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Sample records for biodiesel-derived crude glycerol

  1. Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: a sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the potential of producing an edible fungus, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. Prolific fungal growth was observed with a fungal biomass yield of 0.83 ± 0.02 (g biomass increase/ginitial biomass) under optimal cultivation conditions (e.g. nonsterile crude glycerol at a concentration of 75% (w/v) with nutrient supplementation and without pH control). The potential of utilizing front-end processed banagrass (Pennisetum purpureum) juice as a source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation was evaluated with a 2.3-fold improvement in the fungal biomass yield. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass showed high amounts of threonine, one of the main limiting amino acids in non-ruminant feeds. An inexpensive fungal protein has the potential to reduce meat product prices by lowering the production costs of animal feeds. The application of fungal technology thus provides a unique sustainable option for biodiesel refineries by providing an additional source of revenue from fungal products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Micro-aerobic, anaerobic and two-stage condition for ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisaard, Kanokrat; Angelidaki, Irini; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2011-01-01

    The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol...

  3. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for ...

  4. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-08

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed.

  5. Bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids by an oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in an airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowattana, Atchara; Techapun, Charin; Watanabe, Masanori; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak

    2018-01-01

    Here we tested the bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by the oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in two bioreactors types (stirred-tank and airlift). High production yields (biomass, 10.62 ± 0.21 g/L; lipids, 3.26 ± 0.13 g/L; β-carotene, 30.64 ± 0.05 mg/L; total carotenoids, 46.59 ± 0.07 mg/L) were achieved in a 3.0 L airlift bioreactor under uncontrolled pH regimes (initial pH 5.63). Under optimized conditions (6.0 vvm aeration rate; 60 ± 5% constant dissolved oxygen [DO] maintained by flushing pure oxygen [O 2 ] into the vessel; 10,000 Lux light irradiation) volumetric production in the airlift bioreactor was further increased (biomass, 19.30 ± 1.07 g/L; lipids, 6.61 ± 0.04 g/L, β-carotene, 109.75 ± 0.21 mg/L; total carotenoids 151.00 ± 2.71 mg/L). Production was also recorded at a S. pararoseus KM281507 growth rate of 0.16 ± 0.00 h -1 (lipids, 0.94 ± 0.04 g/L/d; β-carotene, 15.68 ± 0.40 mg/L/d; total carotenoids, 21.56 ± 0.20 mg/L/d). Lipids from S. pararoseus KM281507 had a high unsaturated fatty acid content, with oleic acid (C18:1) accounting for 80% of all fatty acids. This high oleic acid content makes S. pararoseus KM281507 well-suited as a third generation biodiesel feedstock. Our findings show that airlift bioreactors are suitable for bioconversion of crude glycerol into lipids and carotenoids using S. pararoseus KM281507. This approach is advantageous because of its ease of operation, cost efficiency, and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology

    2012-07-15

    The rapid development of biodiesel production technology has led to the generation of tremendous quantities of glycerol wastes, as the main by-product of the process. Stoichiometrically, it has been calculated that for every 100 kg of biodiesel, 10 kg of glycerol are produced. Based on the technology imposed by various biodiesel plants, glycerol wastes may contain numerous kinds of impurities such as methanol, salts, soaps, heavy metals, and residual fatty acids. This fact often renders biodiesel-derived glycerol unprofitable for further purification. Therefore, the utilization of crude glycerol though biotechnological means represents a promising alternative for the effective management of this industrial waste. This review summarizes the effect of various impurities-contaminants that are found in biodiesel-derived crude glycerol upon its conversion by microbial strains in biotechnological processes. Insights are given concerning the technologies that are currently applied in biodiesel production, with emphasis to the impurities that are added in the composition of crude glycerol, through each step of the production process. Moreover, extensive discussion is made in relation with the impact of the nature of impurities upon the performances of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, during crude glycerol bioconversions into a variety of high added-value metabolic products. Finally, aspects concerning ways of crude glycerol treatment for the removal of inhibitory contaminants as reported in the literature are given and comprehensively discussed. (orig.)

  7. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  8. Effects of impurities in biodiesel-derived glycerol on growth and expression of heavy metal ion homeostasis genes and gene products in Pseudomonas putida LS46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Wilkins, John A; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-07-01

    Biodiesel production-derived waste glycerol (WG) was previously investigated as potential carbon source for medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46. In this study, we evaluated the effect of impurities in the WG on P. putida LS46 physiology during exponential growth and corresponding changes in transcription and protein expression profiles compared with cells grown on pure, reagent grade glycerol. High concentration of metal ions, such as Na(+), and numbers of heavy metals ion, such as copper, ion, zinc, were detected in biodiesel-derived WG. Omics analysis from the corresponding cultures suggested altered expression of genes involved in transport and metabolism of ammonia and heavy metal ions. Expression of three groups of heavy metal homeostasis genes was significantly changed (mostly upregulated) in WG cultures and included the following: copper-responded cluster 1 and 2 genes, primarily containing cusABC; two copies of copAB and heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase; Fur-regulated, TonB-dependent siderophore receptor; and several cobalt/zinc/cadmium transporters. Expression of these genes suggests regulation of intracellular concentrations of heavy metals during growth on biodiesel-derived glycerol. Finally, a number of genes involved in adapting to, or metabolizing free fatty acids and other nonheavy metal contaminants, such as Na(+), were also upregulated in P. putida LS46 grown on biodiesel-derived glycerol.

  9. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  10. Screening of bacterial strains capable of converting biodiesel-derived raw glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsoviti, Maria; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Nychas, George-John E.; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zeng, An-Ping [Institute of Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The ability of bacterial strains to assimilate glycerol derived from biodiesel facilities to produce metabolic compounds of importance for the food, textile and chemical industry, such as 1,3-propanediol (PD), 2,3-butanediol (BD) and ethanol (EtOH), was assessed. The screening of 84 bacterial strains was performed using glycerol as carbon source. After initial trials, 12 strains were identified capable of consuming raw glycerol under anaerobic conditions, whereas 5 strains consumed glycerol under aerobiosis. A plethora of metabolic compounds was synthesized; in anaerobic batch-bioreactor cultures PD in quantities up to 11.3 g/L was produced by Clostridium butyricum NRRL B-23495, while the respective value was 10.1 g/L for a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii. Adaptation of Cl. butyricum at higher initial glycerol concentration resulted in a PD{sub max} concentration of {proportional_to}32 g/L. BD was produced by a new Enterobacter aerogenes isolate in shake-flask experiments, under fully aerobic conditions, with a maximum concentration of {proportional_to}22 g/L which was achieved at an initial glycerol quantity of 55 g/L. A new Klebsiella oxytoca isolate converted waste glycerol into mixtures of PD, BD and EtOH at various ratios. Finally, another new C. freundii isolate converted waste glycerol into EtOH in anaerobic batch-bioreactor cultures with constant pH, achieving a final EtOH concentration of 14.5 g/L, a conversion yield of 0.45 g/g and a volumetric productivity of {proportional_to}0.7 g/L/h. As a conclusion, the current study confirmed the utilization of biodiesel-derived raw glycerol as an appropriate substrate for the production of PD, BD and EtOH by several newly isolated bacterial strains under different experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production from biodiesel-derived glycerol by engineering of cofactor regeneration and manipulating carbon flux in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-08-22

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 exhibited an excellent ability for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from biodiesel-derived glycerol. However, the accumulation of by-products (acetoin, acetoin, lactate and succinate) and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Several strategies were developed to manipulate the carbon flux to 2,3-BD branch in a designed B. amyloliquefaciens. Firstly, extra copies of NADH/NAD(+) regeneration system were introduced into B. amyloliquefaciens by co-overproduction of glycerol dehydrogenase and acetoin reductase, which resulting in improvement of 2,3-BD production and suppression of by-products accumulation. Subsequently, the transcriptional regulator ALsR under the control of a moderate promoter PbdhA was introduced into B. amyloliquefaciens, which increased carbon flux to 2,3-BD branch. Finally, a three-stage dissolved oxygen control strategy were proposed based on analysis of the characteristic of 2,3-BD fermentation, and a two-stage pH control strategy were proposed based on different pH preferences of ACR for reduction and oxidation. Following these strategies, a high titer (102.3 g/L), yield (0.44 g/g), and productivity (1.16 g/L/h) of 2,3-BD were achieved. To our knowledge, this is the highest reported 2,3-BD production using biodiesel-derived glycerol as substrate, and this designed B. amyloliquefaciens should be an excellent candidate for producing 2,3-BD on an industrial scale.

  12. Recent advances in the production of value added chemicals and lipids utilizing biodiesel industry generated crude glycerol as a substrate - Metabolic aspects, challenges and possibilities: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Narisetty; Sindhu, Raveendran; Madhavan, Aravind; Anju, Alphonsa Jose; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2017-09-01

    One of the major ecological concerns associated with biodiesel production is the generation of waste/crude glycerol during the trans-esterification process. Purification of this crude glycerol is not economically viable. In this context, the development of an efficient and economically viable strategy would be biotransformation reactions converting the biodiesel derived crude glycerol into value added chemicals. Hence the process ensures the sustainability and waste management in biodiesel industry, paving a path to integrated biorefineries. This review addresses a waste to wealth approach for utilization of crude glycerol in the production of value added chemicals, current trends, challenges, future perspectives, metabolic approaches and the genetic tools developed for the improved synthesis over wild type microorganisms were described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of crude glycerol from South African biodiesel production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of crude glycerol as a partial replacement of maize at 50 g/kg and 100 g/kg in pig grower diets. Three experimental diets were formulated, a control (CN) and two diets containing 50 g/kg (low glycerol (LG)) and 100 g/kg (high glycerol (HG)) glycerol.

  14. Development of a bioprocess to convert PET derived terephthalic acid and biodiesel derived glycerol to medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Shane T.; Nikodinovic Runic, Jasmina; O' Connor, Kevin E. [University College Dublin (Ireland). School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences; Kaminsky, Walter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Materials Ireland Polymer Research Center

    2012-08-15

    Sodium terephthalate (TA) produced from a PET pyrolysis product and waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel manufacture were supplied to Pseudomonas putida GO16 in a fed-batch bioreactor. Six feeding strategies were employed by altering the sequence of TA and WG feeding. P. putida GO16 reached 8.70 g/l cell dry weight (CDW) and 2.61 g/l PHA in 48 h when grown on TA alone. When TA and WG were supplied in combination, biomass productivity (g/l/h) was increased between 1.3- and 1.7-fold and PHA productivity (g/l/h) was increased 1.8- to 2.2-fold compared to TA supplied alone. The monomer composition of the PHA accumulated from TA or WG was predominantly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid. PHA monomers 3-hydroxytetradeeanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid were not present in PHA accumulated from TA alone but were present when WG was supplied to the fermentation. When WG was either the sole carbon source or the predominant carbon source supplied to the fermentation the molecular weight of PHA accumulated was lower compared to PHA accumulated when TA was supplied as the sole substrate. Despite similarities in data for the properties of the polymers, PHAs produced with WG present in the PHA accumulation phase were tacky while PHA produced where TA was the sole carbon substrate in the polymer accumulation phase exhibited little or no tackiness at room temperature. The co-feeding of WG to fermentations allows for increased utilisation of TA. The order of feeding of WG and TA has an effect on TA utilisation and polymer properties. (orig.)

  15. Effect of crude glycerol from South African biodiesel production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    2013-06-13

    Jun 13, 2013 ... growth, carcass characteristics and pork quality of pigs. E.K. Chiloane. 2 ... A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of crude glycerol as a partial replacement of ... that crude glycerol can be included up to 100 g/kg in grower pig diets without any negative effects on pig performance.

  16. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...

  17. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  18. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  19. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  20. Process optimization and analysis of product inhibition kinetics of crude glycerol fermentation for 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Padhi, Susant Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, statistical optimization of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol fermentation to DHA by immobilized G. oxydans cells over polyurethane foam is reported. Effect of DHA (product) inhibition on crude glycerol fermentation was analyzed using conventional biokinetic models and new model that accounts for both substrate and product inhibition. Optimum values of fermentation parameters were: pH=4.7, temperature=31°C, initial substrate concentration=20g/L. At optimum conditions, DHA yield was 89% (17.83g/L). Effect of product inhibition on fermentation was trivial for DHA concentrations ≤30g/L. At higher concentrations (≥50g/L), kinetics and yield of fermentation showed marked reduction with sharp drop in V max and K S values. Inhibition effect was more pronounced for immobilized cells due to restricted transport of fermentation mixture across polyurethane foam. Retention of fermentation mixture in immobilized matrix resulted in higher localized DHA concentration that possibly enhanced inhibition effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fangxia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds.

  2. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses genes for glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that were shown to support slow growth with glycerol only when overexpressed from a plasmid. Pure glycerol and crude glycerol from biodiesel factories were tested for growth of recombinant strains expressing glpF, glpK and glpD from Escherichia coli. Some, but not all crude glycerol lots served as good carbon sources. Although the inhibitory compound(s) present in these crude glycerol lots remained unknown, the addition of substoichiometric glucose concentrations (below 10% by weight) enabled the utilization of some of the inhibitory crude glycerol lots. Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical and biological conversion of crude glycerol derived from waste cooking oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Yan, Song; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, J R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, crude, purified, and pure glycerol were used to cultivate Trichosporon oleaginosus for lipid production which was then used as feedstock of biodiesel production. The purified glycerol was obtained from crude glycerol by removing soap with addition of H 3 PO 4 which converted soap to free fatty acids and then separated from the solution. The results showed that purified glycerol provided similar performance as pure glycerol in lipid accumulation; however, crude glycerol as carbon source had negatively impacted the lipid production of T. oleaginosus. Purified glycerol was later used to determine the optimal glycerol concentration for lipid production. The highest lipid yield 0.19g/g glycerol was obtained at 50g/L purified glycerol in which the biomass concentration and lipid content were 10.75g/L and 47% w/w, respectively. An energy gain of 4150.51MJ could be obtained with 1tonne of the crude glycerol employed for biodiesel production through the process proposed in this study. The biodiesel production cost estimated was 6.32US$/gal. Fatty acid profiles revealed that C16:0 and C18:1 were the major compounds of the biodiesel from the lipid produced by T. oleaginosus cultivated with crude and purified glycerol. The study found that purified glycerol was promising carbon source for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of ceramic-based cell immobilization to produce 1,3-propanediol from biodiesel-derived waste glycerol with Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungormusler, M; Gonen, C; Azbar, N

    2011-11-01

    The feasibility of the continuous production of a valuable bioplastic raw material, namely 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from biodiesel by-product glycerol, using immobilized cells was investigated. In addition, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was also analysed. Ceramic balls and ceramic rings were used for the immobilization of a locally isolated strain; Klebsiella pneumoniae (GenBank no. 27F HM063413). HRT of 1 h is the best one in terms of volumetric production rate (g 1,3-PDO l(-1) h(-1)). The results indicated that ceramic-based cell immobilization achieved a 2-fold higher production rate (10 g 1,3-PDO l(-1) h(-1)) in comparison with suspended cell system (4·9 g 1,3-PDO l(-1) h(-1)). Continuous cultures with immobilized cells revealed that 1,3-PDO production was more effective and more stable than suspended culture systems. Furthermore, cell immobilization had also obvious benefits especially for resistance of the production for extreme conditions (high organic loading rates, cell washouts). The results were important for understanding the significance of continuous immobilization process among other well-known 1,3-PDO fermentation processes. This work is a promising process for further studies, as the immobilized micro-organism was able to reach high volumetric production rates at short HRT, it has an important role in tolerating and converting glycerol during fermentation. Therefore, HRT is a very significant operational parameter (P value <0·05) directly affecting the bioreactor performance and production rate. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolan; Ge, Xumeng; Cui, Shaoqing; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Crude glycerol is a low-value byproduct which is primarily obtained from the biodiesel production process. Its composition is significantly different from that of pure glycerol. Crude glycerol usually contains various impurities, such as water, methanol, soap, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable efforts have been devoted to finding applications for converting crude glycerol into high-value products, such as biofuels, chemicals, polymers, and animal feed, to improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and overcome environmental challenges associated with crude glycerol disposal. This article reviews recent advances of biological and chemical technologies for value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers, and provides strategies for addressing production challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from crude glycerol by newly isolated Pandoraea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Coutinho de Paula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new bacterial strain was isolated from Atlantic rainforest in Brazil for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA production utilizing crude glycerol from biodiesel industry (CG and it was identified as Pandoraea sp. MA03. Shake flask experiments were performed at 10–50 g L−1 carbon source and showed the best values of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB production from CG cultivations compared to pure glycerol, with a polymer accumulation ranging from 49.0% to 63.6% cell dry weight (CDW. The results obtained from this study showed a positive effect of contaminant NaCl on P3HB synthesis up to 30 g L−1 CG. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] production was obtained from CG plus propionic acid with up to 25.9 mol% 3HV. Since it is interesting the utilization of CG for obtaining added-value products along with biodiesel, this study reported a novel and promising PHA-producing bacterial strain as an additional effort to enhance the viability of a sustainable industry based on biofuels and biopolymers.

  7. Activation of glycerol metabolic pathway by evolutionary engineering of Rhizopus oryzae to strengthen the fumaric acid biosynthesis from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Wang, Ru; Du, Wenjie; Wang, Guanyi; Xia, Menglei

    2015-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is strictly inhibited by biodiesel-based by-product crude glycerol, which results in low fumaric acid production. In this study, evolutionary engineering was employed to activate the glycerol utilization pathway for fumaric acid production. An evolved strain G80 was selected, which could tolerate and utilize high concentrations of crude glycerol to produce 14.9g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.248g/g glycerol. Key enzymes activity analysis revealed that the evolved strain displayed a significant upregulation in glycerol dissimilation, pyruvate consumption and reductive tricarboxylic acid pathways, compared with the parent strain. Subsequently, intracellular metabolic profiling analysis showed that amino acid biosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and stress response metabolites accounted for metabolic difference between two strains. Moreover, a glycerol fed-batch strategy was optimized to obtain the highest fumaric acid production of 25.5g/L, significantly increased by 20.9-fold than that of the parent strain of 1.2g/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Penggunaan H-Zeolit dan Tawas dalam Pemurnian Crude Glycerol dengan Proses Adsorpsi dan Koagulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isalmi Aziz, M.T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil byproducts such as crude glycerol with low purity. The crude glycerol containing compounds impurities such as free fatty acids, alcohol, soap, catalyst and water. Compound adsorption of impurities can be done with the H-zeolite as adsorbent, but the resulting quality is still not good. To improve its quality, this research was added alum (coagulation process so that the adsorption of colloidal-sized compound impurities which can be separated from the glycerol. The purpose of this research is determine optimal condition of adsorption and coagulation impurity compounds of crude glycerol by using H-zeolite and  alum and  also determine quality of glycerol  was obtained. First, crude glycerol acidified by phosphoric acid 85% (pure analysis until desired pH ±2.5. It was obtained purity of glycerol 72.797%. The next process is adsorption with activated H-zeolite and it obtained purity of glycerol 77.079%. The last process in this research is adsorption and coagulation by using H-zeolite and alum. The highest purity glycerol 93.803% was obtained from condition of adsorption and coagulation for 75 minutes; alum’s concentration 80 ppm; and temperature 60 ºC. The glycerol discharged from adsorption and coagulation process by using H-zeolite and alum is qualify Indonesia National Standard number 06-1564-1995 with 3.512% water content; 2.438% ash content; 0.247% MONG content; has no sugar; 1.259 g/mL density of glycerol; 0.2356% potassium content and 0.0410% aluminium content; and brighter color.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.5143

  9. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  10. Malic acid production by chemically induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, J; Bharathiraja, B; Baskar, G; Jayamuthunagai, J; Barathkumar, S; Anna Shiny, R

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, crude glycerol derived from transesterification process was utilized to produce the commercially-valuable malic acid. A combined resistant on methanol and malic acid strain of Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant was generated in solid medium containing methanol (1-5%) and malic acid (40-80 g/L) by the adaptation process for 22 weeks. The ability of induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant to utilize crude glycerol and pure glycerol to produce malic acid was studied. The yield of malic acid was increased with 4.45 folds compared with that of parent strain from crude glycerol. The highest concentration of malic acid from crude glycerol by using beneficial mutant was found to be 77.38 ± 0.51 g/L after 192 h at 25 °C. This present study specified that crude glycerol by-product from biodiesel production could be used for producing high amount of malic acid without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supercritical water reformation of crude glycerol solution for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a less desirable byproduct formed in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification otriglycerides and presents a nontrivial issue in terms of developing other beneficial end uses. With an inflated glycer...

  12. Microbial utilization of crude glycerol for the production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Rosemary; Gray, Vincent; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Energy fuels for transportation and electricity generation are mainly derived from finite and declining reserves of fossil hydrocarbons. Fossil hydrocarbons are also used to produce a wide range of organic carbon-based chemical products. The current global dependency on fossil hydrocarbons will not be environmentally or economically sustainable in the long term. Given the future pessimistic prospects regarding the complete dependency on fossil fuels, political and economic incentives to develop carbon neutral and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels have been increasing throughout the world. For example, interest in biodiesel has undergone a revival in recent times. However, the disposal of crude glycerol contaminated with methanol, salts, and free fatty acids as a by-product of biodiesel production presents an environmental and economic challenge. Although pure glycerol can be utilized in the cosmetics, tobacco, pharmaceutical, and food industries (among others), the industrial purification of crude glycerol is not economically viable. However, crude glycerol could be used as an organic carbon substrate for the production of high-value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, or polyols. Microorganisms have been employed to produce such high-value chemicals and the objective of this article is to provide an overview of studies on the utilization of crude glycerol by microorganisms for the production of economically valuable products. Glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production could be used a feedstock for the manufacture of many products that are currently produced by the petroleum-based chemical industry.

  13. Synthesis of high purity monoglycerides from crude glycerol and palm stearin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the glycerolysis of palm stearin and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel process werefound to be a reaction temperature of 200oC with a molar ratio of crude glycerol to palm stearin of 2.5:1, and a reaction timeof 20 minutes. The yield and purity of monoglycerides obtained under these conditions was satisfactory as compared withthe glycerolysis of pure glycerol. To increase the purity of monoglycerides a two-step process, removal of residual glyceroland crystallization, was proposed instead of either vacuum or molecular distillation. Residual glycerol was removed byadding hydrochloric acid followed by washing with hot water. Optimum conditions for crystallization were achieved byusing isooctane as a solvent and a turbine impeller speed of 200 rpm at a crystallization temperature of 35oC. A purity notexceeding 99 percent of monoglycerides was obtained with monopalmitin as the major product.

  14. Potential lactic acid production from crude glycerol as the precursor of polylactic acid analog : literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastati, D. Y.; Hambali, E.; Syamsu, K.; Warsiki, E.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated an abundant of crude glycerol, a low-value byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing. Conversion crude glycerol to valuable chemical such as lactic acid, a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA), has a great potential to substitute traditional feedstocks of PLA, i.e., carbohydrate or sugar sources. Some of the process perspectives and the potential of glycerol to produce lactic acid by chemical transformation or microbial conversion are discussed in this paper, as well as the possibility of extending lactic acid to polylactic acid (PLA).

  15. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co...

  16. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  17. Assessment of Tree Leaves Flakes Mixed with Crude Glycerol as a Bioenergy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hilal-AlNaqbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gasification and combustion of dry tree leaves and the cogasification of dry tree leaves soaking crude glycerol were studied experimentally. An updraft fixed bed gasification and combustion system was built. The operation was conducted at different air to fuel ratios. Results show more stable combustion and more effective heat transfer to furnace walls for the cases when tree leaves flakes are mixed with 20 percent (on mass basis of crude glycerol, as compared with the case when only dry tree leaves are used as fuel. TGA analysis was also conducted for the two fuels used under both air and nitrogen environments. For the crude glycerol, four phases of pyrolysis and gasification were noticed under either of the two surrounding gaseous media (air or nitrogen. For the dry tree leaves, the pyrolysis under nitrogen shows only a simple smooth pyrolysis and gasification curve without showing the different distinct phases that were otherwise identified when the pyrolysis is conducted under air environment. Moreover, the air TGA results lead to more gasification due to the char oxidation at high temperatures. DTG results are also presented and discussed.

  18. Assessment of Tree Leaves Flakes Mixed with Crude Glycerol as a Bioenergy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal-AlNaqbi, Ali; Al-Omari, Salah B; Selim, Mohamed Y E

    2016-01-01

    The gasification and combustion of dry tree leaves and the cogasification of dry tree leaves soaking crude glycerol were studied experimentally. An updraft fixed bed gasification and combustion system was built. The operation was conducted at different air to fuel ratios. Results show more stable combustion and more effective heat transfer to furnace walls for the cases when tree leaves flakes are mixed with 20 percent (on mass basis) of crude glycerol, as compared with the case when only dry tree leaves are used as fuel. TGA analysis was also conducted for the two fuels used under both air and nitrogen environments. For the crude glycerol, four phases of pyrolysis and gasification were noticed under either of the two surrounding gaseous media (air or nitrogen). For the dry tree leaves, the pyrolysis under nitrogen shows only a simple smooth pyrolysis and gasification curve without showing the different distinct phases that were otherwise identified when the pyrolysis is conducted under air environment. Moreover, the air TGA results lead to more gasification due to the char oxidation at high temperatures. DTG results are also presented and discussed.

  19. Long-term monodigestion of crude glycerol in a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutňan, Miroslav; Kolesárová, Nina; Bodík, Igor; Czölderová, Marianna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the experience from long-term operation of a laboratory UASB reactor inoculated with suspended or granulated biomass for the treatment of different kinds of crude glycerol in undiluted or diluted state. The UASB reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions. It was demonstrated that the anaerobic treatment of crude glycerol as the only substrate in the UASB reactor is feasible, although the specific inhibition effects and requirements resulting from the nature and composition of the g-phase have to be considered. Deficient concentrations of nutrients had to be compensated by their supplementation into the digester. Long-term microbiological treatment of undiluted crude glycerol led to the process inhibition due to the accumulation of dissolved inorganic salts. When dosing diluted g-phase previously treated by acidulation, very good removal efficiency of COD, stable biogas production and high share of methane in the biogas were observed at the organic loading rates of up to 12kg/(m(3)d). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  1. Value-adding conversion and volume reduction of sewage sludge by anaerobic co-digestion with crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Kensuke; Kimura, Chie; Fujimoto, You; Tokumoto, Hayato

    2017-05-01

    In this study, conversion of sewage sludge to biogas by anaerobic co-digestion with crude glycerol was examined. When 0.126g/L crude glycerol was added to the reactor, only methane was produced. Upon addition of 5.04g/L crude glycerol, hydrogen production occurred, and a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) was generated in the liquid phase. On day 6, the dry weight was largely composed of organic acids (48%) and 1,3-PDO (17%), which are water-soluble. Degradation of 1,3-PDO was very slow, which is advantageous for recovery. Crude glycerol, which contains alkaline substances, promoted organic matter degradation by microorganisms, which possibly affected biogas and 1,3-PDO production. Addition of 0.630-2.52g/L glycerol initially led to hydrogen production, followed by methane production a few days later, which stabilized within 1week. In conclusion, adjustment of the crude glycerol concentration allows controllable conversion to value-added products for co-digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EXPLORATORY STUDY ON INTERNAL RECYCLING OF CRUDE GLYCEROL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: CATALYST REPLACEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Dias; Leite, P; Conceição Alvim Ferraz; Manuel Fonseca Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the recycling of crude glycerol as source of catalyst for biodiesel production. For that purpose, two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first set (A), biodiesel was synthesized by conventional methanolysis of sunflower oil using NaOH as catalyst at 65°C during 1 h and varying catalyst concentration (0.4 - 1.2 wt.%) or methanol to oil molar ratio (6:1-12:1). The second set (B) was performed by replicating the conditions o...

  3. Effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka-Kaczorowska, Joanna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The dairy propionibacteria, which are traditionally used for the production of Swiss cheeses, are able to synthesize valuable biomolecules, e.g. B group vitamins, propionic acid, and trehalose with unique chemical and physical properties. Both, dairy propionibacteria cells and trehalose, have found many applications as attractive and effective components in food, beauty and health care products. This study confirmed the ability of several strains from the Propionibacterium genus to create trehalose from glycerol. The research aimed to investigate the effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and on trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1. The results indicated that the capacity for trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium spp. was strain dependent. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1 was able to grow on crude glycerol. For both, pure and crude glycerol, the highest amount of dry biomass leveled off at about 4 g/L. While the use of crude glycerol had no effect on the final concentration of biomass, it reduced the accumulation of trehalose in the cells. An increase in the concentration of carbon source (2-8%) resulted in more than a 5-fold rise in trehalose production. The highest trehalose concentration of 195.04 mg/L was obtained with cultures of the said strain supplemented to 8% with pure glycerol.

  4. Determination of activation energy for animal fat and crude glycerol using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Crhristoph [University of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mortari, Daniela; Avila, Ivonete; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos; Silva, Mario Lucio Cristovam; Crnkovic, Paula Manoel [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: iavila@sc.usp.br, asantos@sc.usp.br, paulam@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The present study deals with the determination of the activation energy of animal fat and crude glycerol from a biodiesel production plant. The activation energies were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range of {delta}T = 25-600 deg C. The transient experiments were run for every sample (10 mg) at five different heating rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0 deg C/min) in atmosphere of synthetic air. It is possible to establish a direct relation between the activation energy and the ignition delay, which characterizes the combustion quality of a fuel. The activation energy could be determined as a function of the conversion degree and the temperature by the isoconversional model free kinetics. Four distinct phases were found for each sample and one of these phases was identified as low-temperature oxidation (LTO). As this region is responsible for the first vaporization of the fuel, the activation energies were determined for this special region along the whole conversion range (0 - 100 %). The following mean values could be determined: animal fat = 108.87 +- 52.28 kJ/mol, and crude glycerol = 65.37+- 13.17 kJ/mol. From these data, it was possible to conclude that animal fat is the most complex sample between the ones studied in this work (author)

  5. Optimization of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens using crude glycerol and enhancing production using gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Elkenawy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin is regarded as a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of possessing anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and immunosuppressive activity. A factorial design was applied to generate a set of 32 experimental combinations to study the optimal conditions for pigment production using crude glycerol obtained from local biodiesel facility as carbon source for the growth of Serratia marcescens. The maximum production (870 unit/cell was achieved at 22 °C, at pH 9 with the addition of 1% (w/v peptone and 109 cell/ml inoculum size after 6 days of incubation. Gamma radiation at dose 200 Gy was capable of doubling the production of the pigment using the optimized conditions and manipulating production temperature. Our results indicate that we have designed an economic medium supporting enhanced Serratia marcescens MN5 prodigiosin production giving an added value for crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel industry.

  6. Efficient conversion of crude glycerol from various industrial wastes into single cell oil by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Adam; Mituła, Paweł; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Mirończuk, Aleksandra M

    2016-05-01

    In this study, crude glycerol from various industries was used to produce lipids via wild type Yarrowia lipolytica A101. We tested samples without any prior purification from five different waste products; each contained various concentrations of glycerol (42-87%) as the sole carbon source. The best results for lipid production were obtained for medium containing glycerol from fat saponification. This reached 1.69gL(-1) (25% of total cell dry weight) with a biomass yield of 0.17gg(-1) in the flasks experiment. The batch cultivation in a bioreactor resulted in enhanced lipid production-it achieved 4.72gL(-1) with a biomass yield 0.21gg(-1). Moreover, the properly selected batch of crude glycerol provides a defined fatty acid composition. In summary, this paper shows that crude glycerol from soap production could be efficiently converted to single cell oil without any prior purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced methane and hydrogen production from municipal solid waste and agro-industrial by-products co-digested with crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Manios, T

    2009-06-01

    The effects of crude glycerol on the performance of single-stage anaerobic reactors treating different types of organic waste were examined. A reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste produced 1400 mL CH(4)/d before the addition of glycerol and 2094 mL CH(4)/d after the addition of glycerol. An enhanced methane production rate was also observed when a 1:4 mixture of olive mill wastewater and slaughterhouse wastewater was supplemented with crude glycerol. Specifically, by adding 1% v/v crude glycerol to the feed, the methane production rate increased from 479 mL/d to 1210 mL/d. The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on the reactor performance in either case. Supplementation of the feed with crude glycerol also had a significant positive effect on anaerobic fermentation reactors. Hydrogen yield was 26 mmole H(2)/g VS added and 15 mmole H(2)/g VS added in a reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and a 1:4 mixture of olive mill and slaughterhouse wastewater. The addition of crude glycerol to the feed enhanced hydrogen yield at 2.9 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added and 0.7 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added.

  8. Valorisation of crude glycerol through biological conversion into bioplastics and biofuels in the frame of an FP7 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    for 2011 was over 8.6 million metric tons, but to date an effective use for the glycerol derived from biodiesel production does not exist on the market. In fact, even though high purity glycerol can be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production has...... is the valorisation of glycerol streams generated during the biodiesel production process, using microbial mixed culture (MMC) technology. The use of bioconversion into high-value products represents a promising route to achieve economic viability in the biofuel industry. Until now there have been several studies...... will be tested and kinetics of the process will be studied. Moreover, scale-up to a larger bioreactor will be performed using an Applikon 20 L pilot plant bioreactor. The milestone is to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40g/L and a hydrogen production of at least 3.5 L H2/L/d. European dimension...

  9. Assessing an effective feeding strategy to optimize crude glycerol utilization as sustainable carbon source for lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Lorenzo; Ami, Diletta; Posteri, Riccardo; Giuzzi, Andrea; Mereghetti, Paolo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-05-05

    Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in the context of a viable bio-based economy. This production can be driven by cultivating some oleaginous microorganisms on crude-glycerol, a 10% (w/w) by-product produced during the transesterification process from oils into biodiesel. Despite attractive, the perspective is still economically unsustainable, mainly because impurities in crude glycerol can negatively affect microbial performances. In this view, the selection of the best cell factory, together with the development of a robust and effective production process are primary requirements. The present work compared crude versus pure glycerol as carbon sources for lipid production by three different oleaginous yeasts: Rhodosporidium toruloides (DSM 4444), Lipomyces starkeyi (DSM 70295) and Cryptococcus curvatus (DSM 70022). An efficient yet simple feeding strategy for avoiding the lag phase caused by growth on crude glycerol was developed, leading to high biomass and lipid production for all the tested yeasts. Flow-cytometry and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, supported by principal component analysis (PCA), were used as non-invasive and quick techniques to monitor, compare and analyze the lipid production over time. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis completed the quali-quantitative description. Under these operative conditions, the highest lipid content (up to 60.9% wt/wt) was measured in R. toruloides, while L. starkeyi showed the fastest glycerol consumption rate (1.05 g L(-1) h(-1)). Being productivity the most industrially relevant feature to be pursued, under the presented optimized conditions R. toruloides showed the best lipid productivity (0.13 and 0.15 g L(-1) h(-1) on pure and crude glycerol, respectively). Here we demonstrated that the development of an efficient feeding strategy is sufficient in preventing the inhibitory effect of crude glycerol, and robust enough to ensure high lipid

  10. Bioconversion of crude glycerol to microbial lipid using a robust oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 capable of growing in the presence of impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprety, Bijaya K.; Dalli, Sai Swaroop; Rakshit, Sudip K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry characterized. • R. toruloides ATCC 10788 grew better in crude glycerol even in presence of methanol. • Inhibition by methanol overshadowed by growth on other impurities. • Characterization of produced lipid and its suitability for biodiesel production. - Abstract: In this work, crude glycerol, a by-product from a biodiesel industry was characterized and converted to microbial lipid. The sample of crude glycerol was found to contain 44.56 wt.% glycerol, 13.86 wt.% methanol, 10.74 wt.% of ash and 32.97 wt.% of soap. Rhodosporidium toruloides ATCC 10788 was studied for the first time to determine its ability to grow on crude glycerol as a carbon source. Methanol concentration as low as 0.5% (w/v) in the medium containing pure glycerol inhibited biomass and lipid production by this strain. However, higher concentration of methanol (i.e. 1.5% w/v) in crude glycerol containing media did not have the same effect on the organism, with double the biomass (21.16 g/L), triple the lipid concentration (11.27 g/L) and high lipid content (53.28 wt.%) produced at the end of 168 h. Unlike many other oleaginous microorganisms, the ability of this yeast to consume other impurities present in crude glycerol enhanced the growth and lipid production in such a way that the effect of methanol was masked or became insignificant. The lipid obtained contained 47.16% of oleic acid (a monounsaturated fatty acid), making it a very good feedstock for some oleochemical industries and the production of biodiesel. This bioconversion process which involves the production of lipid from crude glycerol waste stream will be of great interest to the biodiesel industry as it can be easily integrated into the existing biodiesel production plant. The use of such robust strains to produce other value added products can also be explored.

  11. Valorisation of crude glycerol through biological conversion into bioplastics and biofuels in the frame of an FP7 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    a very low value, due to the impurities and contaminants, and the purification of glycerol is not a viable option for the biodiesel industry anymore. In fact, crude glycerol is usually contaminated with water, methanol, soap, oil, and other compounds deriving from the transesterification process...... of a broader European strategy, in good synergy with other on-going FP7 projects, which can contribute to achieve new solutions for a knowledge-based economy, increasing the economic viability of the biodiesel industry, and developing new international collaborations....

  12. Microbial selection strategies for polyhydroxyalkanoates production from crude glycerol: Effect of OLR and cycle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freches, André; Lemos, Paulo C

    2017-10-25

    Crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacture can be used as carbon source for microbial fermentations. The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by manipulating the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) selection stage of microbial mixed cultures (MMC) using high organic loading rates (OLR, 50CmM/day) and different cycles lengths (6, 12 and 24h) were optimized. Batch-production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) presented an accumulation capacity in the high range (0.44g/g) after 3 pulses of 50CmM, with a final content of 59% PHB/wt., for the culture selected with 50CmM/day and a 24h cycle length. These values were in the range to those obtained with pure cultures and higher than the ones for MMC. With this strategy three main advantages in terms of the PHA production can be considered: utilization of a real waste without the resort to pure microbial cultures and a pre-fermentation step, consolidating the role of MMC in the valorisation of complex wastes/by-products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Tada, Chika; Baba, Yasunori; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    The use of Japanese cedar charcoal as a support material for microbial attachment could enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol and wastewater sludge. Methane yield from a charcoal-containing reactor was approximately 1.6 times higher than that from a reactor without charcoal, and methane production was stable over 50 days when the loading rate was 2.17 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1). Examination of microbial communities on the charcoal revealed the presence of Uncultured Desulfovibrio sp. clone V29 and Pelobacter seleniigenes, known as 1,3-propandiol degraders. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also detected in the archaeal community on the charcoal. Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanocellus were present in the charcoal-containing reactor. The concentration of propionate in the charcoal-containing reactor was also lower than that in the control reactor. These results suggest that propionate degradation was enhanced by the consumption of hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic methanogens on the charcoal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyurethane Foams for Thermal Insulation Uses Produced from Castor Oil and Crude Glycerol Biopolyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriço, Camila S; Fraga, Thaís; Carvalho, Vagner E; Pasa, Vânya M D

    2017-07-02

    Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized using a renewable polyol from the simple physical mixture of castor oil and crude glycerol. The effect of the catalyst (DBTDL) content and blowing agents in the foams' properties were evaluated. The use of physical blowing agents (cyclopentane and n-pentane) allowed foams with smaller cells to be obtained in comparison with the foams produced with a chemical blowing agent (water). The increase of the water content caused a decrease in density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus, which indicates that the increment of CO₂ production contributes to the formation of larger cells. Higher amounts of catalyst in the foam formulations caused a slight density decrease and a small increase of thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and Young's modulus values. These green foams presented properties that indicate a great potential to be used as thermal insulation: density (23-41 kg·m -3 ), thermal conductivity (0.0128-0.0207 W·m -1 ·K -1 ), compressive strength (45-188 kPa), and Young's modulus (3-28 kPa). These biofoams are also environmentally friendly polymers and can aggregate revenue to the biodiesel industry, contributing to a reduction in fuel prices.

  15. Crude glycerol as glycogenic precursor in feed; effects on milk coagulation properties and metabolic profiles of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzia, Hedi; Kilk, Kalle; Ariko, Tiia; Kass, Marko; Soomets, Ursel; Jõudu, Ivi; Kaart, Tanel; Arney, David; Kärt, Olav; Ots, Meelis

    2013-05-01

    As grain prices rise, the search for alternative glycogenic precursors in animal feed becomes increasingly important, and this study was conducted to determine if the replacement of starch with glycerol, as an alternative glycogenic precursor, affects the milk metabolic profile and milk coagulation ability, and therefore the quality of the milk. Eight primiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were fed during a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square trial with four different isoenergetic rations: (1) control (T0) fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with barley meal; (2) group T1, decreased barley content, replaced isoenergetically with 1 kg crude glycerol; (3) group T2, the barley meal was replaced with 2 kg of crude glycerol; and (4) group T3 the barley meal was replaced with 3 kg of crude glycerol. Rumen, blood and milk samples were collected at the end of every 21-d treatment period. Rumen samples were analysed for proportion of total volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood samples for insulin and glucose, and milk for metabolites (e.g. citric-acid cycle compounds). The change in glycogenic precursors had a positive effect on rumen VFA proportions; the proportion of propionic acid increased (P Milk protein (P milk protein concentration may have been due to an increase in microbial protein. Regarding the milk metabolic profiles, different signals were positively associated with coagulation ability and change in the diet. Based on this study, changing the glycogenic precursor in animal diet in this way is possible, and may have no immediate deleterious consequences on milk quality or cow health. Indeed, there is evidence for benefits from this substitution.

  16. Effect of Sludge Concentration and Crude Glycerol Matrix as a Substrate on the Production of Single-Cell Oil by Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Ram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess crude glycerol produced by the booming biodiesel industry and wastewater sludge solid waste has become a severe problem, and alternate routes of use and valorization of these waste byproducts are needed. The use of cheaply available wastewater sludge solids in fermentation media is very much desirable to reduce the cost of production. The strains of Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate a wide array of waste substrates, such as crude glycerol, waste cooking oil, starch wastewater, and cellulosic. This study optimized the concentration of wastewater sludge solids (5–35 g/L to be used with crude glycerol in fermentation media to produce microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. The results indicated that 20 g/L of sludge solids with 40 g/L of crude glycerol resulted in highest lipid content of 29.35% in 96 h. Further, assuming wet extraction of lipids, it was found that at least 11.2% or higher lipid content is required for this process to have an overall positive net solid waste reduction. Insignificant inhibition was observed by the crude glycerol used in this study as compared to pure glycerol, which proves it to be an adequate source of carbon substrate for lipid production.

  17. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmider, Alicja; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient production of succinic acid in immobilized fermentation with crude glycerol from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Aziati, A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the price of commercial succinic acid has necessitated the need for its synthesis from waste materials such as glycerol. Glycerol residue is a waste product of Oleochemical production which is cheaply available and a very good source of carbon. The use of immobilized cells can further reduce the overall cost of the production process. This study primarily aims to produce succinic acid from glycerol residue through the use of immobilized Escherichia coli in a batch fermentation process. The parameters which affect bacterial fermentation process such as the mass substrate, temperature, inoculum size and duration of fermentation were screened using One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT method. The result of the screening process shows that a substrate (glycerol concentration of 30 g, inoculum size 20% v/v, and time 4 h produced the maximum succinic acid concentration of 117.99 g/L. The immobilized cells were found to be stable as well as retain their fermentative ability up to the 6th cycle of recycling, thereby presenting as an advantage over the free cell system. Therefore, conclude that using immobilized cells can contribute immensely to the cost-effective production of succinic acid from glycerol residue.

  19. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol and Crude Glycerol (a By-Product or Waste Stream from the Biodiesel Industry to 1,2-Propanediol over B2O3 Promoted Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaya R. Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of boron oxide (B2O3-promoted Cu/Al2O3 catalyst in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol and crude glycerol (a by-product or waste stream from the biodiesel industry to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO was investigated. The catalysts were characterized using N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Incorporation of B2O3 to Cu/Al2O3 was found to enhance the catalytic activity. At the optimum condition (250 °C, 6 MPa H2 pressure, 0.1 h−1 WHSV (weight hourly space velocity, and 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst, 10 wt% aqueous solution of glycerol was converted into 1,2-PDO at 98 ± 2% glycerol conversion and 98 ± 2% selectivity. The effects of temperature, pressure, boron addition amount, and liquid hourly space velocity were studied. Different grades of glycerol (pharmaceutical, technical, or crude glycerol were used in the process to investigate the stability and resistance to deactivation of the selected 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst.

  20. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  1. Utilization of methanol in crude glycerol to assist lipid production in non-sterilized fermentation from Trichosporon oleaginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Drogui, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    In this work, methanol in crude glycerol solution was used to assist the lipid production with oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus cultivated under non-sterilized conditions. The investigated methanol concentration was 0%, 1.4%, 2.2%, 3.3% and 4.4% (w/v). The results showed that methanol played a significant role in the non-sterilized fermentation for lipid production. The optimal methanol concentration was around 1.4% (w/v) in which the growth of T. oleaginosus was promoted and overcame that of the contaminants. The non-sterilized fed-batch fermentation with initial methanol concentration of 1.4% (w/v) was then performed and high biomass production (43.39 g/L) and lipid production (20.42 g/L) were achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of an osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii for the simultaneous productions of organic acids and trehalose from biodiesel waste based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, Rohit; Choudhury, Bijan

    2012-04-01

    Recently suitability of crude glycerol for trehalose and propionic acid productions was reported using Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspp. shermanii and it was concluded that presence of KCl in crude glycerol was the probable reason for higher trehalose accumulation with crude glycerol medium. To further improve trehalose production, an osmotic sensitive mutant of this strain (non-viable in medium with 3% NaCl) with higher trehalose yield was isolated. In mutant, trehalose yields achieved with respect to biomass and substrate consumed (391 mg/g of biomass, 90 mg/g of substrate consumed) were three and four times higher, respectively as compared to parent strain when crude glycerol was used as a carbon source. Other major fermentation products obtained were propionic acid (0.42 g/g of substrate consumed) and lactic acid (0.3g/g of substrate consumed). It was also observed that in mutant higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was probably responsible for higher trehalose accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from crude glycerol by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 and improving its thermal properties by blending with other polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB under nitrogen limited conditions by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 using crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as sole carbon source. Effect of various process parameters on PHB production such as glycerol concentration, inoculum size and pH of the medium were optimized. Characterization of extracted PHB was carried out by FT-IR, ¹H and 13C NMR. Results showed that the bacterial culture accumulated about 31% PHB in crude glycerol medium. The extracted PHB was blended with other polymers to improve its physical characteristics. The thermal properties of the polymer like melting temperature (Tm and heat of fusion (ΔHf were determined using DSC.

  4. Solvent-Free Biodiesel Production Catalyzed by Crude Lipase Powder from Seeds: Effects of Alcohol Polarity, Glycerol, and Thermodynamic Water Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouteu, Paul Alain Nanssou; Blin, Joël; Baréa, Bruno; Barouh, Nathalie; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2017-10-04

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of crude lipase powders made from Adansonia grandidieri and Jatropha mahafalensis seeds for the synthesis of fatty acid alkyl esters in a solvent-free system. The influence of the nature of the alcohol, the amount of glycerol, and hydration of the powder was investigated. Results showed that the activity of these crude lipase powders was inversely proportional to the alcohol polarity and the amount of the glycerol in the reaction medium. To ensure optimum activity, A. grandidieri and J. mahafalensis powders must be conditioned to a water activity of 0.33 and 0.66. To obtain a fatty acid ethyl ester yield greater than 95% with A. grandidieri, ethanol should be introduced at an amount corresponding to a triacylglycerol to ethanol molar ratio of 2:1 every 15 h for 96 h and use 25% of preconditioned crude lipase powders (2 additions of 12.5%).

  5. Phage-based extraction of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) produced from synthetic crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Steven; Gill, Jason; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable plastic, is an attractive alternative to traditional petrochemical-derived plastics. However, its production is expensive due to high feedstock and extraction costs. As bacteriophages are natural predators to bacteria and specific to their hosts, bacteriophages offer a new and unique means to release PHB from bacteria via cell lysis. This study examined the feasibility of using bacteriophages as an effective bioextractant to release PHB produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans cultured with glycerol containing common impurities which are generated from biodiesel production. While bacteria in stationary growth are known to be immune to bacteriophages, a bacteriophage Ke14 - isolated from soil - could lyse the PHB-filled cells effectively when excess nutrients were provided to trigger cell regrowth. The short-term nutrient treatment facilitated cell lysis with a little expense of PHB depolymerization, offering a new way to release PHB from cells without energy/solvent input. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-stage conversion of crude glycerol to energy using dark fermentation linked with microbial fuel cell or microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chookaew, Teera; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-03-25

    Crude glycerol is a main byproduct of the biodiesel industry, and the beneficial use of waste glycerol has been a major challenge. This study characterises the conversion of crude glycerol into bioenergy such as H2 and electricity using a two-stage process linking dark fermentation with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The results showed that fermentation achieved a maximum H2 rate of 332 mL/L and a yield of 0.55 mol H2/mol glycerol, accompanied by 20% of organic removal. Fed with the raw fermentation products with an initial COD of 7610 mg/L, a two-chamber MFC produced 92 mW/m(2) in power density and removed 50% of COD. The Columbic efficiency was 14%. When fed with 50% diluted fermentation product, a similar power output (90m W/m(2)) and COD removal (49%) were obtained, but the CE doubled to 27%. Similar substrates were used to produce H2 in two-chamber MECs, and the diluted influent had a higher performance, with the highest yield at 106 mL H2/g COD and a CE of 24%. These results demonstrate that dark fermentation linked with MFC/MEC can be a feasible option for conversion of waste glycerol into bioenergy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous fermentation and kinetic experiments for the conversion of crude glycerol derived from second-generation biodiesel into 1,3 propanediol and butyric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Floriotis, Georgis; Heggeset, Tonje M. B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of different mixed microbial cultures (MMC) able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel to produce 1,3 propanediol (1,3 PDO) and butyric acid, under non-sterile conditions. Eight different continuous flow stirred-tank reactors...... communities were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Maximum substrate degradation rate reached approximately 110 g/L/d of glycerol (with a productivity of 38 g/L/d and 11 g/L/d for 1,3 PDO and butyric acid, respectively), obtained with an hydraulic retention time of 12 h and 60 g/L feed...

  8. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrone, C; Heggeset, T M B; Le, S B; Haugen, T; Markussen, S; Skiadas, I V; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h) and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia.

  10. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs, able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate. On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia.

  11. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable...... and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic...... on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1...

  12. Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol--a novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its inhibitory effect on microbial growth, soap present in crude glycerol (CG) is a concern in biological valorization of the biodiesel manufacturing waste. By salting out strategy, up to 42% of the soap has been removed and the approach has beneficial effect on H2 production; however, removal of more than 7% of the soap was found to be inhibitory. Actually, soap is utilized as a co-substrate and due to removal; the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the medium might have decreased to reduce the production. Alternatively, without changing the carbon-nitrogen ratio of CG, MgSO4 treatment can convert the soap to its inactive form (scum). The approach was found to increase the H2 production rate (33.82%), cumulative H2 production (34.70%) as well as glycerol utilization (nearly 2.5-folds). Additionally, the treatment can increase the Mg (a nutrient) content of the medium from 0.57 ppm to 201.92 ppm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  14. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-31

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  15. Comparison of mcl-Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) synthesis by different Pseudomonas putida strains from crude glycerol: citrate accumulates at high titer under PHA-producing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Castro, Ignacio; Binger, Danielle; Oehlert, Rene; Rohde, Manfred

    2014-12-23

    Achieving a sustainable society requires, among other things, the use of renewable feedstocks to replace chemicals obtained from petroleum-derived compounds. Crude glycerol synthesized inexpensively as a byproduct of biodiesel production is currently considered a waste product, which can potentially be converted into value-added compounds by bacterial fermentation. This study aimed at evaluating several characterized P. putida strains to produce medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA) using raw glycerol as the only carbon/energy source. Among all tested strains, P. putida KT2440 most efficiently synthesized mcl-PHA under nitrogen-limiting conditions, amassing more than 34% of its cell dry weight as PHA. Disruption of the PHA depolymerase gene (phaZ) in P. putida KT2440 enhanced the biopolymer titer up to 47% PHA (%wt/wt). The low biomass and PHA titer found in the mutant strain and the wild-type strain KT2440 seems to be triggered by the high production of the side-product citrate during the fermentation process which shows a high yield of 0.6 g/g. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of choosing an appropriate microbe for the synthesis of mcl-PHA from waste materials, and a close inspection of the cell metabolism in order to identify undesired compounds that diminish the availability of precursors in the synthesis of biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. Future metabolic engineering works should focus on reducing the production of citrate in order to modulate resource allocation in the cell's metabolism of P. putida, and finally increase the biopolymer production.

  16. Sunflower-based biorefinery: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production from crude glycerol, sunflower meal and levulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kookos, Ioannis K; De Bruyn, Mario; Clark, James H; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-11-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] production was developed in bioreactor cultures using the strain Cupriavidus necator DSM 7237 cultivated on crude glycerol, sunflower meal (SFM) hydrolysates and levulinic acid as the sole fermentation feedstocks. Bacterial growth and PHB production was influenced significantly by the free amino nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus content of the SFM hydrolysate. Fed-batch bioreactor fermentations led to the production of 27gL(-1) PHB with an intracellular content of 72.9% (w/w). Continuous feeding of levulinic acid led to the production of up to 23.4gL(-1) P(3HB-co-3HV) with an intracellular content of 66.4% (w/w) and a 3HV content of 22.5mol%. A maximum 3HV content of 31mol% was achieved at earlier fermentation time (53h). Thus, levulinic acid could be combined with biodiesel industry by-products for the production of high P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration, intracellular content and industrially useful 3HV content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Muhammad H.; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Knight, David W.; Jenkins, Robert L.; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other usef...

  18. Glycerol reforming in supercritical water : a short review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markocic, Elena; Kramberger, Boris; van Bennekom, Joost G.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Vos, John; Knez, Zeljko; Markočič, Elena; Knez, Željko

    Due to the rise in global biodiesel production, the amount of crude glycerol, the main byproduct, has increased steadily. Identification of high value added outlets for crude glycerol has been explored in detail to increase the overall economics of the biodiesel process. Examples are the use of

  19. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Muhammad H; Dummer, Nicholas F; Knight, David W; Jenkins, Robert L; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-12-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other useful chemicals, in a one-step low-pressure process. Our discovery opens up the possibility of recycling the crude glycerol produced during biodiesel manufacture. Furthermore, we show that molecules containing at least two hydroxyl groups can be converted into methanol, which demonstrates some aspects of the generality of this new chemistry.

  20. Microbial community engineering for biopolymer production from glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moralejo-Gárate, H.; Mar'atusalihat, E.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the potential of using microbial community engineering for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol was explored. Crude glycerol is a by-product of the biofuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) industry and potentially a good substrate for bioplastic production. A PHA-producing

  1. Preliminary assessment of synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of methane and glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, hybrid steam reforming (HSR) of desulphurized methane, together with crude glycerol, in existing commercial steam reformers to produce synthesis gas is proposed. The proposed concept consists of a gasifier to produce vapors, gases, and char from crude glycerol, which is coupled with

  2. Synthesis of Acrolein From Glycerol Using FePO4 Catalyst in Liquid Phase Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Akhmad Zainal; Afandi, Rani Guslianti; Graha, Hafis Pratama Rendra

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is currently produced using propylene from crude oil while its price and scarcity are increasing. A renewable material such as glycerol is an attractive alternative for acrolein production. It can be obtained from crude palm oil (CPO) and is a byproduct of biodiesel production. Besides being able to compete economically, glycerol is an environmentally friendly material. The purpose of this study is to synthesize acrolein from glycerol using FePO4 catalyst in liquid phase dehydration....

  3. The effect of glycerol from biodiesel production waste as a plasticizer on physical character edible film of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Fajar Abdul; Triastuti, Rr. Juni; Andriyono, Sapto

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm2 and a percent elongation of 2.13%.

  4. PPARa governs glycerol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patsouris, D.A.; Mandard, S.J.; Voshol, P.J.; Escher, P.; Tan, N.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Koenig, W.; März, W.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol, a product of adipose tissue lipolysis, is an important substrate for hepatic glucose synthesis. However, little is known about the regulation of hepatic glycerol metabolism. Here we show that several genes involved in the hepatic metabolism of glycerol, i.e., cytosolic and mitochondrial

  5. Review on enzymatic synthesis of value added products of glycerol, a by-product derived from biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pradima; M. Rajeswari Kulkarni; Archna

    2017-01-01

    Crude glycerol is produced as a by-product from biodiesel production via trans-esterification with methanol and this process accounts for 10% (w/w) of the total biodiesel produced worldwide. The glycerol glut created can be utilized to increase biodiesel profitability since disposal can pose a threat to the environment. The need is to transform this surplus crude glycerol into added-value products. Biological based conversions are efficient in providing products that are drop-in replacements ...

  6. Biological Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Raymond E. S.

    In a search to turn the economically and environmentally non-valuable "waste" streams of biodiesel production into a profitable byproduct, a mutant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was developed by six-tube subculturing technique. This technique is based on the principle of adaptive evolution, and involved subculturing the bacterium in a tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) containing specific glycerol and ethanol concentration for six consecutive times. Then, the six consecutive subculturing was repeated in a fresh TSB of higher glycerol and ethanol concentrations. A new mutant strain, E. aerogenes S012, which could withstand a combination of 200 g/l glycerol and 30 g/l ethanol concentrations, was developed. The wild and mutant strains were used for the fermentation of pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol. Taguchi and full factorial methods of design of experiments were used to screen and optimize the important process factors that influence the microbial production of ethanol. A statistically sound regression model was used to establish the mathematical relationship between the process variables and ethanol production. Temperature of 38°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm, pH of 6.3-6.6, and microaerobic condition were the optimum process conditions. Different pretreatment methods to recover glycerol from the crude glycerol and the subsequent fermentation method showed that direct acidification using 85% H3PO4 was the best. The R-glycerol contained 51% pure glycerol and 21% methanol. The wild strain, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, produced only 12 g/l and 12.8 g/l ethanol from 20 g/l P- and R-glycerol respectively, and could not utilize higher glycerol concentrations. The mutant, E. aerogenes S012, produced ethanol amount and yield of 43 g/l and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol from P-glycerol, respectively within 96 h. It also produced ethanol amount and yield of 26.8 g/l and 1.07 mol/mol-glycerol, respectively, from R-glycerol within the same duration. In a

  7. Chemical equilibrium of glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiabo; Wang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Transesterification of glycerol with cyclic carbonates or alkyl carbonates is thermodynamically favourable for the preparation of glycerol carbonate from glycerol. → The reaction of glycerol and carbon dioxide is thermodynamically limited. → High temperature and low pressure is favourable to the reaction of glycerol and urea. → Increasing temperature can increase the chemical equilibrium constant for the reaction of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate. → For the reaction of glycerol and ethylene carbonate, increasing temperature can decrease the chemical equilibrium constant. - Abstract: In this paper, the chemical equilibrium for the glycerol carbonate preparation from glycerol was investigated. The chemical equilibrium constants were calculated for the reactions to produce glycerol carbonate from glycerol. The theoretical calculation was compared with the experimental results for the transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate. Transesterification of glycerol with cyclic carbonates or alkyl carbonates is thermodynamically favourable for producing glycerol carbonate from glycerol according to the equilibrium constant. Increasing temperature can increase the chemical equilibrium constant for the reaction of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate. For the reaction of glycerol with ethylene carbonate, increasing temperature can decrease the chemical equilibrium constant. The reaction of glycerol with carbon dioxide is thermodynamically limited. High temperature and low pressure are favourable to the reaction of glycerol and urea.

  8. Effect of Glycerol and Glucose on the Enhancement of Biomass, Lipid and Soluble Carbohydrate Production by Chlorella vulgaris in Mixotrophic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel-derived glycerol is a promising substrate for mixotrophic cultivation of oleaginous microalgae, which can also reduce the cost of microalgal biodiesel. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using glycerol and glucose as a complex carbon substrate to produce microalgal biomass and biochemical components, such as photosynthetic pigments, lipids, soluble carbohydrates and proteins by Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that C. vulgaris can utilize glycerol as a sole carbon substrate, but its effect is inferior to that of the mixture of glycerol and glucose. The effect of glycerol and glucose could enhance the algal cell growth rate, biomass content and volumetric productivity, and overcome the lower biomass production on glycerol as the sole organic carbon source in mixotrophic culture medium. The utilization of complex organic carbon substrate can stimulate the biosynthesis of lipids and soluble carbohydrates as the raw materials for biodiesel and bioethanol production, and reduce the anabolism of photosynthetic pigments and proteins. This study provides a promising niche for reducing the overall cost of biodiesel and bioethanol production from microalgae as it investigates the by-products of algal biodiesel production and algal cell hydrolysis as possible raw materials (lipids and carbohydrates and organic carbon substrates (soluble carbohydrates and glycerol for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae.

  9. Enhancing Biodiesel Production Using Green Glycerol-Enriched Calcium Oxide Catalyst : An Optimization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avhad, Mangesh R.; Gangurde, L.S.; Sánchez, Marcos; Bouaid, Abderrahim; Aracil, José; Martínez, Mercedes; Marchetti, Jorge M.

    2018-01-01

    The present article demonstrates a superior catalytic performance of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide for biodiesel production than other calcium-based counterparts. The proficiency of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide in catalyzing the methanolysis of crude Jatropha curcas oil containing high free

  10. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4·g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4·g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the acylglycerols and resulting biodiesel derived from vegetable oil and microalgae (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Frank J; Benke, Peter I; Lane, Pamela D; Simmons, Blake A; Lane, Todd W

    2012-05-01

    Algal biofuels are a growing interest worldwide due to their potential in terms of sustainable greenhouse gas displacement and energy production. This article describes a comparative survey of biodiesel production and conversion yields of biodiesel via alkaline transesterification of acylglycerols extracted from the microalgae Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, grown under silicate or nitrate limitation, and that of model vegetable oils: soybean, and rapeseed oil. Acylglycerols were extracted with n-hexane and the total yield per biomass was determined by gravimetric assay. Under our conditions, the total acylglycerol yield from the microalgae studied was 13-18% of total dry weight. The biodiesel samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector to determine quantitative information of residual glycerol, mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations in the biodiesel. All of the algal-based biodiesel demonstrated less mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations than the vegetable-based biodiesel under identical transesterification conditions. The fatty acid compositions of all the feedstock oils and their resultant biodiesel were also analyzed and reported. Based on the fatty acid methyl ester compositions of our samples we qualitatively assessed the suitability of the algal-derived biodiesel in terms of cetane number (CN), cold-flow properties, and oxidative stability. Copyright © Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  14. Effect of fermentation parameters on bio-alcohols production from glycerol using immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: an optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Swati; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of effect of fermentation parameters for conversion of glycerol (in both pure and crude form) into three value-added products, namely, ethanol, butanol, and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum and thereby addresses the statistical optimization of this process. The analysis of effect of different process parameters such as agitation rate, fermentation temperature, medium pH, and initial glycerol concentration indicated that medium pH was the most critical factor for total alcohols production in case of pure glycerol as fermentation substrate. On the other hand, initial glycerol concentration was the most significant factor for fermentation with crude glycerol. An interesting observation was that the optimized set of fermentation parameters was found to be independent of the type of glycerol (either pure or crude) used. At optimum conditions of agitation rate (200 rpm), initial glycerol concentration (25 g/L), fermentation temperature (30°C), and medium pH (7.0), the total alcohols production was almost equal in anaerobic shake flasks and 2-L bioreactor. This essentially means that at optimum process parameters, the scale of operation does not affect the output of the process. The immobilized cells could be reused for multiple cycles for both pure and crude glycerol fermentation.

  15. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  16. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This STICS entry is for the presentation materials for a peer-reviewed journal manuscript entry by the same title (ORD-000108) previously entered an approved. A Product Description / Abstract for ORD-000108 was previously entered.

  17. Towards the sustainable production of acrolein by glycerol dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katryniok, Benjamin; Paul, Sébastien; Capron, Mickaël; Dumeignil, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The massive increase in biodiesel production by transesterification of vegatable oils goes hand-in-hand with the availability of a large volume of glycerol, which must be valorized. Glycerol dehydration to acrolein over acid catalysts is one of the most promising ways of valorization, because this compound is an important chemical intermediate used in, for example, the DL-methionine synthesis. In this Minireview, we give a detailed critical view of the state-of-the-art of this dehydration reaction. The processes developed in both the liquid and the gas phases are detailed and the best catalytic results obtained so far are reported as a benchmark for future developments. The advances on the understanding of the reaction mechanism are also discussed and we further focus particularly on the main obstacles for an immediate industrial application of this technology, namely catalyst coking and crude glycerol direct-use issues.

  18. Crude glycerin in the supplement for beef cattle on pasture

    OpenAIRE

    San Vito, Elias [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted during the dry and rainy season, in order to assess the increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (80% glycerol) in the supplement of young Nellore grazing tropical grass, on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, rumen microorganism profile, performance, methane emission, and carcass and meat quality traits. The treatment consist of supplements with increasing concentrations (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g/kg DM basis of supplement) of crude glycerin, fed ...

  19. Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Andrius; Valatkevičius, Pranas; Gimžauskaitė, Dovilė; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Mėčius, Vladas; Aikas, Mindaugas

    2017-04-01

    Glycerol, considered as a waste feedstock resulting from biodiesel production, has received much attention in recent years due to its properties, which offer to recover energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a thermal water vapor plasma for waste (crude) glycerol conversion to synthesis gas, or syngas (H 2  + CO). In parallel of crude glycerol, a pure glycerol (99.5%) was used as a reference material in order to compare the concentrations of the formed product gas. A direct current (DC) arc plasma torch stabilized by a mixture of argon/water vapor was utilized for the effective glycerol conversion to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. It was found that after waste glycerol treatment, the main reaction products were gases with corresponding concentrations of H 2 50.7%, CO 23.53%, CO 2 11.45%, and CH 4 3.82%, and traces of C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 , which concentrations were below 0.5%. The comparable concentrations of the formed gas products were obtained after pure glycerol conversion-H 2 46.4%, CO 26.25%, CO 2 11.3%, and CH 4 4.7%. The use of thermal water vapor plasma producing synthesis gas is an effective method to recover energy from both crude and pure glycerol. The performance of the glycerol conversion system was defined in terms of the produced gas yield, the carbon conversion efficiency, the cold gas efficiency, and the specific energy requirements.

  20. Bacterial glycerol oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction at neutral and acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sidnei C; Liebensteiner, Martin G; van Gelder, Antonie H; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Almeida, Paulo F; Quintella, Cristina M; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2018-03-27

    Glycerol is a main co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol may serve as a cheap and attractive substrate in biotechnological applications, e.g. for the production of valuable chemicals or as an electron donor for reduction processes. In this work, sulfate reduction with glycerol was studied at neutral and acidic pH using bioreactor sludge samples and Tinto River sediments as a source of inoculum, respectively. Communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative bacteria were co-enriched at both pH values. Molecular analyses revealed that sequences belonging to Desulfomicrobium genus were dominant in the cultures enriched at pH 7, while Desulfosporosinus sequences dominated in the culture enriched at pH 4. Glycerol conversion was coupled to sulfate reduction, but the substrate was incompletely oxidized to acetate in the neutrophilic enrichments, and acetate, lactate, and 1,3-propanediol under low pH conditions. Two strains belonging to Desulfomicrobium and Proteiniphilum genera were isolated from the neutrophilic enrichments, but the first isolate was not able to use glycerol, which suggests a syntrophic relationship between glycerol-degrading fermentative bacteria and SRB. A Clostridium strain able to grow with glycerol was isolated from the low pH enrichment. Our data indicate that glycerol promotes the growth of sulfate-reducing communities to form sulfide, which can be used to precipitate and recover heavy metals.

  1. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 degrees C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106+/-36 ml CH(4)/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353+/-94 ml CH(4)/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate (mu(max)) and the saturation constant (K(S)) of glycerol were 0.149+/-0.015 h(-1) and 0.276+/-0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage in Gilthead Seabream Muscle: Glycerol Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeiro, Odete D.

    2012-01-01

    seabream. Two diets were tested in duplicate (n = 42/tank). Results show 5% inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets induces increased muscle glycogen, ATP levels and firmness, with no deleterious effects in terms of growth, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, oxidative state...

  3. Dark fermentative bioconversion of glycerol to hydrogen by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasun; Sharma, Rishi; Ray, Subhasree; Mehariya, Sanjeet; Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel manufacturing units discharge effluents rich in glycerol. The need is to convert crude glycerol (CG) into useful products such as hydrogen (H2). Under batch culture, Bacillusthuringiensis EGU45 adapted on pure glycerol (PG, 2% v/v) resulted in an H2 yield of 0.646 mol/mol glycerol consumed on minimal media (250 mL) supplemented with 1% ammonium nitrate at 37°C over 4 days. Here, H2 constituted 67% of the total biogas. Under continuous culture, at 2 days of hydraulic retention time, B. thuringiensis immobilized on ligno-cellulosic materials (banana leaves - BL, 10% v/v) resulted in a H2 yield of 0.386 mol/mol PG consumed. On CG, the maximal H2 yield of 0.393 mol/mol feed consumed was recorded. In brief, B. thuringiensis could transform CG, on limited resources - minimal medium with sodium nitrate, by immobilizing them on cheap and easily available biowaste, which makes it a suitable candidate for H2 production on a large scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  5. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was determined as it has been done for other species. The ME of glycerol for adult cats was estimated to be 3,185 kcal/kg DM. Supplementing the diets of the cats

  6. Glycerol: a brief history and their application in stereoselective syntheses; Glicerol: um breve historico e aplicacao em sinteses estereosseletivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatriz, Adilson; Araujo, Yara J.K.; Lima, Denis Pires de, E-mail: adilson.beatriz@ufms.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (DQ/UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Presently glycerol is considered a co-product of biodiesel industry. As the biodiesel production is exponentially increasing, glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetable oils and fats is also being produced on a large scale, and turned out to be essential seeking for novel alternatives to the consumption of the extra volume, in crude and/or as derivatives high added value. This review mainly deals with chemical and enzymatic transformations of glycerol to obtain chiral building blocks for synthesis of pharmaceuticals and natural products. (author)

  7. The Lubricity of Glycerol and its Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, J.

    2016-01-01

    the one predicted by hydrodynamic lubrication calculations. Addition of water to glycerol lowers the friction but increases the wear. In the present paper the lubricity (boundary lubrication performance) of glycerol and its solutions with water, ethanol and methanol is investigated. Dilution of glycerol...... up to 15% shows no wear in a standard wear test. Decrease in the glycerol content below 85% reveals significant wear and solutions with less than 15% glycerol show nearly the same wear as the solvent itself. The conclusion is that glycerol may be an excellent lubricant in hydrodynamics but when...

  8. Fermentative utilization of glycerol residue for the production of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Joli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Glycerol residue, frequently known as pitch, is a waste produced from the downstream product of crude glycerine distillation. With the increasing need of pure glycerine in the world, the glycerol residue produced is also increasing. Glycerol residue is a solid waste at room temperature, highly alkaline (pH > 13), corrosive, and categorized as hazardous and poisonous waste. In this research, acetic acid was produced from glycerol residue through the anaerobic fermentation process by using purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of concentration change of glycerol residue on time and to find out the possibility of glycerol residue to be utilized as acetic acid. In this research, at first 400 g of glycerol residue was diluted with 200 ml of distilled water to change the glycerine phase, from solid to liquid at room temperature, acidified by using hydrochloric acid until pH 2. The top layer formed was fatty acid and triglycerides that should be removed. Meanwhile, the bottom layer was diluted glycerol residue which was then neutralized with caustic soda. To produce acetic acid, glycerol residue with various concentrations, salt, and purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were put together into a 100 ml bottle which had been previously sterilized, then incubated for four weeks under the light of 40-watt bulb. The result showed that on the 28th day of fermentation, the produced acetic acid were 0.28, 1.85, and 0.2% (w/w) by using glycerine with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w), respectively.

  9. Improved 1,3-Propanediol Synthesis from Glycerol by the Robust Lactobacillus reuteri Strain DSM 20016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Russo, Annamaria; Pisano, Isabella; Palmieri, Luigi; de Angelis, Maria; Agrimi, Gennaro

    2015-06-01

    Various Lactobacillus reuteri strains were screened for the ability to convert glycerol to 1,3- propanediol (1,3-PDO) in a glycerol-glucose co-fermentation. Only L. reuteri DSM 20016, a well-known probiotic, was able to efficiently carry out this bioconversion. Several process strategies were employed to improve this process. CO(2+) addition to the fermentation medium, led to a high product titer (46 g/l) of 1,3-PDO and to improved biomass synthesis. L. reuteri DSM 20016 produced also ca. 3 μg/g of cell dry weight of vitamin B12, conferring an economic value to the biomass produced in the process. Incidentally, we found that L. reuteri displays the highest resistance to CO(2+) ions ever reported for a microorganism. Two waste materials (crude glycerol from biodiesel industry and spruce hydrolysate from paper industry) alone or in combination were used as feedstocks for the production of 1,3-PDO by L. reuteri DSM 20016. Crude glycerol was efficiently converted into 1,3-PDO although with a lower titer than pure glycerol (-18%). Compared with the fermentation carried out with pure substrates, the 1,3- PDO produced was significantly lower (40.7 vs. 24.2 g/l) using cellulosic hydrolysate and crude glycerol, but strong increases of the maximal biomass produced (+27%) and of the glucose consumption rate (+46%) were found. The results of this study lay the foundation for further investigations to exploit the biotechnological potential of L. reuteri DSM 20016 to produce 1,3-PDO and vitamin B12 using industry byproducts.

  10. A Simple and Efficient Process for Large Scale Glycerol Oligomerization by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, an optimized method for 100 g scale synthesis of glycerol oligomers using a microwave multimode source and the low priced K2CO3 as catalyst is reported. This method allows the complete conversion of glycerol to its oligomers in only 30 min, yielding molecular weights up to 1000 g mol−1. Furthermore, a simple iterative purification process, involving the precipitation of the crude product in acetone and methanol, affords a final product composed of larger oligomers with a narrow dispersity (D < 1.5.

  11. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared ...

  12. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a tem- perature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders.

  13. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Atadashi; M.K. Aroua; A.R. Abdul Aziz; N.M.N. Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar), temperature (°C) and flow rate (L/min) on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD) coupled with Response Surface Methodology (...

  14. Biosynthesis of Citric Acid from Glycerol by Acetate Mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in Fed-Batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rywińska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and crude glycerol from biodiesel production have been used as substrates for citric acid production by acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in fed-batch fermentation. Both the final concentration and the yield of the product were the highest when Y. lipolytica Wratislavia AWG7 strain was used in the culture with pure or crude glycerol. With a medium containing 200 g/L of glycerol, production reached a maximum of citric acid of 139 g/L after 120 h. This high yield of the product (up to 0.69 g of citric acid per gram of glycerol consumed was achieved with both pure and crude glycerol. Lower yield of citric acid in the culture with Y. lipolytica Wratislavia K1 strain (about 0.45 g/g resulted from increased erythritol concentrations (up to 40 g/L, accumulated simultaneously with the citric acid. The concentration of isocitric acid, a by-product in this fermentation, was very low, in the range from 2.6 to 4.6 g/L.

  15. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mathias; Islam, Zia ul; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae. This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression...... of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Komagataella pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S...

  16. High quality potassium phosphate production through step-by-step glycerol purification: a strategy to economize biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javani, Azita; Hasheminejad, Meisam; Tahvildari, Kambiz; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2012-01-01

    The cost of biodiesel production can be reduced by a number of strategies such as utilization of waste cooking oils and non-edible plant oils as well as implementation of improved separation technologies. In addition, processes dealing with the glycerol by-product can have economic benefits. In the present study, acidification of crude glycerol with phosphoric acid to pH 9.67 followed by acidification to 4.67 was implemented to produce high quality potassium phosphate during glycerol purification. KH(2)PO(4), K(2)HPO(4), glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs) with a purity of 98%, 98.05%, 96.08% and 99.58% were obtained, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of Acrolein from Glycerol Using FePO4 Catalyst in Liquid Phase Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Zainal Abidin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is currently produced using propylene from crude oil while its price and scarcity are increasing. A renewable material such as glycerol is an attractive alternative for acrolein production. It can be obtained from crude palm oil (CPO and is a byproduct of biodiesel production. Besides being able to compete economically, glycerol is an environmentally friendly material. The purpose of this study is to synthesize acrolein from glycerol using FePO4 catalyst in liquid phase dehydration. The catalyst was prepared by three different methods: hydrothermal (catalyst A, deposition at Fe/P = 1.15 (catalyst B, and deposition at Fe/P = 1.20 (catalyst C. The experimental reaction temperature was varied at 220, 240 and 260 °C under constant atmospheric pressure. The results showed that catalyst C provided the best yield (91%, followed by catalyst A (90% and catalyst B (82%. The increasing reaction temperature showed a tendency to increase the yield of acrolein, while the presence of oxygen reduced the yield of acrolein and allowed the reaction to produce more side products such as glycerol propanal, acetaldehyde, and propionate. Catalyst reuse without any regeneration resulted in a yield profile of acrolein that continued to decline.

  18. Hyperhydrating with glycerol: implications for athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R

    1999-02-01

    Small decreases in hydration status can result in a dramatic decrement in athletic performance and greatly increase the risk of thermal injury. Because of its osmotic properties, which enable greater fluid retention than the ingestion of water alone, glycerol has been proposed as a hyperhydrating agent. In fact, glycerol is now commercially available and marketed as a sport supplement to be ingested with water or sport drinks; thus, dietitians need to be cognizant of this new addition to the sports nutrition table. The results of glycerol-induced hyperhydration research have been equivocal, most likely because of methodologic differences between studies, such as variations in the intensity of exercise, environmental conditions, and concentration or dose of glycerol administered. Although the suggested dosage of glycerol depends on body size and varies between manufacturers, 1 g/kg body weight with an additional 1.5 L fluid taken 60 to 120 minutes before competition is standard. Some test subjects reported feeling bloated or nauseated after ingesting glycerol. This review examines glycerol-induced hyperhydration research and the safety of ingesting glycerol, discusses commercial availability of glycerol, and makes recommendations for glycerol-induced hyperhydration research.

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  20. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Kalia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism’s genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium.

  1. Oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARIDGE, C A; HENDLIN, D

    1962-12-01

    Claridge, C. A. (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.) and David Hendlin. Oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1181-1186. 1962.-The nature of the factors in yeast autolysate essential for the oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis F24 was examined. Two factors appear to be involved in the oxidation of glycerol. One factor was shown to be an inducer of the enzyme system required for glycerol oxidation; the other was shown to be alpha-lipoic acid. Minute quantities of glucose will "spark" growth of S. faecalis in a medium containing glycerol and acetate as carbon sources, probably by supplying sufficient energy for induction of the glycerol-oxidation system.

  2. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Heureux, A.M.; D'Andrea, W.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial

  3. Propionic acid production in glycerol/glucose co-fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-06-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii can ferment glucose and glycerol to propionic acid with acetic and succinic acids as two by-products. Propionic acid production from glucose was relatively fast (0.19 g/Lh) but gave low product yield (~0.39 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~2.6; P/S: ~4.8). In contrast, glycerol with a more reduced state gave a high propionic acid yield (~0.65 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~31; P/S: ~11) but low productivity (0.11 g/L h). On the other hand, co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose at an appropriate mass ratio gave both a high yield (0.54-0.65 g/g) and productivity (0.18-0.23 g/L h) with high product selectivity (P/A: ~14; P/S: ~10). The carbon flux distributions in the co-fermentation as affected by the ratio of glycerol/glucose were investigated. Finally, co-fermentation with cassava bagasse hydrolysate and crude glycerol in a fibrous-bed bioreactor was demonstrated, providing an efficient way for economic production of bio-based propionic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of cell proliferation by glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, J.P.; Dinsdale, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of glycerol on proliferation of BHK, CHO, HBL, MCF-7, and human glioma cells was studied. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased in all the cell lines at glycerol concentrations of 2-4% in the culture medium. The inhibition was dose-dependent, complete suppression of proliferation occurring at a glycerol concentration of 4% for the MCF-7 cell line and 6-8% for the BHK, CHO and human glioma cells. Studies on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation correlate with the effect on cell proliferation. The viability of the cells was not significantly affected until higher concentrations of glycerol were present. Recovery studies with BHK cells indicated that replacement of the glycerol medium with glycerol-free medium resulted in full recovery following exposure to 4% glycerol and only partial recovery of proliferation rate following exposure to 10-12% glycerol. It is concluded that glycerol, a substance that is normally present in tissues, can serve as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation

  5. Ruminal kinectics of rations with different crude glycerin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Villalba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current consumption of glycerol is not enough to use all the glycerol that can be generated by high production levels of biodiesel, which could lead to irresponsible disposal of this residue in the environment. An alternative to consuming part of the glycerol produced is its use in animal feeding. An important assessment to be made before adding any ingredient in the diet of ruminants is if the new ingredient causes some change in the kinetics of ruminal organic matter. In this context, increasing levels of crude glycerin (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 g kg-1 dry matter were included in isonitrogen and isocaloric diets formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of a 300 kg beef cattle gaining 1.2 kg d -1, in order to evaluate possible effects of glycerol on the in vitro kinetics of organic matter degradation, Ph and ammonia ruminal levels, and microbial protein production. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine treatments and three replications. The maximum volume of gas produced by soluble and insoluble fractions, the rate of gas production by the degradation of the soluble fraction and insoluble fractions, the latency, the ruminal pH, the production of ammonia and of microbial protein did not differ among levels of glycerin. In contrast, the in vitro digestibility of dry matter, the organic matter and the fiber showed a linear increase with the inclusion of glycerin.

  6. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  7. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  8. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the whole-cell biotransformation process. These results should be useful for the development of advanced bioprocess in terms of glycerol utilization. Keywords: Dihydroxyacetone, Glycerol dehydrogenase, NAD+, whole-cell biotransformation, Escherichia coli. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(27), pp. 4387-4392 ...

  9. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Accession No. CP000948) in E. coli, catalyzes reversible reactions for the interconversion of glycerol and DHA. In the forward reaction, glycerol is oxidized to DHA at the expense of a stoichiometric amount of the cofactor NAD+. Therefore, NAD+ supply and recycling is essential to drive the forward reaction ...

  10. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  11. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  13. Ecotoxicology of Glycerol Monolaurate nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Santos, Cayane G; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Raffin, Renata P; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baretta, Dilmar; Maccari, Ana Paula; Giombelli, Laura Caroline D D; Volpato, Andreia; Arruda, Jessyka; de Ávila Scheeren, Cecília; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Santos, Roberto C V

    2017-05-01

    Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a compound with known antimicrobial potential, however it is not much used due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages such as improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to produce, characterize, and evaluate the ecotoxicity of GML nanocapsules. The nanocapsules were produced and presented a mean diameter of 210nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4mV. The electron microscopy images showed the nanometric size and spherical shape. The assay in soil showed that GML has a high toxicity while the GML nanocapsules showed decreased toxic effects. Nanostructuration also protected the Rhamdia quelen against the toxic effects of GML. Concluding, the formulation shows positive results and is useful to predict the success of development besides not damaging the soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends derived from crude Moringa peregrina seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaheldeen, Mohammed; Aroua, M.K.; Mariod, A.A.; Cheng, Sit Foon; Abdelrahman, Malik A.; Atabani, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of M. peregrina biodiesel are determined for the first time. • Biodiesel was produced easily by alkaline transesterification in one step. • The effect of diesel on the properties of biodiesel was examined. • M. peregrina is a potential crop for sustainable production of biodiesel. - Abstract: Moringaceae is a monogeneric family with a single genus i.e. Moringa. This family includes 13 species. All these species are known as medicinal, nutritional and water purification agents. This study reports, for the first time, on characterization of the biodiesel derived from crude Moringaperegrina seed oil and its blends with diesel. The crude oil was converted to biodiesel by the transesterification reaction, catalyzed by potassium hydroxide. High ester content (97.79%) was obtained. M. peregrina biodiesel exhibited high oxidative stability (24.48 h). Moreover, the major fuel properties of M. peregrina biodiesel conformed to the ASTM D6751 standards. However, kinematic viscosity (4.6758 mm 2 /s), density (876.2 kg/m 3 ) and flash point (156.5 °C) were found higher than that of diesel fuel. In addition, the calorific value of M. peregrina biodiesel (40.119 MJ/kg) was lower than the diesel fuel. The fuel properties of M. peregrina biodiesel were enhanced significantly by blending with diesel fuel. In conclusion, M. peregrina is a suitable feedstock for sustainable production of biodiesel only blended up to 20% with diesel fuel, considering the edibility of all other parts of this tree

  15. Esters of oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol): New biobased oligomeric surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmiere, Sébastien; Valentin, Romain; Maréchal, Philippe; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the most potentially multifunction glycerol-derived compounds. Glycerol is an important by-product of the oleochemical industry. The oligomerization of glycerol carbonate, assisted by the glycerol, results in the production of polyhydroxylated oligomers rich in linear carbonate groups. The polar moieties of these oligomers (M w ethylene oxide as in most commercial surfactants. The insertion of linear carbonate groups into the glycerol-based skeleton rendered the oligomers amphiphilic, resulting in a decrease in air/water surface tension to 57mN/m. We improved the physical and chemical properties of the oligomers, by altering the type of acylation reaction and the nature of the acyl donor. The polar head is constituted of homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers. Homo-oligomers are oligoglycerol and/or oligocarbonate, hetero-oligomers are oligo(glycerol-glycerol carbonate). Coprah oligoesters had the best surfactant properties (CMCethylene glycol monododecyl ether, glycol ethers and fatty acid esters of sorbitan polyethoxylates. The self-assembling properties of oligocarbonate esters were highlighted by their ability to stabilize inverse and multiple emulsions. The oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol ether) with relatively low molecular weights showed properties of relatively high-molecular weight molecules, and constitute a viable "green" alternative to ethoxylated surfactants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  17. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  18. Glycerol as an Efficient Medium for the Petasis Borono–Mannich Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Tomi; Gois, Pedro M P; Franzen, Robert; Candeias, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    The multicomponent Petasis borono–Mannich (PBM) reaction is a useful tool for the preparation of complex molecules in a single step from boronic acids, aldehydes/ketones, and amines. Here, we describe the use of glycerol in the PBM reaction of salicylaldehydes or 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde with several boronic acids and secondary amines. From these readily available starting materials, alkylaminophenols, 2-substituted pyridines, and 2H-chromenes were prepared in reasonable to good yields. Glycerol was compared with other solvents, and in some cases, it provided the reaction product in higher yield. Crude glycerol, as generated by the biodiesel industry, was evaluated and found to be a suitable solvent for the PBM reaction, successfully expanding the potential use of this industry by-product. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the obtained experimental results, the involvement of glycerol-derived boronic esters in the reaction mechanism is suggested to be competitive with the free boronic acid pathway. Similar Gibbs free energies for the aryl migration from the boronate species to the iminium were determined for both mechanisms. PMID:25861569

  19. Glycerol as an efficient medium for the petasis borono-mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Tomi; Gois, Pedro M P; Franzen, Robert; Candeias, Nuno R

    2015-02-01

    The multicomponent Petasis borono-Mannich (PBM) reaction is a useful tool for the preparation of complex molecules in a single step from boronic acids, aldehydes/ketones, and amines. Here, we describe the use of glycerol in the PBM reaction of salicylaldehydes or 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde with several boronic acids and secondary amines. From these readily available starting materials, alkylaminophenols, 2-substituted pyridines, and 2H-chromenes were prepared in reasonable to good yields. Glycerol was compared with other solvents, and in some cases, it provided the reaction product in higher yield. Crude glycerol, as generated by the biodiesel industry, was evaluated and found to be a suitable solvent for the PBM reaction, successfully expanding the potential use of this industry by-product. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the obtained experimental results, the involvement of glycerol-derived boronic esters in the reaction mechanism is suggested to be competitive with the free boronic acid pathway. Similar Gibbs free energies for the aryl migration from the boronate species to the iminium were determined for both mechanisms.

  20. Liquid dynamics in partially crystalline glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Niss, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    influences the liquid dynamics visibly. For one of the samples studied, a tiny fraction of glycerol remained in the disordered state after the end of the transition. We examined the nature of the relaxation in this frustrated crystal and find that it is virtually identical to the bulk dynamics. In addition......, we have found no evidence that supercooled glycerol transforms into a peculiar phase in which either a new solid amorphous state or nano-crystals dispersed in a liquid matrix are formed....

  1. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  2. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  3. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  4. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining the

  5. Quantitative ‘Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Parveen; Spicer, Vic; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Xiangli; Fristensky, Brian; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David. B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. ‘Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the ‘Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1) glycerol transportation; 2) enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA). Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in determining

  6. Quantitative 'Omics Analyses of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanaote Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 Cultured with Waste Glycerol and Waste Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilagamazhi Fu

    Full Text Available Transcriptomes and proteomes of Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with biodiesel-derived waste glycerol or waste free fatty acids, as sole carbon sources, were compared under conditions that were either permissive or non-permissive for synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA. The objectives of this study were to elucidate mechanisms that influence activation of biopolymer synthesis, intra-cellular accumulation, and monomer composition, and determine if these were physiologically specific to the carbon sources used for growth of P. putida LS46. Active mcl-PHA synthesis by P. putida LS46 was associated with high expression levels of key mcl-PHA biosynthesis genes and/or gene products including monomer-supplying proteins, PHA synthases, and granule-associated proteins. 'Omics data suggested that expression of these genes were regulated by different genetic mechanisms in P. putida LS46 cells in different physiological states, when cultured on the two waste carbon sources. Optimal polymer production by P. putida LS46 was primarily limited by less efficient glycerol metabolism during mcl-PHA synthesis on waste glycerol. Mapping the 'Omics data to the mcl-PHA biosynthetic pathway revealed significant variations in gene expression, primarily involved in: 1 glycerol transportation; 2 enzymatic reactions that recycle reducing equivalents and produce key mcl-PHA biosynthesis pathway intermediates (e.g. NADH/NADPH, acetyl-CoA. Active synthesis of mcl-PHAs was observed during exponential phase in cultures with waste free fatty acids, and was associated with the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. A putative Thioesterase in the beta-oxidation pathway that may regulate the level of fatty acid beta-oxidation intermediates, and thus carbon flux to mcl-PHA biosynthesis, was highly up-regulated. Finally, the data suggested that differences in expression of selected fatty acid metabolism and mcl-PHA monomer-supplying enzymes may play a role in

  7. Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, R.

    2012-01-01

    KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques

    Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol

  8. Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, R.

    2012-01-01

    KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane

  9. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  10. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  11. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  12. From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Villorbina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.

  13. Tandem transformation of glycerol to esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotenko, Maria V; Rebroš, Martin; Sans, Victor S; Loponov, Konstantin N; Davidson, Matthew G; Stephens, Gill; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2012-12-31

    Tandem transformation of glycerol via microbial fermentation and enzymatic esterification is presented. The reaction can be performed with purified waste glycerol from biodiesel production in a continuous mode, combining continuous fermentation with membrane-supported enzymatic esterification. Continuous anaerobic fermentation was optimized resulting in the productivity of 2.4 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ of 1,3-propanediol. Biphasic esterification of 1,3-propanediol was optimized to achieve ester yield of up to 75%. A hollow fibre membrane contactor with immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase was demonstrated for the continuous tandem fermentation-esterification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  15. Investigation of glycerol assimilation and cofactor metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders Koefoed

    : anaerobic, aerobic and respiration permissive growth in combination with either glycerol as a sole substrate or with co-metabolization of glycerol with common sugar substrates. Although no growth on glycerol was seen, both positive and detrimental effects were observed from cultures with glycerol...... itself under both anaerobic and respiration permissive conditions, but was not found to have the same profound effect on other sugar substrates such as galactose or ribose. Supplementation of nucleosides to the growth medium or increased substrate concentration were found to counteract the inhibitory...... of glycerol kinase from L. lactis, introduction of a heterologous glycerol assimilation pathway and construction of a library of NADH oxidase activity. Based on a preliminary analysis of transcription level data, an attempt was made to stimulate glycerol assimilation by overexpressing the glycerol kinase...

  16. Glycerol hypersensitivity in a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency is affected by mutations in eye pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Wightman

    Full Text Available Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374 and dGK (CG7995. As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency.

  17. Glycerol Hypersensitivity in a Drosophila Model for Glycerol Kinase Deficiency Is Affected by Mutations in Eye Pigmentation Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374) and dGK (CG7995). As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency. PMID:22427807

  18. Designation of highly efficient catalysts for one pot conversion of glycerol to lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meilin; Dan Zhang; Guan, Hongyu; Huang, Guohui; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-07-01

    Production of lactic acid from glycerol is a cascade catalytic procedure using multifunctional catalysts combined with oxidative and acidic catalytic sites. Therefore, a series of silver-exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalysts (AgxH3-xPMo12O40, x = 1 ~ 3, abbreviated as AgxPMo) was designed and applied in glycerol oxidation with O2 as an oxidant to produce lactic acid (LA) without adding any base. Among all, total silver exchanged phosphomolybdic acid (Ag3PMo) was found to be the most active one with LA selectivity of 93% at 99% conversion under mild conditions of 5 h at 60 °C. The exceptionally high efficiency was contributed to the generation of strong Lewis acid sites, enhanced redox potentials and water-tolerance. More importantly, Ag3PMo was tolerant in crude glycerol from biodiesel production. And the reaction mechanism was also discussed. Meanwhile, Ag3PMo acted as a heterogeneous catalyst for 12 recycles without loss of activity.

  19. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    These in- clude reduction of silver salts by NaBH4, HCHO/NaOH/ ... solid inorganic/organic salt of metal is suspended in a liquid polyol, the suspension is stirred and heated to a given temperature. The reduction of metallic salt by polyol quantitatively ... Though the solubility of silver nitrate in glycerol at room temperature is ...

  20. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nguyen H; Kannangara, G S Kamali

    2013-12-21

    Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas.

  1. Synthesis of prebiotic glycerol in interstellar ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ralf I; Maity, Surajit; Jones, Brant M

    2015-01-02

    Contemporary mechanisms for the spontaneous formation of glycerol have not been able to explain its existence on early Earth. The exogenous origin and delivery of organic molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation since biorelevant molecules like amino acids, carboxylic acids, and alkylphosphonic acids have been recovered from carbonaceous chondrites. Reported herein is the first in situ identification of glycerol, the key building block of all cellular membranes, formed by exposure of methanol-based - interstellar model ices to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. These results provide compelling evidence that the radiation-induced formation of glycerol in low-temperature interstellar model ices is facile. Synthesized on interstellar grains and eventually incorporated into the "building material" of solar systems, biorelevant molecules such as glycerol could have been dispensed to habitable planets such as early Earth by comets and meteorites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  3. Determining Atmospheric Pressure with a Eudiometer and Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Jed; Rohald, Kate; Sutton, Atasha

    2010-01-01

    We consider a volume of air trapped over a glycerol column in a eudiometer. We demonstrate that there is an approximately linear relationship between the volume of trapped air and the height of the glycerol column. Simply by moving the eudiometer up and down, we cause the glycerol-column height and trapped-air volume to vary. The plot of volume…

  4. Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate from lauric acid and glycerol for food antibacterial additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianto, W. B.; Wibowo, T. Y.; Yohanes, H.; Illaningtyas, F.; Anggoro, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate (GML) has been performed using esterification reaction of glycerol and lauric acid. The reaction was performed at the condition of temperature of 120-140 °C within 7 hour, variation of molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid, and was using heterogeneous catalyst of zeolist Y. Without catalyst dealumination the maximum acid conversion was 78%, with GML contained in the sample was 38.6%, and it was obtained at the reaction condition of 140 oC, 15wt% catalyst, and 8:1 molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid. At the same condition, using dealuminated catalyst, the maximum acid conversion was increased up to 98%, with GML contained in the sample was 50.4%. The GML antibacterial activity was examined. It was observed that the GML has antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial such as B. cereus and S. aureus.

  5. Clinical heterogeneity and novel mutations in the glycerol kinase gene in three families with isolated glycerol kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarif, D. R.; Sinke, R. J.; Duran, M.; Beemer, F. A.; Kleijer, W. J.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Isolated glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X linked recessive disorder. The clinical and biochemical picture may vary from a childhood metabolic crisis to asymptomatic adult "pseudohypertriglyceridaemia", the result of hyperglycerolaemia. We performed glycerol kinase (GK) gene analysis to study

  6. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids in lacustrine environments and their application as proxies for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Geologica Ultraiectina (322)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Lacustrine sediments often contain relatively high amounts of organic matter because of limited bottom water oxygenation and relatively high sedimentation rates. The membrane lipids of Crenarchaeota, a major group of the domain Archaea, consist of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether

  7. Crude incompatibility problems at heavy crude unit desalter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirmani, Z.; Khurshid, A.; Alam, N.; Gul, S.; Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) is based at Rawalpindi, Pakistan and operates a 40,000 Barrels per Stream Day (BPSD) refinery. The Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) of ARL is a fully integrated two-stage 10,000 BPSD Atmospheric and 5,700 BPSD Vacuum Distillation Unit. A 3-stage desalter designed to reduce salt and BS and W content from 2,000 parts per thousand barrels (PTB) and 2% to less than 5 PTB and 0.1% respectively, is part of HCU. The feedstock is a composite blend of 14 local Heavy Crudes received at the Refinery. Although in the past this desalter had been giving good performance, over the last one year, period since August 2005, at least nine shutdowns of the unit took place due to salt slippage and consequential tube leakages at the overhead Crude-Naphtha vapor Heat Exchanger where partial condensation of naphtha takes place. Final condensation is achieved in trim condenser. High salted water carry-over with the crude caused increased hydrolysis, formation of Hydrochloric acid and increase of tail water chlorides. Salt contents at the outlet of third desalter at times increased up to 400 PTB with 3.2% BS and W during the above mentioned upsets, as compared to normal 5-10 PTB. Fallout from this loss of desalter control was the creation of large quantities of slop due to draining of strong water oil emulsion from the desalters. Individual crudes of the blend were analyzed for affinity of water and emulsion stability. It was observed that 3 of the 14 crudes formed very strong while the remaining crudes formed weak oil water emulsion, which easily separated water from oil in desalter without any operational problem. Study was further narrowed down to one crude evaluation. Alkaline earth metallic naphthenate surfactants were detected and isolated as responsible for the strong water oil and sediments emulsion. The isolated crude was next withdrawn from the Heavy Crude blend. As soon as it was isolated and its ratio in heavy crude tank came down to 0.7 %, the problem began

  8. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  10. An improved glycerol biosensor with an Au-FeS-NAD-glycerol-dehydrogenase anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aishwarya; Fernando, Sandun

    2017-06-15

    An improved glycerol biosensor was developed via direct attachment of NAD + -glycerol dehydrogenase coenzyme-apoenzyme complex onto supporting gold electrodes, using novel inorganic iron (II) sulfide (FeS)-based single molecular wires. Sensing performance factors, i.e., sensitivity, a detection limit and response time of the FeS and conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-based biosensor were evaluated by dynamic constant potential amperometry at 1.3V under non-buffered conditions. For glycerol concentrations ranging from 1 to 25mM, a 77% increase in sensitivity and a 53% decrease in detection limit were observed for the FeS-based biosensor when compared to the conventional PQQ-based counterpart. The electrochemical behavior of the FeS-based glycerol biosensor was analyzed at different concentrations of glycerol, accompanied by an investigation into the effects of applied potential and scan rate on the current response. Effects of enzyme stimulants ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O) concentrations and buffers/pH (potassium phosphate buffer pH 6-8, Tris buffer pH 8-10) on the current responses generated by the FeS-based glycerol biosensor were also studied. The optimal detection conditions were 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 0.3µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O in non-buffered aqueous electrolyte under stirring whereas under non-stirring, Tris buffer at pH 10 with 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 30µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O were found to be optimal detection conditions. Interference by glucose, fructose, ethanol, and acetic acid in glycerol detection was studied. The observations indicated a promising enhancement in glycerol detection using the novel FeS-based glycerol sensing electrode compared to the conventional PQQ-based one. These findings support the premise that FeS-based bioanodes are capable of biosensing glycerol successfully and may be applicable for other enzymatic biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative study on glycerol metabolism to erythritol and citric acid in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ludwika; Rakicka, Magdalena; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Rywińska, Anita

    2014-09-01

    Citric acid and erythritol biosynthesis from pure and crude glycerol by three acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was investigated in batch cultures in a wide pH range (3.0-6.5). Citric acid biosynthesis was the most effective at pH 5.0-5.5 in the case of Wratislavia 1.31 and Wratislavia AWG7. With a decreasing pH value, the direction of biosynthesis changed into erythritol synthesis accompanied by low production of citric acid. Pathways of glycerol conversion into erythritol and citric acid were investigated in Wratislavia K1 cells. Enzymatic activity was compared in cultures run at pH 3.0 and 4.5, that is, under conditions promoting the production of erythritol and citric acid, respectively. The effect of pH value (3.0 and 4.5) and NaCl presence on the extracellular production and intracellular accumulation of citric acid and erythritol was compared as well. Low pH and NaCl resulted in diminished activity of glycerol kinase, whereas such conditions stimulated the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The presence of NaCl strongly influenced enzymes activity - the effective erythritol production was correlated with a high activity of transketolase and erythrose reductase. Therefore, presented results confirmed that transketolase and erythrose reductase are involved in the overproduction of erythritol in the cells of Y. lipolytica yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  13. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  15. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathias; Islam, Zia-Ul; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Carrillo, Martina; Swinnen, Steve; Workman, Mhairi; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-12-01

    Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae . This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus , Komagataella pastoris , Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S. cerevisiae wild-type strain (CBS 6412-13A). The maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.13 up to 0.18 h -1 and a biomass yield coefficient of 0.56 g DW /g glycerol was observed. These results pave the way for exploiting the assets of glycerol in the production of fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals based on baker's yeast.

  16. Development Of An Efficient Glycerol Utilizing Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strain Via Adaptive Laboratory Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Zirngibl, Katharina; Tharwat Tolba Mohamed, Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    catabolism in yeast. The knowledge acquired in this study may be further applied for rational S. cerevisiae strain improvement for using glycerol as a carbon source in industrial biotechnology processes. This work is a part of the DeYeastLibrary consortium financed by ERA-IB DeYeastLibrary - Designer yeast......With increasing interest in biosustainable technologies, the need for converting available non-saccharide carbon sources most efficiently is emerging. Highly abundant crude glycerol, a major waste residue in biodiesel production, has attracted attention as a cheap carbon source for microbial...... fermentation processes. The most commonly known microbial cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been extensively applied for the production of a wide range of scientifically and industrially relevant products using saccharides (mainly glucose) as carbon source. However, it was shown...

  17. Halophilic biohydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol: A genomic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivisto, A.

    2013-11-01

    Glycerol is produced in large amounts as a by-product in biodiesel industry (10 kg per 100 kg biodiesel). By-products and waste materials are typically economical substrates for bioprocesses. Furthermore, microorganisms are able to combine the degradation of organic material with production of a wide range of metabolites and other cellular products. The current biotechnological interest of industrial glycerol lies on bioprocesses yielding environmentally friendly energy carrier molecules (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol) and reduced chemicals (1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone). Industrial glycerol also called as raw or crude glycerol, however, is a challenging substrate for microorganisms due to its impurities including alcohol, soaps, salts and metals. Halophiles (the salt-loving microorganisms) require salt for growth and heavy metal resistances have been characterized for numerous halophiles. Therefore, halophiles are potentially useful for the utilization of raw glycerol from biodiesel waste streams without pre-processing. Another challenge for large-scale microbial bioprocesses is a potential contamination with unfavorable microorganisms. For example, H{sub 2}-producing systems tend to get contaminated with H{sub 2}-consuming microorganisms. Extremophiles are organisms that have been adapted for life under extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high or low temperature, asidic or basic pH, dryness or high pressure. For extremophilic pure cultures contamination and thus the need to ensure a sterile environment might not be a problem due to the extreme process conditions that efficiently prevent the growth of most other bacteria. In addition, hypersaline environments (above 12 % NaCl) do not support the growth of H{sub 2} utilizing methanogens due to bioenergetic reasons. Halophilic fermentative H{sub 2} producers, on the other hand, have been shown to be active up to near salt saturation. The aims of the present study can be divided into two categories

  18. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.130 Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. If a tank... grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of crude...

  19. Isothermal Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Methanol + Glycerol and 1-Propanol + Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annas Wiguno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for two binary mixtures of methanol + glycerol and 1-propanol + glycerol were determined at the temperature range from (313.15 to 363.15 K using a simple quasi-static ebulliometer. All systems showed that the vapor pressures increased with increasing alcohols (methanol or 1-propanol concentrations at corresponding system. The Wilson, Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC activity coefficient models were used to correlate the experimental data. Both systems showed slightly deviations from the ideal liquid phase behavior.

  20. Optimization of biomass production of a mutant of Yarrowia lipolytica with an increased lipase activity using raw glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Galvagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica accumulates oils and is able to produce extracellular lipases when growing in different carbon sources including glycerol, the principal by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study, biomass production of a novel mutant strain of Y. lipolytica was statistically optimized by Response Surface Methodology in media containing biodiesel-derived glycerol as main carbon source. This strain exhibited distinctive morphological and fatty acid profile characteristics, and showed an increased extracellular lipase activity. An organic source of nitrogen and the addition of 1.0 g/l olive oil were necessary for significant lipase production. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Statistical Designs were employed for screening and optimization of fermentation in shaken flasks cultures, and the maximum values obtained were 16.1 g/l for biomass and 12.2 Units/ml for lipase, respectively. Optimized batch bioprocess was thereafter scaled in aerated bioreactors and the values reached for lipase specific activity after 95 % of the glycerol had been consumed, were three-fold higher than those obtained in shaken flasks cultures. A sustainable bioprocess to obtain biomass and extracellular lipase activity was attained by maximizing the use of the by-products of biodiesel industry.Optimización de la producción de biomasa usando glicerol crudo, de una cepa mutante de Yarrowia lipolytica con actividad incrementada de lipasa. La levadura Yarrowia lipolytica acumula aceites y produce una lipasa extracelular al crecer en diferentes fuentes de carbono, entre ellas el glicerol, principal subproducto de la creciente industria del biodiésel. En el presente trabajo, se optimizó mediante la metodología de superficies de respuesta la producción de biomasa de una nueva cepa mutante de Y. lipolytica, empleando medios con glicerol derivado de la industria del biodiésel como principal fuente de carbono. Esta cepa presentó caracter

  1. Intercalation compounds of vanadium(5) phosphates with glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, T.N.; Vykhodtseva, K.I.; Tarasova, D.V.; Soderzhinova, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction products of glycerol aqueous solutions with vanadium(5) phosphates were investigated by the methods of ESR, X-ray phase and thermal analyses. It is shown that glycerol molecules enter the interlayer space of VOPO 4 · 2H 2 O lattice with formation of disordered intercalated compounds with glycerol on the basis of partially reduced vanadium phosphate form when using α-VOPO 4 . 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Upgrading the Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Source of Energy Carriers and Chemicals—A Technological Review for Three Chemical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel obtained from biomass, accounting for 10% of the biodiesel production. In the context of a green economy, aiming for a reduction of the emission of atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions, the demand of biodiesel is expected to increase vastly, in parallel with a side glut supply of glycerol. Given the high cost of biodiesel compared with its fossil congener, upgrading of glycerol into added-value products can represent a secondary income source and turn the production of such alternative fuels economically sustainable in the long term. The glycerol obtained as by-product of biodiesel from biomass is in a crude form and must be purified. Some industrial solutions and applications were therein geared. The survey presented in this work, based on a reviewing of the existing literature, examines three routes for the valuing glycerol into energy carriers and chemicals, namely, carbonation, acylation, and steam reforming to hydrogen. The latter is embodied of great interest and importance, insofar that hydrogen by itself is considered as straighforward clean fuel for transportation uses, due to its high calorific power and to recent advances in fuel cells. We also have focused on the chain value from biomass to energies carriers through these pathways.

  3. Rebound phenomenon complicating cerebral dehydration with glycerol. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, R; Tourtellotte, W W; Arieff, A I; Tomiyasu, U; Mishra, S K; Schotz, M C

    1975-02-01

    A patient with glioblastoma multiforme of the brain was treated with both intravenous and oral glycerol as well as intravenous mannitol in an attempt to reduce increased intracranial pressure. After an initial lowering of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure to near normal values during continuous glycerol administration, a secondary rise in CSF pressure above the initial level occurred despite a persistent elevation of plasma osmolality (315 mOsm/kg) and glycerol level (30 mmole/l). Similarly, 4 hours after the administration of a single oral dose of glycerol, CSF pressure increased to levels higher (700 mm H2O) than the original baseline (400 mm H2O).

  4. Growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles fed glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vicente da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of dietary glycerol in replacement to starch on the growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 5, 10, and 15% purified glycerol and six replicates. Pelleted, isonitrogenous, and isocaloric diets were provided for 60 days. Growth performance parameters and muscle glucose and protein concentrations were not affected by dietary glycerol levels. The treatment with 15% glycerol presented higher levels of muscle and liver triglycerides. A quadratic effect of treatments on muscle and liver triglyceride concentrations was observed. The treatment with 0% glycerol presented higher hepatic glucose levels than the one with 15%. Treatments did not differ for concentrations of liver protein, as well as of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and protein. Treatments with 10 and 15% glycerol showed higher activity of the glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase enzyme than the treatment with 5%; however, there were no significant differences in the hepatic activities of the malic and glycerol kinase enzymes. A linear positive effect of treatments was observed on the activity of the glycerol kinase enzyme in liver. Levels of glycerol inclusion above 10% in the diet of Nile tilapia juveniles characterize it as a lipogenic nutrient.

  5. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Apposite of pig skin preserved in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Salinas A, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ apposite of pig skin are processed and preserved to low temperature (-80 C), which are sterilized by irradiation and transported to the hospitals in dry ice to avoid its unfreezing. With the purpose of making more simple the manipulation of the apposite it was carried out this work that consisted on developing the processing of the pig skin using glycerol like preservation medium, since this way the irradiation, the storage and transport of the apposite is carried out at refrigeration temperature, that makes its manage more simple. (Author)

  7. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  9. Slow rheological mode in glycerol and glycerol–water mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Gainaru, Catalin; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Glycerol–water mixtures were studied at molar concentrations ranging from xgly = 1 (neat glycerol) to xgly = 0.3 using shear mechanical spectroscopy. We observed a low frequency mode in neat glycerol, similar to what has been reported for monohydroxy alcohols. This mode has no dielectric...

  10. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... toiletries, plastics, leather, and textile. Glycerol, a major by-product in biodiesel manufacturing process, ..... Purification of crud glycerol from waste cooking oil based biodiesel production by orthogonal test method. China Pet. Process. Petrochem. Technol. 15:48-53. Volker FW, Steffen NL, Tobias MM (2011).

  11. On the amino acid esters of phosphatidyl glycerol from bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsmuller, U.M.T.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    1. 1. The phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus were fractionated on silicic acid columns. The major compounds all appeared to be polyglycerol lipids. Diphosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl glycerol were identified by comparison with the synthetic phospholipids. 2. 2. An amino acid derivative

  12. Studi Awal Proses Pembuatan Glycerol Tribenzoat Dari Gliserol Dan Asam Benzoat Dengan Menggunakan Katalis Asam Klorida

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrakhman, A; Rifianto, Yanuar; Widayat, W

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol esterification process is one method that is widely in the conversion of glycerol. The product of conversion glycerol is environmentally friendly and renewable because it is not derived from petroleum. The products of the conversion of glycerol is commonly used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and can also be used as an additive for biodiesel which is also the compound before the glycerol formed. This study aims to examine the reaction of glycerol and benzoi...

  13. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Agosto, Julian A.; McCabe, Edward R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol, the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization. We analyzed the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and identified five GK orthologs, including two loci with sequence homology to the mammalian Xp21 GK protein. Using a combination of sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons of orthologs between species, we characterized functional domains in the protein required for GK activity. Our findings include additional conserved domains that suggest novel nuclear and mitochondrial functions for glycerol kinase in apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Investigation of GK function in Drosophila will inform us about the role of this enzyme in development and will provide us with a tool to examine genetic modifiers of human metabolic disorders. PMID:16545593

  14. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING CRUDE PERFLUOROCARBONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeton, R.E.

    1959-03-24

    A method is described for refining organic perfluoro compounds. In the manufacture of perfluorinated compounds by the fluorination of hydrocarbons, the product frequently is contaminated ny incompletely fluorimated hydrogen containing impurities. These impurities can be removed by contacting the products in a fluid conditions with an active adsorbents such as silica gel or alumina gel. The patent claims are restricted to this refining of crude perfluorinated lubricating oil.

  15. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and crenarchaeol record post-glacial sea level rise in the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    This study evaluates the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distribution and provenance in sediments (spanning a minimum of 13.3 ka) from the St. Anna Trough (Northern Kara Sea). The site has experienced extensive fluctuation in the delivery of river-derived organic matter (OM), caused by a

  16. Microemulsion based hybrid biofuels using glycerol monooleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Plaban; Konwar, Lakhya Jyoti; Deka, Dhanapati

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel quality of GMO based MHBFs. • Effect of externally added monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on fuel characteristics of MHBF. • Structural and dynamic behaviors of GMO based MHBFs. • Can offer strong candidature for future biofuel industry. - Abstract: The present investigation aims to highlighten the effect of monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on structure and dynamic behavior and other fuel characteristics of microemulsion based hybrid biofuels (MHBFs). Fuel quality of MHBFs formulated using purified GMO (>90%), which was prepared by esterification of glycerol, was investigated in the study. Phase behaviors, droplet size distribution, number of droplets present in the system, average droplet size and average length of surface active agents were studied as a part of structural investigations of the GMO based MHBFs. Diffusion coefficient, energy barrier to droplet coalescence and rate of coalescence of droplets were also investigated for the formulated MHBFs. The number of droplets, length of surface active agent and the diffusion co-efficient were in the ranges of 1.87 × 10 21 –5.66 × 10 21 /m 3 , 0.92–1.07 nm and 1.00 × 10 −11 –1.79 × 10 −11 m 2 /s, respectively. The rate of droplet coalescence was obtained in the range 2.77 × 10 −4 –8.78 × 10 −4 times the collision factor. MHBFs incorporating the glycerol derived bio-based nonionic surfactant GMO exhibited viscosity of 4.12 mm 2 /s (at 40 °C), gross calorific value (GCV) of 39.17 MJ/kg and pour point of −7 °C.

  17. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of glycerol administration on experimental brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, R; Arieff, A I; Massry, S G

    1976-01-01

    The effects of glycerol on brain water and solute distribution in cerebral edema are not well known. In brail edema induced in dogs by focal freezing, tissue underlying the necrotic lesion had an elevated water content but the remainder of the brain was unaltered. Administration of glycerol to maintain plasma glycerol at about 35 mM dehydrated normal white matter, but water and solute contents of the edematous white matter were not changed. During the initial 3 hours of glycerol infusion, CSF pressure fell, but when the infusion was continued for 6 hours or more, a gradual rise in CSF pressure was observed. In three animals, the final CSF pressure was higher than preinfusion values. At this time, brain water content was significantly less than normal, but both CSF osmolality and glycerol concentration were higher than plasma. The data show that glycerol infusion can decrease intracranial volume towards normal by dehydration of normal, but not damaged, brain tissue. The rebound rise in CSF pressure observed during the continuous administration of glycerol cannot be explained by rehydration of brain tissue but may be related to alterations in CSF dynamics.

  19. Vanadium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Glycerol Without an External Reductant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Allan Robertson; Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter

    2018-01-01

    A vanadium‐catalysed deoxydehydration (DODH) of neat glycerol has been developed. Cheap and readily available ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) affords higher yields of allyl alcohol than the well‐established catalyst methyltrioxorhenium. A study in which deuterium‐labelled glycerol was used was und...... was undertaken to further elucidate the dual role of glycerol as both an oxidant and reductant. This study led to the proposal of a metal‐catalysed DODH mechanism for the production of allyl alcohol and a deeper understanding of the formation of the byproducts acrolein and propanal....

  20. Slow rheological mode in glycerol and glycerol–water mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Gainaru, Catalin; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    counterpart and disappears with increased water concentration. We propose that the hydrogen-bonded network formed between glycerol molecules is responsible for the observed slow mode and that water acts as a plasticizer for the overall dynamics and as a lubricant softening the hydrogen-bonding contribution......Glycerol–water mixtures were studied at molar concentrations ranging from xgly = 1 (neat glycerol) to xgly = 0.3 using shear mechanical spectroscopy. We observed a low frequency mode in neat glycerol, similar to what has been reported for monohydroxy alcohols. This mode has no dielectric...

  1. Waste-Glycerol-Directed Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica and Carbon with Superior Performance in Room-Temperature Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The development of easier, cheaper, and more ecofriendly synthetic methods for mesoporous materials remains a challenging topic to commercialize them, and the transformation of waste glycerol, as a biodiesel byproduct, into something useful and salable is one of the pending issues to be resolved. Here we first report that mesoporous silica (KIE-6) and carbon (KIE-7) can be simultaneously synthesized by using cheap and ecofriendly crude-waste-glycerol of biodiesel with or without glycerol purification, and we demonstrated the excellent performance of the mesoporous material as a catalyst support for formic acid decomposition. As a result, Pd-MnOx catalysts supported on NH2-functionalized KIE-6 showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF: 540.6 h-1) ever reported for room-temperature formic acid decomposition without additives. Moreover, we conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) from biomass cultivation through biodiesel production to KIE-6 and KIE-7 preparation, and it was confirmed that CO2 emission during synthesis of KIE-6 and KIE-7 could be reduced by 87.1% and 85.7%, respectively. We believe that our study suggested more ecofriendly and industry-friendly approaches for preparation of mesoporous materials, and utilization of waste glycerol.

  2. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  3. Glycerol metabolism in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha : phosphorylation as the initial step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, W. de; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1987-01-01

    In Hansenula polymorpha glycerol is metabolized via glycerol kinase and NAD(P)-independent glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase, enzymes which hitherto were reported to be absent in this methylotrophic yeast. Activity of glycerol kinase was readily detectable when cell-free extracts were

  4. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source.

  5. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  6. Recent advances in glycerol polymers: chemistry and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, the underlying chemistry of glycerol that provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations is described. Then, the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth are reviewed. Next, several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity are described. Fourth, the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine is described. Finally, the findings are concluded and summarized, as well as the potential opportunities for continued research efforts are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  8. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  9. Effects of visceral adiposity on glycerol pathways in gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J; Hughes, Connor; Ayers, Colby R; Malloy, Craig R; Jin, Eunsook S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the feasibility of using oral 13 C labeled glycerol to assess effects of visceral adiposity on gluconeogenic pathways in obese humans. Obese (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) participants without type 2 diabetes underwent visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessment and stratification by median VAT into high VAT-fasting (n=3), low VAT-fasting (n=4), and high VAT-refed (n=2) groups. Participants ingested [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol and blood samples were subsequently analyzed at multiple time points over 3h by NMR spectroscopy. The fractions of plasma glucose (enrichment) derived from [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol via hepatic gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were assessed using 13 C NMR analysis of glucose. Mixed linear models were used to compare 13 C enrichment in glucose between groups. Mean age, BMI, and baseline glucose were 49years, 40.1kg/m 2 , and 98mg/dl, respectively. Up to 20% of glycerol was metabolized in the TCA cycle prior to gluconeogenesis and PPP activity was minor (gluconeogenesis from glycerol in obese humans. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that excess visceral fat disrupts multiple pathways in hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  11. Baker's yeast catalyzed asymmetric reduction of methyl acetoacetate in glycerol containing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wolfson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate was successfully performed with baker's yeast in pure glycerol and mixtures of glycerol and water. Though yeast viability was very low after exposure to glycerol, the enzymatic activity in pure glycerol was preserved for some days. In addition, a mixture of glycerol and water combined the advantageous of each individual solvent and resulted in high catalytic performance and efficient product extraction yield

  12. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  13. Valorization of waste glycerol for the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by Cupriavidus necator and extraction in a sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels. Batch cultivation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production showed accumulation of 6.76g/L biomass containing 4.84g/L copolymer on WG with a maximum 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 24.6mol%. PHAs extraction using a non-toxic and recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C temperature and 30min incubation. This is the first report on jatropha based glycerol valorization for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production coupled with extraction using non-toxic solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combinations of glycerol percent, glycerol equilibration time, and thawing rate upon freezability of bull spermatozoa in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, H B; Almquist, J O

    1975-03-01

    Twelve ejaculates were used in a central composite experiment to test 15 combinations of glycerol (7, 9, 11, 13, or 15%), glycerol equilibration times (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h) and thawing rates (water at 35 C for 15 s, 50 C for 13 s, 65 C for 11 s, 80 C for 9 s, or 95 C for 7 s). Semen was diluted in heated skim milk-glycerol, packaged in .3-ml. Continental U.S. straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Based on post-thaw progressive sperm motility after storage at -196 C for 9 to 11 days, estimated optima from multiple regression were 10.7% for glycerol, 2.0 h for glycerol equilibration time, and 76 C for thawing bath temperature. Only the linear effect for each variable was significant. Much faster thawing rates and shorter glycerol equilibration times than those for freezing bull spermatozoa in glass ampules should be used for maximum post-thaw sperm motility in straws.

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of dairy steers fed diets containing crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to assess the effects of including 0, 79.8, 159.8, and 240.0 g kg-1 crude glycerin in the total diet dry matter on the 84 days feedlot performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, and carcass characteristics of crossbred dairy steers. Experimental diets were composed of 98.5 g kg-1 of sorghum silage and 901.5 g kg-1 of concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred dairy steers (337.3±39.8 kg body weight and 15 months of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. The intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerol levels did not affect the final weight (430.2 kg, daily weight gain (1.38 kg day-1, total weight gain (97.2 kg, hot carcass weight (218.9 kg, cold carcass weight (215.2 kg, hot carcass yield (0.50 kg 100 kg-1 BW, longissimus dorsi area (62.86 cm², subcutaneous fat thickness (4.05 mm, and carcass physical composition. Concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerin can be added to high concentrate diet up to 240 g kg-1 without changing the animal performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, the main carcass characteristics, and blood parameters of finishing crossbred dairy steers.

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.) ...

  18. Australian regulatory changes open crudes to export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-01-18

    Since the price collapse of 1986, the Australian Government has been deregulating its domestic crude oils, which since the late 1960s, have been allocated solely to Australian refiners at set prices, and where no crude oil was exported. This arrangement is now being dismantled, and has allowed export since 1983, with modest free-market sales since 1985. Much of the exported crude is currently from older, established fields, but with a number of new fields that have come into production recently, some of the newer streams are beginning to find their way to many distant parts of the refining world. There are five important Australian crude oils either now being, or likely to be, exported: Barrow Island and Gippsland crudes, which are produced from fields discovered in 1960s; and Jabiru, Jackson blend, and Northwest Shelf condensate, all coming to production during the last 5 years. This article discusses each of these oils.

  19. Characterization of Carrageenan Edible films Plasticized with Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arham Rusli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of base materials and plasticizers used in the formulation of edible film was believed to affect physical characteristics of the film. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of base material (carrageenan and plasticiser (glycerol concentrations on the characteristics of edible films produced and to determine the best concentrations of these two components based on the physical characteristics of the films. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with triplicated. The treatments applied were the concentrations of carrageenan (1%, 2%, and 3% (w/v and glycerol (5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w. The results showed that carrageenan and glycerol concentrations used in the formulation of edible film affect the edible film characteristics. Film thickness and moisture content were significantly influenced by carrageenan and glycerol concentrations, while film elongation was only affected by carrageenan concentration. The best physical characteristic of the edible films was obtained when carrageenan and glycerol concentrations were 3% and 10% respectively.

  20. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of glycerol pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, F.; Frassoldati, A.; Bartocci, P.; Cinti, G.; Quagliarini, F.; Bidini, G.; Ranzi, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycerol pyrolysis can produce about 44–48%v hydrogen at 750–800 °C. • A simplified 452 reactions kinetic model of glycerol pyrolysis has been developed. • The model has good agreement with experimental data. • Non condensable gas yields can reach 70%. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, is an important potential source of hydrogen. The obtained high calorific value gas can be used either as a fuel for combined heat and power (CHP) generation or as a transportation fuel (for example hydrogen to be used in fuel cells). Optimal process conditions can improve glycerol pyrolysis by increasing gas yield and hydrogen concentration. A detailed kinetic mechanism of glycerol pyrolysis, which involves 137 species and more than 4500 reactions, was drastically simplified and reduced to a new skeletal kinetic scheme of 44 species, involved in 452 reactions. An experimental campaign with a batch pyrolysis reactor was properly designed to further validate the original and the skeletal mechanisms. The comparisons between model predictions and experimental data strongly suggest the presence of a catalytic process promoting steam reforming of methane. High pyrolysis temperatures (750–800 °C) improve process performances and non-condensable gas yields of 70%w can be achieved. Hydrogen mole fraction in pyrolysis gas is about 44–48%v. The skeletal mechanism developed can be easily used in Computational Fluid Dynamic software, reducing the simulation time.

  1. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, N.B.; Sjoegren, C.E.; Lichtenthaler, G.

    1987-01-01

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  2. Uncertainty & sensitivity analysis of economic assessment of lactic acid production from crude glycerol - impact of price correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    outputs; (ii) to understand the effect of the degree of pairwise correlation between input uncertainties on each other and on the outputs from the economic model (Net Present Value); and lastly, (iii) to estimate the first-order as well as independent sensitivity indices so as to identify which...

  3. Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

  4. Studies on the dehydration of glycerol over niobium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Yi; Moon, Dong Ju; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul

    2011-08-01

    The dehydration of glycerol over nanosize niobium catalysts was conducted in a stainless steel autoclave reactor. The catalysts were prepared by the calcination of niobium oxalate between 200 and 700 degrees C. Catalysts were characterized by N2 Physisorption, XRD and TPD of ammonia to investigate the effect of the calcination temperature and water on catalytic performance, catalysts' structures and acidity. Acrolein was mainly produced about 51-71% with useful by-products such as acetaldehyde and methanol. Amorphous Nb2O5 catalysts calcined at 200-400 degrees C significantly showed higher conversion of glycerol than the crystallized Nb2O5 catalyst calcined at 500-700 degrees C. Also the conversion of glycerol and selectivity of acrolein was increased with increasing the acidity of catalyst, which can be controlled by calcination temperature.

  5. Ru/FTO: Heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol hydrogenolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Wan Zurina; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Liew, Kin Hong; Nordin, Norazzizi; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    An introduction of Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as new catalyst support with Ru metal had enhanced the conversion and selectivity for glycerol hydrogenolysis. A small cluster of Ru were highly dispersed and intercalated over FTO via simple chemical mixture and reduction method. In comparison with various metal (Pd, Os, Cu), Ru/FTO catalyst showed the highest conversion (100%) and highly selectivity of 1,2-propanediol (94%) in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol. The reaction was optimally conducted at 150 °C, 20 bar of H2 pressure and at 8 hours. Ru/FTO catalyst was ascribed as active catalyst due to the amphoteric sites of FTO and small size of Ru metal. This provides high surface concentration of reduction process that involves the chemical bond dissociation in the glycerol hydrogenolysis.

  6. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optimization of crude oil desalting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amri, Fahad A.; Al-Hemel, Saleh M. [Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Exploration and Producing (Saudi Arabia), email: fahad.amri.1@aramco.com

    2010-07-01

    Before crude oil can be shipped it must be desalted. The shipped crude cannot contain more than 0.2% basic sediment and water and 10 pounds of salt per thousand barrels. The desalting procedure is completed in two stages by first going through dehydrator and then desalter vessels. Both these stages apply an electrostatic field to coalesce. Before the crude enters the desalting stage, high pressure production traps (HPPTs) perform a three phase separation. In the desalting train electrical grids are installed. As the oil and water separation lowers, more water droplets pass through the oil phase. This ends up increasing the conductivity of the oil and reduces the voltage with a constant power supply, as per Ohms law. This paper presents 3 parameters that must be optimized to determine the optimal levels of crude oil production. By adjusting these parameters, the chemical demulsifier consumption can be lowered by 60%.

  8. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  9. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  10. Freeze resistance in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax): seasonal pattern of glycerol and antifreeze protein levels and liver enzyme activity associated with glycerol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johanne M; Ewart, K Vanya; Driedzic, William R

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9 degrees C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The up-regulation of the antifreeze response (both glycerol and AFP) occurs in early fall, when water temperatures are 5 degrees -6 degrees C. The accumulation of glycerol appears to be the main mechanism of freeze resistance in smelt because it contributes more to the lowering of the body's freezing point than the activity of the AFP (0.5 degrees C vs. 0.25 degrees C for glycerol and AFP, respectively) at a water temperature of -1.5 degrees C. Moreover, AFP in smelt appears to be a safeguard mechanism to prevent freezing when glycerol levels are low. Significant increases in activities of the liver enzymes glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) during the initiation of glycerol production and significant correlations between enzyme activities and plasma glycerol levels suggest that these enzymes are closely associated with the synthesis and maintenance of elevated glycerol levels for use as an antifreeze. These findings add further support to the concept that carbon for glycerol is derived from amino acids.

  11. Toxicity of Flare and Crude Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. Cook

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of whole, saturate, and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures from flare pit and crude oil sources were evaluated using Lumbricus terrestris. Body burden analysis was used to analyze the intrinsic toxicity of the six hydrocarbon mixtures. The major fractions of the whole mixtures, the saturate, and aromatic fractions had different intrinsic toxicities; the aromatics were more toxic than the saturates. The toxicity of the saturate and aromatic fractions also differed between the mixtures. The flare saturate mixture was more toxic than the crude saturate mixture, while the crude aromatic mixture was more toxic than the flare aromatic mixture. The most dramatic difference in toxicity of the two sources was between the flare whole and crude whole mixtures. The crude whole mixture was very toxic; the toxicity of this mixture reflected the toxicity of the crude aromatic fraction. However, the flare whole mixture was not toxic, due to a lack of partitioning from the whole mixture into the lipid membrane of the exposed worms. This lack of partitioning appears to be related to the relatively high concentrations of asphaltenes and polar compounds in the flare pit whole mixture.

  12. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Multifunctional Glycerol Polyhydroxyurethanes PHUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Nohra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol carbonate acrylate is a 5-membered cyclic carbonate synthesized from glycerol that is used as a chemical coupling agent and has proven highly suitable for use in the synthesis of multifunctional polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs. The multifunctionality of the structure of PHUs is determined by the density of the carbon-amine groups generated by the Aza-Michael reaction and that of the urethane groups and adjacent primary and secondary hydroxyl groups generated by aminolysis. Glycerol carbonate acrylate is polymerized with polyfunctional mono-, di-, tri, and tetra-amines, by type-AB polyaddition, either in bulk or in solution, through stepwise or one-pot reaction strategies in the absence of added catalysts. These approaches result in the generation of linear, interchain, and crosslinked structures, through the polyaddition of linear and branched amines to the ethylene and cyclic carbonate sites of glycerol carbonate acrylate. The resulting collection of organic molecules gives rise to polyethylene amino ester PHUs with a high molar mass, exceeding 20,000 g·mol−1, with uniform dispersity.

  14. Production of glycerol from palm kernel oil | Antia | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycerol production using Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) as a potential raw material was investigated. PKO was optimally hydrolyzed at 268 °C and 500psi (34 atm) pressure using only water. A 96.85 percent maximum yield of the extent of hydrolysis at 61.86 percent water and 38.14 percent oil was achieved The percentage Df ...

  15. Genetic determinants for enhanced glycerol growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Ho, Ping-Wei; Klein, Mathias; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally shows a low natural capability to utilize glycerol as the sole source of carbon, particularly when synthetic medium is used and complex supplements are omitted. Nevertheless, wild type isolates have been identified that show a moderate growth under these conditions. In the current study we made use of intraspecies diversity to identify targets suitable for reverse metabolic engineering of the non-growing laboratory strain CEN.PK113-1A. A genome-wide genetic mapping experiment using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis was conducted, and one major and several minor genetic loci were identified responsible for the superior glycerol growth phenotype of the previously selected S. cerevisiae strain CBS 6412-13A. Downscaling of the major locus by fine-mapping and reciprocal hemizygosity analysis allowed the parallel identification of two superior alleles (UBR2CBS 6412-13A and SSK1CBS 6412-13A). These alleles together with the previously identified GUT1CBS 6412-13A allele were used to replace the corresponding alleles in the strain CEN.PK113-1A. In this way, glycerol growth could be established reaching a maximum specific growth rate of 0.08h(-1). Further improvement to a maximum specific growth rate of 0.11h(-1) could be achieved by heterologous expression of the glycerol facilitator FPS1 from Cyberlindnera jadinii. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF GLYCEROL SEPARATION ON PALM OIL TRANSESTERIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of glycerol separation on palm oil transesterification. Objectives of this study were to suppress the use of excess methanol and shorten the processing time. This research consisted of: design-build reactor, the effect of the glycerol separation on the transesterification reaction, characterization of biodiesel, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed by integrating circulate stirrer pump, static mixer, and sprayer that will bring out the intense reaction in the outer tank reactor. The experiment in this research was the treatment of decreasing the quantity of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and reducing of processing time to 20 min, which was arranged in a completely randomized factorial design. The result showed that, (i the stirring system was effectively worked outside the reactor tank, and in its reactor tank occurred glycerol separation during the process; (ii the rate of glycerol during the process followed the inverse regression equation of Ŷ = 66.44-351.17 X-1; (iii the decrease in the level of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and the reduction of processing time to 20 min in this engineering did not influence the biodiesel yield and quality that met the SNI 04-7182-2006 standard.

  17. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial strains, capable of producing ethanol by using cooking oil glycerol waste (derived from biodiesel production) as sole C-source were screened from soil samples. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, the selected strain was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes G2WG. The sequence was submitted to GenBank and the ...

  18. Investigation of glycerol polymerization in the clinker grinding process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Rossi, M.; Della Pina, C.; Ciriminna, R.; Pagliaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    Concrete production is a large scale process that involves high energy consumption. In order to increase the sustainability of this process, the reduction of energy input is necessary. Bio-glycerol was demonstrated to be a highly efficient renewable-based additive in the grinding process for

  19. Novel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Orr

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH is a ubiquinone-linked enzyme in the mitochondrial inner membrane best characterized as part of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Despite the widespread expression of mGPDH and the availability of mGPDH-null mice, the physiological role of this enzyme remains poorly defined in many tissues, likely because of compensatory pathways for cytosolic regeneration of NAD⁺ and mechanisms for glycerol phosphate metabolism. Here we describe a novel class of cell-permeant small-molecule inhibitors of mGPDH (iGP discovered through small-molecule screening. Structure-activity analysis identified a core benzimidazole-phenyl-succinamide structure as being essential to inhibition of mGPDH while modifications to the benzimidazole ring system modulated both potency and off-target effects. Live-cell imaging provided evidence that iGPs penetrate cellular membranes. Two compounds (iGP-1 and iGP-5 were characterized further to determine potency and selectivity and found to be mixed inhibitors with IC₅₀ and K(i values between ∼1-15 µM. These novel mGPDH inhibitors are unique tools to investigate the role of glycerol 3-phosphate metabolism in both isolated and intact systems.

  20. Fluorescence anisotropy of acridinedione dyes in glycerol: Prolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-dependent reorientations of resorcinol-based acridinidione (ADR) dyes in glycerol were studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies. The difference between fluorescence anisotropy decays recorded at 460 nm when exciting at 250 nm and those obtained when exciting at 394 nm are reported.

  1. Isolated and contiguous glycerol kinase gene disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarif, D. R.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Duran, M.; Beemer, F. A.; Poll-The, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked recessive disorder. There are two types. an isolated form and a complex form. We review the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of GKD. The clinical and biochemical phenotype of isolated GKD may vary from a life-threatening childhood

  2. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  3. Production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    propanediol ... 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is one of the most interested ..... containing 40 g/L glycerol. The values showed were averaged from two independent triplicate experiments with means less than 5%. 1 2 M 3 4. kDa. 116.0.

  4. Elastic neutron scattering study of proton dynamics in glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicchi, Elena; Cinelli, Stefania; Natali, Francesca; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro

    2004-07-01

    A recent neutron scattering investigation on lysozyme embedded in glycerol-water mixtures has shown that solvent dynamics is crucial in determining the dynamical properties of the biomolecule itself (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). To better understand the role played by solvent, we have performed an elastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) experiment as a function of the temperature on pure glycerol. To directly compare the dynamics of the solvated protein and that of the pure solvent, we settled the same experimental conditions and applied the same data analysis procedure as in Paciaroni et al. (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). By using a double-well model and taking into account for the global molecular diffusion, we exploited the measured intensity to estimate the mean square displacements (MSD) of glycerol hydrogen atoms. We found that the total MSD deviate from the low-temperature vibrational harmonic trend at approximately T=235K, consistent with the value of the critical temperature reported in literature (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1997) 3183). The present investigation suggests that the internal dynamics of glycerol molecules, i.e. the vibrations and reorientations of hydrogen atoms relative to the molecular centre of mass (c.o.m.), can be put in relationship with the protein dynamics.

  5. Elastic neutron scattering study of proton dynamics in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornicchi, Elena; Cinelli, Stefania; Natali, Francesca; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    A recent neutron scattering investigation on lysozyme embedded in glycerol-water mixtures has shown that solvent dynamics is crucial in determining the dynamical properties of the biomolecule itself (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). To better understand the role played by solvent, we have performed an elastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) experiment as a function of the temperature on pure glycerol. To directly compare the dynamics of the solvated protein and that of the pure solvent, we settled the same experimental conditions and applied the same data analysis procedure as in Paciaroni et al. (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). By using a double-well model and taking into account for the global molecular diffusion, we exploited the measured intensity to estimate the mean square displacements (MSD) of glycerol hydrogen atoms. We found that the total MSD deviate from the low-temperature vibrational harmonic trend at approximately T=235 K, consistent with the value of the critical temperature reported in literature (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1997) 3183). The present investigation suggests that the internal dynamics of glycerol molecules, i.e. the vibrations and reorientations of hydrogen atoms relative to the molecular centre of mass (c.o.m.), can be put in relationship with the protein dynamics

  6. (glycerol-phthalate) based alkyd coating exposed to outdoor weather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of weathering on poly(glycerol-phthalate) based alkyd coatings of the unstabilised and stabilised samples using varying amounts of dibutyltin distearate have been studied. The weathering and stabilization processes were monitored using infrared spectroscopy,gel formation, colour development, tensile strength ...

  7. Liquid phase conversion of Glycerol to Propanediol over highly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    high acidic strength. Further, the effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, catalyst loading and glycerol con- centration were studied over 25Cu/MgO catalyst for optimization of reaction parameters. Kinetic .... ous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution until the pH ... Temperature programmed reduction experiments with.

  8. Utilization of a waste glycerol fraction using and reusing immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621 cell extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Stasiak-Różańska

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The method proposed in this work is based on the conversion of waste glycerol to dihydroxyacetone in a reaction catalyzed by immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract with glycerol dehydrogenase activity, and it could be an effective way to convert waste glycerol into a valuable product.

  9. Glycerol reforming and methanol synthesis for the production of renewable methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    De productie van biodiesel is flink toegenomen in het eerste decennium van de 21ste eeuw. Bij de productie van 100 kg biodiesel komt ongeveer 10 kg aan glycerol vrij, wat heeft geleid tot een sterk gestegen glycerol aanbod. Een mogelijkheid om wat met de glycerol te doen, is het omzetten van

  10. Dynamical modeling of liver Aquaporin-9 expression and glycerol permeability in hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gena, Patrizia; Buono, Nicoletta Del; D'Abbicco, Marcello; Mastrodonato, Maria; Berardi, Marco; Svelto, Maria; Lopez, Luciano; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis). A model addressing the glucose-insulin system to describe the hepatic glycerol import and metabolism and the correlation with the glucose homeostasis is lacking so far. Here we consider a system of first-order ordinary differential equations delineating the relevance of hepatocyte AQP9 in liver glycerol permeability. Assuming the hepatic glycerol permeability as depending on the protein levels of AQP9, a mathematical function is designed describing the time course of the involvement of AQP9 in mouse hepatic glycerol metabolism in different nutritional states. The resulting theoretical relationship is derived fitting experimental data obtained with murine models at the fed, fasted or re-fed condition. While providing useful insights into the dynamics of liver AQP9 involvement in male rodent glycerol homeostasis our model may be adapted to the human liver serving as an important module of a whole body-model of the glucose metabolism both in health and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by Thermotoga maritima: Proposed pathway and bioenergetic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maru, B.T.; Bielen, A.A.M.; Constanti, M.; Medina, F.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biohydrogen from glycerol, by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109, was investigated in batch and chemostat systems. T. maritima converted glycerol to mainly acetate, CO2 and H2. Maximal hydrogen yields of 2.84 and 2.41 hydrogen per glycerol were observed

  12. Metabolic engineering for high glycerol production by the anaerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2017-06-01

    Glycerol is used by the cosmetic, paint, automotive, food, and pharmaceutical industries and for production of explosives. Currently, glycerol is available in commercial quantities as a by-product from biodiesel production, but the purity and the cost of its purification are prohibitive. The industrial production of glycerol by glucose aerobic fermentation using osmotolerant strains of the yeasts Candida sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described. A major drawback of the aerobic process is the high cost of production. For this reason, the development of yeast strains that effectively convert glucose to glycerol anaerobically is of great importance. Due to its ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, the yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal system for the development of this new biotechnological platform. To increase glycerol production and accumulation from glucose, we lowered the expression of TPI1 gene coding for triose phosphate isomerase; overexpressed the fused gene consisting the GPD1 and GPP2 parts coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, respectively; overexpressed the engineered FPS1 gene that codes for aquaglyceroporin; and overexpressed the truncated gene ILV2 that codes for acetolactate synthase. The best constructed strain produced more than 20 g of glycerol/L from glucose under micro-aerobic conditions and 16 g of glycerol/L under anaerobic conditions. The increase in glycerol production led to a drop in ethanol and biomass accumulation.

  13. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  14. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  15. Determination of glycerol concentrations and glycerol isotopic enrichments in human plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M. T.; Ruiter, A. F.; Endert, E.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical method is presented to determine glycerol concentrations and stable isotope tracer enrichments in human plasma after intravenous tracer infusion in a single analytical run, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The method uses an internal standard, which is also a

  16. Crystallization and transformation of polymorphic forms of trioleoyl glycerol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-rac-linoleoyl glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, Laura; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Àngel; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2013-08-08

    This study examined the influence of different thermal treatments on the crystallization and transformation of trioleoyl glycerol (OOO) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-rac-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL). Two triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were cooled at 0.5-15 °C·min(-1) and heated at 2 and 15 °C·min(-1). The polymorphic characteristics of the two TAGs were analyzed in situ using differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. Multiple polymorphic forms were identified in OOO (α, β'2, β'1, β2, and β1) and OOL (α, β'2, and β'1). Larger quantities of more stable forms (e.g., β2 and β1 of OOO and β'1 of OOL) were obtained when the samples were slowly cooled and heated. In contrast, less stable polymorphs were obtained with increased cooling and heating rates. Polymorphic transformations occurred in either solid-state or melt-mediation and were influenced by heating rates. The results were analyzed by considering the activation energies for crystallization and transformation of stable and less stable polymorphic forms in comparison with previous studies on 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol and 1, 3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol.

  17. Rainbow smelt: the unusual case of cryoprotection by sustained glycerol production in an aquatic animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedzic, William R

    2015-07-01

    Rainbow smelt flourish at -1.8 °C, the freezing point of sea water. An antifreeze protein contributes to freeze point depression but, more importantly, cryoprotection is due to an elevation in osmotic pressure, by the accumulation of glycerol. The lower the water temperature, the higher the plasma glycerol with levels recorded as high as 400 mmol l(-1). Glycerol freely diffuses out in direct relation to the glycerol concentration and fish may lose as much as 15% of their glycerol reserve per day. Glycerol levels decrease from a maximum in February/March while water temperature is still sub-zero. The decrease in glycerol may respond to a photoperiod signal as opposed to initiation which is triggered by low temperature. The initial increase in glycerol level is supported by liver glycogen but high sustained glycerol level is dependent upon dietary carbohydrate and protein. The metabolic pathways leading to glycerol involve flux from glycogen/glucose to the level of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via the initial part of glycolysis and from amino acids via a truncated gluconeogenesis again to the level of DHAP. DHAP in turn is converted to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and then directly to glycerol. The key to directing DHAP to G3P is a highly active glycerol 3-P dehydrogenase. G3P is converted directly to glycerol via G3P phosphatase, the rate-limiting step in the process. The transition to glycerol production is associated with increased activities of enzymes at key loci in the top part of glycogenolysis/glycolysis. Curtailment of the final section of glycolysis may reside at the level of pyruvate oxidation with an inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) driven by increased levels of PDH kinase. Enzymes associated with amino acid trafficking are elevated as is the pivotal enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

  18. Transportable upgraded crude : Aquaconversion technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Rojas, J.D.; Zacarias, L.; Delgado, O.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Martinez, S.; Segovia, X.; Pena, J.P.; Granadillo, F.; Jamal, A.; De Pablos, C.; Medina, H.; Delgado, A.; Obregon, Y. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Residue and Heavy Crude Processing Dept.; Argenis, H.; Breindembach, J.A.; Urbina, N. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Analytic Dept.; Negrin, M. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Pilot Plant Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The vast reserves of extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela require lower-capital-cost technologies to make them available to the oil market. Most heavy oil commercialization in Venezuela is done by dilution. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Intevep has developed Aquaconversion, a catalytic steam conversion process capable of converting residue and heavy or extra-heavy crude oil in the producing field into transportable upgraded crude, thus reducing the use of light crude as diluents which can be valued in the market. The process produces higher residue conversion at the same product stability compared with other thermal conversion process such as visbreaking. For this purpose, Aquaconversion requires the addition of a water steam and the presence of a catalytic component that can be added as homogeneous chemical additives. This paper provided background information on the Orinoco oil belt and the thermal cracking process and Aquaconversion technology. Applications of the technology were also described with particular reference to wellhead use for making transportable upgraded crude, and the refinery application to replace visbreaking units. It was concluded that Aquaconversion technology is better than the visbreaking process because it reduces dehydrogenation and condensation reactions, increasing the product stability which increases the reaction temperature and vacuum residue conversion. It also reduces viscosity. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  20. Comparing cellular performance of Yarrowia lipolytica during growth on glucose and glycerol in submerged cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    of applications for this yeast, relatively few studies have focused on uptake and metabolism of carbon sources, and the metabolic basis for carbon flow to the different products. The focus of this work was quantification of the cellular performance of Y. lipolytica during growth on glycerol, glucose or a mixture....... Growth on glycerol proceeded at approximately 0.30 h-1, and the substrate uptake rate was 0.02 mol L-1 h-1 regardless of the starting glycerol concentration (10, 20 or 45 g L-1). Utilisation of glycerol was accompanied by higher oxygen uptake rates compared to glucose growth, indicating import...... of glycerol occurred initially via phosphorylation of glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate. Based on these results it could be speculated that once oxygen limitation was reached, additional production of NADH created imbalance in the cofactor pools and the polyol formation observed could be a result of cofactor...

  1. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  2. Glycerol as source of energy in broiler chicken fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kroupa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the possibility of replacing soybean oil in a diet with glycerol, and investigate the effect of glycerol on performance indicators and health in broiler chickens. The experiment was performed on 122 one-day-old chickens that were divided based on sex into two control groups (30 females and 31 males and two experimental groups (30 females and 31 males. Half (50% of the soybean oil in diets used in the experimental groups was replaced with glycerol at a ratio of 1:2. On 15, 32 and 38 day of age chickens of both sexes in the experimental group that were fed with diets containing glycerol showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01 mean body weight compared to the control group. At the end of the experiment, the mean weight of chickens in the control group was 2.078 kg, whereas the mean weight of chickens in the experimental group was 2.341 kg. In females, the overall consumption of diets within 38 days of fattening was 3.588 kg in the control group and 4.011 kg in the experimental group, in males, it was 3.915 kg in the control group and 4.366 kg in the experimental group, i.e. it was higher in experimental chickens. Feed conversion in chickens in experimental groups was better, being 1.84 kg in the control group and 1.81 kg in the experimental group in females, and 1.73 kg in the control group and 1.72 kg in the experimental group in males. It follows from our results that the optimum amount of glycerol in feed for poultry is 5%.This study presents an original solution to optimize feed formula by replacing plant oil with glycerol. The results of the study can improve production indicators and economy in broiler fattening.

  3. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  4. Assays for important Mexican crudes updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manriguez, L.; Moreno, A.; Anaya, C.G. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (MX))

    1991-03-04

    Compared to Isthmus and Maya, Olmeca crude is the lightest of the Mexican export. It has fewer contaminants, and its 540{degrees} C. TBP distillation produces the largest quantity of distillate. The Olmeca fractions also have the lowest total sulfur content. The Maya crude is heavy, with an API gravity of 22.2{sup {degrees}}. It has a high contaminant content that induces corrosion in process equipment and causes low running times in thermal cracking units, such as visbreakers and cokers. A proposed refining scheme for the bottom of the Maya barrel consists of atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, the Impex process, and visbreaking.

  5. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, Edward N.; Pratt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  6. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Microbial conversion of glycerol into functional bio-based materials was investigated, aiming to facilitate the utilization of waste glycerol. A basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, efficiently produced mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) as glycolipid biosurfactants from glycerol. The amount of MEL yield reached 16.3 g l(-1) by intermittent feeding of glycerol.

  7. Sodahvede og glycerol til malkekøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2011-01-01

    Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold.......Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold....

  8. Modified silica-based heterogeneous catalysts for etherification of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Zahra, E-mail: zahra.gholami@petronas.com.my [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my; Gholami, Fatemeh, E-mail: fgholami59@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus,14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Vakili, Mohammadtaghi, E-mail: farshid3601@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The advent of mesoporous silicas such as MCM-41 has provided new opportunities for research into supported metal catalysis. The loading of metals into framework structures and particularly into the pores of porous molecular sieves, has long been of interest because of their potential catalytic activity. Stable heterogeneous mesoporous basic catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation of MCM-41 with calcium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate. The surface and structural properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized using BET surface analysis, SEM and TEM. MCM-41 and modified MCM-41 were used in the solventless etherification of glycerol to produce diglycerol as the desired product. The reaction was performed at 250 °C for 8 h, and catalyst activity was evaluated. Catalytic etherification over the 20%Ca{sub 1.6}La{sub 0.6}/MCM-41 catalyst resulted in the highest glycerol conversion of 91% and diglycerol yield of 43%.

  9. Gut Microbial Glycerol Metabolism as an Endogenous Acrolein Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein’s mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrolein. Reuterin is an antimicrobial multicomponent system consisting of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its dimer and hydrate, and also acrolein. The major conclusion is that gut microbes can metabolize glycerol to reuterin and that this transformation occurs in vivo. Given the known toxicity of acrolein, the observation that acrolein is formed in the gut necessitates further investigations on functional relevance for gut microbiota and the host.

  10. Subcloning, expression, purification, and characterization of Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlyk, A C; Pettigrew, D W

    2001-06-01

    Glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30) is a bacterial sugar kinase and a member of the sugar kinase/actin/hsc-70 superfamily of enzymes. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is an allosteric regulatory enzyme whose activity is inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and the glucose-specific phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system, IIA(Glc) (previously termed III(Glc)). Comparison of its primary structure with that of the highly similar Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase reveals that the amino acid sequence for the binding site for FBP is conserved while the amino acid sequence for the binding site for IIA(Glc) contains differences that are predicted to prevent its inhibition. To test this hypothesis, the H. influenzae glpK gene was assembled from DNA library fragments and subcloned into pUC18. The enzyme is expressed at high levels in E. coli. It was purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by taking advantage of its solubility behavior in a procedure that requires no column chromatography. The initial-velocity kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme are similar to those of the E. coli glycerol kinase. The H. influenzae glycerol kinase is inhibited by FBP but not by IIA(Glc), in agreement with the prediction based on sequence comparison. Sedimentation velocity experiments reveal that inhibition of HiGK by FBP is associated with oligomerization, behavior which is similar to EcGK. The possibility of utilizing mutagenesis studies to exploit the high degree of similarity of these two enzymes to elucidate the mechanism of allosteric regulation by IIA(Glc) is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Gut Microbial Glycerol Metabolism as an Endogenous Acrolein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianbo; Sturla, Shana; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein’s mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrole...

  12. Antibacterial effect of glycerol as preservative on donor skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Ligtvoet, E.E.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1999-01-01

    Glycerolised cadavetic allografts have been used widely since 1984 in the treatment of bum wounds. Rejections reaction to glycerolised skin were reported to be attenuated. Structural integrity of the skin was maintained and antiviral and antibacterial effects were noted. The Euro Skin Bank has gathered approximately 2000 data since 1987 concerning bacteriology cultures of glycerolised skin. These data are presented. Bacteriological data from skin donors were examined from 1987 till 1995 (1927 data). Donor skin sent to the laboratory and found to be positive for bacteria was quarantined and another container with skin samples was sent to the laboratory at a later time point. This was repeated until all cultures were negative. In 1987, 25 donors were processed without using antibiotics. These results were compared with donor skin treated with antibiotics. The average day for first culture was 19.7 ? 17.2. The average percentage of contaminated skin was 10.1? 3.7%. Antibiotics reduced contamination of glycerolised skin from 80% to 10.1%. Glycerol treatment also showed an antibacterial effect as all contaminated skin eventually became negative. Of the contaminated skin Staphylococcus epidermidis was found most frequently: in 70.7 ? 10.8% of the cases. Not all bacteria are equally sensitive to glycerol: Staphylococcus epidennidis contaminated skin became sterile after 48?24 days, whereas for Bacillus species it took 195? 1 37.9 days. We show that glycerol preservation of donor skin has important advantages over conservative methods such as cryopreservation. Initial contamination of the skin is no longer a reason to discard the material. Prolonged storage in glycerol will eliminate bacterial contamination. This allows an increase in yield of at least 10%

  13. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  14. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  15. Methanol-dependent production of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha blocked in dihydroxyacetone kinase and glycerol kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, W. de; Weusthuis, R.A.; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    Various factors controlling dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and glycerol production from methanol by resting cell suspensions of a mutant of Hansenula polymorpha, blocked in DHA kinase and glycerol kinase, were investigated. The presence of methanol (250 mM) and an additional substrate (0.5%, w/v) to

  16. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...

  17. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of coreand intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  18. Seasonal changes in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether concentrations and fluxes in a perialpine lake: Implications for the use of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, C.I.; Reichart, G.J.; Vissers, E.W.; Lotter, A.F.; Anselmetti, F.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine where and when glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in lakes are produced, we collected descending particles in Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) using two sediment traps (at 42 and 72 m water depth) with a monthly resolution from January 2008 to late March 2009.

  19. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of core and intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  20. Impact of riverine suspended particulate matter on the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether composition of lakes: The outflow of the Selenga River in Lake Baikal (Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Fedotov, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids found in several environments, including soils, rivers and lakes, whose distribution varies with temperature and pH, although this dependence is apparently not the same for the different environments. Mixing of

  1. Growth Performance of Cockerels Administered Crude Follicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Study was conducted to assess the performance of cockerels administered crude follicular and testicular fluids. Two hundred (200) day old Hyaline white cockerel chicks were randomly assigned to five different treatments namely control (T1), 0.5mls follicular fluid (T2), 25% testicular fluid (T3), 0.25ml follicular fluid (T4) ...

  2. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non toxic substance. Crude cell extracts produced which contains ... environment with wastewater and exhaust, great num- bers are benzene derivatives and other non ... Although acute toxicity is uncommon, these substances cause sublethal damage, e.g., ...

  3. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  4. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  5. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  6. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  7. CRUDE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF SEEDS OF TEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella ...

  9. Microbial synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate using seaweed-derived crude levulinic acid as co-nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anupam; Dubey, Sonam; Bhayani, Khushbu; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Pushpito K

    2015-01-01

    Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Jatropha biodiesel residues, namely crude glycerol and oil cake hydrolysate, has been reported previously. Halomonas hydrothermalis (MTCC accession no. 5445; NCBI Genbank accession no. GU938192), a wild marine strain, was used in the bio-synthesis. The present study was initiated to vary the properties of the polymer. Seaweed-derived crude levulinic acid (SDCLA), containing formic acid, residual sugars and dissolved minerals additionally, was proposed as co-feed along with the biodiesel residues. Experiments were conducted at 100mL scale in batch process. Whereas the PHA yield was only 0.40 ± 0.01 g when only biodiesel residues were employed, it rose to 1.07 ± 0.02 g in presence of 0.35% (w/v) of SDCLA. The corresponding carbon utilisation efficiencies were 29.3% and 57.5%, respectively. 3-Hydroxy valerate incorporation in the PHA was pronounced in presence of SDCLA, with associated changes in polymer properties. The microbial synthesis fared poorly when SDCLA was substituted with pure levulinic acid. Thus, Halomonas hydrothermalis had a poor response to levulinic acid, as such, and other constituents present in SDCLA appear to have played a vital role in bacterial cell division and accumulation of PHA. Biodegradability tests in moist soil were also conducted as part of the study. Marine microalgal cultivation for biodiesel and seaweed cultivation for fuels may help generate biodiesel residues and crude levulinic acid in proximity, which would open up the possibility of large scale PHA manufacture in efficient and practical manner in the future through the methodology of the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Residual Glycerol from Biodiesel Manufacturing, Waste or Potential Source of Bioenergy: A Review Glicerol Residual de la Producción de Biodiesel, Residuo o Potencial Fuente de Energía: Una Revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santibáñez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of the research conducted on the use of crude glycerol, the major byproduct of the biodiesel industry, as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion and production of biogas. In general, for every 100 kg biodiesel produced, approximately 10 kg crude glycerol is generated. Because this glycerol is expensive to purify for use in food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic industries, biodiesel producers must seek alternative methods for its disposal. Several studies have demonstrated that the use of crude glycerol as a C source for fermentation and biogas generation is a promising alternative use for this waste material. The high C content of glycerol increases the C:N ratio in the mixture, avoiding the inhibition of the process by the excess of N increasing methane production of digesters by 50 to 200%. Anaerobic co-digestion of glycerol and a variety of residual biomasses may be a good integrated solution for managing these wastes and simultaneously producing a source of bioenergy in an environmentally friendly way. On the other hand, after anaerobic treatment of glycerol, an organic matter-rich solid waste is generated (digestate. The incorporation of digestates from glycerol co-digestion to soils constitutes an important source of organic matter and nutrients for plants. However, the potential of digestates as an organic soil amendment has not been sufficiently studied. The utilization of glycerol as a potential source of energy, rather than as a waste, seems to be a convenient way of lowering the costs of biodiesel production and making this emerging industry more competitive.Esta revisión proporciona un resumen de la investigación realizada sobre el uso de glicerol crudo, principal subproducto de la industria del biodiesel, como sustrato para la co-digestión anaerobia y producción de biogas. En general, por cada 100 kg de biodiesel producido, se generan aproximadamente 10 kg de glicerol. Debido al alto costo de purificaci

  12. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages.

  13. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...... of H2O. The glycerol molecules do not exert a hydrophobic effect on H2O. Rather, the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, perhaps by forming clusters via its alkyl backbone with hydroxyl groups pointing outward, interact with H2O so as to reduce the characteristics of liquid H2O. The global hydrogen bond...... probability and, hence, the percolation nature of the hydrogen bond network is reduced. In addition, the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O is reduced by glycerol perhaps by participating in the hydrogen bond network via OH groups. At infinite dilution, the pair interaction coefficients in enthalpy...

  14. Impact of different deacidification methods on quality characteristics and composition of olein and stearin in crude red palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth Kumar, Punathil Kannan; Gopala Krishna, Ambale Gundappa

    2014-01-01

    Crude red palm oil of 8.7% free fatty acid content was deacidified using enzyme (lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), solvent (ethanol) and chemical (aqueous Sodium hydroxide) and its impact on chemical characteristics and composition were evaluated. Deacidification of oil using enzyme showed nearly 100% product yield. The neutral lipid loss after ethanol and sodium hydroxide deacidification of the oil was 13.6% and 19.5% respectively. The enzyme deacidified oil has shown a higher value in unsaponifiable matter (0.91%), monoacylglycerols (2.8%) and diacylglycerols (18.7%) contents as compared to the other two methods of deacidification. Also it showed a higher retention of nutraceuticals such as carotenoids (94%), phytosterols (57%), total tocopherols (71%), squalene (72%), coenzyme Q10 (99%) and total phenolics (69%) with IC50 value of 19.7 mg of oil/ml. Stearin content increased in the oil after deacidification with enzyme (47.4%) compared to the stearin content of crude red palm oil (28.6%). The olein fraction contained less saturated fatty acids (41.6%) than the fraction obtained by other two methods (47.2%). The enzyme catalyzed the esterification reaction of free fatty acids in crude red palm oil with added glycerol at 63°C with a rotation speed of 150 rpm under vacuum of 5 mmHg for the period of 12 h showed that enzyme based deacidification can be effectively utilized for the preparation of low acidic nutraceutical retained red palm oil.

  15. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  16. Production, structural characterization and gel forming property of a new exopolysaccharide produced by Agrobacterium HX1126 using glycerol or d-mannitol as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmei; Gu, Qiuya; Ofosu, Fred Kwame; Yu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-20

    A strain Agrobacterium HX1126 was isolated from soil sample near the canal in Wuxi. Glycerol was used as carbon source for the production of a new exopolysaccharide which was named PGHX. PGHX composed mainly of galactose, with lower amounts of arabinose and aminogalactose. It was found that this strain could use d-mannitol as carbon source to produce PGHX too. A method for the preparation of crude PGHX was proposed and the crude PGHX can be formed in a gel formation when 30 g/L was put into the boiling water for 10 min, with an achieved gel strength of 957 g/cm(2). The concentration of proteins in the crude product was considered to be an important parameter which directly influence the gel forming property. The highest production of PGHX (24.9 g/L) was obtained under the nitrogen depletion condition. The structure of the product was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  18. Molluscicidal activity of crude water leaf extracts of Alternanthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality figures by the use of probit gave LC50 of 40.42 (35.15 – 46.47) for the unevaporated crude water while the evaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 48.07 (42.81 – 54.28) for the dried leaf extract. For the fresh leaves the unevaporated crude water extract had LC50 of 32.57 (27.15 – 39.08) and evaporated crude ...

  19. Evaluation of the addition of glycerol to Cupriavidus necator culture medium over Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production

    OpenAIRE

    Apati, Giannini Paszinick; Kelbert, Maikon; Sombrio, Bruna Regina; Schneider, Andrea Lima dos Santos; Garcia, Michele Cristina Formolo; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Pezzin, Ana Paula Testa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycerol was used as a source of additional carbon in the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)). The inverted sugar and glycerol concentrations and the temperature of the Cupriavidus necator culture medium were evaluated using a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD). The results showed that the increase in temperature and sugar concentration led to an increase in production and P(3HB) accumulation and when 15 g L-1 of glycerol was added better results were obtained, how...

  20. Quantitative analysis of glycerol accumulation, glycolysis and growth under hyper osmotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Petelenz-Kurdziel

    Full Text Available We provide an integrated dynamic view on a eukaryotic osmolyte system, linking signaling with regulation of gene expression, metabolic control and growth. Adaptation to osmotic changes enables cells to adjust cellular activity and turgor pressure to an altered environment. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts to hyperosmotic stress by activating the HOG signaling cascade, which controls glycerol accumulation. The Hog1 kinase stimulates transcription of genes encoding enzymes required for glycerol production (Gpd1, Gpp2 and glycerol import (Stl1 and activates a regulatory enzyme in glycolysis (Pfk26/27. In addition, glycerol outflow is prevented by closure of the Fps1 glycerol facilitator. In order to better understand the contributions to glycerol accumulation of these different mechanisms and how redox and energy metabolism as well as biomass production are maintained under such conditions we collected an extensive dataset. Over a period of 180 min after hyperosmotic shock we monitored in wild type and different mutant cells the concentrations of key metabolites and proteins relevant for osmoadaptation. The dataset was used to parameterize an ODE model that reproduces the generated data very well. A detailed computational analysis using time-dependent response coefficients showed that Pfk26/27 contributes to rerouting glycolytic flux towards lower glycolysis. The transient growth arrest following hyperosmotic shock further adds to redirecting almost all glycolytic flux from biomass towards glycerol production. Osmoadaptation is robust to loss of individual adaptation pathways because of the existence and upregulation of alternative routes of glycerol accumulation. For instance, the Stl1 glycerol importer contributes to glycerol accumulation in a mutant with diminished glycerol production capacity. In addition, our observations suggest a role for trehalose accumulation in osmoadaptation and that Hog1 probably directly contributes to the

  1. Effects of sorbitol and glycerol on the structure, dynamics, and stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrazinamidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Khajehzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that the native conformation of the enzyme was stabilized in the sorbitol and glycerol and tend to exclude from the PZase surface, forcing the enzyme to keep it in the compactly folded conformation. The glycerol molecules stabilized PZase by decreasing the loops flexibility and then compacting the enzyme structure. It appears that more stability of PZase in glycerol solution correlates with its amphiphilic orientation, which decreases the unfavorable interactions of hydrophobic regions.

  2. Carboxylic acids from West Siberian crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhil' tsov, N.I.; Ershov, V.A.; Zakharova, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    The concentrates of acidic compounds were recovered from the raw crudes by extraction with a 2% solution of potassium hydroxide in 50% ethanol; the concentrates were then treated to remove neutral substances present as impurities and were separated into phenols and carboxylic acids by means of silica gel modified with caustic. The methyl and trimethylsilyl (TMS) esters of the carboxylic acids were analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry. It is assumed that in the West Siberian fields, along with catagenic processes, microbiological degradation processes are taking place. After a sample of Fedorovsk crude had been exposed to the bacterial action (60 days at 32/sup 0/C) of an accumulated culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria, followed by dehydration of the sample, the relative content of straight-chain fatty acids with an even number of carbon atoms had increased. There was a sharp increase in the contents of palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids, which are characteristic products of the metabolism of microorganisms.

  3. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and Stock Market Performance in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... As expected from an oil exporting country, a short-run positive relationship is observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the direction is from crude oil prices to ...

  4. Biodegradation of Lagoma crude oil using pig dung | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig dung bacteria were isolated and screened for crude oil degrading capabilities. The pig dung was also investigated for enhancement of crude oil biodegradation. Addition of chicken manure to oil polluted soil (at 10% (v/w) pollution level) stimulated the biodegradation of lagoma crude oil used in the present study.

  5. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  6. Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Workman, Mhairi

    2013-01-01

    P. tannophilus has characteristics relevant for a microbial cell factory to be applied in a biorefinery setting, i.e. its ability to utilise the carbon sources such as xylose and glycerol. However, the strain is not currently amenable to genetic modification and transformation. Heterologous...... expression of the glycerol transporters from P. tannophilus, which has a relatively high growth rate on glycerol, could be used as an approach for improving the efficiency of glycerol assimilation in other well characterized and applied cell factories such as S. cerevisiae....

  7. Etherification of Glycerol with Propylene or 1-Butene for Fuel Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapong Saengarun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The etherification of glycerol with propylene over acidic heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15, S100, and S200 resins, produced mono-propyl glycerol ethers (MPGEs, 1,3-di- and 1,2-di-propyl glycerol ethers (DPGEs, and tri-propyl glycerol ether (TPGE. The propylation of glycerol over Amberlyst-15 yielded only TPGE. The glycerol etherification with 1-butene over Amberlyst-15 and S200 resins produced 1-mono-, 2-mono-, 1,2-di-, and 1,3-di-butyl glycerol ethers (1-MBGE, 2-MBGE, 1,2-DBGE, and 1,3-DBGE. The use of Amberlyst-15 resulted in the propylation and butylation of glycerol with higher yields than those obtained from the S100 and S200 resins. The PGEs, TPGE, and BGEs were evaluated as cold flow improvers and octane boosters. These alkyl glycerol ethers can reduce the cloud point of blended palm biodiesels with diesel. They can increase the research octane number and the motor octane number of gasoline.

  8. Physical, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characterization of Films Based on Gelatin/Glycerol and Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Sifuentes-Nieves; Rodolfo Rendón-Villalobos; Antonio Jiménez-Aparicio; Brenda Hildeliza Camacho-Díaz; Gustavo Fidel Gutiérrez López; Javier Solorza-Feria

    2015-01-01

    A new method to prepare glycerol/gelatin based films, by doping the film with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was proposed. SDS was used to disperse CNTs in gelatin/glycerol films as follows: gelatin/glycerol (GG) incubated with equal concentrations of CNT and SDS; GG with 0.001% w/w CNT/SDS; GG with 0.002% CNT/SDS and GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS. Diffractograms of CNT/SDS /glycerol films showed an amorphous structure, being consistent with thermograms involving temperatu...

  9. Gluconeogenesis from glycerol at rest and during exercise in normal, diabetic, and methylprednisolone-treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W A; Issekutz, T B; Issekutz, B

    1976-03-01

    Glucose turnover, glycerol turnover, and the rate of incorporation of glycerol carbon into glucose were measured with the tracer technique (primed constant rate infusion) using 2-3H-glucose and 14C-glycerol, at rest and during exercise (treadmill run) in normal (N), alloxan-diabetic (D), and methylprednisolone treated diabetic (MPD) dogs. At rest only 2%-3% of the hepatic glucose output arose from glycerol. Exercise increased gluconeogenesis about ninefold in N dogs and about fourfold in D and MPD animals, yet less than 9% of the elevated glucose turnover was derived from glycerol. There was a direct linear correlation between the rates of glycerol turnover and gluconeogenesis from glycerol at rest and during exercise in all three groups. The slope constants were however significantly different: 0.45, 0.51, and 0.67 for N, D, and MPD dogs, respectively. In vivo the major factor controlling the rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol seems to be the glycerol supply on which the specific effects of insulin deficiency and glucocorticoid treatment are superimposed. They appear to be of minor importance. A comparison of the glucose turnover measured by 2-3H-glucose with that measured by 6-3H-glucose showed that the activity of the glucose in equilibrium glucose-6-P cycle was threefold higher in D dogs and elevated by 15-fold in MPD animals.

  10. Effects of age and fasting on gluconeogenesis from glycerol in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S E; Hall, A J; Layberry, R A; Berman, M; Hetenyi, G

    1976-02-01

    The extent of gluconeogenesis from glycerol was examined in pups and adult dogs. With use of the SAAM-26 program, a four compartment model was formulated from tracer data to calculate the kinetics of the glycerol:glucose system. In the postabsorptive state gluconeogenesis from glycerol declines with age: 13.8% of glucose carbon originated from glycerol in 0- to 4-day-old pups, 6% in adults. Approximately 50% of glycerol carbon is converted to glucose carbon independent of age. During fasting, a) the percentage of glucose carbon arising from glycerol carbon increased to 13.3% and 10.3% in adult dogs and pups 5-19 days old, respectively, in younger pups it declined to 3.4%; b) glycerol production increased in adults, but decreased in the youngest pups; c) glucose production and utilization decreased at all ages, and a smaller percentage of glycerol carbon was converted to glucose carbon, especially in the youngest pups. Thus in neonates fasting decreases gluconeogenesis from glycerol.

  11. Separation of oily sludge and glycerol from biodiesel processing waste by coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-guang Xie1,; Wirach Taweepreda 2,; Charongpun Musikavong1*; Chaisri Suksaroj 1*

    2011-01-01

    Raw waste glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production from transesterification, which is high in salt, and has a highpH value (more than 9.6). The purpose of this research is to reduce the water pollution from waste glycerol by using acoagulation process and discussing the possibility of waste glycerol reuse. The commercial coagulant (2% by weight), whichwas composed by cationic polyamine (PA) 6% and poly-aluminium chloride (PACl) 94% (w/w), was used as coagulant totreat waste glycerol. ...

  12. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  13. Dynamic shear modulus of glycerol: Corrections due to instrument compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, K.; Hutcheson, S. A.; Shi, X.; Mandanici, A.; McKenna, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    A recent article by Shi et al. [J. Chem. Phys.123, 174507 (2005)] reports results from mechanical measurements on three simple inorganic glass formers: glycerol, m-toluidine, and sucrose benzoate. The experiments carried out were stress relaxation, aging, and dynamic (all in shear) using a torsional rheometer, an advanced rheometric expansion system (TA Instruments). The original force rebalance transducer (2KFRT) supplied with the system was replaced with a custom-made load cell (Sensotec) that had a capacity of 20000gcm in torque and 5000g in normal force. The replacement of the load cell was done due to the belief that the main source of compliance in this instrument was from the 2KFRT. With this assumption, the authors published their results for the three materials of interest and compared their results with the techniques of Schröter and Donth [J. Chem. Phys.113, 9101 (2000)] for the measurements on glycerol and reported important differences. These differences were disputed by one of the present authors (Schröter), and the present report shows that the results from Schröter and Donth are correct. We show that the reasons have to do with the instrument compliance being greater than originally thought by Shi et al. Here we examine the effects of platen diameter/geometry on the glycerol dynamic moduli, describe a means to correct dynamic data, present a revised comparison of the corrected data with that of Schröter and Donth, and provide a discussion of future work and conclusions.

  14. Some experience of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by glycerol rhizolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Семенов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by Hakanson S. glycerol rhizolysis method. Methods. The results of glycerol rhizolysis treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, who had been operated at Neurosurgical Department of Irkutsk City Hospital over a period from 2009 to 2016. To study the prospective follow-up, 53 patients operated during 2009 – 2014 were surveyed over the phone. The comparison of our long-term results and the results of other authors from literature sources was then performed.Results. The median of follow-up period was 43 months. The pain recurrence (III-V rate of Barrow Neurological Institute score for trigeminal neuralgia was observed in 30.2 % of patients, with the mean rate of the visual analogue scale amounting to 1.96. Complications included aseptic meningitis in 3.1 % cases, intracerebral hematoma – 1.04 %, hyperesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 3.8%, labial herpes – 40.7 %, temporary anesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 30.2%, temporary decrease of corneal reflex sensitivity – 41.5 %. There was no postoperative mortality.Conclusion. Glycerol rhizolysis is an effective method of trigeminal neuralgia treatment and its results are comparable with those of other surgical methods. Strict adherence to all surgical steps and contrast cistenography is the key to success of intervention. The method is minimally invasive, applicable for anesthesia and particularly promising for patients over 70 years old.Received 25 May 2016. Accepted 14 September 2016.Funding: The study had no sponsorship. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  15. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S.; Fiuza, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  17. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  18. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the

  19. Improved glycerol utilization by a triacylglycerol-producing Rhodococcus opacus strain for renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kazuhiko; Radek, Andreas; Plassmeier, Jens K; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol generated during renewable fuel production processes is potentially an attractive substrate for the production of value-added materials by fermentation. An engineered strain MITXM-61 of the oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus produces large amounts of intracellular triacylglycerols (TAGs) for lipid-based biofuels on high concentrations of glucose and xylose. However, on glycerol medium, MITXM-61 does not produce TAGs and grows poorly. The aim of the present work was to construct a TAG-producing R. opacus strain capable of high-cell-density cultivation at high glycerol concentrations. An adaptive evolution strategy was applied to improve the conversion of glycerol to TAGs in R. opacus MITXM-61. An evolved strain, MITGM-173, grown on a defined medium with 16 g L(-1) glycerol, produced 2.3 g L(-1) of TAGs, corresponding to 40.4% of the cell dry weight (CDW) and 0.144 g g(-1) of TAG yield per glycerol consumed. MITGM-173 was able to grow on high concentrations (greater than 150 g L(-1)) of glycerol. Cultivated in a medium containing an initial concentration of 20 g L(-1) glycerol, 40 g L(-1) glucose, and 40 g L(-1) xylose, MITGM-173 was capable of simultaneously consuming the mixed substrates and yielding 13.6 g L(-1) of TAGs, representing 51.2% of the CDM. In addition, when 20 g L(-1) glycerol was pulse-loaded into the culture with 40 g L(-1) glucose and 40 g L(-1) xylose at the stationary growth phase, MITGM-173 produced 14.3 g L(-1) of TAGs corresponding to 51.1% of the CDW although residual glycerol in the culture was observed. The addition of 20 g L(-1) glycerol in the glucose/xylose mix resulted in a TAG yield per glycerol consumed of 0.170 g g(-1) on the initial addition and 0.279 g g(-1) on the pulse addition of glycerol. We have generated a TAG-producing R. opacus MITGM-173 strain that shows significantly improved glycerol utilization in comparison to the parental strain. The present study demonstrates that the

  20. Crystal structure of substrate free form of glycerol dehydratase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Der-Ing; Dotson, Garry; Turner, Jr., Ivan; Reiss, Lisa; Emptage, Mark (Du Pont)

    2010-03-08

    Glycerol dehydratase (GDH) and diol dehydratase (DDH) are highly homologous isofunctional enzymes that catalyze the elimination of water from glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to the corresponding aldehyde via a coenzyme B{sub 12}-dependent radical mechanism. The crystal structure of substrate free form of GDH in complex with cobalamin and K{sup +} has been determined at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. Its overall fold and the subunit assembly closely resemble those of DDH. Comparison of this structure and the DDH structure, available only in substrate bound form, shows the expected change of the coordination of the essential K{sup +} from hexacoordinate to heptacoordinate with the displacement of a single coordinated water by the substrate diol. In addition, there appears to be an increase in the rigidity of the K{sup +} coordination (as measured by lower B values) upon the binding of the substrate. Structural analysis of the locations of conserved residues among various GDH and DDH sequences has aided in identification of residues potentially important for substrate preference or specificity of protein-protein interactions.

  1. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  2. Glycerol Production and Transformation: A Critical Review with Particular Emphasis on Glycerol Reforming Reaction for Producing Hydrogen in Conventional and Membrane Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Giuseppe; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Sanna, Aimaro; Basile, Angelo

    2017-03-23

    Glycerol represents an emerging renewable bio-derived feedstock, which could be used as a source for producing hydrogen through steam reforming reaction. In this review, the state-of-the-art about glycerol production processes is reviewed, with particular focus on glycerol reforming reactions and on the main catalysts under development. Furthermore, the use of membrane catalytic reactors instead of conventional reactors for steam reforming is discussed. Finally, the review describes the utilization of the Pd-based membrane reactor technology, pointing out the ability of these alternative fuel processors to simultaneously extract high purity hydrogen and enhance the whole performances of the reaction system in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen yield.

  3. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...

  4. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  6. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  7. Probing spatial heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol and temporal heterogeneity with single-molecule FRET in polyprolines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents two lines of research. On the one hand, we investigate heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol by means of rheometry, small-angle neutron scattering, and fluorescence imaging. We find from the rheological experiments that supercooled glycerol can behave like weak solids at

  8. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  9. Conversion of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Genetically Engineered Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalantari, Aida; Chen, Tao; Ji, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer...

  10. Continuous production of glycerol by catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ling, Gerrit; Driessen, Alfons J.; Piet, Arie C.; Vlugter, Jozef C.

    1970-01-01

    Several continuous reactor systems have been discussed for the catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose to glycerol. Theoretically and actually, continuous reactors lead to lower glycerol yields than in a batch process. Two continuous stirred tank reactors in cascade constitute a reasonable

  11. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  12. Degree of branching in hyperbranched poly(glycerol-co-diacid)s synthesized in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperbranched polymers were synthesized by using a Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide) to catalyze the polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutaric acid (n=3) or azelaic acid (n=7) in toluene. These are the first examples of diacid-glycerol hyperbranc...

  13. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propylene glycol. 172.850 Section 172.850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  14. Enhancing effect of glycerol on the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Deng, Lianxia; Yang, Mingying; Min, Sijia; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Liangjun

    2011-01-01

    An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0-40 wt% of glycerol) sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition of different concentrations of glycerol. The introduction of glycerol results in the higher amorphous structure in sericin films as evidenced by analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that glycerol was homogeneously blended with sericin molecules when its content was 10 wt%, while a small amount of redundant glycerol emerged on the surface of sericin films when its content was increased to 20 wt% or higher. Our results suggest that the introduction of glycerol is a novel nontoxic strategy which can improve the mechanical features of sericin-based materials and subsequently promote the feasibility of its application in tissue engineering.

  15. Enhancing Effect of Glycerol on the Tensile Properties of Bombyx mori Cocoon Sericin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjun Zhu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0–40 wt% of glycerol sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition of different concentrations of glycerol. The introduction of glycerol results in the higher amorphous structure in sericin films as evidenced by analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectra, thermogravimetry (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC curves. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observation revealed that glycerol was homogeneously blended with sericin molecules when its content was 10 wt%, while a small amount of redundant glycerol emerged on the surface of sericin films when its content was increased to 20 wt% or higher. Our results suggest that the introduction of glycerol is a novel nontoxic strategy which can improve the mechanical features of sericin-based materials and subsequently promote the feasibility of its application in tissue engineering.

  16. Separation of oily sludge and glycerol from biodiesel processing waste by coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-guang Xie1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw waste glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production from transesterification, which is high in salt, and has a highpH value (more than 9.6. The purpose of this research is to reduce the water pollution from waste glycerol by using acoagulation process and discussing the possibility of waste glycerol reuse. The commercial coagulant (2% by weight, whichwas composed by cationic polyamine (PA 6% and poly-aluminium chloride (PACl 94% (w/w, was used as coagulant totreat waste glycerol. The results showed that after acidification and coagulation process, most of the chemical oxygen demand(COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS, and oily sludge (such as fatty acid, methyl ester,methanol and soap in raw waste glycerol were removed, except glycerol. The removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5, TSS, soapand methanol were 96.2%, 93.3%, 98.1%, 100%, and 85.8%, respectively, but the removal efficiency of glycerol was only65.4%. There was still a certain amount of glycerol (about 147.5g/L in the solution, which is separated from oily sludge.

  17. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  18. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  19. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  20. Effect of Glycerol Pretreatment on Levoglucosan Production from Corncobs by Fast Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, glycerol was used in corncobs’ pretreatment to promote levoglucosan production by fast pyrolysis first and then was further utilized as raw material for chemicals production by microbial fermentation. The effects of glycerol pretreatment temperatures (220–240 °C, time (0.5–3 h and solid-to-liquid ratios (5–20% were investigated. Due to the accumulation of crystalline cellulose and the removal of minerals, the levoglucosan yield was as high as 35.8% from corncobs pretreated by glycerol at 240 for 3 h with a 5% solid-to-liquid ratio, which was obviously higher than that of the control (2.2%. After glycerol pretreatment, the fermentability of the recovered glycerol remaining in the liquid stream from glycerol pretreatment was evaluated by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that the recovered glycerol had no inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolism of the microbe, which was a promising substrate for fermentation. The value-added applications of glycerol could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment. Correspondingly, this manuscript offers a green, sustainable, efficient and economic strategy for an integrated biorefinery process.

  1. Study of combined effects of glycerol and transglutaminase on properties of gelatin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin films plasticized with different glycerol contents (0-40%) were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGase). Unmodified films were prepared as controls. Cross-linking degree of the films decreased linearly with increasing glycerol content, resulting in an increase in water solubility. Glycer...

  2. Propionic acid fermentation of glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmi, E H; Bories, A; Boussaid, A; Hassani, L

    2000-04-01

    A comparative study was carried out in anaerobic batch cultures on 20 g/l of either glycerol or glucose using two propionibacteria strains, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In all cases, fermentation end-products were the same and consisted of propionic acid as the major product, acetic acid as the main by-product and two minor metabolites, n-propanol and succinic acid. Evidence was provided that greater production of propionic acid by propionibacteria was obtained with glycerol as carbon and energy sources. P. acidipropionici showed higher efficiency in glycerol conversion to propionic acid with a faster substrate consumption (0.64 g l(-1) h(-1)) and a higher propionic acid production (0.42 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.79 mol/mol). The almost exclusive production of propionic acid from glycerol by this bacterium suggested an homopropionic tendency of this fermentation. Acetic acid final concentration was two times lower on glycerol (2 g/l) than on glucose (4 g/l) for both micro-organisms. P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii exhibited a glycerol fermentation pattern typical of non-associated glycerol-consumption-product formation. This could indicate a particular metabolism for P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii oriented towards the production of other specific components. These results tend to show that glycerol could be an excellent alternative to conventional carbon sources such as carbohydrates for propionic acid production.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Modifies Glycerol Permeability and Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Durendale Chiadak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins—aquaporin membrane channels (AQP that conduct glycerol and other small neutral solutes in addition to water—play major roles in obesity. In adipocytes, aquaglyceroporins mediate glycerol uptake and release across the plasma membrane, which are two key steps for triacylglycerols (TAGs synthesis (lipogenesis and hydrolysis (lipolysis. The aim of this study was to assess both glycerol permeability and metabolism in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells (UDCs as well as in untreated (CTL-DCs versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS-DCs-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release, TAGs content and whole membrane glycerol permeability were significantly increased in DCs as compared to UDCs. Moreover, in DCs, LPS treatment significantly increased TAGs content and decreased glycerol permeability. In addition, a significant reduction in whole membrane glycerol permeability was observed in LPS-DCs as compared to CTL-DCs. The relative contributions of AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9 (facilitated diffusion, as well as that of the phospholipid bilayer (simple diffusion, to the whole membrane glycerol permeability, were estimated biophysically in UDCs, CTL-DCs and LPS-DCs, using selective AQP inhibitors. Further studies will be required to determine if modifications in either subcellular localization and/or activity of aquaglyceroporins could account for the data herein. Nevertheless, our findings provide novel insights in understanding the LPS-induced adipocyte hypertrophy that accompanies obesity.

  4. Production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by engineered using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) has versatile applications in polymers, cosmetics, foods and medicines. In order to consolidate the functions of glycerol dehydratase gene dhaB and 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase gene dhaT and produce 1,3-PD from glycerol, the genes dhaB and dhaT from Klebsiella pneumoniae were inserted ...

  5. A crude scaling law for lasertrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1987-11-01

    The lasertron is under consideration in several laboratories as a promising new source of high-power microwaves that is competitive with conventional klystrons in its properties - particularly in efficiency. In this note, a crude scaling law for high-power lasertrons is derived based on the observation that the main limiting phenomenon, the phenomenon that curtails the tube's efficiency, is debunching due to longitudinal space-charge forces acting in the electron gun. The scaling law indicates that lasertrons are quite restricted in the power they can generate at high frequencies

  6. Kinetic analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain adapted for improved growth on glycerol: Implications for the development of yeast bioprocesses on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Estopier, A; Lesage, J; Gorret, N; Guillouet, S E

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol is an agro-industrial residue generated in high amounts during the biodiesel production. The growing production of biodiesel is creating a worldwide glycerol surplus. Therefore, replacing sugar-based feedstock in bioprocesses by glycerol could be potentially attractive. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most commonly used microorganisms in the agri-food industry and therefore currently produced in large quantities from sugar-based feedstock. Unfortunately, growth of S. cerevisiae strains on glycerol is very low with reported μmax around 0.01 h(-1). This study demonstrates that successive growth of the S. cerevisiae CBS 8066, CEN.PK 113-7 D and Ethanol Red on glycerol as sole carbon source considerably improved the μmax from 0.01 up to 0.2 h(-1). The "adapted strain" CBS 8066-FL20 was kinetically characterized during aerobic and oxygen-limited cultivation in bioreactor and the results discussed in terms of their implication for developing glycerol-based S. cerevisiae bioprocesses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase and glycerol dehydratase in selected genera of Enterobacteriaceae and Propionibacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya, T; Kuno, S; Fukui, S

    1980-03-01

    The presence of diol dehydratase and glycerol dehydratase was shown in several bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae grown anaerobically on 1,2-propanediol and on glycerol, respectively. Diol dehydratases of Enterobacteriaceae were immunologically similar, but distinct from that of Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

  8. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Foged, Lene; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments...... in connection to in vivo metabolic studies investigating glucose turnover and lipolytic rate. Moreover, in order to keep up with this new fast analysis, simple derivatization procedures have been developed. Prior to analysis, glucose and glycerol were derivatized using benzoyl chloride in order to form...... benzoylated derivatives via new simplified fast procedures. For glucose, two internal standards were evaluated, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and for glycerol, [U-(13) C(3), D(8)]glycerol was used. The method was validated by means of calibration curves, quality control samples...

  9. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... of the catalyst particles. In this paper, this negative effect was further investigated and confirmed in ethanolysis of rapeseed oil. A dyeing method was developed for in situ visualization of glycerol in order to study its partitioning and accumulation during the ethanolysis reaction. The method was used...... to illustrate the interaction of glycerol with immobilized lipases and thus provided an aid for screening supports for lipase immobilization according to their interaction with glycerol. Glycerol was found to have great affinity for silica, less for polystyrene and no affinity for supports made from...

  10. Human skeletal muscle fatty acid and glycerol metabolism during rest, exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) and glycerol kinetics and to determine the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole body FA and glycerol turnover during rest, 2 h of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of maximal leg power output, and 3 h of recovery....... To this aim, the leg femoral arterial-venous difference technique was used in combination with a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in five post-absorptive healthy volunteers (22 +/- 3 years). The influence of contamination from non-skeletal muscle tissues, skin and subcutaneous...... adipose tissue, on FA and glycerol kinetics was studied by catheterization of the femoral vein in antegrade and retrograde directions. Substantially higher net leg FA and glycerol uptakes were observed with a retrograde compared to an antegrade catheter position, as a result of a much lower tracer...

  11. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J., E-mail: joselinares@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L{sup -1} glycerol and 4 mol L{sup -1} KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min{sup -1}, high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt{sub 3}Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  12. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L -1 glycerol and 4 mol L -1 KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min -1 , high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt 3 Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  13. Navigating Glycerol Conversion Roadmap and Heterogeneous Catalyst Selection Aided by Density Functional Theory: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol has been utilized in an extremely diversified manner throughout human civilization—ranging from food, to various consumer products, to pharmaceuticals, and even explosives. Large surplus in glycerol supply thanks to biodiesel production and biomass processing has created a demand to further boost its utility. One growing area is to expand the use of glycerol as an alternative feedstock to supplement fuels and chemicals production. Various catalytic processes have been developed. This review summarizes catalytic materials for glycerol reforming, hydrodeoxygenation, and oxidation. In particular, rationale for catalyst selection and new catalyst design will be discussed aided by the knowledge of reaction mechanisms. The role of theoretical density functional theory (DFT in elucidating complex glycerol conversion chemistries is particularly emphasized.

  14. Anaerobic and aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants impaired in glycerol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Hamann, Claus Wendelboe; Kielland-Brandt, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol is formed as a by-product in production of ethanol and baker's yeast during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. One physiological role of glycerol formation by yeast is to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass...... and secondary fermentation products, to NAD(+). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether introduction of a new pathway for reoxidation of NADH, in a yeast strain where glycerol synthesis had been impaired, would result in elimination of glycerol production and lead to increased yields of ethanol...... and biomass under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. This was done by deletion of GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and expression of a cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii, encoded by cth. In anaerobic batch fermentations...

  15. Rheological properties of purified illite clays in glycerol/water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenkova, I.; Malers, J.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies about rheological properties of clay-water suspensions, but no published investigations about clay-glycerol suspensions. In this work apparent viscosity of previously purified illite containing clay fraction acids and other non-clay minerals were almost totally removed by centrifugation. All obtained suspensions behaved as shear-thinning fluids with multiple times higher viscosity than pure glycerol/water solutions. Reduction of clay fraction concentration by 5% decreased the apparent viscosity of 50% glycerol/water suspensions approximately 5 times. There was basically no difference in apparent viscosity between all four 50% glycerol/water suspensions, but in 90% glycerol/water suspensions samples from Iecava deposit showed slightly higher apparent viscosity, which could be affected by the particle size distribution.

  16. Control of glycerol production by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to provide freeze resistance and allow foraging at low winter temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

    2004-11-01

    The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small anadromous fish that actively feeds under the ice at temperatures as low as the freeze point of seawater. Freezing is avoided through the production of both non-colligative antifreeze protein (AFP) and glycerol that acts in a colligative manner. Glycerol is constantly lost across the gills and skin, thus glycerol production must continue on a sustained basis at low winter temperatures. AFP begins to accumulate in early fall while water temperatures are still high. Glycerol production is triggered when water temperatures decrease to about 5 degrees C. Glycerol levels rapidly increase with carbon flow from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) to glycerol. Glucose/glycogen serves as the initial carbon source for glycerol accumulation with amino acids contributing thereafter. The period of glycerol accumulation is associated with increases in GPDH mRNA and PEPCK mRNA followed by elevations in protein synthesis and enzyme activities. Plasma glycerol levels may reach in excess of 500 mM in winter. The high freeze resistance allows rainbow smelt to invade water of low temperature and forage for food. The lower the temperature, the higher the glycerol must be, and the higher the glycerol the greater the loss to the environment through diffusion. During the winter, rainbow smelt feed upon protein rich invertebrates with glycerol production being fueled in part by dietary amino acids via the gluconeogenic pathway. At winter temperatures, glycerol is quantitatively more important than AFP in providing freeze resistance of blood; however, the importance of AFPs to other tissues is yet to be assessed. Glycerol levels rapidly plummet in the spring when water temperature is still close to 0 degrees C. During this period, freeze resistance must be provided by AFP alone. Overall, the phenomenon of glycerol production by rainbow smelt reveals an elegant connection of biochemistry to ecology that allows this

  17. Preparation and characterization of zinc glycerolate: UV protection, biological activity and permeation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yee Cheong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc glycerolate, has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of many medical ailments but its properties for skincare application are not explored. Zinc glycerolate has been successfully synthesized by heating zinc oxide and glycerol in 240 °C via microwave irradiation. The characterization and properties of zinc glycerolate were discussed including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser diffraction particle size analysis, in vitro irritancy potential, UV protection, antibacterial and permeation properties via Franz diffusion cell of the zinc glycerolate. Zinc glycerolate is classified as non-irritant when used in dermal application. It has SPF of 1.007 ± 0.004 and ultraviolet A to B (UVA/UVB ratio of 0.7 ± 0.019 which is considered good for UVA protection under Boot’s star rating. The antimicrobial properties of zinc glycerolate were expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and the time needed to eliminate 99.9% of the bacteria population (time-kill. Zinc glycerolate has better bactericidal properties than zinc oxide particularly towards Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Propionibacterium acnes while no effect was observed for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The concentration of zinc ions that has diffused through polysulfone membrane installed in a vertical diffusion cell was determined through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The highest concentration of zinc ion diffused was found from incorporation of zinc glycerolate in oil-in-water (O/W cream-based excipient. The obtained results indicated that zinc glycerolate has a good potential for applications in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.

  18. Effect of microwave pretreatment on pyrolysis of crude glycerol–olive kernel alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesapillai, M.; Manara, P.; Zabaniotou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave activation investigated as pretreatment of glycerol–biomass mixtures. • Microwave irradiation was performed for a 25 wt% crude glycerol–olive kernel fuel. • Pyrolysis of microwave-activated fuel showed increased liquids at 500 °C. • Pyrolysis at 720 °C gave a high yield of syngas (84.9 wt%). • Microwave activation had no significant effect on char yields and characteristics. - Abstract: Pyrolysis is considered to be a sustainable energy technology and is practiced widely in waste management. In this study, three issues were explored: (a) the implication of crude glycerol addition to lignocellulosic biomass in pyrolysis, (b) the effect of microwave pretreatment on the pyrolysis product yields and (c) study of pyrolysis parameters and assessment of products quality. Characterization of the above glycerol–biomass mixtures along with pyrolysis products was performed by ICP–OES, SEM, EDX and GC techniques. It was resulted that higher liquid yield (max 59.53% v/v) obtained by pyrolysis of pretreated mixtures at 500 °C, compared to pyrolysis yields of non-pretreated mixtures, due to the prevalence of recombination reactions in pyrolysis of the microwave-pretreated mixtures. The gas produced from the microwave pretreated feedstock-based pyrolysis showed an enriched syngas (H 2 + CO) concentration (84.9% v/v), compared to the non-microwave pretreated samples (79.1% v/v), at 720 °C. No significant effect, either on the char yields or on the char structural characteristics were observed. Consequently, microwave pretreatment before pyrolysis, can serve as a potential pretreatment for enhanced production of fuels via post-pyrolysis.

  19. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  20. Crude oil to ethylene in one step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, R.O.

    1983-02-01

    Reports that the most important feature of the partial combustion cracking (PCC) process is its ability to convert heavy petroleum fractions to light olefins with minimum residue. Presents diagram of the PCC process; graph of feedstock cost vs. return on investment (ROI); and tables with average ethylene yields, cracking yields, and PCC vs. LPG and naphtha cracking. Finds that the 10% difference in capital between the PCC and the naphtha feed case is due mainly to the cost of the acid gas and sulfur handling sections required for the PCC, but not for a naphtha cracker. The very favorable ROI and ethylene costs are due to the relative difference in feedstock pricing. Sensitivity of ROI to changes in feedstock was also studied for the PCC cases. The ratio of cost of high-sulfur fuel oil (HSFO) to average crude price is used to indicate the substantial effect of feedstock price on the attractiveness of the project. Concludes that with HSFO at 85 to 100% of crude value, the PCC represents an excellent investment for future ethylene needs.

  1. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  2. Crude glycerin in anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure increases methane production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Simm

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerin (CG along with animal waste has been an excellent option for increasing the production of biogas and methane to achieve efficiency in the treatment of both residues. This study aimed to evaluate improvements in specific productions of biogas and methane, reductions in solid and fibrous components in substrates prepared with dairy cattle manure and CG (containing 14 % glycerol. With these residues, experimental substrates were prepared and placed in 25 batch digesters. Initial content of the TS in the influent was 4 % and CG was added in increasing doses (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % relative to total solids (TS of the influent. Results were submitted to ANOVA and orthogonal contrasts to assess the effects of linear and quadratic order and thereby estimate the optimal CG doses through the adjusted models. The highest values for specific production of methane (0.19 and 0.26 L g−1 of TS and volatile solids (VS added, respectively were reached with the CG inclusions of 6 and 8 %, respectively. Total production of biogas with the inclusion of 6 % CG was 11 % higher when compared to the control treatment. The largest reduction in VS (48 % was achieved with the addition of 4 % CG. Addition of CG at levels between 3 and 8 % improved the efficiency of the process of anaerobic digestion with dairy cattle manure.

  3. Metabolic effects of glycerol supplementation and aerobic physical training on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Araújo, Ticiana Vasques; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gomes, Núbia Ferreira; Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rogatto, Gustavo Puggina; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Pereira, Luciano José

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of oral glycerol supplementation on trained rats fed a normal diet. Wistar rats were distributed among 6 groups in a completely randomized 2 × 3 factorial design. The animals were subjected to 6 weeks of aerobic training. In the last 4 weeks, the animals' diet was supplemented with saline, glucose, or glycerol. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Student-Newmann-Keuls test, with values for P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The change in body mass was lower in the trained groups, and their food and water consumption were higher. Glycerol supplementation resulted in an increase in the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) and total cholesterol, as well as in the area and diameter of adipocytes. When associated with training, these parameters were similar to those of other trained groups. Levels of low-density lipoprotein + very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the trained animals that received glycerol compared with the non-trained ones. Glycerol consumption caused a reduction in food intake and increased the villous:crypt (V:C) ratio. No changes in glycemia, high density lipoproteins, or density of adipocytes were observed. Supplementation with glycerol together with aerobic physical training promoted beneficial metabolic effects. However, in non-trained rats glycerol increased the diameter and area of adipocytes, as well as the levels of TAG and total cholesterol.

  4. Physiologic Mechanisms Involved in Accumulation of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde during Fermentation of Glycerol by Enterobacter agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, F; Soucaille, P; Bories, A

    1996-12-01

    When grown in 700 mM glycerol within the pH range 6.0 to 7.5, anaerobic pH-regulated cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans exhibited an extracellular accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). This phenomenon, which causes fermentation cessation, occurred earlier when pH was low. In contrast, substrate consumption was complete at pH 8. Levels of glycerol-catabolizing enzymes, i.e., glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase for the oxidative route and glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase for the reductive route, as well as the nucleotide pools were determined periodically in the pH 7- and pH 8-regulated cultures. A NAD/NADH ratio of 1.7 was correlated with the beginning of the production of the inhibitory metabolite. Further accumulation was dependent on the ratio of glycerol dehydratase activity to 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase activity. For a ratio higher than 1, 3-HPA was produced until fermentation ceased, which occurred for the pH 7-regulated culture. At pH 8, a value below 1 was noticed and 3-HPA accumulation was transient, while the NAD/NADH ratio decreased. The low rate of glycerol dissimilation following the appearance of 3-HPA in the culture medium was attributed to the strong inhibitory effect exerted by 3-HPA on glycerol dehydrogenase activity.

  5. Synthesis and Thermal-Stability Study of Polybutylene Itaconate Modified with Divinyl Benzene and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanto Heru Wibowo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polybutylene itaconate (PBI for modification with divinyl benzene (DVB and glycerol has been synthesized at 180 °C for 3 h via polycondensation of itaconic acid (IA and butanediols using catalyst of Ti(OBu4. Modification on PBI was done with addition of 15%, 20% and 25% DVB (w/w using benzoyl peroxide. With glycerol, weight variations of glycerol:1,4-butanediol (BDO in the synthesis were 10%, 30%, and 50% (mole/mole. PBI and PBI modified with DVB and glycerol were characterized with FTIR and TG-DTA. PBI showed a wavenumber shift from 1703 cm-1 to 1728 cm-1 of the C=O functional group from acid to esther. The DVB modification on PBI also showed that the intensity decrease of C=C stretching was due to the formation of crosslinking on the double bond. In the modification with glycerol, three dimensional networking on the polyester occurred through bonding between hydroxyl of glycerol and acid group of IA. Constant intensity of C=C stretching on polyester was seen. The thermal stability of PBI modified with DVB increased, accompanied by rigidity change of the structure. The thermal stability of PBI modified with glycerol decreased, caused by the decrease of regularity degree and the elasticity increase of the three dimensional structure of polyester.

  6. Glycerol, trehalose and glycerol–trehalose mixture effects on thermal stabilization of OCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, D., E-mail: dbarreca@unime.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Laganà, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Magazù, S.; Migliardo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Bellocco, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Trehalose influences both enzymatic activity and conformational changes of enzyme. • The results obtained by INS and QENS show a switching-off of the fast dynamics at very low glycerol content. • The diffusive dynamics is slowing down at very low glycerol concentration. • The mixtures of trehalose/glycerol lose the thermal stabilizing effects of pure compounds. - Abstract: The stabilization effects of trehalose, glycerol and their mixtures on ornithine carbamoyltransferase catalytic activity has been studied as a function of temperature by complementary techniques. The obtained results show that the kinematic viscosities of trehalose (1.0 M) and protein mixture are higher than the one of glycerol plus protein. Changing the trehalose/glycerol ratio, we notice a decrease of the kinematic viscosity values at almost all the analyzed ratio. In particular, the solution composed of 95% trehalose-5% glycerol shows a peculiar behavior. Moreover the trehalose (1.0 M) solution shows the higher OCT thermal stabilization at 343 K, while all the other solutions show minor effects. The smallest stabilizing effect is revealed for the solution that shows the maximum kinematic viscosity. These results support Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) findings, which pointed out a slowing down of the relaxation and diffusive dynamics in some investigated samples.

  7. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  8. Glycerol as a source of designer solvents: physicochemical properties of low melting mixtures containing glycerol ethers and ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Duaso, Alejandro; Pérez, Pascual; Mayoral, José A; Pires, Elisabet; García, José I

    2017-10-25

    In this work we report the preparation of mixtures of several alkyl glyceryl ethers, as hydrogen bond donor compounds, with two ammonium salts, choline chloride and N,N,N-triethyl-2,3-dihydroxypropan-1-aminium chloride. The stability of the mixtures at different molar ratios and temperatures has been evaluated in order to determine the formation of low melting mixtures. Liquid and stable mixtures have been characterized and their physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, refractive index, conductivity and surface tension have been measured in the temperature range of 293.15 K to 343.15 K. Comparison of the mixtures prepared herein with the ones containing glycerol and choline chloride evidences the possibility of tuning the physico-chemical properties by changing the substitution pattern in the hydrogen bond donor compound or in the ammonium salt, thus broadening the scope of application of these mixtures.

  9. Optimal Conditions for Biomass and Recombinant Glycerol Kinase Production Using the Yeast Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro R. Valentini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular glycerol kinase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GUT1 was cloned into the expression vector pPICZα A and integrated into the genome of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The presence of the GUT1 insert was confirmed by PCR analysis. Four clones were selected and the functionality of the recombinant enzyme was assayed. Among the tested clones, one exhibited glycerol kinase activity of 0.32 U/mL, with specific activity of 0.025 U/mg of protein. A medium optimized for maximum biomass production by recombinant Pichia pastoris in shaker cultures was initially explored, using 2.31 % (by volume glycerol as the carbon source. Optimization was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM. In preliminary experiments, following a Plackett-Burman design, glycerol volume fraction (φ(Gly and growth time (t were selected as the most important factors in biomass production. Therefore, subsequent experiments, carried out to optimize biomass production, followed a central composite rotatable design as a function of φ(Gly and time. Glycerol volume fraction proved to have a significant positive linear effect on biomass production. Also, time was a significant factor (at linear positive and quadratic levels in biomass production. Experimental data were well fitted by a convex surface representing a second order polynomial model, in which biomass is a function of both factors (R²=0.946. Yield and specific activity of glycerol kinase were mainly affected by the additions of glycerol and methanol to the medium. The optimized medium composition for enzyme production was: 1 % yeast extract, 1 % peptone, 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH=6.0, 1.34 % yeast nitrogen base (YNB, 4·10^–5 % biotin, 1 % methanol and 1 % glycerol, reaching 0.89 U/mL of glycerol kinase activity and 14.55 g/L of total protein in the medium after 48 h of growth.

  10. Reaction pathways for catalytic gas-phase oxidation of glycerol over mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprun, W.; Glaeser, R.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2011-07-01

    Glycerol as a main by-product from bio-diesel manufacture is a cheap raw material with large potential for chemical or biochemical transformations to value-added C3-chemicals. One possible way of glycerol utilization involves its catalytic oxidation to acrylic acid as an alternative to petrochemical routes. However, this catalytic conversion exhibits various problems such as harsh reaction conditions, severe catalyst coking and large amounts of undesired by-products. In this study, the reaction pathways for gas-phase conversion of glycerol over transition metal oxides (Mo, V und W) supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were investigated by two methods: (i) steady state experiments of glycerol oxidation and possible reactions intermediates, i.e., acrolein, 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and (ii) temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of glycerol conversion in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. It is shown that the supported W-, V and Mo-oxides possess an ability to catalyze the oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid. These investigations allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. Thus, based on the obtained results, three possible reactions pathways for the selective oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid on the transition metal-containing catalysts are proposed. The major pathways in presence of molecular oxygen are a fast successive destructive oxidation of glycerol to CO{sub x} and the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein which is a rate-limiting step. (orig.)

  11. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  12. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  13. Ablation characteristics of carbon-doped glycerol irradiated by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, QI; Siqi, ZHANG; Tian, LIANG; Ke, XIAO; Weichong, TANG; Zhiyuan, ZHENG

    2018-03-01

    The ablation characteristics of carbon-doped glycerol were investigated in laser plasma propulsion using a pulse laser with 10 ns pulse width and 1064 nm wavelength. The results showed that with the incident laser intensity increasing, the target momentum decreased. Results still indicated that the strong plasma shielded the consumption loss and resulted in a low coupling coefficient. Furthermore, the carbon-doping gave rise to variations in the laser focal position and laser intensity, which in turn reduced the glycerol splashing. Based on the glycerol viscosity and the carbon doping, a high specific impulse is anticipated.

  14. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  15. Acrolein Production by Gas-Phase Glycerol Dehydration Using PO₄/Nb₂O5 Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Am; Ryoo, HeeKyoung; Ma, Byung Chol; Kim, Youngchul

    2018-02-01

    In this study, modified niobium oxide were prepared to study the addictive effects on the catalytic performance for gas-phase glycerol dehydration. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR. The amount of phosphoric acid was up to 50 wt% in niobium. As a result, the highest glycerol conversion was achieved over 20 wt% PO4/Nb2O5. It indicates that the optimal amount of phosphoric acid leads the catalyst to have appropriate acidity which is an important factor for gas-phase glycerol dehydration.

  16. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S. de A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  17. Kinetic study of synthesis of bio-fuel additives from glycerol using a hetropolyacid

    OpenAIRE

    Sravanthi Veluturla; Archna Narula; Subba Rao D; Suniana P. Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Concerns about the ever increasing quantities of glycerol produced as a by-product of the process of manufacture of bio-diesel serve as a fuel for research about the alternative uses of glycerol. The esterification of glycerol with acetic acid over Cesium supported heteropolyacid (CsPWA) serving as the catalyst was carried out. The products obtained were mono, di and tri acetins which have wide application as biofuels. A series of experiments were carried out with CsPWA as catalyst and parame...

  18. A comparative evaluation of plasma glycerol and free fatty acids in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh V

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma glycerol concentration was determined in 158 patients admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. The patients were retrospectively divided into five groups according to their diagnosis, taking into account the presence or absence of myocardial infarc-tion and complicating arrythmias, The plasma glycerol concentra-tion was significantly higher in the group with complicating arrhythmias, irrespective of whether infarction was present or not. Therefore it is proposed that elevation of plasma glycerol may provide an important clue to determine those myocardial ischaemia cases who may develop cardiac arrythmias at a later stage.

  19. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    The focus on de veloping new renewable energy in the transportation sector by the EU has boosted the production of biodiesel from rapeseed and other vegetable oils in Europe. This has led to an immense increase in the production of glycerol, which is an inevitable byproduct from the biodiesel...... production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Hansen Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of polyester via polycondensation between glycerol and phthalic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate is reported. Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC indicated no crystallinity, although the XRD plots indicate a very incipient crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. Scanning electron microscopy results indicates high homogeneity for all the polymers prepared.

  1. Potential application of glycerol in the production of plant beneficial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Malusa, Eligio; Requena, Antonia Reyes; Martos, Vanessa; López, Ana; Maksimovic, Ivana; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This review highlights the importance of research for development of biofertilizer and biocontrol products based on the use of glycerol for further process scale-up to industrial microbiology. Glycerol can be used successfully in all stages of production of plant beneficial microorganisms. It serves as an excellent substrate in both submerged and solid-state fermentation processes with free and immobilized microbial cells. Glycerol is also one of the most attractive formulation agents that ensures high cell density and viability including in harsh environmental conditions. Future research is discussed to make this inexpensive material a base for industrial production of plant beneficial microorganisms.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1250 - C8, C10, and C12 fatty acid monoesters of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1250 Section 180..., C10, and C12 fatty acid monoesters of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of... monocaprylate, glycerol monocaprate, and glycerol monolaurate) and propylene glycol (propylene glycol...

  3. ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of seashore paspalum, ( Paspalum vaginatum L ) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum oil. ... Abstract. The effect of crude oil contaminated soil on the growth of seashore Paspalum ( Paspalum vaginatum .) ... The experiment demonstrated the potential of using Paspalum vaginatum for phytoremediation ...

  4. Phytochemical and anti-fungal activity of crude extracts, fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compound were determined by agardilution. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts was carried out using column chromatography. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, ...

  5. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  6. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and ...

  7. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Release of crude oil and its products into the environment has resulted in many problems that are of global concern. The objective of this study was to determine effect of Composted Market Waste (CMW) on the degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil.

  8. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  9. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge

  10. Dielectric characterization of crude oil extracts obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of liquid oils for electrical insulation has necessitated the dielectric characterization of oils. The conversion of excess crude petroleum oil to useful insulants constitutes an added advantage to the use of ever increasing crude oil production, as it enhances environmental pollution management. The different ...

  11. Assessment of the hydrolytic performance of locally sourced crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylases increased with increase in substrate concentration up to a maximum substrate concentration of 10%. The crude alpha amylase exhibited a dextrinization time of 2.5h, 2.75h and 3.0h for maize, cassava and potato starches and produced 13%, 12% and 11.8% glucose respectively. The crude gluco-amylase had ...

  12. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... designed using DesignExpert 6.0.8 software by optimizing the amount of crude oil, microbial inoculum and sludge which are initially ... Key words: Crude oil, bacterial consortium, kinetics, bioremediation, biostimulation, natural attenuation. ... For the preparation of the consortiums, colonies were plated on.

  13. Impact Of Crude Oil On Recruitment Of Epibenthic Organisms In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of crude oil on recruitment of epibenthic organisms in Cross River estuary were studied in February and March, 2007 on wooden Panels (15×15×1.5cm). The panels were immersed in Nigerian light crude oil and later suspended in the estuary for six weeks. Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum showed slight resistance to ...

  14. Degradation of methylmercaptan by crude enzyme extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradation of methyl suphides by crude enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was investigated in this work. The data revealed that crude protein contents of enzyme extracts from cells of Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by the saturation levels of the EDTA and ammonium sulphate solutions.

  15. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  16. Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some neuropharmacological effects of the crude venom extract of Conus musicus (family Conidae) in mice using various experimental models. The crude venom was found to significantly increase tail flick reaction time in mice. The effects of the venom on the central nervous system were studied by ...

  17. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... enhancement of crude oil removal from soils by control- ed addition of nitrogenous fertilizer factory plant effluents. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sources of materials. The crude oil used was “Bonny Light type”. The nitrogenous fertili- zer plant effluent (NPK 15:15:15) was obtained from National Fertili-.

  18. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase production increased maximally during the log phase of ... mixer with equal volume of toluene to extract hydrocarbons from the samples. The extracted crude oil was detected at 420 nm. A blank was.

  19. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the six isolates based on its comparative ability to growth on crude oil and was investigated for its ability to degrade varying concentration of crude oil (1.0, 3.0, ... technologies for the remediation of hydrocarbons because of its low cost and .... soil by a consortium of basidiomycetes isolated from compost: Role of laccases ...

  20. Degradation of methylmercaptan by crude enzyme extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The biodegradation of methyl suphides by crude enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus thioparus. TK-m was investigated in this work. The data revealed that crude protein contents of enzyme extracts from cells of Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by the saturation levels of the EDTA and ammonium ...

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Release of crude oil and its products into the environment has resulted in many problems that are of global concern. The objective of this study was to determine effect of Composted Market Waste (CMW) on the degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil. Pot experiment was ...

  2. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to validate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and root barks from Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae), investigate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts and bioactive constituents present in the barks. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and root barks were ...

  3. Acute Toxicity of Crude Euphorbia tirucalli Latex Extracts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extracts to Oreochromis niloticus juveniles was investigated in the College of Agriculture, Lafia. A four day static acute toxicity test was performed to determine the LC50 value of crude Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract for the fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Various ...

  4. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  5. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  6. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study aimed at enhancing the remediationof crude oil polluted soil of the Niger Delta using cow dung and hydrogen peroxide in either single or combined forms. 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil representing 4% w/v. Five amendment treatments labelledA- E were done in order of A ...

  7. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  8. Comparative ovulation in clariidae using crude HCG from early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used purified crude HCG from early pregnancy urine to assay ovulation in three species of Clariidae. Purification and extraction of crude HCG was carried out by the techniques involving alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Biological activity of the purified homogenate was tested ...

  9. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  10. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil Production Activities in Rivers State of Nigeria. ... of economic loss due to crude oil production activities was $165,287.10 out of which pipelines laying accounted for $43,741.25, flow stations ($36,387.92), oil well sites ($31,334.67), gas flaring sites ($10,485.63).

  11. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  12. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  13. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  14. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    analysis to study the relationship between crude oil prices, exchange rate and stock market performance in ... movements, exchange rate behaviour and stock market performance in Nigeria. Studying the relationship ... additional income is transmitted back to the economy, then higher crude oil prices would be expected to ...

  15. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN CRUDE OIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The performance of maize (Zea mays) in crude oil treatment was investigated at the University of Port. Harcourt botanical garden. Germination ... Percentage germination decreased with increase in concentration of crude oil equilibrated with water. Germination .... International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural ...

  16. Repeated biotransformation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by immobilized cells of Gluconobacter oxydans with glycerol- and urea-feeding strategy in a bubble column bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Ce; Tian, Sheng-Ying; Ruan, Li-Juan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-06-01

    Some inorganic nitrogen sources and amino acids instead of yeast extract, which resulted in trouble of product purification, were introduced for 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production by biotransformation with Gluconobacter oxydans. The results showed that urea is an optimal nitrogen source. Furthermore, the effects of glycerol- and urea-feeding strategies for DHA production by immobilized cells in a home-made bubble column bioreactor were optimized. Cells immobilization was prepared by cultivation in the bioreactor packed with porous ceramics, and then the broth was removed. Then, repeated biotransformation by continuous-feeding of glycerol and urea was developed. Up to 96.4±4.1g/L of average DHA concentration with 94.8±2.2% of average conversion rate of glycerol to DHA was achieved after 12 cycles of run. Near colorless DHA solution with few impurities was obtained and the production cost could be decreased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lyondell plans to hike heavy crude runs at Houston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Lyondell Petrochemical Co. has outlined a venture that would allow increased runs of heavy crude oil at its 265,000 b/cd Houston refiner. Preliminary plans call for Lyondell, Houston, to ally with subsidiaries of Venezuela's Petroleos de Venezuela SA to upgrade heavy crude processing capabilities of the refiner and obtain supplies of heavy crude feedstock. Lyondell proposes to form a jointly owned company with Pdvsa's Citgo Petroleum Corp. subsidiary to take over ownership of the Houston plant. This paper reports that upgrades would not significantly change the plant's crude capacity but would allow the refiner to process as much as 200,000 b/d of heavy crude feedstock, up from 120,000 b/d at present. Following completion of the upgrade, Citgo could increase its interest to 50% with Lyondell retaining remaining venture interest. Upgrade design and engineering are to begin immediately, with regulatory permitting and construction expected to be complete in 3-4 years

  18. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    Physiologically, growth hormone (GH) is secreted in pulses with episodic bursts shortly after the onset of sleep and postprandially. Such pulses increase circulating levels of free fatty acid and glycerol. We tested whether small GH pulses have detectable effects on intercellular glycerol...... washout method. Baseline of interstitial glycerol was higher in adipose tissue than in blood [220 +/- 12 (abdominal) vs. 38 +/- 2 (blood) micromol/l, P ....0005). Administration of GH induced an increase in interstitial glycerol in both abdominal and femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: abdominal, P = 0. 04; femoral, P = 0.03). There was no overall difference in the response to GH in the two regions during the study period as a whole (ANOVA: P = 0.5), but during peak...

  19. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in Aspergilli through genome-wide gene expression data anlysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Margarita Pena; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol is catabolized by a wide range of microorganisms including Aspergillus species. To identify the transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in Aspergillus, we analyzed data from triplicate batch fermentations of three different Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae...... and Aspergillus niger) with glucose and glycerol as carbon sources. Protein comparisons and cross-analysis with gene expression data of all three species resulted in the identification of 88 genes having a conserved response across the three Aspergilli. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes led....... niger. Our transcriptome analysis indicated that genes involved in ethanol, glycerol, fatty acid, amino acids and formate utilization are putatively regulated by Adr1 in Aspergilli as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and this transcription factor therefore is likely to be cross-species conserved among...

  20. A rapid method for an offline glycerol determination during microbial fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kuhn

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: With this rapid assay, glycerol could be detected easily in microbial fermentation broth. It is reliable over a wide concentration range including advantages such as an easy assay set-up, a short assay time and no sample pretreatment.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of unsatured polyesters from the reaction of glycerol with fumaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Brioude, Michel M.; Agrela, Sara P.; Rosa, Leandro O.S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The biodiesel production from vegetable oils has been encouraged by the Brazilian Federal Government, since biodiesel is a renewable fuel. The utilization of glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) has gained importance, since it corresponds to 30 wt-% of the produced biodiesel. In this context, the present work aims at preparing and characterizing polymers based on glycerol, which could have an application. In this way, the production of biodiesel could be further stimulated. Unsaturated polyesters were preparing by esterification of glycerol with fumaric acid. The reaction mixture was heated up to 240 deg C. After the polymerization was complete, the material was cast onto Teflon molds. The materials were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The materials showed thermal stability comparable to alkyd thermoset derived from maleic anhydride and glycerol. (author)

  2. Ultrafine ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Facile synthesis by low temperature decomposition of iron glycerolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartůněk, Vilém, E-mail: vilem.bartunek@vscht.cz [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Průcha, David [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Švecová, Marie [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized dark colored ultrafine – sub 10 nm iron oxide nanoparticles by a facile and low temperature process based on thermal decomposition of an affordable precursor – iron glycerolate. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) was used to study the thermal behaviour during the decomposition. The iron glycerolate was thoroughly analysed by various methods. The size of the iron nanoparticles was determined from XRD patterns and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their composition has been confirmed by XPS. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared single phase material exhibiting ferromagnetic properties is usable in a wide range of applications and may be suitable even for large scale industrial applications. - Highlights: • Iron glycerolate prepared and characterised. • Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition of iron glycerolate. • STA used to study the decomposition. • Products characterised by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM and TEM. • Magnetic behaviour of monophasic samples determined.

  3. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  4. Physical-Chemical Basis of the Protection of Slowly Frozen Human Erythrocytes by Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, W. F.; Mazur, Peter; Souzu, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M. L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13:9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23:89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of the liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT50) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT50 for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT50 corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing. PMID:667300

  5. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  6. Citrate- and glycerol triesters as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for ceramic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, S.; Klemensø, T.; Brodersen, K.

    2018-01-01

    Short chained triesters of glycerol and citric acid were systematically investigated as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for use in ceramic processing. Additional systematic studies on a series of diesters having structural similarities with the citrate and glycerol triesters we......, for triethyl citrate the dual-function was finally demonstrated by producing a dense piece of 8YSZ through tape casting and subsequent sintering....

  7. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showe...

  8. "Bleaching" glycerol in a microfluidic fuel cell to produce high power density at minimal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cauê A; Ibrahim, Omar A; Pei, Pei; Kjeang, Erik

    2018-01-07

    Glycerol/bleach flow-through microfluidic fuel cells are presented. Carbon paper-modified Pt/C nanoparticles were used as the anode and cathode. Glycerol oxidation in alkaline medium was tested against hypochlorite reduction in alkaline and acidic media. The mixed media system displayed a power density of 315 mW cm -2 and an open circuit voltage of 1.9-2.0 V.

  9. Regulation of the metabolism of methanol, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Willem de

    1989-01-01

    ln recent years there has been an increasing interest in the possible application of microorganisms for the production of fine chemicals. [...] This thesis reports the results of studies in which various physiological and biochemical aspects of dihydroryacetone (DHA) and glycerol synthesis and utilization by the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha were investigated. The results provide further iasight into the regulation of methanol, DHA, and glycerol metabolism in this yeast, and a fir...

  10. Separation of the Glycerol-Biodiesel Phases in an Ethyl Transesterification Synthetic Route Using Water

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Willian L. G. da; Souza,Patrícia T. de; Shimamoto,Gustavo G.; Tubino,Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oil (or fat) and alcohol, with methanol being the most used alcohol. Methanol can be replaced by ethanol; however, this alcohol acts as a surfactant in the reaction mixture, promoting a stable dispersion of the glycerol in biodiesel, which hinders the separation of the glycerol-biodiesel phases. In this study, it was found that the addition of 1% v/v water relative to the total volume of the reaction mixture expedites the separatio...

  11. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Peroxisomal biosynthesis of lipid from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, S.; Hajra, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Liver peroxisomes contain the enzymes of the acyl dihydroxyacetone-P (DHAP) pathway but not glycerol-3-P (GP) acyltransferase. However, when [ 32 P]GP was incubated with peroxisomes in the presence of NAD + and palmitoyl CoA, acyl [ 32 P]DHAP was formed. Apparently, in peroxisomes [ 32 PGP is oxidized by NAD + to [ 32 P]DHAP catalyzed by peroxisomal GP dehydrogenase. When NADPH was also included in the reaction mixture, 1-acyl-[ 32 P]GP was the main product. Using a mixture of peroxisomes and microsomes, it was shown that at low concentrations of GP the peroxisomal lipid synthesizing system is more efficient than the micosomal system. In this system, the apparent K/sub m/ value for DHAP acylation was 5 μM but for GP acylation it was 1 mM. These data and the fact that the concentration of GP is much higher than that of DHAP in the liver suggest that the conversion of GP to DHAP is an important reaction in the biosynthesis of phospholipid via the peroxisomal pathway. Fractionation studies showed that acyl DHAP formed was transported out and converted to 1-acyl GP on the outside of peroxismes and then converted to other phospholipids in endoplasmic reticulum (e.r.). Based on these findings the following biosynthetic pathway in hepatic peroxisomes is proposed: GP--->DHAP--->Acyl DHAP--->1-acyl GP--->glycerolipids in e.r

  13. Mutations and phenotype in isolated glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.P.; Muscatelli, F.; Stafford, A.N.; Monaco, A.P. [Inst. of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    We demonstrate that isolated glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency in three families results from mutation of the Xp21 GK gene. GK mutations were detected in four patients with widely differing phenotypes. Patient 1 had a splice-site mutation causing premature termination. His general health was good despite absent GK activity, indicating that isolated GK deficiency can be silent. Patient 2 had GK deficiency and a severe phenotype involving psychomotor retardation and growth delay, bone dysplasia, and seizures, similar to the severe phenotype of one of the first described cases of GK deficiency. His younger brother, patient 3, also had GK deficiency, but so far his development has been normal. GK exon 17 was deleted in both brothers, implicating additional factors in causation of the severe phenotype of patient 2. Patient 4 had both GK deficiency with mental retardation and a GK missense mutation (D440V). Possible explanations for the phenotypic variation of these four patients include ascertainment bias; metabolic or environmental stress as a precipitating factor in revealing GK-related changes, as has previously been described in juvenile GK deficiency; and interactions with functional polymorphisms in other genes that alter the effect of GK deficiency on normal development. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of a regional glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-temperature calibration for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Louise C.; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Verleyen, Elie; Roberts, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A regional network of quantitative reconstructions of past climate variability is required to test climate models. In recent studies, temperature calibration models based on the relative abundances of sedimentary glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) have enabled past temperature reconstructions in both marine and terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, to date these methods have not been widely applied in high latitude environments due to poor performance of the GDGT-temperature calibrations at lower temperatures. To address this we studied 32 lakes from Antarctica, the sub-Antarctic Islands and Southern Chile to: 1) quantify their GDGT composition and investigate the environmental controls on GDGT composition; and 2) develop a GDGT-temperature calibration model for inferring past temperatures from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes. GDGTs were found in all 32 lakes studied and in 31 lakes branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) were the dominant compounds. Statistical analyses of brGDGT composition in relation to temperature, pH, conductivity and water depth showed that the composition of brGDGTs is strongly correlated with mean summer air temperature (MSAT). This enabled the development of the first regional brGDGT-temperature calibration for use in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes using four brGDGT compounds (GDGT-Ib, GDGT-II, GDGT-III and GDGT-IIIb). A key discovery was that GDGT-IIIb is of particular importance in cold lacustrine environments. The addition of this compound significantly improved the model's performance from r2 = 0.67, RMSEP-LOO (leave-one-out) = 2.23 °C, RMSEP-H (h-block) = 2.37 °C when applying the re-calibrated global GDGT-temperature calibration to our Antarctic dataset to r2 = 0.83, RMSEP-LOO = 1.68 °C, RMSEP-H = 1.65 °C for our new Antarctic calibration. This shows that Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, and possibly other high latitude, palaeotemperature reconstructions should be based on a regional GDGT-temperature calibration where specific

  15. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  16. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P; Paraiso, Julienne J; Williams, Amanda J; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS(-)) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO(-) 3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C).

  17. Effect of the initial glycerol concentration in the medium on the xanthan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of different initial glycerol concentrations in the medium on xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. Xanthan biosynthesis was carried out in batch mode under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 30oC and agitation rate of 150 rpm for 7 days. The process efficiency was estimated based on the values of raw xanthan yield, average molecular weight of the polymer and residual content of glycerol, total nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on these results, the initial concentration of glycerol as a carbon source in the production medium was suggested. In the applied experimental conditions, high raw xanthan yield (12.15 g/l of good quality (Mw = 2.86•105 g/mol and the lowest amount of residual nutrients (glycerol 2.75 g/l, nitrogen 0.46 g/l and phosphorus 0.67 g/l was achieved in the medium with the initial glycerol content of 20 g/l. The obtained results are the basis for optimization of xanthan production on glycerol containing media in order to increase the product yield and quality.

  18. High hydrogen production from glycerol or glucose by electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of glycerol for hydrogen gas production was examined via electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). A hydrogen yield of 3.9 mol-H2/mol was obtained using glycerol, which is higher than that possible by fermentation, at relatively high rates of 2.0 ± 0.4 m3/m3 d (Eap = 0.9 V). Under the same conditions, hydrogen was produced from glucose at a yield of 7.2 mol-H2/mol and a rate of 1.9 ± 0.3 m3/m3 d. Glycerol was completely removed within 6 h, with 56% of the electrons in intermediates (primarily 1,3-propanediol), with the balance converted to current, intracellular storage products or biomass. Glucose was removed within 5 h, but intermediates (mainly propionate) accounted for only 19% of the electrons. Hydrogen was also produced using the glycerol byproduct of biodiesel fuel production at a rate of 0.41 ± 0.1 m3/m3 d. These results demonstrate that electrohydrogenesis is an effective method for producing hydrogen from either pure glycerol or glycerol byproducts of biodiesel fuel production. © 2009 International Association for Hydrogen Energy.

  19. Cryopreservation of cattle semen using coconut water extender with different glycerol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Ibrahim El-Sheshtawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of coconut water with a lone concentration and different concentrations of glycerol on chilled and cryopreserved cattle semen characteristics. Methods: Semen was collected from five mature cattle bulls, at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The ejaculates were pooled and evaluated for dilution processing. Tris citrate egg yolk fructose was used as control treatment for semen, while 50% (V/V coconut water, 25% (V/V bidistilled water and 25% (V/V, 5% anhydrous monosodium citrate to 20 mL egg yolk and three different concentrations of glycerol (4%, 6% and 8% were used as coconut water (CW- glycerol-yolk extenders (CWCG-4, CWCG-6 and CWCG-8. Extended semen was cooled and cryopreserved. Sperm motility%, sperm membrane integrity%, normal acrosome%, live sperm% and total sperm abnormalities% were recorded after equilibrium and after freezethawing. Results: The addition of 4% glycerol to coconut water enriched media (CWCG-4 revealed the most effective addition of glycerol on all parameters after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Conclusions: Coconut water enriched media with 4% glycerol addition is safe to be used as an extender in bull semen preservation because it is a sterile liquid. So, it can be used without addition of antibiotics to the extender, as antibiotics have to some extent hazardous effect on spermatozoa.

  20. Effective Removal of Heavy Metal Ions Using Glycerol and Starch Xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol and insoluble starch xanthates were synthesised and effectively used in the removal of Pb, Cd and Cu from aqueous solutions. The insoluble metal complex formed between the sulphur atoms in the xanthates and the heavy metals were easily separated. Lower dosage of glycerol xanthate was required in each case, with the optimum molar ratio (M2+/GX of 2. Moreover, the use of glycerol xanthate required no pH adjustments to give a 100 % heavy metal removal within the range of the detection limit. As for the ISX, there was a remarkable metal scavenging activity when the ISX contained high amount of Sulphur per molecule (10.12% S and when the pH was adjusted to 6. Butyl xanthate was also synthesised to make a good comparison with the glycerol and insoluble starch xanthate. The xanthates from these two sustainable materials (Starch and glycerol are proven to be more effective in metal scavenging activity. FTIR and CHNS elemental analyses were used to prove the evidence of xanthation, in addition, 13C NMR was used to characterise the glycerol xanthate.

  1. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  2. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  3. Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Lísias Pereira; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio Aprigio da Silva

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the organosolv delignification of depithed bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures without a catalyst. The experiments were performed using two separate experimental designs. In the first experiment, two temperatures (150 and 190°C), two time periods (60 and 240 min) and two glycerol contents (20% and 80%, v/v) were used. In the second experiment, which was a central composite design, the glycerol content was maintained at 80%, and a range of temperatures (141.7-198.3°C) and time (23-277 min) was used. The best result, obtained with a glycerol content of 80%, a reaction time of 150 min and a temperature of 198.3°C, produced pulps with 54.4% pulp yield, 7.75% residual lignin, 81.4% delignification and 13.7% polyose content. The results showed that high contents of glycerol tend to produce pulps with higher delignification and higher polyoses content in relation to the pulps obtained from low glycerol content reactions. In addition, the proposed method shows potential as a pretreatment for cellulose saccharification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of CgHOG1 in Stress Responses and Glycerol Overproduction of Candida glycerinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hao; Zhuge, Bin; Zong, Hong; Lu, Xinyao; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Candida glycerinogenes, the glycerol producer with excellent multi-stress tolerances, is considered to be a potential biotechnological host used in the production of glycerol and its derivatives under extreme fermentation conditions. In this study, to evaluate the multiple roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase CgHOG1, we constructed a gene disruption system in the diploid C. glycerinogenes to obtain CgHOG1 null mutant. Pseudohyphae generation of the CgHOG1 mutant under non-inducing condition indicated a repressor role in morphological transitions. Disruption of CgHOG1 resulted in increased sensitivities to osmotic, acetic acid, and oxidative stress but not involved in thermotolerance. In the CgHOG1 mutant, NaCl shock failed to stimulate the accumulation of intracellular glycerol and was fatal. In addition, the CgHOG1 mutant displayed a significant prolonged growth lag phase in YPD medium with no decrease in glycerol production, whereas the mutant cannot grow under hyperosmotic condition with no detectable glycerol in broth. These results suggested that CgHOG1 plays important roles in morphogenesis and multi-stress tolerance. The growth and glycerol overproduction under osmotic stress are heavily dependent on CgHOG1 kinase.

  5. 19 CFR 19.22 - Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal produced from imported materials. 19.22 Section 19.22 Customs... § 19.22 Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal...

  6. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the a......We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100...... of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open...

  7. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  8. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  9. Roles of Sugar Alcohols in Osmotic Stress Adaptation. Replacement of Glycerol by Mannitol and Sorbitol in Yeast1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Hohmann, Stefan; Jensen, Richard G.; Bohnert, and Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apple sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol/sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyols than glycerol. We suggest that the loss of >98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety valve that dissipates reducing power, while a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyols would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K+] accumulating during stress. We compare these results to the “osmotic adjustment” concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyols may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control. PMID:10482659

  10. The role of micronutrients and strategies for optimized continual glycerol production from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yvonne; Tu, Wang Yung; Wang, David; Ng, Daphne H P; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    The microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta synthesizes intracellular glycerol as an osmoticum to counteract external osmotic pressure in high saline environments. The species has recently been found to release and accumulate extracellular glycerol, making it a suitable candidate for sustainable industrial glycerol production if a sufficiently high product titre yield can be achieved. While macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential and well understood, this study seeks to understand the influence of the micronutrient profile on glycerol production. The effects of metallic elements calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, copper, and iron, as well as boron, on glycerol production as well as cell growth were quantified. The relationship between cell density and glycerol productivity was also determined. Statistically, manganese recorded the highest improvement in glycerol production as well as cell growth. Further experiments showed that manganese availability was associated with higher superoxide dismutase formation, thus suggesting that glycerol production is negatively affected by oxidative stress and the manganese bound form of this enzyme is required in order to counteract reactive oxygen species in the cells. A minimum concentration of 8.25 × 10(-5)  g L(-1) manganese was sufficient to overcome this problem and achieve 10 g L(-1) extracellular glycerol, compared to 4 g L(-1) without the addition of manganese. Unlike cell growth, extracellular glycerol production was found to be negatively affected by the amount of calcium present in the normal growth medium, most likely due to the lower cell permeability at high calcium concentrations. The inhibitory effects of iron also affected extracellular glycerol production more significantly than cell growth and several antagonistic interaction effects between various micronutrients were observed. This study indicates how the optimization of these small amounts of nutrients in a two

  11. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  12. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  14. Excess crude protein for nongravid gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M C; Watkins, K L; Craig, W M; Stewart, T B; Clawson, A J; Southern, L L

    1988-04-01

    Twenty-five nongravid crossbred gilts (avg initial wt, 126 kg) were placed on either a high (38%) or a low (13%) crude protein (CP) diet and fed either at the rate of 1.82 kg/d or had ad libitum access to feed. In addition, a fifth group was pair-fed the 13% CP diet to the average intake of the gilts fed high CP ad libitum. The experimental period lasted 30 d. Corn-soybean meal diets were used and CP levels were varied by altering the corn:soybean meal ratio. Gain and gain/feed were reduced (P less than .01) in gilts fed 1.82 kg/d compared with the gilts fed ad libitum or pair-fed gilts. Gain (P less than .03) and feed intake (P less than .01) of gilts with ad libitum access to the 13% CP diet were higher than those of gilts with ad libitum access to the 38% CP diet. Gain/feed was not different (P greater than .10) between the two groups, however. Rate of gain and feed efficiency of gilts pair-fed the 13% CP diet were similar (P greater than .10) to those of gilts with ad libitum access to the 38% CP diet. Plasma total free amino acids, NH3 and total protein were not (P greater than .10) affected by treatment. Plasma urea-N and urinary total N, urea-N and orotic acid were increased (P less than .01) in gilts fed the high CP diet regardless of feed intake level. However, urinary NH3 was higher (P less than .01) in gilts fed the low-protein diet. These results indicate that excess dietary CP for nongravid gilts decreases gain and feed intake and has no effect on efficiency of feed utilization, but it increases plasma urea-N and urinary total N, urea-N and orotic acid.

  15. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings GML is ≥200 times more effective than lauric acid in bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in broth cultures. Both molecules inhibit superantigen production by these organisms at concentrations that are not bactericidal. GML prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, as representative gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, tested in 96 well microtiter plates, and simultaneously is bactericidal for both organisms in mature biofilms. GML is bactericidal for a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. In the presence of acidic pH and the cation chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, GML has greatly enhanced bactericidal activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Solubilization of GML in a nonaqueous delivery vehicle (related to K-Y Warming®) enhances its bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Both R and S, and 1 and 2 position lauric acid derivatives of GML exhibit bactericidal activity. Despite year-long passage of Staphylococcus aureus on sub-growth inhibitory concentrations of GML (0.5 x minimum bactericidal concentration), resistance to GML did not develop. Conclusions/Significance GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. PMID:22808139

  16. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2% aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2% was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5% patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%, phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%, and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%. The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3% in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.

  17. Aquaglyceroporin-null trypanosomes display glycerol transport defects and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jeacock

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs transport water and glycerol and play important roles in drug-uptake in pathogenic trypanosomatids. For example, AQP2 in the human-infectious African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is responsible for melarsoprol and pentamidine-uptake, and melarsoprol treatment-failure has been found to be due to AQP2-defects in these parasites. To further probe the roles of these transporters, we assembled a T. b. brucei strain lacking all three AQP-genes. Triple-null aqp1-2-3 T. b. brucei displayed only a very moderate growth defect in vitro, established infections in mice and recovered effectively from hypotonic-shock. The aqp1-2-3 trypanosomes did, however, display glycerol uptake and efflux defects. They failed to accumulate glycerol or to utilise glycerol as a carbon-source and displayed increased sensitivity to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, octyl gallate or propyl gallate; these inhibitors of trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO can increase intracellular glycerol to toxic levels. Notably, disruption of AQP2 alone generated cells with glycerol transport defects. Consistent with these findings, AQP2-defective, melarsoprol-resistant clinical isolates were sensitive to the TAO inhibitors, SHAM, propyl gallate and ascofuranone, relative to melarsoprol-sensitive reference strains. We conclude that African trypanosome AQPs are dispensable for viability and osmoregulation but they make important contributions to drug-uptake, glycerol-transport and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity. We also discuss how the AQP-dependent inverse sensitivity to melarsoprol and respiratory inhibitors described here might be exploited.

  18. Application of glycerol for induced powdery mildew resistance in Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P and oleic acid (18:1 are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase, two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1. Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5, induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p value<0.05 reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  19. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef; (Pitt); (CNRS-CRMD)

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of

  20. Human axillary skin condition is improved following incorporation of glycerol into the stratum corneum from an antiperspirant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard L; Turner, Graham A; Bates, Susan; Robinson, Teresa; Arnold, David; Marriott, Robert E; Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Green, Darren

    2017-11-01

    The study objectives were to demonstrate that glycerol, when topically applied from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, can be delivered directly to human skin ex vivo and the axillary stratum corneum (SC) in vivo, and to assess whether it improves the quality of the axillary skin barrier. Ex vivo human skin absorption of glycerol was measured following application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% 13 C 3 -glycerol. Skin distribution of 13 C 3 -glycerol over 24 h was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo axillary SC penetration was measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and multivariate curve-resolution software 1 h after topical application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 8% deuterated glycerol (d 5 -glycerol). A clinical study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% glycerol in reducing shaving-induced visual irritation and in increasing axillary-skin hydration. Ex vivo skin absorption studies indicated that the formulation delivered 13 C 3 -glycerol into the SC at all timepoints over the 24-h period. In vivo Raman measurements (1 h after application) demonstrated that d 5 -glycerol was detectable to a depth of at least 10 μm in the axillary SC. Application of 4% glycerol from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation to the axilla was associated with significantly less visible irritation and greater skin hydration than observed with the control (glycerol-free) product. These studies demonstrate that glycerol, incorporated in a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, is delivered directly and rapidly to all depths of the axillary SC, and results in improvements in visible irritation and hydration in the axilla.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of aliphatic polyesters from glycerol, by-product of biodiesel production, and adipic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Michel de Meireles Brioude; Danilo Hansen Guimarães; Raigenis da Paz Fiúza; Luis Antônio Sanches de Almeida Prado; Jaime Soares Boaventura; Nadia Mamede José

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, polyesters were prepared from the polycondensation between glycerol and adipic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate as catalyst. Three glycerol: adipic acid molar ratio were used for the bulk polymerization namely: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC and XRD indicated no crystallinity for all the polymers. The morphology of the materials are characterized by globular structure, which may suggest compositional fl...

  2. Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxity of Gedunin, Piperine and Crude Extracts of their Natural Products on Growth and Development of Ostrinia Nubilalis Hbner (Lepidoptera: Pyrarlidae). F K Ewete, J T Arnason, T Durst, S Mackinnon ...

  3. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  4. The effect of crude methanolic leaf extracts of Saccharum officinarum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. ... Other parameters did not differ significantly when compared with the control (p>0.05). Conclusion: This result pattern suggests that the crude methanolic leaf extract of Saccharum ...

  5. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  6. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  8. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  9. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  10. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  11. Evaluating the US government's crude oil price projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 official long run crude oil price projections are evaluated by comparing parameter averages for the forecast period (1991-2010) to parameter averages from crude oil price history (1859-1990). The parameters used in the evaluation are average price, average annual price changes, and average cycle duration (in years). All prices used in the analysis are annual prices in constant 1990 dollars per barrel. 13 figs

  12. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  13. OPEC announcements and their effects on crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Tamvakis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate evidence on the effects of OPEC announcements on world oil prices by examining announcements from both official conferences and ministerial meetings on major international crudes, including the key benchmarks and several other heavy and light grades. With data from 1982 to 2008, we use event study methodology and find differentiation in the magnitude and significance of market responses to OPEC quota decisions under different price bands. We also find some (weak) evidence of differentiation between light and heavy crude grades. (author)

  14. Effect of Glycerol Levels on the Motility and Fertility of Kampung Chicken Spermatozoa Frozen in Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of various levels of glycerol as a cryoprotective agent for freezing kampung chicken semen was examined with respect to intravaginal insemination. There was a significant (P<0.05 effect of various levels of glycerol (4, 8, 12 and 16 % on motile spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on fertility. It was concluded that the use of glycerol for preservation of kampung chicken semen in liquid nitrogen gave satisfactory cryopreservative results on motility of thawed kampung chicken spermatozoa, but failed to produce fertile eggs. (Animal Production 9(1: 45-48 (2007 Key Words: glycerol, kampung chicken, semen, fertility, motility, liquid nitrogen

  15. Kinetic enzymatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer using a sequential injection system with spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo M; Segundo, Marcela A; Lima, José L F C; Grassi, Viviane; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2006-06-14

    A sequential injection system for the automatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer was developed. The method is based on the rate of formation of NADH from the reaction of glycerol and NAD+ catalyzed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase in solution. The determination of glycerol was performed between 0.3 and 3.0 mmol L(-1) (0.028 and 0.276 g L(-1)), and good repeatability was attained (rsd waste production was 2.12 mL per assay. Results obtained for samples were in agreement with those obtained with the batch enzymatic method.

  16. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  17. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. A poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer with potential use for brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Bo; Tao, Rong-Bin; Xie, Xin; Lu, Xi-Li; Dong, De-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. However, the clinical use of curcumin is limited because of its poor oral absorption and extremely poor bioavailability. In order to overcome these limitations, we conjugate curcumin chemically into the known biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, poly(glycerol-sebacate), and prepare the unitary poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer. The structure, the in vitro degradation, the drug release, and antitumor activity as well as the in vivo degradation and tissue biocompatibility of poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer are investigated. The in vitro degradation and drug release profile of poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) are in a linear manner. The in vitro antitumor assay shows that poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer significantly inhibits human malignant glioma cells, U87 and T98 cells. In view of the cytotoxicity against brain gliomas, local use of this polymer would be a potential method for brain tumors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  20. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Gabriel O.; Almeida, Manuel F.; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C.M.; Dias, Joana M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An alkali metal-glyceroxide heterogeneous catalyst was improved aiming biodiesel production. • Optimized reaction conditions were comparable to homogeneous catalysis. • High yield and good product quality was obtained using refined and waste oil. • The catalyst could be reused four times and prepared using methanol or ethanol. - Abstract: In the present work, biodiesel production using a glycerol enriched heterogeneous catalyst was studied. For that purpose, the catalyst performance at different glycerol concentrations and reaction conditions (under ambient atmosphere) was evaluated and two triglyceride sources were used. The most active catalyst was produced using CaO, glycerol and methanol at a mass ratio of 1:1.6:13.4, respectively. By performing the transesterification reaction under ambient atmosphere during 2 h at 333 K, using 0.4 wt.% of catalyst and 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, a good quality product was obtained (EN 14214) using both soybean oil and waste frying oil. The catalyst could be re-used during four cycles and could also be prepared by using ethanol instead of methanol (with differences <4% on product conversion). The glycerol by-product, being rich in calcium soaps, might additionally be used for the enrichment of animal diets. The present process allowed the production of biodiesel from different triglyceride sources using a very active heterogeneous catalyst at competitive reaction conditions compared to the homogeneous process and also enabled a two-way recycling of the glycerol by-product

  1. Pharmacological investigations of Punica granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Results: Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:22021999

  2. Comparison of glycerol, lactamide, acetamide and dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectants of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Okuda, Yasushi; Seita, Yasunari; Hisamatsu, Shin; Sonoki, Shigenori; Shino, Masao; Masaoka, Toshio; Inomata, Tomo

    2006-08-01

    The rabbit is considered to be a valuable laboratory animal. We compared glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectants in egg-yolk diluent of ejaculated Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa for improvement of sperm cryopreservation methods. Rabbit semen was frozen with 1.0 M glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, or DMSO in plastic straws. Forward progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of the post-thaw spermatozoa were examined. The rate of forward progressive motile spermatozoa in lactamide (37.8 +/- 3.0%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 3.3%). In addition, the rates of sperm plasma membrane integrity in lactamide and acetamide (35.9 +/- 3.3% and 30.2 +/- 3.0%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 2.6%). The results indicate that 1.0 M lactamide and acetamide have higher cryoprotective effects than 1.0 M glycerol for cryopreservation of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

  3. Glycerol and urea can be used to increase skin permeability in reduced hydration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Engblom, Johan; Thuresson, Krister; Sparr, Emma

    2013-12-18

    The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is a group of hygroscopic molecules that is naturally present in skin and protects from severe drying. Glycerol and urea are two examples of NMF components that are also used in skin care applications. In the present study, we investigate the influence of glycerol and urea on the permeability of a model drug (metronidazole, Mz) across excised pig skin membranes at different hydrating conditions. The degree of skin hydration is regulated by the gradient in water activity across the membrane, which in turn depends on the water activity of the formulation in contact with the skin membrane. Here, we determine the water activity of all formulations employed using an isothermal calorimetric method. Thus, the gradient in water activity is controlled by a novel experimental set-up with well-defined boundary conditions on both sides of the skin membrane. The results demonstrate that glycerol and urea can retain high steady state flux of Mz across skin membranes at dehydrating conditions, which otherwise would decrease the permeability due to dehydration. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to give insight into the effects of glycerol and urea on SC molecular organization. The novel steady state flux results can be related to the observation that water, glycerol, and urea all affect the structural features of the SC molecular components in a similar manner. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biotechnological conversion of glycerol from biofuels to 1,3-propanediol using Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Lipiński, Daniel; Słomski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    In the face of shortage of fossil fuel supplies and climate warming triggered by excessive carbon dioxide emission, alternative resources for chemical industry have gained considerable attention. Renewable resources and their derivatives are of particular interest. Glycerol, which constitutes one of the by-products during biodiesel production, is such a substrate. Thus, generated excess glycerol may become an environmental problem, since it cannot be disposed of in the environment. The most promising products obtained from glycerol are polyols, including 1,3-propanediol, an important substrate in the production of synthetic materials, e.g. polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, and epoxy resins. Glycerol can be used as a carbon and energy source for microbial growth in industrial microbiology to produce 1,3-propanediol. This paper is a review of metabolic pathways of native producers and E. coli with the acquired ability to produce the diol via genetic manipulations. Culture conditions during 1,3-PDO production and genetic modifications of E. coli used in order to increase efficiency of glycerol bioconversion are also described in this paper.

  5. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Zijian; Liu Caihua; Tao Wei; Zhu Dan, E-mail: dawnzh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45 deg. C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25 deg. C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45 deg. C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  6. Anaerobic pathways of glycerol dissimilation by Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210: limitations and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, F; Astruc, S; Soucaille, P; Camarasa, C; Salmon, J M; Bories, A

    1997-07-01

    Continuous cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210 were performed under regulated pH conditions (pH 7.0) with glycerol or glucose (20 g l-1) as carbon source. Cultures grown on glucose produced mainly acetate, ethanol and formate. In contrast, 1,3-propanediol (PPD) was the main product with glycerol. The carbon flow distribution at branching metabolic points was investigated. Higher PPD yields with increased dilution rate were correlated with an important increase in the relative ratio of glycerol dehydratase to glycerol dehydrogenase. Determination of intracellular triose-phosphate and fructose 1,6-biphosphate concentrations demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is the limiting step in glycerol dissimilation. At the pyruvate branching point, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was systematically detected. The pyruvate flow shifted to PDH is suspected to represent up to 22% of the acetyl-CoA formed. In addition, this enzyme pattern combined with the enhanced in vivo lactate dehydrogenase activity at high growth rates, was correlated with a decrease in the pyruvate formate-lyase activity. A regulation of this latter enzyme by the accumulation of triose-phosphate is suspected.

  7. Exploration of Brazilian biodiversity and selection of a new oleaginous yeast strain cultivated in raw glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susan Hartwig; de Andrade, Cristiane Conte Paim; Ghiselli, Gislaine; Maugeri, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use glycerol generated from the synthesis of biodiesel to study the oleaginous potential of wild yeasts. An initial selection was performed via a rapid and qualitative technique by staining with Sudan Black B. Initially 129 yeasts were present, from which 5 were selected and cultivated in liquid medium containing pure or raw glycerol. The yeast LEB-M3, isolated from the Pantanal, presented lipid content of 20.46% and 56.58% for cultivation in pure and raw glycerol, respectively. This strain was genotypically identified as Candida sp. The fatty acid profile showed predominance of oleic acid (C18:1), 57.35% for cultivation in pure glycerol, and in raw glycerol linoleic acid (C18:2) was predominant (46.0%). It was possible to select a yeast with high lipid concentrations 9.14 g/L and fatty acid profile similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of replacing corn with glycerol on ruminal bacteria in continuous culture fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Abo El-Nor, S; Ibrahim, S A

    2011-06-01

    The effects of substituting corn with glycerol on DNA concentration of selected ruminal bacteria were investigated using continuous fermenters. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with four 10 days consecutive periods. Treatment diets (60:40 forage to concentrate) were fed at 45 g/day dry matter (DM) in three equal portions. Glycerol (0.995 g/g glycerol) was used to replace corn in a grain mix at proportions of 0% (T0; control), 15% (T15), 30% (T30) and 45% (T45). On day 10 of each period, samples were collected from each fermenter 3 h after the morning feeding and analysed for volatile fatty acid and bacterial DNA concentration. Glycerol substitution was related to significantly higher butyrate, valerate and isovalerate concentrations. Compared with the T0 diet, acetate concentration was significantly lower with the T30 and T45 diets whilst propionate concentration was higher only with the T45 diet. The DNA concentrations for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Selenomonas ruminantium decreased with the T30 and T45 diets compared with the T0 diet. No differences in the DNA concentrations for Ruminococcus albus and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens amongst diets were observed. The findings show that substituting 15% of the dietary corn with glycerol had no substantive effects on fermentation processing or ruminal bacteria. Higher substitution levels, however, may adversely affect ruminal bacteria and negatively impact acetate production. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Determination of esters in glycerol phase after transesterification of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek; Kwiecien, Jirí; Cernoch, Michal

    2010-06-30

    In biodiesel production, glycerol is formed as a side product and it is contained in the glycerol phase. This phase contains (besides glycerol): water, soaps, alcohol, traces of catalyst and glycerides and the remaining esters. In this paper, a new method for the determination of esters in the glycerol phase is introduced. The determination enables the minimization of the losses of biodiesel within the production process. It is based on the gradient RP-LC method (water and acetonitrile) with refractometric detection. The analysis is easy and the samples do not need any treatment (only dilution by water) and has a low detection limit. The results of this method were compared with the results of two other published methods: isocratic HPLC and GC. The disadvantage of these two methods is that they need extensive treatment of the sample, which takes many hours, and they are able to determine only the sum of esters. The new method is reliable, much faster and able to differentiate esters of almost each higher fatty acid (e.g. linoleic, linolenic, strearic alkyl ester) in the glycerol phase. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  11. Interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeasts to improve the ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Shi, Gui-Yang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education; Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Lab. of Biomass Refinery and Processing, School of Biotechnology; Wang, Zheng-Xiang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education

    2009-02-15

    The two homologous genes GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of NAD{sup +}-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CICIMY0086, had been deleted. The obtained two kinds of mutants gpd1{delta} and gpd2{delta} were studied under alcoholic fermentation conditions. gpd1{delta} mutants exhibited a 4.29% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 6.83% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield while gpd2{delta} mutants exhibited a 7.95% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 7.41% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield compared with the parental strain. The growth rate of the two mutants were slightly lower than that of the wild type under the exponential phase whereas ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and the decrease in glycerol production was not accompanied by any decline in the protein content of the strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) but a slight decrease in the strain ANG2 (gpd2{delta}). Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of acetate acid formation was observed in strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and ANG2 (gpd2{delta}) compared to the parental strain. Therefore, it is possible to improve the ethanol yield by interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeast. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  13. Hydrogen Gas Production From Glycerol via Steam Reforming Using Nickel Loaded Zeolite Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazureen Azaman; Hafizan Juahir; Azman Azid

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main by-product of bio diesel production that produces from transesterification process. In this research, focused was on hydrogen production via glycerol steam reforming using nickel loaded HZSM-5 catalyst. The catalysts were prepared by using different loading amount of nickel (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15 wt %) on HZSM-5 catalyst through the wet impregnation method at temperature 500 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure. The catalyst was characterized by using XRD, FTIR and SEM. Then, only 15 wt % Ni loading has been chosen based on the parameter which is different range of catalyst weight (0.3-0.5 g) at different range of glycerol flow rate (0.2-0.4mL/ min) at temperature 600 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure. The products were analyzed by using gas-chromatography with thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD) where it is used to identify the yield of hydrogen. The data of the experiment were analyzed by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to study the relationship of catalyst weight and glycerol flow rate. The results showed that the optimum condition to produce a maximum hydrogen yield with 15 wt % Ni/ HZSM-5 catalyst was 78.10004 % at glycerol flow rate of 0.356484 mL/ min and catalyst weight of 0.429267 g. (author)

  14. Elimination of glycerol and replacement with alternative products in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and typically 2-3% of the sugar fermented is converted to glycerol. Replacing the NAD(+)-regenerating glycerol pathway in S. cerevisiae with alternative NADH reoxidation pathways may be useful to produce metabolites of biotechnological relevance. Under fermentative conditions yeast reoxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (Gpd1p and Gpd2p). Deletion of these two genes limits fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. We investigated the possibility of converting this excess NADH to NAD(+) by transforming a double mutant (gpd1∆gpd2∆) with alternative oxidoreductase genes that might restore the redox balance and produce either sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. All of the modifications improved fermentative ability and/or growth of the double mutant strain in a self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. However, these strain properties were not restored to the level of the parental wild-type strain. The results indicate an apparent partial NAD(+) regeneration ability and formation of significant amounts of the commodity chemicals like sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. The ethanol yields were maintained between 46 and 48% of the sugar mixture. Other factors apart from the maintenance of the redox balance appeared to influence the growth and production of the alternative products by the genetically manipulated strains.

  15. Adsorption of glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides present in biodiesel produced from soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Erika de Castro; Tavares, Célia R Granhen; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    The most common methods currently used for the removal of waste glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides remaining after phase separation during biodiesel production involve wet processes. These procedures are not environmentally viable because they require large volumes of water and thus generate significant quantities of effluent. In this study, adsorption was employed to replace this purification step. Some commercial activated carbons were tested along with adsorbents chemically modified with HNO3. A kinetics study was conducted at 30 degrees C and adsorption isotherms were obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results indicated that the adsorption of glycerol increased with the use of chemically-modified activated carbon, showing that pH has a strong influence on glycerol adsorption. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit with the experimental data for the monoglycerides while the pseudo-second-order model showed a better fit for the glycerol and diglycerides. The Freundlich model had the best fit with experimental data on the adsorption equilibrium for all temperatures. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic and thus adsorption is favoured by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process using chemically-modified activated carbon was therefore very effective for the removal of waste glycerol resulting from biodiesel production, which is of considerable significance given the legal limits imposed.

  16. Nanoflowers of PdRu on PEDOT for Electrooxidation of Glycerol and Its Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Sthitaprajna; Munichandraiah, N.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) supported PdRu catalysts with various Pd:Ru atomic ratios are prepared by one step electrodeposition method. The catalysts are characterised by several physicochemical techniques. The morphology depends on Pd:Ru ratio. The nanoflowers of Pd 5 Ru catalyst are deposited on PEDOT surface in an alloy form. Cyclic voltammetry experiments indicate that Ru improves the catalytic activity of Pd for glycerol oxidation significantly. However, the oxidation of glycerol is not observed on Ru-PEDOT/C electrode. Amongst all compositions, Pd 5 Ru nanoflowers on PEDOT exhibit the highest electrocatalytic activity and stability. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry experiments are performed for the analysis of glycerol. Pd 5 Ru-PEDOT/C electrode is highly sensitive towards glycerol detection with sensitivity of 99.8 μA cm −2 μM −1 and low detection limit of 0.1 μM. Thus, electrochemically deposited nanoflowers Pd 5 Ru on PEDOT are efficient catalysts for direct glycerol oxidation as well as for analysis in alkaline media.

  17. Pharmacological investigations of Punica granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway.

  18. Toxicity of oil dispersant, crude oil and dispersed crude oil to a marine amphipod and gastropod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulec, I.; Holdway, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of appropriate oil spill remedial action was emphasized during the recent Iron Barron oil spill off of the Tamar river in North Tasmania. One important potential oil spill response is dispersion, but little information exists on the toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to Australian marine species. This research was undertaken to assess the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527 (a widely used dispersant), water accommodated fractions of Bass Strait crude oil and dispersed Bass Strait crude oil, to the saltwater amphipod, Allorchestes compressa under semi-static conditions. Acute 96 h LC50's were determined for each toxicant as well as for the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate. Sublethal bioassays were undertaken for the same 3 toxicants utilizing the marines and snail Polinices conicus as the test species. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) were determined using ANOVA while EC50's and EC0's were calculated using regression analysis. Mean acute 96 h LC50 (S.E.) values for A. compressa exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate were 3.6 mg/l (0.28) and 41.6 mg/l (9.01) respectively. EC50 (S.E.) concentrations for P. conicus exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate for 30 minutes were 44.7 mg/l and 246 mg/l respectively using burying behavior as an endpoint. These sublethal EC50's were reduced to 20.7 mg/l for SDS and 23.5 mg/l for zinc sulfate following 24 hours of exposure

  19. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The direct effect of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; P. Mortensen, Stefan; H. Knudsen, Sine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the insulin-independent effects of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions. Young, healthy males (n=10) underwent three trials in a randomized, controlled, cross-over study. Each trial...... consisted of a 2-stage (eu- and hyperglycemia) pancreatic clamp (using somatostatin to prevent endogenous insulin secretion). Glucose and lipid metabolism were measured via infusion of stable glucose and glycerol isotopic tracers. Hemodynamic variables (femoral, brachial and common carotid artery blood flow...... or glycerol kinetics were seen during euglycemia, whereas hyperglycemia resulted in increased GIR and glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) during GLP-1 compared to CON and GIP (P