiesel production cost of changes in different types of oils. (author)

  5. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  6. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Kian Fei; Tan, Kok Tat; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-11-15

    Similarity between the properties of biodiesel and petroleum-derived diesel has made the former one of the most promising alternatives to a renewable and sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. In Malaysia, palm oil can be a suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its abundant availability and low production cost. However, not many assessments have been carried out regarding the impacts of palm biodiesel on the environment. Hence, in this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for palm biodiesel in order to investigate and validate the popular belief that palm biodiesel is a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was divided into three main stages, namely agricultural activities, oil milling and transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. For each stage, the energy balance and green house gas assessments were presented and discussed. These are important data for the techno-economical and environmental feasibility evaluation of palm biodiesel. The results obtained for palm biodiesel were then compared with rapeseed biodiesel. From this study, it was found that the utilization of palm biodiesel would generate an energy yield ratio of 3.53 (output energy/input energy), indicating a net positive energy generated and ensuring its sustainability. The energy ratio for palm biodiesel was found to be more than double that of rapeseed biodiesel which was estimated to be only 1.44, thereby indicating that palm oil would be a more sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production as compared to rapeseed oil. Moreover, combustion of palm biodiesel was found to be more environment-friendly than petroleum-derived-diesel as a significant 38% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved per liter combusted. (author)

  7. Experimental density data and excess molar volumes of coconut biodiesel + n-hexadecane and coconut biodiesel + diesel at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. R. Mesquita; F. X. Feitosa; R. S. de Santiago-Aguiar; de Sant'ana, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    The density of the pure component (n-hexadecane), pure pseudo-components (coconut biodiesel and diesel) and pseudo-binary mixtures of coconut biodiesel with n-hexadecane (or + diesel) were measured at temperatures 293.15, 313.15, 333.15, 353.15 and 373.15 K and atmospheric pressure, over the entire composition range (mole fractions from 0.1 to 0.9, with a step de 0.1). Densities were determined using an Anton Paar SVM 3000 viscodensimeter. Experimental density values decreased with the increa...

  8. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    OpenAIRE

    R.Murali Manohar; M.Prabhahar; Dr.S.Sendil velan

    2010-01-01

    Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the pr...

  9. Effect of poultry fat oil biodiesel on tractor engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bavafa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental degradation are two major problems faced by the world. Today fossil fuels take up to 80% of the primary energy consumed in the world, of which 58% is consumed by the transport sector alone (Mard et al., 2012. The combustion products cause global warming, which is caused of emissions like carbon monoxide (CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOX. Thus it is essential that low emission alternative fuels to be developed for useing in diesel engines. Many researchers have concluded that biodiesel holds promise as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is oxygenated, biodegradable, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly (Qi et al., 2010. Materials and Methods: In this study transesterification method was used to produce biodiesel, because of its simplicity in biodiesel production process and holding the highest conversion efficiency. Transesterification of poultry fat oil and the properties of the fuels: Fatty acid methyl ester of poultry fat oil was prepared by transesterification of oil with methanol in the presence of KOH as catalyst. The fuel properties of poultry fat oil methyl ester and diesel fuel were determined. These properties are presented in Table 1. Tests of engine performance and emissions: After securing the qualitative characteristics of produced biodiesel, different biodiesel fuels of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% blended with diesel fuel were prepared. A schematic diagram of the engine setup is shown in Fig.1. The MF-399 tractor engine was used in the tests. The basic specifications of the engine are shown in Table 3. The engine was loaded with an electromagnetic dynamometer. The Σ5 model dynamometer manufactured by NJ-FROMENT was used to measure the power and the torque of the tractor engine. The speed range and capacity of this device are shown in Table 2. A FTO Flow Meter, manufactured by American FLOWTECH Company, was used to measure the fuel consumption

  10. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  11. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  12. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  13. Biodiesel: most recent developments in distribution infra-structure; Recentes desenvolvimentos na infra-estrutura do biodiesel: caso pratico apresentando desde a compra do biodiesel ate a mistura automatizada nas bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauer, Luiz Athayde da Silva; Silberman Luis [Petroleo Ipiranga (Grupo ULTRA), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation will show a practical large scale case of, which involves: the purchase, distribution and storage of 80 million liters of Biodiesel that we have bought in the Brazilian market; the way the distribution is being done and the future perspectives in its infra-structure. Moreover, this presentation will approach and detail the most recent developments in: automation of the mix in the terminals of distribution. Specific analysis of our terminal in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil; identification of the best practice and the results already obtained from it; identification of the tie breaker criteria to produce the mix of the Biodiesel in the Diesel oil; what we are doing to development the modals of transportation of Biodiesel; the Biodiesel storage - Best operational practices; the Biodiesel - aspects for the consumer quality control; acquisition of 5 thousand tons of carbon credits. (author)

  14. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  15. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  16. Aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Regulated emissions of biodiesel blends are reasonably well documented in several works, non-regulated emissions, on the contrary, lack research. In this work, mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs, respectively) emission tests were performed with a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5) and 20% (B20%). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the biodiesel addition on the emission profile of MAHs and PAHs. The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1500 rpm. The PAHs were sampled with Teflon filters and XAD-2 cartridges and were identified by gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and quantified by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The MAHs were sampled with active charcoal cartridges and analyzed by GC/FID. Both MAHs and PAHs filters and cartridges were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath. Ten PAHs and eight MAHs were identified and the average reduction of MAHs was 4.2% (B5), 8.2% (B5), and 21.1% (B20). The average reduction for PAHs was 2.7% (B2), 6.3% (B5), and 17.2% (B20). However, some PAHs and MAHs emissions increased because of/due to the biodiesel blends like phenanthrene, ethyl benzene, and trimethyl benzenes.

  17. Cultivation of algae in photobioreator and obtention of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Hobuss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a photobioreactor to algal biomass production. The dried biomass was used as feedstock for biodiesel production, it presented 26% lipids and via sonocatalysis stage of the methodology resulted in 60% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAME content was confirmed by Gas Chromatography (GC.

  18. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

  19. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  20. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.;

    2016-01-01

    oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated...

  1. Marketing Risk Management of Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Udayana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is fuel generates from vegetable oils that have properties similar to diesel oil. The advantages of biodiesel compared to diesel is an environmentally friendly fuel because it produces much lower emissions (sulfur free, low smoke number in accordance with global issues, higher cetane number (> 57 so that the combustion efficiency is better than diesel, lubrication properties of the piston engine; biodegradable, a renewable energy because it is made from natural materials, and improve the independence of fuel supply because it can be produced locally. The purpose of this research is to design the risk management decision support system for agro-industry development biodiesel of oil palm-based. Determination of objectives and risk management strategies using the used to obtain an alternative value in the aspect of marketing. This research resulted in a decision support system that is useful to help decision makers in addressing the risk of agro-bio-diesel. Risk management model is designed in a decision support system  (DSS, can be used by industrial users and investors in the field of biodiesel. DSS software development using Microsoft Visual Basic Version 6.0 consists of three main components namely database management system, knowledge base management system and model base management system. Model base management system consists of risk marketing analysis.

  2. Effects of monoacylglycerols on the cold flow properties of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel made from plant oils and animal fats that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. It is composed of mono-alkyl esters of fatty acid esters made from plant oils or animal fats mainly by transesterification with methanol or ethanol. This proce...

  3. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  4. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, Maksudur R. Khan, M. A. Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  5. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  6. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  7. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations. PMID:22919274

  8. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. PMID:26142425

  9. Corrosion characteristics of copper and leaded bronze in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ann, L.J.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive as alternative fuel for automobiles because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable sources. However, corrosion of metals in biodiesel is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of commercial pure copper and leaded bronze commonly encountered in the automotive fuel system in diesel engine. Static immersion tests in B0, B50 and B100 fuels were carried out at room temperature for 2640 h. Similar immersion tests in B0, B100 and B100 (oxidized) fuels were also conducted at 60 C for 840 h. At the end of the test, corrosion behavior was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes in surface morphology. Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, MOA (multi-element oil analyzer) to investigate acid concentration, oxidation level with water content and corrosive impurities respectively. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, pure copper was more susceptible to corrosion in biodiesel as compared to leaded bronze. (author)

  10. A techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivieri, G.; Guida, T.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2013-01-01

    The preliminary assessment of a cost-effective flow-sheet for the production of biodiesel from microalgae lipid fraction was carried out. The study was based on approximated cost-estimation methods integrated with the simulation software Aspen Plus (R). Several scenarios were investigated to compare

  11. A ROBUST PROCESS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USING SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A literature review was conducted in order to insure the feedstock choice had the potential to bring about positive impacts in making progress toward sustainability. The use of algae for a biodiesel feedstock was chosen for the many benefits it provides. Algae produced via the...

  12. Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Ramadhas; S. Jayaraj; C. Muraleedharan [National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Currently, most of the biodiesel is produced from the refined/edible type oils using methanol and an alkaline catalyst. However, large amount of non-edible type oils and fats are available. The difficulty with alkaline-esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). These free fatty acids quickly react with the alkaline catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerin. A two-step transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oils to its mono-esters. The first step, acid catalyzed esterification reduces the FFA content of the oil to less than 2%. The second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its mono-esters and glycerol. The major factors affect the conversion efficiency of the process such as molar ratio, amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction duration is analyzed. The two-step esterification procedure converts rubber seed oil to its methyl esters. The viscosity of biodiesel oil is nearer to that of diesel and the calorific value is about 14% less than that of diesel. The important properties of biodiesel such as specific gravity, flash point, cloud point and pour point are found out and compared with that of diesel. This study supports the production of biodiesel from unrefined rubber seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products. PMID:26776601

  14. Process optimization of biodiesel production from wild rapeseed (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were, to optimize the performance of biodiesel from rapeseed wild oil depending on the molar ratio methanol / oil, the concentration of NaOH and KOH homogeneous catalysts, temperature and time of transesterification through the response surface methodology, and determining the physicochemical characteristics of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions. A Plackett and Burman (PB12 design was applied for the screening stage and a rotatable central composite design (DCCR for the final optimization. The conditions that maximize the yield of biodiesel (77.8% were obtained at concentrations of 0 to 0.2% NaOH and 0.4 to 0.6% KOH, with time from 77 to 81 minutes, keeping constant the molar ratio of methanol/oil in 6/1 and a temperature of 60 °C. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions meet the technical specifications given by ASTM D6751 - 07 and EN14214

  15. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cast gelatin films were plasticized with glycerol to which compounds found in an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS) had been added, including linoleic acid, methyl linoleate, oleic acid, and methyl oleate, in various amounts. The tensile properties of the films were measured as a function of...

  16. Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

  17. Dual bioimprinting of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase for synthesis of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Mukherjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel as an alternative to non-renewable sources of energy has become an attractive option in recent years. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of fats/oils with an alcohol is a much more sustainable route than the chemical method. However, cost effectiveness of the enzymatic route is a major barrier in its commercialization. In this work, a high activity biocatalyst design of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase is made by dually bioimprinting it with substrate and a surfactant (which is believed to open up the lid covering the active site of the lipase during precipitation of the lipase in organic solvent. When the lipase was bioimprinted with only the surfactants, 28 U of the enzyme/g of oil could yield 99% biodiesel from soybean oil in about 4 h. However, when dually bioimprinted even very low enzyme load 1.4 U/g of oil, yielded 99% biodiesel within 48 h.

  18. Production of Biodiesel Using Ethanol Way and Alkaline Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aparecido da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential inputs to promote the supply of the demand for power generation has become the aim of several scientific researches to mitigate environmental impacts. The biodiesel is the highlight solution that can be obtained through the transesterification process. The aim this present work was the biodiesel production using ethanol and crude oil sunflower as inputs and potassium ethoxide such as catalyst for the rection. Were produced seven samples using different parameters. The product with high rate of ethyl ester was the one with catalyst and reaction time optimized. However, it has showed the presence of glycerol, suggesting the use of other unit operations such as cooling and centrifugation to improve the purity of the biodiesel formed is necessary. The parameters used in this experiment (oil, catalyst and water washing contents, reaction time, temperature and agitation speed showed critical endpoints to be monitored during the production of biodiesel due interfering the quality and yield to the final product. In addition, the inappropriate speed of agitation in the reactor for ethanol way in the presence of an alkaline catalyst can gelatinize the mixture of reactants due the emulsion formed.

  19. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed...

  20. Superstructure-based optimization of biorefinery networks: Production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Orsi, Albert; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    through a practical case study for the production biodiesel from a variety of feedstock. The different biorefinery processing alternatives are represented in a superstructure and the associated data is collected and stored in a database. Once a specific biorefinery synthesis problem is formulated...

  1. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that unde

  3. A Simple, Safe Method for Preparation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Mahin S.; Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Alwis, Rasika M.; Duenas, Josue A.; Serafino, Jessica O.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment suitable for organic chemistry students is described. Biodiesel, a "green" fuel, consists of methyl or ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids called FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) or FAEES (fatty acid ethyl esters). A quick way to make FAMES is a base-catalyzed transesterification of oils or fats derived from plants or from animal…

  4. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  5. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  6. Dutch business opportunities in the Turkish biodiesel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Yilmaz, G.

    2009-01-01

    To research possibilities for Dutch businesses to be involved in the Turkish biodiesel sector, a short literature study and unstructured interviews with sector stakeholders were performed. Turkey is interested to develop its biofuel sector particularly to improve its security of energy supply, more

  7. Attempts to Reduce NOx Exhaust Emissions by Using Reformulated Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two routes were investigated for reformulating soy-based biodiesel in an effort to reduce its nitrogen oxide emissions. In the first approach, methyl soyate was modified by converting a proportion of the cis-bonds in the fatty acid chains of its methyl esters to their trans isomers. In the second ...

  8. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...

  9. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  10. A survey of biodiesel feedstocks under performance perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, can be produced from an ever-growing number of feedstocks. The development of the various feedstocks is spurred to a significant extent by the issue of availability as there is no feedstock that can replace significant am...

  11. Preparation of Jojoba Oil Ester Derivatives for Biodiesel Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the increase in commodity vegetable oil prices, it is imperative that non-food oils should be considered as alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jojoba oil is unusual in that it is comprised of wax esters as opposed to the triglycerides found in typical vegetable oils. A...

  12. Composition and Toxicity of Biodiesel versus Conventional Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing production of biodiesel (BD) fuel at the local, national, and global levels raise important issues related to the impact and potential adverse health outcome related to BD exposures. Studies on the toxicity of BD combustion emissions are very limited. Emission co...

  13. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, W A; Hassan, K H; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma' a, A I; Shaw, A; Wylie, S R, E-mail: w.wali@2009.ljmu.ac.uk [Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Institute (BEST), School of the Built Environment, Faculty of Technology and Environment Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  14. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  15. Biodiesel from Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to seek non-conventional seed oil sources for biodiesel production due to issues such as supply and availability, as well as food versus fuel. In this context, Milo (Thespesia populnea L.) seed oil was investigated for the first time as a potential non-conventional feedstock for the ...

  16. Retrofit of distillation columns in biodiesel production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Column grand composite curves and the exergy loss profiles produced by the Column-Targeting Tool of the Aspen Plus simulator are used to assess the performance of the existing distillation columns, and reduce the costs of operation by appropriate retrofits in a biodiesel production plant. Effectiveness of the retrofits is assessed by means of thermodynamics and economic improvements. We have considered a biodiesel plant utilizing three distillation columns to purify biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) and byproduct glycerol as well as reduce the waste. The assessments of the base case simulation have indicated the need for modifications for the distillation columns. For column T202, the retrofits consisting of a feed preheating and reflux ratio modification have reduced the total exergy loss by 47%, while T301 and T302 columns exergy losses decreased by 61% and 52%, respectively. After the retrofits, the overall exergy loss for the three columns has decreased from 7491.86 kW to 3627.97 kW. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of approximately $239,900 and saved approximately $1,900,000/year worth of electricity. The retrofits have reduced the consumption of energy considerably, and leaded to a more environmentally friendly operation for the biodiesel plant considered.

  17. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  18. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification to remove saturated monoacylglycerols from biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated monoacylglycerols (SMG) are known to be present in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended to be used as biodiesel. These SMG can strongly affect the properties of biofuels such as the cloud point, and they have been implicated in engine failure due to filter plugging. It is shown here th...

  19. Applications of 1H-NMR to Biodiesel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or used cooking oils. It is produced by reacting these materials with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give the corresponding mono-alkyl esters. 1H-NMR is a routine analytical method that has been used for...

  20. PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM ALGAE APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increasing dependence on foreign oil, escalating energy prices, and persistent air and water pollution associated with energy production, the U.S. is in need of a clean-burning renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is a rapidly expanding alternative fuel that has the po...