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Sample records for biodiesel production electronic

  1. Biodiesel production technologies: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Nigatu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel with various benefits over the conventional diesel fuel. It is derived from renewable resources, it has less emission to environment, it is biodegradable so has very limited toxicity and above all its production can be decentralized so that it could have a potential in helping rural economies. However, there are also some worth mentioning challenges associated with production of biodiesel. Among them repeatedly mentioned are the cost of feedstock and the choice of convenient technology for efficient production of the fuel from diverse feedstock types. There are four main routes by which raw vegetable oil and/or animal fat can be made suitable for use as substituent fuel in diesel engines without modification. These are direct use or blending of oils, micro-emulsion, thermal cracking or pyrolysis and transesterification reaction. Due to the quality of the fuel produced, the transesterification method is the most preferred way to produce biodiesel from diverse feedstock types. Through this method, oils and fats (triglycerides are converted to their alkyl esters with reduced viscosity to near diesel fuel levels. There are different techniques to carry out transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages as well as its own specifically convenient feedstock character. There are also some very important reaction conditions to be given due attention in each of this techniques for efficient production of biodiesel, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type and amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time, reaction medium, type and relative amount of solvents, among others. This review is meant to investigate the main transesterification techniques for biodiesel production in terms of their choice of feedstock character as well as their determinately required reaction conditions for efficient biodiesel production, so that to give an overview on their advantages

  2. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  3. Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Veillette, Marc; Chamoumi, Mostafa; Nikiema, Josiane; Faucheux, Nathalie; Heitz, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be...

  4. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  6. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Natarajan, Karthikeyan; Dotzauer, Erik; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements.

  7. New technologies in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacesaria, E.; Di Serio, M.; Tesser, R.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of biodiesel is nowadays affected by the cost of the raw materials, because the currently used method of preparation requires highly refined vegetable oils containing very low amounts of free fatty acids and moisture. Alternatively, less expensive technologies are possible using heterogeneous catalysts. In the present paper examples of these new technologies, based on the use of heterogeneous catalysts, in the production of biodiesel are described and discussed. [it

  8. Recent trends in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article fully discusses the recent trends in the production of one the most attractive types of biofuels, i.e., biodiesel.with a focus on the existing obstacles for its large scale production. Moreover, recent innovations/improvements under three categories of upstream, mainstream, and downstream processes are also presented. Upstream strategies are mainly focused on seeking more sustainable oil feedstocks and/or enhancing the quality of waste-oriented ones. The mainstream strategies section highlights the numerous attempts made to enhance agitation efficiency including chemical and/or mechanical strategies. Finally, the innovative downstream strategies basically dealing with 1 separation of biodiesel and glycerin, 2 purification of biodiesel and glycerin, and 3 improving the characteristics of the produced fuel, are comprehensively reviewed.

  9. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Blinová Lenka; Bartošová Alica; Sirotiak Maroš

    2017-01-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from ...

  10. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  11. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  13. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  14. Catalytic production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilgaard Madsen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the catalytic production of diesel from biomass, especially emphasising catalytic conversion of waste vegetable oils and fats. In chapter 1 an introduction to biofuels and a review on different catalytic methods for diesel production from biomass is given. Two of these methods have been used industrially for a number of years already, namely the transesterification (and esterification) of oils and fats with methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of fats and oils to form straight-chain alkanes. Other possible routes to diesel include upgrading and deoxygenation of pyrolysis oils or aqueous sludge wastes, condensations and reductions of sugars in aqueous phase (aqueous-phase reforming, APR) for monofunctional hydrocarbons, and gasification of any type of biomass followed by Fischer-Tropsch-synthesis for alkane biofuels. These methods have not yet been industrialised, but may be more promising due to the larger abundance of their potential feedstocks, especially waste feedstocks. Chapter 2 deals with formation of FAME from waste fats and oils. A range of acidic catalysts were tested in a model fat mixture of methanol, lauric acid and trioctanoin. Sulphonic acid-functionalised ionic liquids showed extremely fast convertion of lauric acid to methyl laurate, and trioctanoate was converted to methyl octanoate within 24 h. A catalyst based on a sulphonated carbon-matrix made by pyrolysing (or carbonising) carbohydrates, so-called sulphonated pyrolysed sucrose (SPS), was optimised further. No systematic dependency on pyrolysis and sulphonation conditions could be obtained, however, with respect to esterification activity, but high activity was obtained in the model fat mixture. SPS impregnated on opel-cell Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and microporous SiO{sub 2} (ISPS) was much less active in the esterification than the original SPS powder due to low loading and thereby low number of strongly acidic sites on the

  15. Chemical Engineering Aspects of Biodiesel Production I. Biofuels, Biodiesel Properties and Production Technology Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić, D.

    2014-01-01

    The common industrial process of biodiesel production is a sequence of particular unit operations starting with raw material preparation, followed by transesterification reaction stage and ending with reaction mixture separation and treatment. The main product is biodiesel of prescribed quality while the treatment of glycerol and salt containing phase is carried out so that the by-products obtained maximize profitability of the entire undertaking. The biodiesel production process is often ...

  16. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  17. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  18. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerpen, Jon

    Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The resulting methyl esters, which are the biodiesel fuel, are separated from the by-product glycerin, and then washed with water and dehydrated to produce fuel that must meet standardized specifications. Degraded oils containing high levels of free fatty acids can also be converted to biodiesel, but pretreatment with acid-catalyzed esterification is required. The resulting fuel is suitable for use as a neat fuel in diesel engines or blended with conventional diesel fuel.

  19. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  20. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  2. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  3. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  4. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...... of non-renewable resources over regional impacts like acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone to more local impacts like ecotoxicity and physical impacts like land use, to allow judging on the overall environmental sustainability of the biodiesel and to support identification of the main...

  5. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  6. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  7. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  8. Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have a wide area of usage and one of them it can be used for biodiesel production. In biodiesel production, lipids containing triglyceride or free fatty acid are converted into methyl ester through trans/esterification reactions. Lipids from microalgae can be extracted by acetone and dimethyl carbonate using homogenizer. Esterification of the lipids was investigated using various catalysts and source of methyl group. Activity of homogeneous catalyst such as HCl and H2SO4 and heterogeneous catalysts such as montmorillonit K-10 and ledgestone was investigated. Moreover, methanol and dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group were also studied. Among of catalysts with methanol as source of methyl group, it was found that yield of crude biodiesel derived from Choelestrella Sp. microalgae was high over H2SO4 catalyst. On the other hand, over H2SO4 catalyst using dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group, yield of crude biodiesel significant increase. However, FAME composition of crude biodiesel was high over HCl catalyst.

  9. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  10. Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is high potential for largescale production of biodiesel from microalgae in Nigeria. Establishment of biodiesel production industries in Nigeria will have positive effects on socio-economic development of the country. It has been estimated that Nigeria currently needs about 27 thousand barrels of biodiesel per day to be ...

  11. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied

  12. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes......Calorimetric investigations are very useful for real-time monitoring of reaction rate and heat. Various chemical and physical effects can be revealed and observed closely such as adsorption, mixing, evaporation, stirring and chemical reactions during a calorimetric experiment. For enzymatic...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...

  13. Sustainable biodiesel production by catalytic reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter outlines the properties of biodiesel as renewable fuel, as well as the problems associated with its conventional production processes. The synthesis via fatty acid esterification using solid acid catalysts is investigated. The major challenge is finding a suitable catalyst that is

  14. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic feasibility of biodiesel production from Macauba in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Daniela de Carvalho; Steidle Neto, Antonio José; Mendes, Adriano Aguiar; Pereira, Débora Tamires Vítor

    2013-01-01

    In this work the economic feasibility of biodiesel production in Brazil by using the Macauba oil as raw matter is studied. The software SIMB-E, in which a cash flow model applied to biodiesel production is implemented, was used during simulations. Economic indexes related to biodiesel production features, as well as the competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel were considered. It was found that all of the 8 simulated scenarios were potentially profitable, but only 2 of them presented competitive biodiesel selling prices, being considered as worthwhile projects. These were seed-oil plants with alkaline transesterification. Results also indicated that the success of biodiesel production still requires additional revenues beyond that derived from biodiesel itself, including income from the feedstock coproducts and glycerol. Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. However, the domestication and improvement on processing of this species are indispensable to ensure its availability of long-term use. - Highlights: • Competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel was the main evaluated criterion. • The main criterion to suggest worthwhile projects was the biodiesel selling price. • Biodiesel plants with integrated oil mill and alkaline transesterification were profitable. • Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. • The domestication and improvement on processing of Macauba are indispensable

  16. Lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications: synthesis of fine chemicals, therapeutics, agrochemicals, cosmetics, flavors, biopolymers and biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short chain alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The usage of lipases has several advantages over the conventional chemical methods. It is considered as less energy intensive and environmentally friendly. However, there are two main obstacles associated with the effective utilization of lipases in the production of biodiesel. The main one is the cost of the enzyme and its poor stability in the presence of excess alcohol. Several strategies are proposed to overcome these drawbacks: immobilization of lipases, stepwise addition of alcohol, and the usage of novel acyl acceptors and the usage of whole cell biocatalysts.

  17. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  18. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  19. Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakinaz A. El Sherbiny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures because of its environmentally beneficial attributes and its renewable nature. Non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha oil, produced by seed-bearing shrubs, can provide an alternative and do not have competing food uses. However, these oils are characterized by their high free fatty acid contents. Using the conventional transesterification technique for the production of biodiesel is well established. In this study an alternative energy stimulant, “microwave irradiation”, was used for the production of the alternative energy source, biodiesel. The optimum parametric conditions obtained from the conventional technique were applied using microwave irradiation in order to compare the systems. The study showed that the application of radio frequency microwave energy offers a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with the advantages of enhancing the reaction rate (2 min instead of 150 min and of improving the separation process. The methodology allows for the use of high free fatty acid content feedstock, including Jatropha oil. However, this emerging technology needs to be further investigated for possible scale-up for industrial application.

  20. Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, M A; Tremblay, A Y; Liu, J

    2007-02-01

    The immiscibility of canola oil in methanol provides a mass-transfer challenge in the early stages of the transesterification of canola oil in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). To overcome or rather, exploit this situation, a two-phase membrane reactor was developed to produce FAME from canola oil and methanol. The transesterification of canola oil was performed via both acid- or base-catalysis. Runs were performed in the membrane reactor in semi-batch mode at 60, 65 and 70 degrees C and at different catalyst concentrations and feed flow rates. Increases in temperature, catalyst concentration and feedstock (methanol/oil) flow rate significantly increased the conversion of oil to biodiesel. The novel reactor enabled the separation of reaction products (FAME/glycerol in methanol) from the original canola oil feed. The two-phase membrane reactor was particularly useful in removing unreacted canola oil from the FAME product yielding high purity biodiesel and shifting the reaction equilibrium to the product side.

  1. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nicola, G.; Moglie, M.; Santori, G.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product. [it

  2. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Stamenković Olivera S.; Lazić Miodrag L.; Veljković Vlada B.; Skala Dejan U.

    2005-01-01

    The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial appli...

  3. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    W Widayat; Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-01-01

    Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA) whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours). Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applicati...

  4. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nivea de Lima; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Batistella, César Benedito; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    The transesterification of castor oil with ethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide as catalyst is an exceptional option for the Brazilian biodiesel production, because the castor nut is quite available in the country. Chemically, its oil contains about 90% of ricinoleic acid that gives to the oil some beneficial characteristics such as its alcohol solubility at 30 degrees C. The transesterification variables studied in this work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol oil molar ratio. Through a star configuration experimental design with central points, this study shows that it is possible to achieve the same conversion of esters carrying out the transesterification reaction with a smaller alcohol quantity, and a new methodology was developed to obtain high purity biodiesel.

  5. Technoeconomic study of supercritical biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, biodiesel has gained more market due to its benefits and because it appears as the natural substitute for diesel. However, the highest cost of this process is associated with the raw material employed, making it a less competitive and more expensive fuel. Therefore, research is being done in order to use low price raw material, such as acid oils, frying oils or soapstocks. In this work, a biodiesel production plant was developed using supercritical methanol and acid oils as raw materials. This technology was compared with some other alternatives previously described with the aim of making a comparative study, not only on the technical aspects but also on the economic results. A process simulator was employed to produce the conceptual design and simulate each technology. Using these models, it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of each process. Although the supercritical alternative appears as a good technical possibility to produce biodiesel, today, it is not an economic alternative due to its high operating costs

  6. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  7. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  8. Biodiesel waste products as soil amendments : evaluation of microbial, biological, and plant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    During biodiesel production, about 200 lbs of glycerol, commonly called glycerin, is produced for every 1 ton of biodiesel. As the : biodiesel industry grows, so does the need to dispose of this waste product. While potential uses for glycerin exist,...

  9. Biodiesel production plant project from fritter oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoví Felipe, Carlos Miguel; Gandón Hernández, José; Sarracent López, Anabel; García Díaz, Marilín

    2017-01-01

    Increments in commercialization values of fossil fuels as well as the ecological impact in the environment, motivated the study about methods to obtain clean (alternative) energies that don't produce emanations or, in the worst of cases reduce them as much as possible. In this work is shown the project of a plant of a biodiesel production plant, using as raw material fritter oils coming from foods processing facilities and/or from tourist facilities. The production technology is based on studies, carried out by the foods research group in Chemical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Havana in biodiesel production through the mechanism of alkaline transesterificationón with homogeneous catalysts. The plant was designed in modular type in order to facilitate any production amplification that is required and has all the necessary elements for its assembly, it is easy to repair in situ according to resources possibilities and of simple operation so that it is possible for not qualified workers in technical questions. The production capacity in this project is 300 liters of raw material per batch, coming from a fritter foods facility. (author)

  10. Environmental impacts the of production and use of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Veljković, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel as renewable, environmental friendly, less toxic, and biodegradable is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels and is produced mainly from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is expected, globally, that the use of renewable biofuels, in general, will increase rapidly in the near future. The growing biodiesel production and usage have encouraged assessment of its impact on the environment. The present paper reviews various aspects of biodiesel production using commercial processing technology and biodiesel use through evaluation and analysis of the studies concerning environmental impacts of biodiesel. As a general conclusion, it can be said that biodiesel has the potential to offer a series of perceived benefits such as political, economical, and agricultural, as well as environmental (due to its biodegradability, less toxicity, renewability) and health (greenhouse gas-saving, less harmful exhaust emissions).

  11. Biodiesel production from sediments of a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchkina, A.Yu.; Gladyshev, M.I.; Sushchik, N.N.; Kravchuk, E.S.; Kalachova, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from eutrophic reservoir Bugach (Siberia, Russia) were tested for possibility to produce biodiesel. We supposed that the sediments could be a promising biodiesel producer. The major reason of high price of biodiesel fuel is cost of a raw material. The use of dredging sediments for biodiesel production reduces production costs, because the dredging sediments are by-products which originated during lake restoration actions, and are free of cost raw materials. Lipid content in sediments was 0.24% of dry weight. To assess the potential of from sediments as a substitute of diesel fuel, the properties of the biodiesel such as cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion were calculated. All of this parameters complied with limits established by EN 14214 and EN 14213 related to biodiesel quality. -- Highlights: → Dredging sediments were considered as a new feedstock for biodiesel production. → Lipid and fatty acid content in the sediments were determined. → Main properties of the biodiesel were calculated basing on fatty acid composition. → The properties well complied with limits established in biodiesel standards.

  12. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  13. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    glycerine to liquid fuel for blending gasoline as alternative engine fuel. Energy Convers. Manage. 41:1741-1748. Demirbas, A (2009) Production of biodiesel from algae oils, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery,. Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 31: 163-. 168. Demirbas, A (2005) Biodiesel production from vegetable oils ...

  14. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (Curcas Oil) | Oladeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work deals with the production of Biodiesel from Jatropha oil also known as Curcas oil. Material used for the production was sourced for locally. Basic test for the suitability of the Jatropha oil was carried out in the lab. The test carried out to determine if the produced Biodiesel met standards set was carried out at the ...

  15. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  16. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML. An integrated analysis considering both agricultural and industrial sectors was identified as a key requirement to the system. Therefore, farmers and industry are the main actors in the use case diagram. As the raw material represents around 70% of the industrial cost of biodiesel production, the price negotiation of raw material (oilseeds is the central use case. Configuration, agriculture, industry, results and scenarios are the modules, which encompass the functionalities derived from the UML diagrams. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has made the BiodieselFAO available, free of charge, to around 180 professionals from 17 Latin American countries. Additionally, the developing team has supported the usage of the BiodieselFAO in several biodiesel investment analyses throughout Latin America. The system was also useful in the design and analysis of policy related to biodiesel industry in Brazil.

  17. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  18. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Yaakub, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. → Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. → The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. → Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  19. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  20. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  1. Vanadyl phosphate catalysts in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Serio, M.; Cozzolino, M.; Tesser, R.; Santacesaria, E. [Universita degli studi di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Chimica, via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Patrono, P.; Pinzari, F. [CNR-IMIP Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Bonelli, B. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2007-03-22

    The possibility of using vanadyl phosphate (VOP)-based catalysts in biodiesel production has been investigated. Vanadium phosphate catalysts resulted very active in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol, despite their low specific surface area. A slow deactivation of the catalysts has been experimentally detected under the reaction conditions, but the catalyst can easily be regenerated by calcination in air. The influence of the calcination treatment on the surface structure and, consequently, on its catalytic performances was deeply investigated. Both fresh and used catalysts were characterized by using several techniques, such as BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRUV) and laser-Raman (LRS). The characterization results showed that the deactivation is due to a progressive reduction of vanadium (V) species from V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} and V{sup 3+} by methanol. By comparing the obtained performances of VOP catalysts with the ones of other heterogeneous catalysts reported by the literature, it is possible to conclude that VOP catalysts can already be used industrially for biodiesel production but their performances can probably be greatly improved in perspective. (author)

  2. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  3. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil by response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the possibility of using response surface methodology based on a four factor five level central composite design to optimize biodiesel production from castor oil. The reaction variables were oil: ethanol ratio, lipozyme concentration, time and temperature. The properties of the biodiesel produced were ...

  4. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    of converting vegetable oil to alkyl of fatty acids esters. (biodiesel) by reacting it with alcohol. Specifically, oil triglyceride reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol in the presence of a catalyst. The oil or fat used for biodiesel production is determined by the abundance of seed oils that are ...

  5. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  6. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  7. Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This necessitated a three steps esterification of the oil sample for reduction of the %FFA to 0.547mgKOH/g and later transesterification of the oil. The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time and oil to methanol ratio on production of biodiesel from the oil was then investigated. Optimum yield of biodiesel from this oil were ...

  8. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Uso de centrífugas para los procesos de biodiesel. Aceites Grasas, 13: 98-105. Hossain ABMS, Boyce AN (2009a). Biodiesel production from waste sunflower cooking oil as an environmental recycling process and renewable energy. Bulgarian J. Agric. Sci. 15(4): 313-318. Hossain ABMS, Boyce AN ...

  9. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  10. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  11. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  12. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...... aspects of the enzyme with reaction/reactor engineering is performed. This strategy is applied to a case study of biodiesel production catalysed by a liquid enzyme formulation. The use of enzymes for biodiesel production is still in its infancy with non-optimized process designs. Furthermore is it unclear...

  13. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  14. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  15. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  16. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  17. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  18. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  19. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  20. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  1. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  2. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  3. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  5. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  6. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  7. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  8. Upstream and downstream strategies to economize biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Meisam; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Khatami far, Mahdi; Javani, Azita

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biodiesel has drawn considerable amount of attention as a clean and renewable fuel. Biodiesel is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fat mainly through catalytic or non-catalytic transesterification method as well as supercritical method. However, as a consequence of disadvantages of these methods, the production cost increases dramatically. This article summarizes different biodiesel production methods with a focus on their advantages and disadvantages. The downstream and upstream strategies such as using waste cooking oils, application of non-edible plant oils, plant genetic engineering, using membrane separation technology for biodiesel production, separation and purification, application of crude glycerin as an energy supplement for ruminants, glycerin ultra-purification and their consequent roles in economizing the production process are fully discussed in this article. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  10. Spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and other applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Nídia Sá; Silva, Vânia; Melo, Ana C.; Martins, António A.; Mata, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using spent coffee grounds (SCG) for biodiesel production and other applications. An experimental study was conducted with different solvents showing that lipid content up to 6 wt% can be obtained from SCG. Results also show that besides biodiesel production, SCG can be used as fertilizer as it is rich in nitrogen, and as solid fuel with higher heating value (HHV) equivalent to some agriculture and wood residues. The extracted lipids were characterized f...

  11. Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petrodiesel that is prepared from plant oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is prepared via transesterification and the resulting fuel properties must be compliant with international fuel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Numerous catalysts, methods, and l...

  12. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  13. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  14. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  15. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glycerol separation was able to compensate for the decreased use of the reactant methanol from 6:1 to 5:1 molar ratio, and changed the mass balance in the product, including: (i the increase of biodiesel productionfrom 42.37% to 49.34%, and (ii the reduction of methanol in excess from 42.37% to 32.89%. The results suggested that the efficiency of biodiesel production could be increased with the glycerol separation engineering.

  16. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental effects of burning fossil fuels and the increased crude oil prices have triggered increased interest in biofuels. Biodiesel is traditionally produced from oil seed crops, which have lower yields per land area and threaten food...

  17. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  18. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  19. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  1. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120°C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300°C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.

  2. Small-scale biodiesel production based on a heterogenous technology

    OpenAIRE

    Omberg, Kristian Sørby

    2015-01-01

    In a world where the growing concern for global warming and the problems concerning planet earth is confirmed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . Thesearch for alternatives to replace the use of finite fossil fuels and cut green house gas (GHG)emission has commenced. Biodiesel, a biofuel derived from fat and vegetable oil based feedstock is one such alternative. However, a large enough biodiesel production to supply the demand for fuel is beinglimited by cost in...

  3. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  4. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  5. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  6. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  7. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  8. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  9. Influence of economical variables on a supercritical biodiesel production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production from supercritical process. • Economical analysis. • Influence of market variables. - Abstract: Biodiesel has becoming more and more relevant in today’s society and economy due to its environmental advantages such as biodegradability, lower CO and CO 2 emissions as well as less particulate pollutants. In this work the study of market and economic variables is presented and their effects compared when biodiesel is being produced using a supercritical technology. The production process is based on a supercritical technology with no catalyst and no co-solvent. Price for the raw materials, such as price for the alcohol as well as the oil has been studied. Also, selling price for biodiesel as well as glycerin has been analyzed and compared with prices from other biodiesel production technologies. Economic decisions such as percentage of failure in the production process, investment in research and development, and advertisement have been evaluated; also it has been considered the influence of the tax incentives on the global economy of the production process. Small variations on some of the major market variables would produce significant effects over the global economy of the plant, making it non profitable in some cases

  10. Production of Biodiesel from Locally Available Spent Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Al Naggar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels prompted considerable research to find alternative fuels. Due its environmental benefits and renewable nature the production of biodiesel has acquired increasing importance with a view to optimizing the production procedure and the sources of feedstock. Millions of liters of waste frying oil are produced from local restaurants and houses every year, most are discarded into sewage systems causing damage to the networks.  This study is intended to consider aspects related to the feasibility of the production of biodiesel from waste frying oils which will solve the problem of waste frying oil pollution and reduce the cost of biodiesel production.This research studies the conversion of locally available spent vegetable oils of different origins and with different chemical compositions into an environmentally friendly fuel. The biodiesel production requirements by base catalyzed trans-esterification process for the different feed stocks are determined according to the measured physical properties. The quality of the produced biodiesel is compared to petro diesel in terms of established standard specifications.

  11. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  12. Chitosan and Its Derivatives Applied in Harvesting Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: An Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyi Chen; Liu Zhao; Yun Qi; Yuan-Lu Cui

    2014-01-01

    Although oil-accumulating microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, large-scale biodiesel production is not yet economically feasible. As harvesting accounts for an important part of total production cost, mass production of microalgae biodiesel requires an efficient low-energy harvesting strategy so as to make biodiesel production economically attractive. Chitosan has emerged as a favorable flocculating agent in harvesting of microalgae. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  13. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  14. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiesel production from microalgae: cultivation parameters that affect lipid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Penaranda, Martha Trinidad; Martinez Roldan, Alfredo de Jesus; Canizares Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2013-01-01

    The microalgae have the capacity to mitigate CO 2 emissions and to produce lipids, which are considered with potential to obtain third-generation biofuel. This review provides updated information of the influence of culture conditions on the lipids production with high productivity and profile suitable for the biodiesel production. This document presents a compilation of research conclusions over the last 13 years around the world. in the literature consulted, the authors conclude that although the behavior of microalgae at physiological stress conditions, varies between species; the nutrients limitation, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, associated with heterotrophic growth or high irradiances in phototrophy are considered the most efficient strategies to increase the lipid content in microalgae, particularly triglycerides (consisting of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids), which are excellent for the production of biodiesel. Also, it is reported that the lipid content increase and the number of unsaturated fatty acids decrease with the addition of small amounts of CO 2 and harvesting the biomass it the stationary phase of growth.

  16. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  17. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to producecavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system forimproving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was usedunder constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound canreduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describecorrelation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 –7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  18. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149 ] | View in 

  19. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production....

  20. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production....

  1. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  3. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  4. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  5. Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks,B.; Pruszko,R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe. The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the process and issues involved in producing this fuel.

  6. Novel polymeric products derived from biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (produced by reacting a triglyceride with an alcohol) is increasingly being used as diesel fuel and heating oil, especially in Europe. Because of its availability and favorable environmental profile, it may be useful as a renewable feedstock for new polymers. In this work we introduced t...

  7. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool......The growing concerns about the global warming and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have led to an increase in the interest to produce fuel from biomass and from the fact that such fuels can relieve the reliance on imported oil and price. To this end, numerous production facilities are being set up...

  8. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  10. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by whole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main obstacle to using lipase as a catalyst in industrial scale biodiesel production is the cost and availability of the enzyme. To overcome this obstacle, the potential of using a whole cell biocatalyst (for at least partial in situ lipase production) was evaluated as a means to reduce the cost of the lipase. The reaction ...

  11. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  12. An Experimental Investigation of Karanja Biodiesel Production in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Harreh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nonedible feedstock for the production of biodiesel has become an area of research interest among clean energy experts in the past few years. This research is aimed at the utilization of Pongamia pinnata (karanja, a nonedible feedstock from the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, to produce biodiesel to be known as crude karanja oil (CKO. A one-step transesterification process utilizing 7 : 1–10 : 1 wt% methanol (CH3OH and 0.5–1.2 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH at 65°C for 1.5 hrs has been used for the biodiesel production yielding 84% conversion. The physiochemical properties of the CKO produced revealed that it conforms with EN14214 standards for brake power (BP, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and brake thermal efficiency (BTE as they are all noted be optimal at B40.

  13. Enzymatic biodiesel production from free fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Marise da Costa Pereira

    2009-01-01

    O ácido oleico é um co-produto da refinação de óleos alimentares e é removido num passo antecedente à catalise alcalina na produção industrial de biodiesel. Este ácido gordo livre é uma fonte alternativa de biodiesel. Neste trabalho estudou-se a esterificação enzimática do acido oleico com metanol ou etanol. Definiu-se um planeamento experimental 22 para estudar a influência das variáveis razão molar álcool/ácido oleico(R) e concentração de enzima(E), as variáveis dependentes, na percentag...

  14. Biodiesel Production from Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The presence of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:3), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid 9C18:2), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), erucic acid (C22:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) in the macroalgae biodiesel ...

  15. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  16. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  17. Production of Biodiesel from Pinus Roxburghii Oil and its Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishfaq, M.; Ahmad, I.; Shakiruliah, M.; Saeed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is an alternative and renewable source of energy. It may help to reduce air pollution and our dependence on fossil fuel for energy. In this study the plant oil was extracted from saw dust of pine tree using methanol as a solvent and acid catalyst (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was used for transesterification. The effect of reaction time, temperature and catalyst ratio was studied, which presented that the high yield of biodiesel is produced by using 9 mL of catalyst for 1 h reaction time. The physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity, heating value, cetane index, flash point, Conradson carbon residue and distillation behavior of the obtained biodiesel were determined. The results showed that the final fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) product meets with the biodiesel quality standards, and ASTM specification D6751-02. The UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopic studies was also performed, which revealed that the synthesized biodiesel consists of aliphatic, olifinic and aromatic hydrocarbons along with fatty acids. (author)

  18. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Font de Mora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%–1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.

  19. Noncatalytic biodiesel fuel production from croton megalocarpus oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2011-11-15

    Biodiesel is currently considered as the most promising substitute for diesel fuel because of its similar properties to diesel. This study presents the use of the supercritical methanol method in the production of biodiesel from Croton megalocarpus oil. The reaction parameters such as methanol-to-oil ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were varied to obtain the optimal reaction conditions by design of experiment, specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design with {alpha}=2. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve methyl ester yields as high as 74.91 % with reaction conditions such as 50:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 330 C reaction temperature and a reaction period of 20 min. However, Croton-based biodiesel did not sustain higher temperatures due to decomposition of polyunsaturated methyl linoleate, which is dominant in biodiesel. Lower yields were observed when higher temperatures were used during the optimization process. The supercritical methanol method showed competitive biodiesel yields when compared with catalytic methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, M S; Kamikawachi, R C; Fabris, J L; Muller, M

    2015-01-01

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel–oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel–methanol samples, respectively. (paper)

  1. Supercritical biodiesel production and power cogeneration: technical and economic feasibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Anitescu, G; Rice, P A; Tavlarides, L L

    2010-03-01

    An integrated supercritical fluid technology with power cogeneration to produce biodiesel fuels, with no need for the costly separations involved with the conventional technology, is proposed, documented for technical and economic feasibility, and preliminarily designed. The core of the integrated system consists of the transesterification of various triglyceride sources (e.g., vegetable oils and animal fats) with supercritical methanol/ethanol. Part of the reaction products can be combusted by a diesel power generator integrated in the system which, in turn, provides the power needed to pressurize the system and the heat of the exhaust gases necessary in the transesterification step. The latter energy demand can also be satisfied by a fired heater, especially for higher plant capacities. Different versions of this system can be implemented based on the main target of the technology: biodiesel production or diesel engine applications, including power generation. The process options considered for biodiesel fuel production estimate break-even processing costs of biodiesel as low as $0.26/gal ($0.07/L) with a diesel power generator and $0.35/gal ($0.09/L) with a fired heater for a plant capacity of 15,000 gal/day (56,775 L/day). Both are significantly lower than the current processing costs of approximately $0.51/gal ($0.13/L) of biodiesel produced by conventional catalytic methods. A retail cost of biodiesel produced by the proposed method is likely to be competitive with the prices of diesel fuels. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic Production of FAME Biodiesel with Soluble Lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Heltborg, Carsten Kirstejn; Yang, V

    Biodiesel is a viable alternative to fossil fuels, and biocatalysis is gaining interest as a greener process. We focus on converting oils to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) using soluble lipases, which offer an advantage compared to immobilized enzymes by cost efficiency and ease of implementation...... the defined operating space concerning: temperature, water content, initial methanol concentration and enzyme content. The identified optimum range was experimentally evaluated, and model findings were confirmed. Another barrier in lipase use in biodiesel production is the higher melting point (m...

  3. Mechanistic Modelling of Biodiesel Production using a Liquid Lipase Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Hofmann, Björn; Silva, Vanessa T. L.

    2014-01-01

    , with respect to the industrial production of biodiesel. The developed kinetic model, coupled with a mass balance of the system, was fitted to and validated on experimental results for the fed-batch transesterification of rapeseed oil. The confidence intervals of the parameter estimates, along...... that constrains the amount of methanol in the reactor was computed and the predictions experimentally validated. Monte-Carlo simulations were then used to characterize the effect of the parameter uncertainty on the model outputs, giving a biodiesel yield, based on the mass of oil, of 90.8 ± 0.55 mass %. © 2014...

  4. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  5. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  6. Les biocarburants en Argentine : facteurs et enjeux de la production de biodiesel de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibert Martine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Argentina has sanctioned a national law to regulate biofuel production and consumption. Since 2007, soybean actors started producing biodiesel for international market -especially to Europe- and the country quickly became the major biodiesel exporter. In 2010, around twenty processing units started supplying the domestic market. Diesel sold in Argentina contained 5% of biodiesel. The obligation to add 5% of biodiesel to diesel has passed to 7% and the goal is to increase this percentage. The State support and soybean biodiesel competitiveness have been important for biodiesel chain development but some doubts could appear about the kind of actors that could have the benefits.

  7. Microalgae Isolation and Selection for Prospective Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae is being widely developed at different scales as a potential source of renewable energy with both economic and environmental benefits. Although many microalgae species have been identified and isolated for lipid production, there is currently no consensus as to which species provide the highest productivity. Different species are expected to function best at different aquatic, geographical and climatic conditions. In addition, other value-added products are now being considered for commercial production which necessitates the selection of the most capable algae strains suitable for multiple-product algae biorefineries. Here we present and review practical issues of several simple and robust methods for microalgae isolation and selection for traits that maybe most relevant for commercial biodiesel production. A combination of conventional and modern techniques is likely to be the most efficient route from isolation to large-scale cultivation.

  8. A techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivieri, G.; Guida, T.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2013-01-01

    The preliminary assessment of a cost-effective flow-sheet for the production of biodiesel from microalgae lipid fraction was carried out. The study was based on approximated cost-estimation methods integrated with the simulation software Aspen Plus (R). Several scenarios were investigated to compare

  9. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... The lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rice bran oil and methanol for biodiesel production in hexane was investigated. The effects of different hexane weight ratio, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature and immobilized lipase dosage on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response ...

  10. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of refined soybean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the production of biodiesel via transesterification of refined soybean oil obtained locally. Sodium hydroxide was used as the alkali catalyst and methanol (as alcohol) was used in the transesterification process due to its low cost. The methanol-to-oil molar ratio was maintained at 6:1. The effect of ...

  11. Production of biodiesel using Colocynthis citrullus L. oil over green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production and characterization of biodiesel fuel obtained by means of transesterification over green solid heterogeneous catalyst with Colocynthis citrullus L. oil was investigated. The oil was extracted from the Colocynthis citrullus L. using normal hexane by means of soxhlet extractor. The oil obtained was ...

  12. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    Abstract: In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four ...

  13. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  14. Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO 2 sequestration. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Mixed algae sample showed the highest CO2 fixation rate, followed by Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus incrassatulus, Scenedesmus dimorphus and Chroococcus cohaerens (2.807, 1.627, 1.501, 1.270 ...

  15. Review on enzymatic synthesis of value added products of glycerol, a by-product derived from biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pradima; M. Rajeswari Kulkarni; Archna

    2017-01-01

    Crude glycerol is produced as a by-product from biodiesel production via trans-esterification with methanol and this process accounts for 10% (w/w) of the total biodiesel produced worldwide. The glycerol glut created can be utilized to increase biodiesel profitability since disposal can pose a threat to the environment. The need is to transform this surplus crude glycerol into added-value products. Biological based conversions are efficient in providing products that are drop-in replacements ...

  16. Culture aspects of Isochrysis galbana for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Ángel; Maceiras, Rocio; Cancela, Ángeles; Pérez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze the potential of an autochthon microalgae Isochrysis galbana for biodiesel production. ► The microalgae was cultivated in a raceway pond designed by the authors. ► The analysis of different cultivation parameters has been carried out. ► The results show that oil produced by I. galbana could be a suitable feedstock for biofuel production. -- Abstract: Biodiesel production from microalgae has recently increased on interest. The objective of this work is to explore the potential of biodiesel production from the microalgae Isochrysis galbana (T-ISO). For that reason, this microalgae was cultivated for biodiesel production. The culture system equipment consisted of two methacrylate ponds, 11 mm thick. The pond has a base of 1.40 × 0.40 m and a height of 0.4 m. The influence of initial concentration of inoculum, stirring and carbon dioxide supply on the growth of algae were analyzed. The obtained results indicate that stirring improves the algae growth rate. The other two factors have no significant effect on final cell density. Obtained biomass was used to produce oil by extraction to use for biodiesel synthesis by means of basic-catalyzed reaction. For transesterification, microalgae oil was mixed with methanol (12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio), and sodium hydroxide (1% g NaOH/g oil) for 3 h in a reactor at 62 °C. The best harvest shows a biomass concentration of 0.305 g/L with a FAME content of 12.5%.

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodan Wu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Yuhuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  18. Biodiesel production through transesterification over natural calciums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Nunthasanti, Pramwit; Tanachai, Sithikorn; Bunyakiat, Kunchana [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) with methanol over various natural calciums, including limestone calcite, cuttlebone, dolomite, hydroxyapatite, and dicalcium phosphate, has been investigated at 60 C and 1 atm. The study showed that dolomite, mainly consisting of CaCO{sub 3} and MgCO{sub 3}, is the most active catalyst. The calcination temperature largely affected the physicochemical properties, as evidenced by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, TGA, SEM and XRD, and the transesterification performance of the resultant catalysts. It was found that the calcination of dolomite at 800 C resulted in a highly active mixed oxide. CaO was suggested to be the catalytically active site responsible for the methyl ester formation. Under the suitable reaction conditions, the amount of dolomite calcined at 800 C = 6 wt.% based on the weight of oil, the methanol/oil molar ratio = 30, and the reaction time = 3 h, the methyl ester content of 98.0% can be achieved. The calcined dolomite can be reused many times. The analyses of some important fuel properties indicated that the biodiesel produced had the properties that meet the standard of biodiesel and diesel fuel issued by the Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy, Thailand. (author)

  19. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, A.M.; Suárez-Medina, J.; Vera-Castellano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas. ► A 95% of the inefficiencies are located in the transesterification reactor. ► Exergetic efficiency of the steam generator amounts 37.6%. ► Chemical reactions cause most of the irreversibilities of the process. ► Exergetic efficiency of the overall process is over 63%. -- Abstract: As fossil fuels are depleting day by day, it is necessary to find an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly renewable diesel fuel alternative. The interest in using Jatropha curcas as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel is rapidly growing. On the one hand, J. curcas’ oil does not compete with the food sector due to its toxic nature and to the fact that it must be cultivated in marginal/poor soil. On the other, its price is low and stable. In the last decade, the investigation on biodiesel production was centered on the choice of the suitable raw material and on the optimization of the process operation conditions. Nowadays, research is focused on the improvement of the energetic performance and on diminishing the inefficiencies in the different process components. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In this work, we identify the location, magnitude and sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a biodiesel production process from J. curcas by means of an exergy analysis. The thermodynamic properties were calculated from existing databases or estimated when necessary. The higher exergy destruction takes places in the transesterification reactor due to chemical reactions. Almost 95% of the exergy of the fuel is destroyed in this reactor. The exergetic efficiency of the overall process is 63%.

  20. A Review of Microwave-Assisted Reactions for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Nomanbhay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research area as trends move to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources due to society’s increased concern towards sustainability. In this context, microwave processing has emerged as a tool in organic synthesis and plays an important role in developing a more sustainable world. Integration of processing methods with microwave irradiation has resulted in a great reduction in the time required for many processes, while the reaction efficiencies have been increased markedly. Microwave processing produces a higher yield with a cleaner profile in comparison to other methods. The microwave processing is reported to be a better heating method than the conventional methods due to its unique thermal and non-thermal effects. This paper provides an insight into the theoretical aspects of microwave irradiation practices and highlights the importance of microwave processing. The potential of the microwave technology to accomplish superior outcomes over the conventional methods in biodiesel production is presented. A green process for biodiesel production using a non-catalytic method is still new and very costly because of the supercritical condition requirement. Hence, non-catalytic biodiesel conversion under ambient pressure using microwave technology must be developed, as the energy utilization for microwave-based biodiesel synthesis is reported to be lower and cost-effective.

  1. Biodiesel production from corn oil by transesterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Dessouky, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is much political demand and economic pressure to convert agricultural surpluses into material, such as motor fuel, in which the world is deficient. Transport industry is primary consumer of crude oil. Due to scarcity of known petroleum reserves, the possible alternative fuel for use in present engine technology is biofuels. Europe, USA and Brazil are successfully using biofuels. Biofuels causes less environmental pollution as compared to normal petro fuels. As a fuel, ethanol (gasohol) is used in internal combustion engine while methyester (Biodiesel) is used in diesel engines with same or better performance as compared to petro fuels. Corn is very valuable crop with numerous industrial applications, and is used in more than 300 modern industries, including the manufacture of textiles, paper, adhesives, insecticides, paints, soaps, explosives and many more. Presently the biggest source of ethanol production is from corn (produced by USA). Edible oil can also be extracted from corn which is normally used for cooking and it can be used for biodiesel production. Many countries are experimenting on fats and oil to get feasible data for production of biodiesel. Presently USA prefer to use soybean oil as raw material for commercial production of biodiesel while in Europe rapeseed oil is preferred, so therefore, it depends upon the availability of raw material in particular area and may change from location to location. In Pakistan we started with corn oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification method. In present study different design parameters such as effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, molar ratio, and Stirrer speed were founded for better conversion of neat and used corn oil into biodiesel. The optimum parameters proposed for neat corn oil are 0.5% of catalyst based on weight of corn oil, temperature between 50 deg. C to 60 deg. C, reaction time 15 minutes, molar ratio of 6:1 and speed of stirrer 155 rpm. In case of used corn oil high catalyst

  2. Biodiesel Production Process Optimization from Sugar Apple Seed Oil (Annona squamosa and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddalingappa R. Hotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the production of biodiesel from nonedible, renewable sugar apple seed oil and its characterization. The studies were carried out on transesterification of oil with methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst for the production of biodiesel. The process parameters such as catalyst concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature were optimized for the production of sugar apple biodiesel (SABD. The biodiesel yield of 95.15% was noticed at optimal process parameters. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced were found to be close to that of diesel fuel and also they meet the specifications of ASTM standards.

  3. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U.

    2016-01-01

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5?g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylati...

  4. International biodiesel markets. Developments in production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)

  5. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  6. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  7. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  8. Microalgae: a new alternative raw material for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, L.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao -INETI-DER- Unidade Biomassa. Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Melo, A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Medeiros, R. [Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande, n. 376, Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, A. [Extensao da Escola Superior de Biotecnologia em Caldas da Rainha, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Mestre Mateus Fernandes, 2500-237 Caldas da Rainha (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    Biofuels will play an increasingly important role in diversifying energy supplies to meet the world's growing energy needs. Algae are considered a promising potential feedstock for next-generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels using currently available technology. Other benefits of algae as a potential feedstock are their abundance and fast growth rates. Key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest oil content and growth rates and developing cost-effective growing and harvesting methods. In this work, a microalgae screening in terms of oil quantity and composition were done in order to choose the best one as oil source for biodiesel production. Oil extraction procedure was optimized and the oil obtained from each microalgae analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile and of some parameters that can influenced the biodiesel production process and the final product quality.

  9. A recyclable enzymatic biodiesel production process in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego, Teresa; Manjón, Arturo; Lozano, Pedro; Iborra, José L

    2011-05-01

    Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B suspended in ionic liquids containing long alkyl-chain cations showed excellent synthetic activity and operational stability for biodiesel production. The interest of this process lies in the possibility of recycling the biocatalyst and the easy separation of the biodiesel from the reaction mixture. The ionic liquids used, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide ([C(16)MIM][NTf(2)]) and 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide ([C(18)MIM][NTf(2)]), produced homogeneous systems at the start of the reaction and, at the end of the same, formed a three-phase system, allowing the selective extraction of the products using straightforward separation techniques, and the recycling of both the ionic liquid and the enzyme. These are very important advantages which may be found useful in environmentally friendly production conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this area can be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses. Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell that enables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Essentially algal biomass and triacylglycerides compete for photosynthetic assimilate and a reprogramming of physiological pathways is required to stimulate lipid biosynthesis. There has been a wide range of studies carried out to identify and develop efficient lipid induction techniques in microalgae such as nutrients stress (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorus starvation, osmotic stress, radiation, pH, temperature, heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition, several genetic strategies for increased triacylglycerides production and inducibility are currently being developed. In this review, we discuss the potential of lipid induction techniques in microalgae and also their application at commercial scale for the production of biodiesel.

  11. Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C.; Mbarawa, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of biodiesel fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material, mostly neat vegetable oil. Used cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to review various technological methods of biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The analytical methods for high quality biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil like GC, TLC, HPLC, GPC and TGA have also been summarized in this paper. In addition, the specifications provided by different countries are presented. The fuel properties of biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil were also reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. (author)

  12. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  13. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    OpenAIRE

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI; M. F. M. GUNAM RESUL; R. YUNUS; T. C. SHEAN YAW

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR) is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing b...

  14. Production of biodiesel from crude neem oil feedstock and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results reveal the optimum conditions for biodiesel production to be ratio 1:6 of oil to methanol and 1.5 h reaction time. The viscosity at this condition was 5.53 cSt. The same procedure was repeated for NaOCH3 catalyst concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.25%. The lowest viscosity of 6.79 cSt was recorded at both 1 ...

  15. Selenastrum Capricornutum: Harvesting and Oil Extraction, for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Pérez; Ángeles Cancela; Rocío Maceiras; J.L. Salgueiro; Ángel Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    An alternative for biodiesel production is the use of lipids from microalgae. Although all steps to obtain this biofuel are important, harvesting and extraction are the most important. Advances in these areas are necessary in order to obtain third-generation fuels. The purpose of the present study is to compare different methods of lipids extraction and harvesting for freshwater Selenastrum Capricornutum microalgae. The method used for harvesting was flocculation with inorganic agent. Copper ...

  16. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present reported work was conducted to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed, followed with the production of biodiesel via transesterification of resultant oil. The effects of methanol-to-oil ratio 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1, reaction time of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180min, at constant operating temperature of 60oC were ...

  17. Biodiesel Production by Aspergillus niger Lipase Immobilized on Barium Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, Ahmed I; Farrag, Ayman A; Elsayed, Mohamed A; El-Khawaga, Ahmed M

    2016-05-12

    In this study, Aspergillus niger ADM110 fungi was gamma irradiated to produce lipase enzyme and then immobilized onto magnetic barium ferrite nanoparticles (BFN) for biodiesel production. BFN were prepared by the citrate sol-gel auto-combustion method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM/EDAX) analysis. The activities of free and immobilized lipase were measured at various pH and temperature values. The results indicate that BFN-Lipase (5%) can be reused in biodiesel production without any treatment with 17% loss of activity after five cycles and 66% loss in activity in the sixth cycle. The optimum reaction conditions for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) using lipase immobilized onto BFN as a catalyst were 45 °C, 4 h and 400 rpm. Acid values of WCO and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were 1.90 and 0.182 (mg KOH/g oil), respectively. The measured flash point, calorific value and cetane number were 188 °C, 43.1 MJ/Kg and 59.5, respectively. The cloud point (-3 °C), pour point (-9 °C), water content (0.091%) and sulfur content (0.050%), were estimated as well.

  18. Biodiesel Production by Aspergillus niger Lipase Immobilized on Barium Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-Batal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Aspergillus niger ADM110 fungi was gamma irradiated to produce lipase enzyme and then immobilized onto magnetic barium ferrite nanoparticles (BFN for biodiesel production. BFN were prepared by the citrate sol-gel auto-combustion method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM/EDAX analysis. The activities of free and immobilized lipase were measured at various pH and temperature values. The results indicate that BFN–Lipase (5% can be reused in biodiesel production without any treatment with 17% loss of activity after five cycles and 66% loss in activity in the sixth cycle. The optimum reaction conditions for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO using lipase immobilized onto BFN as a catalyst were 45 °C, 4 h and 400 rpm. Acid values of WCO and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were 1.90 and 0.182 (mg KOH/g oil, respectively. The measured flash point, calorific value and cetane number were 188 °C, 43.1 MJ/Kg and 59.5, respectively. The cloud point (−3 °C, pour point (−9 °C, water content (0.091% and sulfur content (0.050%, were estimated as well.

  19. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, Ignacio R.; Zanuttini, María Soledad; Gross, Martín S.; Querini, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil obtained from Jatropha curcas fruits has high variability in its properties. • A process for biodiesel production has been developed for small scale projects. • Oil neutralization with the glycerine phase has important advantages. • The glycerine phase and the meal are adequate to produce biogas. - Abstract: Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and lignocellulosic residues. In this work, Jatropha curcas plantation from the North West of Argentina was studied, with the objective of developing integrated processes for low and medium sizes farms. In these cases, glycerine purification and meal detoxification processes represent a very high cost, and usually are not included in the project. Consequently, alternative uses for these products are proposed. This study includes the evaluation of the Jatropha curcas crop during two years, evaluating the yields and oil properties. The solids left after the oil extraction were evaluated as solid fuels, the glycerine and the meal were used to generate biogas, and the oil was used to produce biodiesel. The oil pretreatment was carried out with the glycerine obtained in the biodiesel production process, thus neutralizing the free fatty acid, and decreasing the phosphorous and water content

  20. Comparison between exergy and energy analysis for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, A.; Van de Voorde, T.; Creemers, C.; Degrève, J.; Darvishmanesh, S.; Luis, P.; Van der Bruggen, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the exergy concept for use in chemical engineering applications, and compares the energy and exergy methodology for the production process of biodiesel. A process for biodiesel production was suggested and simulated in view of the energy and exergy analysis. A method was developed to implement the exergy concept in Aspen Plus 7.3. A comparison between the energy and the exergy approach reveals that the concepts have similarities but also some differences. In the exergy study, the reaction section has the largest losses whereas in the energy study separation steps are the most important. An optimization, using both concepts, was carried out using the same parameters. The optimized results were different depending on the objective function. It was concluded that exergy analysis is crucial during the design or redesign step in order to investigate thermodynamic efficiencies in each part of the process. - Highlights: • New flowsheet for the production of biodiesel simulated with Aspen Plus. • Calculation of the exergetic costs and several interesting indexes. • Comparison of exergy and energy analysis for the process studied.

  1. Ultrasonic assisted biodiesel production of microalgae by direct transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsum, Ummu; Mahfud, Mahfud; Roesyadi, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae are considered as the third generation source of biofuel and an excellent candidate for biofuel production to replace the fossil energy. The use of ultrasonic in producing biodiesel by direct transesterification of Nannochloropsis occulata using KOH as catalyst and methanol as a solvent was investigated. The following condition were determined as an optimum by experimental evaluates:: 1: 15 microalga to methanol (molar ratio); 3% catalyst concentration at temperature 40°C after 30 minute of ultrasonication. The highest yield of biodiesel produced was 30.3%. The main components of methyl ester from Nannochloropsis occulata were palmitic (C16 :0),, oleic (C18:1), stearic (C18;0), arahidic (C20:0) and myristic (C14:0). This stated that the application of ultrasounic for direct transesterificaiton of microalgae effectively reduced the reaction time compared to the reported values of conventional heating systems.

  2. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  4. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  5. Analysis of used frying fats for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Used frying fats and oils with highly variable and uncontrolled quality are used for the production of biodiesel . The objective of this study was to define the analytical methods useful to obtaining information on the quality of the used frying oils as raw material for biodiesels as well as for the characterization of the biodiesels obtained from them. Twentyfour used frying oils from restaurants and domestic fryers were analyzed before and after transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. From a detailed analysis of the samples by means of a combination of adsorption and size exclusion chromatography, the quantitative importance of polymeric compounds was deduced both from the direct analysis of the oils and from their FAME. Excellent linear correlation between polar compounds and polar FAME (R=0.9768 was found. The possibilities of interferences from polar fatty acid in the standard method to determine the ester content are defined. Finally, determination of non-polar FAME by silica column is proposed as a good alternative to the gas chromatography method.Los aceites y grasas de fritura, que se caracterizan por tener una calidad muy variable, se utilizan como material prima para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo de este estudio es definir la utilidad de los métodos analíticos desarrollados para los aceites y grasas de fritura para caracterizar el biodiesel obtenido. Veinticuatro aceites de fritura procedentes del sector de restauración y de fritura doméstica fueron analizados antes y después de su transesterificación a ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos. A partir de un análisis detallado mediante cromatografías de adsorción y exclusión, se deduce la importancia cuantitativa de los compuestos de polimerización tanto en el análisis directo de los aceites como en el análisis de los ésteres metílicos. Se encontró una excelente correlación lineal entre los compuestos polares y los ésteres metílicos polares

  6. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    The focus on de veloping new renewable energy in the transportation sector by the EU has boosted the production of biodiesel from rapeseed and other vegetable oils in Europe. This has led to an immense increase in the production of glycerol, which is an inevitable byproduct from the biodiesel...... production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  7. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  8. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  9. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  10. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefelmeyer, K.; Mussell, A.; Moore, T.L.; Liu, D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  11. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  12. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  13. A review on production of biodiesel using catalyzed transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Santosh Kumar; Lingfa, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is arguably an important fuel for compression ignition engine as far as sustainability and environmental issues are concerned. It can be produced from both edible and non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. Owing to higher viscosity, the utilization of crude vegetable oil is not advisable as it results engine failure. For reducing the viscosity and improving the other fuel characteristics comparable to that of diesel fuel, different approaches have been developed. However, transesterification process is very reliable, less costly and easy method compared to other methods. Due to more free fatty acids content in most of the non-edible vegetable oils, a pretreatment is employed to convert the acids to ester, then transesterified with suitable alcohol. Primarily yield of biodiesel depends upon the molar ratio of oil/alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of catalyst, stirring speed. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are used for synthesis purposes. Heterogeneous catalysts are less costly, environmental benign and can be derived from natural resources. Enzymatic catalysts are more environmental benign than heterogeneous catalysts but are costly, which hinders its widespread research and utilization. This article reviews the results of prominent works and researches in the field of production of biodiesel via catalyzed transesterification process.

  14. Biodiesel production from the lipid of wastewater sludge using an acidic heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiquee, M.N.; Kazemian, H.; Rohani, S. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, London, ON (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The production of biodiesel from the lipid of wastewater sludge was studied using SBA-15 impregnated with the heteropolyacid H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12WO{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O (PW{sub 12}) as a mesoporous heterogeneous catalyst. X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, thermalgravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the prepared catalysts. Catalytic performances were evaluated in a microreactor setup under different experimental conditions. The biodiesel yield for a sample impregnated with 15 % PW{sub 12} was 30.14 wt-% at a temperature of 135 C and a pressure of 135 psi for 3 h reaction time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  16. Use of the by-products of the biodiesel productive chain; Aproveitamento dos subprodutos da cadeia produtiva do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebus, Fernando; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: f_moebus@polis.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper performs an economical analysis of the incomes obtained with the using of byproducts of productive chain of bio diesel. Two technologies will be studied as follows: the commercialization of the residues (peels, cake) in the form of briquettes, and glycerin. A cost spreadsheet was developed for quantification the costs for obtain the biodiesel from the different raw-materials in a process of batch. Besides the cost of raw material and others inputs (catalyst and methanol), it will be analysed the main factors that influences the final costs of product a the generated incomes with commercialization of by-products.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Wet Spirulina sp. by One-Step Extraction-Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Pradana Yano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae has gained immense interests as the raw material for biofuel production. The lipid content in microalgae can be converted into biodiesel through conventional method which involves separated process of extraction and transesterification. In this study, the production of biodiesel from Spirulina sp. was performed through one-step extraction-transesterification using KOH as base catalyst to simplify the production of biodiesel. The mixture of methanol-hexane was employed as both solvent and reactant in the process. The resulting biodiesel was found to be mainly composed of methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. On the other hand, increasing the reaction temperature and reducing the quantity of methanol in solvent mixture would also increase the yield of biodiesel. The optimum methanol-hexane volumetric ratio and temperature which gave the highest biodiesel yield were 3:7 and 50°C, respectively.

  18. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m(3) fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L(-1) day(-1) with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel.

  19. Industrial Fermentation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides for Production of Biodiesel and Its Application in Vehicle Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibo; Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae-derived biodiesel has been regarded as a promising alternative for fossil diesel. However, the commercial production of microalgal biodiesel was halted due to its high cost. Here, we presented a pilot study on the industrial production of algal biodiesel. We began with the heterotrophic cultivation of Auxenochlorella protothecoides in a 60-m3 fermentor that produced biomass at 3.81 g L−1 day−1 with a neutral lipid content at 51%. Next, we developed plate-frame filter, natural drying, and ball milling methods to harvest, dry, and extract oil from the cells at low cost. Additionally, algal biodiesel was produced for a vehicle engine test, which indicated that the microalgal biodiesel was comparable to fossil diesel but resulted in fewer emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon. Altogether, our data suggested that the heterotrophic fermentation of A. protothecoides could have the potential for the future industrial production of biodiesel. PMID:26539434

  20. Biodiesel production through non-catalytic supercritical transesterification: current state and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. da; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The inconveniences of the conventional method for biodiesel production by alkaline catalysis suggests research towards alternative methods, with the non-catalytic transesterification using an alcohol at supercritical conditions proposed as a promising technique for biodiesel production. The so-called supercritical method (SCM) has powerful advantages over conventional techniques, such as fast reaction rates, feedstock flexibility, production efficiency and environmentally friendly benefits. H...

  1. A Study of Microalgal Symbiotic Communities with the Aim to Increase Biomass and Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Claus

    molecules. A variety of algae can produce large amounts of lipids and these easily be converted to biodiesel for use as transport fuel. Production of algal based biodiesel is however still limited mainly due production costs. Research is needed in order to lower the price of the final product. In this study...

  2. The potential for biodiesel production in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Agricultural Colleges have recently completed an investigation into the potential of biodiesel and other uses of oilseed rape (traditional food use and specialist oils), funded by Scottish Enterprise. The study began as a result of the closure of the Glasgow crusher, which led to either the seed being transported to Liverpool at Pound 10-15/t or exported to Hamburg or Rotterdam - 50% of United Kingdom oilseed exports are out of Scotland. The advantages of Rape Methyl Ester (RME) production have already been spelt out, but the disadvantages are that the costs of production are high and the energy balance can be marginal under some circumstances. (Author)

  3. Chemical catalysis in biodiesel production (I): enzymatic catalysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachmarian, I.; Dobroyan, M.; Veira, J.; Vieitez, I.; Mottini, M.; Segura, N.; Grompone, M.

    2009-01-01

    There are some well known advantages related with the substitution of chemical catalysis by enzymatic catalysis processes.Some commercial immobilized lipases are useful for the catalysis of bio diesel reaction, which permits the achievement of high conversions and the recovery of high purity products, like a high quality glycerine. The main disadvantage of this alternative method is related with the last inactivation of the enzyme (by both the effect of the alcohol and the absorption of glycerol on catalyst surface), which added to the high cost of the catalyst, produces an unfavourable economical balance of the entire process. In the work the efficiency of two commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme TL IM y Novozyme 435 NNovozymes-Dinamarca) in the catalysis of the continuous transesterification of sunflower oil with different alcohols was studied. The intersolubility of the different mixturesinvolving reactans (S oil/alkyl esters/alcohol) and products (P mixtures with a higher content of 1% of glycerol,while for ethanol homogeneous mixtures were obtained at 12% of glycerol (44.44 12).Using and ethanolic substrate at the proportion S=19:75:6 and Lipozyme TL IM, it was possible to achieve a 98% of convertion to the corresponding biodiesel.When Novozymes 435 catalyzed the process it was possible to increase the oil concentration in the substrateaccording to proportion S=35:30:35, and a 78% conversion was obtained. The productivity shown by the firt enzyme was 70mg biodiesel g enzime-1, hora-1 while with the second one the productivity increased to 230. Results suggested that the convenient adjustement of substrate composition with the addition of biodiesel to reactants offers an efficient method for maximizing the enzyme productivity, hence improving the profitability of the enzymatic catalyzed process. (author)

  4. Oyster and Pyramidella Shells as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted biodiesel production via transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol using solid oxide catalyst derived from waste shells of oyster and Pyramidella was studied. The shells were calcined at 900°C for 2 h and calcium oxide (CaO catalyst characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area measurements. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, microwave power, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts derived from oyster and Pyramidella shells showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts under microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N.; Kamarudin, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents the techno-economic of a production of biodiesel from JCO. • The results obtained 99.96% of biodiesel with 96.49% of pure glycerol. • This proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive compare to other resources. - Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000 tonnes-yr −1 is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78 kg −1 , while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39 million-year −1 and USD 9.41 million year −1 , respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies

  6. investigating the production ting the production of biodiesel from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    reaction temperature, time of reaction and oil to m preliminary investigation of ... Biodiesel fuel is one example of biom energy and it is generally ..... Table 2: Percentage FFA of the Mango Seed Oil before. Esterification. Table 3: Percentage FFA of the Mango Seed Oil after. Esterification. Properties First titre value. (Average).

  7. Techno-economic study of different alternatives for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Miguel, V.U.; Errazu, A.F. [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Camino Carrindanga Km. 7 (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-08-15

    Biodiesel has become an attractive diesel fuel substitute due to its environmental benefits since it can be made from renewable resource. However, the high costs surrounding biodiesel production remains the main problem in making it competitive in the fuel market either as a blend or as a neat fuel. More than 80% of the production cost is associated with the feedstock itself and consequently, efforts are focused on developing technologies capable of using lower-cost feedstocks, such as recycled cooking oils and wastes from animal or vegetable oil processing operations. The main issue with spent oils is the high level of free fatty acids found in the recycled materials. The conventional technology employs sodium methoxide as a homogeneous base catalyst for the transesterification reaction and illustrates the drawbacks in working with feedstocks that contain high levels of free fatty acids. On the other hand, homogeneous acidic catalysts are being used for exactly such feedstocks. Both acid and basic homogeneous catalyzed processes require downstream purification equipment to neutralize the catalyst and to purify the biodiesel as well as the glycerol. Recent studies have been conducted to employ heterogeneous catalysts, such acidic or basic solid resins, or immobilized lipases. These catalysts will allow the use of different feedstocks that will permit operation at lower investment costs and will require less downstream process equipment. A conceptual design of these alternative production plants has been done with a techno-economic analysis in order to compare these alternatives. A process simulator was employed to carry out the conceptual design and simulation of each technology. Using these models it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness, and environmental impacts of each process. (author)

  8. Synthesis of geopolymer from rice husk ash for biodiesel production of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Nugraha, M. W.; Helwani, Z.; Olivia, M.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, geopolymer was prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) made into sodium silicate then synthesized by reacting metakaolin, NaOH, and water. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), Brunaeur Emmet Teller (BET), and basic strength. Then, the catalyst used for transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in order to produce biodiesel. The variation of process variables conducted to assess the effect on the yield of biodiesel. The highest yield obtained 87.68% biodiesel with alkyl ester content 99.29%, density 866 kg/m3, viscosity 4.13 mm2/s, the acid number of 0.42 mg-KOH/g biodiesel and the flash point 140 °C. Generally, variations of %w/w catalyst provides a dominant influence on the yield response of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with ASTM standard specifications.

  9. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifoliaand Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, Jefferson S.; Leite, Polyanna M.; de Souza, Lincoln B.; Mello, Vinicius M.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, C.P. 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Eid C.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival de Melo Mota, s/n, Cidade Universitaria, 57072-970 Maceio-AL (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this work two genus of the Jatropha family: the Jatropha gossypiifolia (JG) and Jatropha curcas L. (JC) were studied in order to delimitate their potential as raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content in wild seeds and some physical-chemical properties of the oils and the biodiesel obtained from them were evaluated. The studied physical-chemical properties of the JC and JG biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines, showing a promising economic exploitation of these raw materials in semi-arid regions. However, further agronomic studies are needed in order to improve the seed production and the crude oil properties. (author)

  10. Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: Screening and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Naggar, Amal Hamed; Baeshen, Areej Ali

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed insignificant differences in the selected species, with noticeably significant higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in U. lactuca by 4.2 and 3 times, with respect to P. boryana and U. intestinalis, respectively. The recorded increase in PUFAs was attributed to higher content of C16:4n-3, C18:3n-3 and C18:4n-3. By lipid fractionation, P. boryana showed significant higher concentration of neutral lipids (37.7 mg g -1 CDW, representing 46.7% of total fatty acids) in comparison to U. lactuca and U. intestinalis, which showed 16% and 17% lower neutral lipid fractions, respectively. In addition, biodiesel characteristics of the studied macroalgae complied with that of international standards. Furthermore, oil-free residual biomass can be readily converted into fermentable sugars or biogas due to its high carbohydrates content, which adds to the economics of macroalgae as biofuel feedstock. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that macroalgae represent an attractive alternative renewable feedstock for biodiesel and other biofuels. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY MEANS OF A CONTINUOUS SEPARATION SYSTEM BY CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    OpenAIRE

    REYES CANIUPAN, ISAAC

    2013-01-01

    Exploring new renewable resources for energy needs has been gaining great importance in recent years due to mounting crude oil prices, an irrevocable decrease in oil reserves, and increasing environmental degradation. Biodiesel has recently attracted considerable attention as a renewable and nontoxic fuel. However, conventional methods of biodiesel production have serious shortcomings that compromise the effectiveness of biodiesel as an energetic solution. Thus, the overall obj...

  12. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamamre, Zayed; Yamin, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of waste frying oil as potential source for Biodiesel production. • Optimization of important reaction parameters. • A high yield and conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. • Determination of fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from used frying oil. - Abstract: Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 °C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm 2 /s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I 2 /100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm 3) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214

  13. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    including equipment and raw materials. Currently our group is evaluating various process configurations for continuous BD production in packed bed reactors (PBRs), continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and a combination of the aforementioned reactors in series. These configurations will be reviewed...

  14. Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Jegede, A.O. (2012). Anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria and chlorella to produce methane for biofuel Int. J. Agric. and Biol. Eng. 5: 1-8. Jorquera, O. Kiperstok, A. Sales, E.A. Embiruçu,. M. Ghirardi, M.L. (2010). Comparative energy life-cycle analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors.

  15. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  16. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that biodiesel produced from different oil to methanol ratios, alcohol types and shaking time exhibited considerable differences. There was also a considerable difference of biodiesel yield produced by using methanol, ethanol and 1- butanol. The biodiesel yield increased in the order of 1-butanol ...

  17. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    OpenAIRE

    R.Murali Manohar; M.Prabhahar; Dr.S.Sendil velan

    2010-01-01

    Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the pr...

  18. A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Mazaheri, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion, environmental concerns, and steep hikes in the price of fossil fuels are driving scientists to search for alternative fuels. The characteristics of biodiesel have made the pursuit of high quality biodiesel production attractive. Utilization of waste cooking oil is a key component in reducing biodiesel production costs up to 60–90%. Researchers have used various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Meanwhile, the effect of novel processes such as membrane reactor, reactive distillation column, reactive absorption, ultrasonic and microwave irradiation significantly influenced the final conversion, yield and in particular, the quality of product. This article attempts to cover all possible techniques in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

  19. Model Feed for Hydrotreating of Fat for Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biodiesel production by the transesterification of oils and fats with an alcohol to fatty acid alkyl esters is rapidly increasing worldwide. Plant oils are usually suited for transesterification, but feedstocks from waste products like trap greases and abattoir wastes are difficult to react due....... vacuum gas oil.[1,5] The reaction was followed by using a model feed: 0.81 g tripalmitin and 0.09 g oleic acid was mixed with 8.1 g n-tetradecane as solvent and 0.03 g each of n-dodecane and n-docosane. The feed was reacted with 15 to 40 bar H2 over 0.2 g of 5 wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst in a closed, stirred...... resulted in lower conversions and a much higher degree of hydrogenation than with the Pt catalyst. This protocol represents a facile method of studying hydrotreating of waste fats and oils for biodiesel production, which may be a viable alternative to current dominating transesterification technology. 1...

  20. Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester. The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700–1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.

  1. Decentralized hydrogen production from diesel and biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S.; Kraaij, G.; Wörner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that from 2015 onwards an increasing amount of fuel cell powered vehicles will enter the market, hydrogen production from liquid fuels offers a promising option to meet short- and midterm hydrogen fuelling requirements. Besides, on-board hydrogen generation from logistic fuels for auxiliary power applications has attracted increasing attention. The German Aerospace Center acts as coordinator of the 3-year project NEMESIS2+ (www.nemesis-project.eu), a collaborative project funded ...

  2. Governmental tax breaks to biofuels production; Incentivos governamentais na producao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, Marcelo Guimaraes; Costa, Fabio Carbalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Given the introduction of biodiesel as an energy source ecologically correct, it will seek to do an analysis on the taxation of biodiesel in Brazil. It should also be assessed to tax biodiesel from the viewpoint of the Principle of Neutrality and the character stimulating function of taxation. Although there is no legal incidence of the CIDE (Contribution in Economic Policy) on biodiesel, the laws relating to taxation of biodiesel refers to the IPI (Tax on Industrialized Products) and social contributions for PIS (Social Integration Program) and Cofins (Contribution to Social Security Financing), while taxes of competence of the Union. When we talk about state taxation, some states have maintained the policy of tax incentives biodiesel but we do not have a policy of tax incentives across the country. (author)

  3. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  4. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the matrix that facilitated the substrate diffusion to the enzyme surface. The biodiesel yield of 81.62% was obtained at 48 hours reaction time, 6 : 1 methanol : oil ratio (v/v, and 30°C. The immobilized lipase showed high operational stability at 30°C. The substrate conversion was only marginally decreased till third cycle (each of 48 hours duration of the reaction since less than even 5% of the original activity was decreased in each of the second and third cycle. The findings demonstrated the potential of the silk-cocoon as lipase immobilization matrix for industrial production of biodiesel.

  5. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadzadeh Shirazi, Hamed; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Ghotbi, Cyrus

    2017-09-01

    Microalgae as a candidate for production of biodiesel, possesses a hard cell wall that prevents intracellular lipids leaving out from the cells. Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification has the potential for destruction of microalgae hard cell wall and conversion of extracted lipids to biodiesel that consequently reduces the total energy consumption. Response surface methodology combined with central composite design was applied to investigate process parameters including: Temperature, Time, Methanol-to-dry algae, Hexane-to-dry algae, and Moisture content. Thirty-two experiments were designed and performed in a batch reactor, and biodiesel efficiency between 0.44% and 99.32% was obtained. According to fatty acid methyl ester yields, a quadratic experimental model was adjusted and the significance of parameters was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects of single and interaction parameters were also interpreted. In addition, the effect of supercritical process on the ultrastructure of microalgae cell wall using scanning electron spectrometry (SEM) was surveyed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Algal Biodiesel Production Pathways Using Life Cycle Assessment Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    The consideration of algal biomass in biodiesel production increased very rapidly in the last decade. A life cycle assessment (LCA) study is presented to compare six different biodiesel production pathways (three different harvesting techniques, i.e., aluminum as flocculent, lime flocculent......, and centrifugation, and two different oil extraction methods, i.e., supercritical CO2 (sCO2) and press and co-solvent extraction). The cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. considered in a flat-panel photobioreactor (FPPBR). These algal biodiesel production systems were compared with the conventional diesel in a EURO 5...... passenger car used for transport purpose (functional unit 1 person km (pkm). The algal biodiesel production systems provide lesser impact (22–105 %) in comparison with conventional diesel. Impacts of algal biodiesel on climate change were far better than conventional diesel, but impacts on human health...

  7. Continuous biodiesel production using in situ glycerol separation by membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung Joo; Park, Hyun June; Hong, So Yeon; Yoo, Young Je

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuel sources. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) has been used for biodiesel production because of its high activity and stability. However, CalB can only be utilized in industrial biodiesel production if the enzyme deactivation by methanol and the negative effects of glycerol can be mitigated. Methanol inhibition can be avoided by utilizing a stepwise addition of methanol, but there is no suitable method to reduce the glycerol effect. This study aims to use a membrane bioreactor system to remove glycerol during biodiesel production. In addition, methanol inhibition can be reduced by continuously feeding methanol through the membrane system. This continuous membrane bioreactor system can be used for efficient biodiesel production.

  8. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jaber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple but economically feasible refining method to treat and re-use biodiesel wash-water was developed. In detail, microfiltration (MF through depth-filtration configuration was used in different hybrid modules. Then, the treated wash-water was mixed with clean water at different ratios, re-used for biodiesel purification and water-washing efficiency was evaluated based on methyl ester purity analysis. The findings of the present study revealed that depth-filtration-based MF combined with sand filtration/activated carbon separation and 70% dilution rate with fresh water not only achieved standard-quality biodiesel product but also led to up to 15% less water consumption after two rounds of production operations. This would be translated into a considerable reduction in the total volume of fresh water used during the operation process and would also strengthen the environmental-friendly aspects of the biodiesel production process for wastewater generation was obviously cut by the same rate as well.

  9. Alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production from moringa oleifera oil with optimized production parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    The utilization of non-edible feedstock such as moringa oleifera for biodiesel production attracts much attention owing to the issue with regards to avoiding a threat to food supplies. In this study, the optimization of biodiesel production parameters for moringa oleifera oil was carried out. The free fatty acid value of moringa oil was found to be 0.6%, rendering the one step alkaline transesterification method for converting moringa fatty acids to their methyl esters possible. The optimum production parameters: catalyst amount, alcohol amount, temperature, agitation speed and reaction time were determined experimentally and found to be: 1.0 wt% catalyst amount, 30 wt% methanol amount, 60 C reaction temperature, 400 rpm agitation rate and 60 min reaction time. With these optimal conditions the conversion efficiency was 82%. The properties of the moringa biodiesel that was produced were observed to fall within the recommended international biodiesel standards. However, moringa biodiesel showed high values of cloud and pour points of 10 C and 3 C respectively, which present a problem as regards use in cold temperatures. (author)

  10. Using response surface methodology in optimisation of biodiesel production via alkali catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature...

  11. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  12. Optimal Design of Algae Biorefinery Processing Networks for the production of Protein, Ethanol and Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Vivion, Anthony; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    analysis such as microalgae production cost, composition of microalgae (e.g. oil content) and biodiesel/bioethanol market prices is considered. New optimal processing paths are found with potential of producing higher amount of biodiesel. Last, the methodology is intended as decision support tool for early...

  13. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of

  14. A study on the production of biodiesel from used frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.; Ali, A.S.; Farhan, M.; Shabbir, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to utilize waste frying oil for biodiesel production because it is cheap, easily available and renewable raw material. The used frying oil was analysed for water contents (0.43%) iodine value (52), sponification value (205), free fatty acids 8.7 (Xo) and acid value (0.8 mg KOH/g). Esterification and transesterification were conducted to convert free Fatty acids and triglycerides to methyl ester (biodiesel), respectively. One-step and two-step transertification reactions were carried out to measure the efficiency of these processes for biodiesel production. The biodiesel produced from used frying oil was examined for flash point (185 degree C) kinematic viscosity (4.86 mm/sup 2/s) and specific gravity (0.884 g/mL) that were meeting the limits of ASTM and Thai standards. Hence, it was proved to be a useful technique for biodiesel production at commercial scale. (author)

  15. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form

  16. A comprehensive review on the implementation of the biorefinery concept in biodiesel production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian David Botero Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel and its production from various generations of feedstocks by using different technologies has been constantly growing globally. However, in spite of such large scale of production, serious considerations should be taken into account to ensure the long-term sustainability of biodiesel production. This issue becomes more of concern given the fact that some generations of feedstocks used for biodiesel production are in clear conflict with food security. The concept of biorefinery has been at the center of attention with an aim to address these challenges by promoting an integral use of biomass to allow the production of multiple products along with biodiesel. Such implementation has been extensively studied over the last years and is expected to lead to economic, environmental, and social advantages over individual processes. The current review first presented an overview on biodiesel, its different feedstocks, and production technologies. Subsequently, the biorefinery concept and its correct implementation was technically discussed. Biodiesel production under the biorefinery scheme was also presented. Finally, techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production under the biorefinery concept by considering palm oil-based biorefinery as case study was investigated.

  17. Integrated production for biodiesel and 1,3-propanediol with lipase-catalyzed transesterification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Liu, Hongjuan; Du, Wei; Sun, Yan; Ou, Xianjin; Liu, Dehua

    2009-09-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable alternative to fossil energy, has shown great prospects for global proliferation in the past decade. Lipase catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production, as a biological process with many advantages has drawn increasing attention. As a by-product, glycerol accounts for about 10% w/w of biodiesel during the process of biodiesel production. As a result, the conversion of glycerol has become a common problem which has to be resolved if considering large amount of biodiesel production. Glycerol can be fermented into 1,3-propanediol, a high value added chemical with a promising future in the polymers, for example, polytrimethylene terephthalate, and also fermentation approaches for 1,3-propanediol production which have drawn more and more attention due to advantages such as relatively low investment, mild reaction conditions and using renewable sources as the starting materials. Based on the latest technology advancements in lipase-mediated transformation for biodiesel production, the aerobic fermentation technology and genetic engineering for 1,3-propanediol production, and the integrated production of 1,3-propanediol from crude glycerol could be a promising way to improve the profit of the whole process during biodiesel production.

  18. The biodiesel handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knothe, Gerhard; Krahl, Jurgen; Van Gerpen, Jon Harlan

    2010-01-01

    .... The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental...

  19. Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: a strategy to economize biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohammad Mahdi A; Kargari, Ali; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mostafaeid, Boyuk; Akia, Mandana; Barkhi, Mohammad; Shirazi, Mohammad Javad A

    2013-04-01

    When making biodiesel, slow separation of glycerol; the main by-product of the transesterification reaction, could lead to longer operating times, bigger equipment and larger amount of steel and consequently increased production cost. Therefore, acceleration of glycerol/biodiesel decantation could play an important role in the overall biodiesel refinery process. In this work, NaCl-assisted gravitational settling was considered as an economizing strategy. The results obtained indicated that the addition of conventional NaCl salt decreased the glycerol settling time significantly up to more than five times. However, NaCl inclusion rates of more than 3g to the mixture (i.e. 5 and 10 g) resulted in significantly less methyl ester purity due to the occurrence of miniemulsion phenomenon. Overall, addition of 1g NaCl/100 ml glycerol-biodiesel mixture was found as optimal by accelerating the decantation process by 100% while maintaining the methyl ester purity as high as the control (0 g NaCl). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  1. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  2. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  3. Transportation biofuels: novel pathways for the production of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogendoorn, Alwin; Kasteren, Han van

    2011-01-01

    ... when compared to more traditional methods. The first pathway is the enzymatic production of a new kind of biodiesel where no glycerol waste is produced and a twenty percent higher product yield is obtained...

  4. Optimization of the methanolysis of lard oil in the production of biodiesel with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere B. Ezekannagha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanolysis of lard oil to biodiesel was optimized using central composite design (CCD of response surface methodology to delineate the effects of five levels, four factorson the yield of biodiesel. A total of 30 individual experiments were conducted and designed to study these process variables. A statistical model predicted that the highest conversion yield of lard biodiesel would be 96.2% at the following optimized reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 65 °C, catalyst amount of 1.25%, time of 40 min, methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1 at 250 rpm. Experiments performed at the predicted optimum conditions yielded 96% which was in good agreement with the predicted value. This study shows that lard oil as a low cost feedstock is a good source of raw material for biodiesel production and a sustainable biodiesel production could be achieved with proper optimization of the process variables.

  5. Biodegradation of biodiesel wash water from a biodiesel fuel production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Naohiro; Habe, Hiroshi; Ito, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was the modification of our biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process to make higher quality BDF. The existing process which does not include a water washing process for raw BDF, has the advantage of no wash water discharge, but occasionally the resultant BDF is of lower grade due to residual ingredients. First, we attempted to integrate water washing into the existing process. After being neutralized and washed with H2SO4, the raw BDF was then washed with water equal to 20% of the raw BDF volume. A good separation of BDF and wash water was achieved, and the resultant wash water contained less than 2% methanol. Second, we evaluated biodegradation of the resultant wash water constituents, and 70% of the strains isolated from environmental samples removed 80 to 90% of total organic carbon. Among these, strain No. 20-68 removed both glycerol and methanol in the wash water within 7 days and was identified as Fusarium falciforme, a ubiquitous environmental microorganisms. These results suggest that if the wash water is released to the environments, the effects on environmental microorganisms will be minimal.

  6. Production of biodiesel from melia azedarach seed oil: a non- edible feedstock for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.; Ranaa, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80% conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number, and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45 mg KOH/g, < -10 deg. C and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD. (author)

  7. Towards continuous enzyme-catalysed processes for the production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders Kristian; Meyland, Lene Have

    The application of lipases in the production of biodiesel can find several roles: in pretreating high FFA oils via esterification, transesterification for converting oil to biodiesel and polishing via esterification to ensure the product is within specification. In all these cases the potential...... size of the process plants, suggest that continuous operation would be highly beneficial due to the economies of scale. To investigate this, we have examined both oil pretreatment via esterification and biodiesel production via transesterification in batch stirred tank reactors (BSTRs), continuous...

  8. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed......In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...

  9. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 17th May 2016; Revised: 20th September 2016; Accepted: 20th September 2016 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2016. Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 406-430 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

  10. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  11. Production of biodiesel from carbon sources of macroalgae, Laminaria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Yu Ri; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-10-01

    As aquatic biomass which is called "the third generation biomass", Laminaria japonica (also known as Saccharina japonica) consists of mannitol and alginate which are the main polysaccharides of algal carbohydrates. In this study, oleaginous yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus) was used to produce lipid from carbon sources derived from Laminaria japonica. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced by fermentation of alginate extracted from L. japonica. Thereafter, mannitol was mixed with VFAs to culture the oleaginous yeast. The highest lipid content was 48.30%. The composition of the fatty acids was similar to vegetable oils. This is the first confirmation of the feasibility of using macroalgae as a carbon source for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Harvesting and processing of microalgae biomass fractions for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.; Sharif, N.; Naz, S.; Saleem, F.; Manzoor, F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent resurgent interest in microalgae as an oil producer for biofuel applications. An adequate supply of nutrients and carbon dioxide enables algae to successfully transform light energy of the sun into energy - rich chemical compounds through photosynthesis. A strain with high lipids, successfully grown and harvested, could provide oil for most of our process by volume, which would then provide the most profitable output. Significant advances have also been made in upstream processing to generate cellular biomass and oil. However, the process of extracting and purifying of oil from algae continues to prove a significant challenge in producing both microalgae bioproducts and biofuel, as the oil extraction from algae is relatively energy-intensive and expensive. The aim of this review is to focus on different harvesting and extraction processes of algae for biodiesel production reported within the last decade. (author)

  13. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2011-11-01

    A two-stage process consisting of two reactions steps with glycerin separation and ethanol/catalyst addition in each of them was optimized for ethyl esters production. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 °C. At an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 4.25:1 (25%v/v alcohol with respect to oil), a 99% conversion value was obtained with low ethanol consumption. In contrast to methoxide catalysts, sodium and potassium hydroxide catalysts severely complicate the purification since no phase separation took place under most conditions. With a total sodium methoxide concentration of 1.06 g catalyst/100 g oil, and adding 50% of the catalyst in each reaction step, biodiesel with a total glycerin content of 0.172% was obtained. The optimal conditions found in this study make it possible to use the same industrial facility to produce either methyl or ethyl esters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-production of biodiesel and hydrogen from rapeseed and Jatropha oils with sodium silicate and Ni catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yun-Duo; Fang, Zhen; Su, Tong-Chao; Yang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sodium silicate was an effective catalyst for the microwave-irradiated production of biodiesel and hydrothermal production of hydrogen from by-product glycerol combined with Ni catalyst. Highlights: ► Calcined sodium silicate was used for microwave-irradiated transesterification. ► Biodiesel yield of 95.8% was achieved from rapeseed oil at 400 W in 5 min. ► Biodiesel yield of 92.8% was achieved from Jatropha oil at 400 W in 5 min. ► The fourth cycled catalyst was utilized to gasify by-product glycerol at 350 °C. ► H 2 yield of 82.8% (purity 73.6%) was achieved with the used and Ni catalysts. - Abstract: Calcined sodium silicate was used to rapidly catalyze the transesterification of rapeseed and Jatropha oils to biodiesel under microwave irradiation. Biodiesel yields of 95.8% and 92.8% were achieved from rapeseed and Jatropha oils, respectively (microwave power of 400 W, methanol/oil molar ratio of 11/1, catalyst amount of 4 wt.% and reaction time of 5 min). The catalyst was recycled, and biodiesel yield reduced to 83.6% at the fourth cycle. Fresh and reused sodium silicate catalysts were charaterized by BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface area, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and CO 2 -TPD (temperature programmed desorption), and it was found that the agglomeration and leaching of basic species resulted in the loss of catalytic activity. The reused catalyst was collected and utilized for hydrothermal gasification of glycerol to hydrogen. A maximum H 2 yield of 82.8% with a concentration of 73.6% was obtained in the presence of the fourth-cycled sodium silicate and Ni catalysts at 350 °C. Sodium silicate was an effective catalyst for the microwave-irradiated production of biodiesel and hydrothermal production of hydrogen from by-product glycerol combined with Ni catalyst

  16. New process for catalyst-free biodiesel production using subcritical acetic acid and supercritical methanol

    OpenAIRE

    Saka, Shiro; Isayama, Yohei; Ilham, Zul; Jiayu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The production of glycerol as a by-product is unavoidable in the current conventional biodiesel manufacturing processes. Since biodiesel production is expected to increase in the near future, effective utilization of glycerol will become an issue of interest. In this study, therefore, a process consisting of subcritical acetic acid treatment to convert rapeseed oil to fatty acids and triacetin followed by conversion of the obtained fatty acids to their fatty acid methyl esters in supercritica...

  17. Parametric effects and optimization on synthesis of iron (II) doped carbonaceous catalyst for the production of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawane, Sumit H.; Kumar, Tarkeshwar; Halder, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Iron (II) was doped on activated carbon surface. • L9 orthogonal array was used for experimental design using Taguchi approach. • Parametric effects of catalyst synthesis on biodiesel yield were studied. • Agitation speed was emerged as most influential parameter. • Cost analysis of catalyst shows it is cost effective and eco-friendly. - Abstract: Synthesis of efficient and low cost heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of triglycerides into esters is the need of the hour. The present study elaborates an indigenous development of ferromagnetic iron (II) doped carbonaceous catalyst (Fe/C) for the production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil. The parametric effects on the synthesis of Fe/C catalyst were studied to identify the most significant parameters affecting the biodiesel yield using Taguchi method. The doping process was optimised for maximum biodiesel yield considering four parameters viz. Impregnation time, temperature, catalyst content and agitation speed. The prepared catalyst was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR). The contribution factor revealed that agitation speed is the most influential parameter affecting the biodiesel yield followed by catalyst content, impregnation time and temperature. The maximum biodiesel yield observed in optimum condition of impregnation time 15 h, impregnation temperature 40 °C, catalyst content 5 wt% and agitation speed 500 rpm was 96.31%. The cost analysis of catalyst synthesis was done and found to be fairly economical. The reusability of the catalyst was tested to check the decay in catalytic activity at the optimised condition and found to decrease in activity by 0.8–1.2% after three cycles. Thus, the experimental results and characterization study confirm that indigenously developed carbonaceous catalyst from waste

  18. Reaction product of pyrogallol with methyl linoleate and its antioxidant potential for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, H.; Ainny, L.; Lukman; Susanto, B. H.; Nasikin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The demand of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasing due to fossil fuel depletion. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel in the form of fatty acid methyl ester or FAME as a result of an esterification of plant oils in a presence of catalyst. Compared to the conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel is more biodegradable, has higher lubricity, and lower toxic emissions. However, the high content of unsaturated fatty acid leads to a problem that biodiesel is prone to oxidation during storage period. This oxidation instability causes degradation of fuel quality and will affect engine performance. Pyrogallol and other phenolic derivatives have been used as the antioxidant additives to prevent biodiesel oxidation. As reported in many researches, pyrogallol is one of the best phenolic antioxidant. However, its low solubility in biodiesel needs an attention. Several reports indicate the increasing solubility of pyrogallol using molecule modification with the addition of alkyl groups to its benzene ring via electrophilic substitution. This paper discusses the idea about modification of pyrogallol molecule and methyl linoleate using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in order to increase its solubility in biodiesel while keeping its antioxidant property. Three responses were analyzed to examine the antioxidant activity: iodine value, viscosity, and color intensity. The result shown that the addition of 0.1% reaction product exhibit antioxidant activity in biodiesel.

  19. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  20. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  1. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  2. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  3. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid. The fourier transform infrared spectrum of biodiesel also showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O-C-O, C=C and –(CH2)n-. Key words: Rice bran oil, biodiesel, response surface methodology, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, fourier transform infrared spectrum ...

  4. Production and characterization of biodiesel from the traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, acid pretreatment followed by base-catalyzed transesterification reaction was carried out to produce biodiesel. At the pretreatment stage, the acid value and FFA level were reduced to 3.93 mg KOH/g and 1.96%, respectively through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification reaction. Key words: Animal fat, biodiesel, ...

  5. Biodiesel Production Using Waste Cooking Oil and Ethanol for Alkaline Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla Pereira, Edwin A.; Sierra, Fabio E.; Guerrero, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study of the results of the project “Design of a Biodiesel Production Process Based on Cooking Oils at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia” (“Diseño de un proceso de producción de biodiesel a partir de aceites de fritura de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia”) carried out in 2013. Refined vegetable oils are the most commonly used to produce biodiesel fuels; however, used fried oils (auf from the Spanish acronym) make for a product with quality, yield and environmental b...

  6. Residual animal fat and fish for biodiesel production. Potentials in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Otto; Weinbach, Jan-Erik [Western Norway Research Institute (WNRI), P. Box 163, 6851 Sogndal (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The potential for biodiesel production based on utilization of residual animal fat and fish in Norway is estimated. This is based on a study of the amounts of residual fat that is possible to recover from grease traps in Bergen. Additional data from Trondheim and Oslo facilitated up-scaling to estimating national potential for utilizing this residue stream for biodiesel production. This is supplemented with data on residues from slaughterhouses and poultry, as well as the fishing industry. The results indicate that Norway has the potential for producing large amounts of biodiesel from these residue sources. (author)

  7. A two-stage ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    were conducted in a simulated series of reactors by repeatedly passing the reaction mixture through a single reactor, with separation of the by-product glycerol and water between passes in the first and second stages, respectively. The second stage brought the major components of biodiesel to ‘in......-spec’ levels according to the European biodiesel specifications for methanol-based biodiesel. The highest overall productivity achieved in the first stage was 2.52 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)−1 h−1 at a superficial velocity of 7.6 cm min−1, close to the efficiency of a stirred tank reactor under similar conditions...

  8. Biodiesel production via injection of superheated methanol technology at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Gaik Tin; Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic superheated methanol for biodiesel production is developed. • Crude Jatropha curcas oil with high FFA can be directly used as oil feedstock. • High content of biodiesel can be produced. • Separation of FAME and glycerol from the sample product is easy. - Abstract: In this high demand of renewable energy market, biodiesel was extensively produced via various catalytic and non-catalytic technologies. Conventional catalytic transesterification for biodiesel production has been shown to have limitation in terms of sensitivity to high water and free fatty acid, complicated separation and purification of biodiesel. In this study, an alternative and innovative approach was carried out via non-catalytic superheated methanol technology to produce biodiesel. Similar to supercritical reaction, the solvent need to be heated beyond the critical temperature but the reactor pressure remained at 0.1 MPa (atmospheric pressure). Transesterification reaction with superheated methanol was carried out at different reaction temperature within the limit of 270–300 °C and at different methanol flow rate ranging from 1 ml/min to 3 ml/min for 4 h. Results obtained showed that the highest biodiesel yield at 71.54% w/w was achieved at reaction temperature 290 °C and methanol flow rate at 2 ml/min with 88.81% w/w FAME content, implying the huge potential of superheated technology in producing FAME

  9. Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuit, Siew Hoong; Ong, Yit Thai; Lee, Keat Teong; Subhash, Bhatia; Tan, Soon Huat

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of petroleum reserves have driven the world to adopt biodiesel as an alternative energy source to replace conventional petroleum-derived fuels because of biodiesel's clean and renewable nature. Biodiesel is conventionally produced in homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysed processes, as well as by supercritical technology. All of these processes have their own limitations, such as wastewater generation and high energy consumption. In this context, the membrane reactor appears to be the perfect candidate to produce biodiesel because of its ability to overcome the limitations encountered by conventional production methods. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the production of biodiesel with a membrane reactor by examining the fundamental concepts of the membrane reactor, its operating principles and the combination of membrane and catalyst in the catalytic membrane. In addition, the potential of functionalised carbon nanotubes to serve as catalysts while being incorporated into the membrane for transesterification is discussed. Furthermore, this paper will also discuss the effects of process parameters for transesterification in a membrane reactor and the advantages offered by membrane reactors for biodiesel production. This discussion is followed by some limitations faced in membrane technology. Nevertheless, based on the findings presented in this review, it is clear that the membrane reactor has the potential to be a breakthrough technology for the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansir, Nasar; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Umer; Lokman, Ibrahim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid acid catalysts are proficient to esterifying high free fatty acid feedstocks to biodiesel. • Heterogeneous catalysts have the advantage of easy separation and reusability. • Heterogeneous basic catalysts have limitations due to high FFA of low cost feedstocks. • Solid catalysts having acid and base sites reveal better catalyst for biodiesel production. - Abstract: The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production.

  11. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali

    2015-05-01

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  12. Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil: A potential source for biodiesel production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a country is highly dependent on the supply of fossil fuels which are constrained by its limited availability and pollution characteristics. India is among the world’s fourth-largest petroleum consumer due to which the vehicular emissions increased eight times over the last two decades. Due to the environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel reserves, attention has been given to find an alternative energy source. Among the alternatives existing, Biodiesel is the one which is less polluting and eco-friendly. So it can be used in industrial, commercial, agricultural and other sectors as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, frying oils (waste, animal tallow and algae by a process of chemical reaction called Transesterification. Biodiesel is also known as methyl or ethyl esters of the feedstock from which it is produced. It is miscible with diesel oil which allows the use of blends of petro diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. The C.I. engines fuelled with biodiesel perform more or less in the same fashion as that with the conventional fuel. Comparative to diesel, biodiesel has high Cetane number and lower compressibility. Additionally, the heat release rate of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel owing to low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity. The problem of high viscosity can be eradicated by transesterification process and by adding additives which help us to store the biodiesel for a longer duration of time without any decay. Exhaust emissions are significantly reduced with the use of biodiesel or its blends. The present paper investigates the potential of Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production as it can be extracted from seeds of Mahua tree which are indigenous to India. It can grow even in dry regions and are found abundantly in several parts of India

  13. Evaluation of Enviromental Management Planing for a Biodiesel Production Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Maldonado Romero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Manuelita Oils SA is a company dedicated to the cultivation of palm, production and marketing of biodiesel, the company currently processes the fruit of their own crops. Currently Manuelita Oils SA is a growing company. Because the incursion of a new production line with a new product was necessary to does an environmental management design, in 2008, this was adapted to the needs of the company at the time and in the projections that were available, today, things have changed and what had been estimated at that time is no longer applicable to current realities, requiring an assessment of the current document and the rethinking of the same, with special emphasis in the management of waste generated and the impacts of the activity. As a field of action for the development of the project is intended to cover industrial waste type, which are generated in the normal course of business activities. Through a combination of methodologies that integrate the community with the use of better technologies achieved the management of waste and industrial byproducts that are generated by assessing and complementing the existing an environmental management design, raising new longterm options for handling waste and industrial products company and not only achieving adequate facilities for handling, temporary storage and processing data but also greater community awareness about environmental protection and the contribution that each makes daily from each of their activities.

  14. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Organic Wastes of Frying Oils and Beef Fats: Valorization for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Souissi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the different approaches of biodiesel production by exploiting low cost feedstocks such as organic wastes of frying oils (WFO and wastes of beef fats (WBF. The aim was to compare not only two different sources of waste raw materials but also different approaches of biodiesel production. Biodiesel which refers to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME was produced by both chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The characterization of the biodiesel produced by both approaches was performed according to the European standard EN 14214. The results showed that the biological method gave a richer FAME biodiesel through the catalysis of whole-cell lipase. However, for the chemical method, better biodiesel physicochemical properties were observed for the two raw materials. Therefore, it would be interesting to compromise by optimizing the biological biodiesel production approach in order to obtain a better quality in coherence with EN 14214 requirements.

  15. Social and techno-economical analysis of biodiesel production in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres Quintero, Julian; Ruth Felix, Erika; Eduardo Rincón, Luis; Crisspín, Marianella; Fernandez Baca, Jaime; Khwaja, Yasmeen; Cardona, Carlos Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Peru has introduced a law to promote the use of biofuels with the objective to increase employment, strengthening agriculture development, providing an economic alternative to illegal drug production. In this work, the costs of biodiesel production from oil palm and Jatropha were analyzed under different scenarios. They include the participation of associations of smallholders and commercial producers as raw material provides in biodiesel business in Peru. The scenarios considered have a strong social dimension in which they explicitly consider how productions' costs change when smallholders supply a proportion of the feedstock to the industry. Production cost profiles were generated using the chemical process simulation and economical evaluation software packages provided by Aspen Technology. Total production cost found for oil palm biodiesel production ranged between 0.23 and 0.31 USD/L and Jatropha biodiesel production costs were between 0.84 and 0.87 USD/L. These production costs were analyzed and compared to biodiesel ex-factory prices and diesel fuel production cost factors. The results suggest that including smallholders in the supply chain can be under some conditions competitive with liquid biofuel production systems that are purely large scale. - Highlights: ► We design and simulate biodiesel production schemes based on oil palm and Jatropha. ► Scenarios consider smallholders and commercial producers combinations. ► Inclusion of by-product selling allows a reduction of 30% in total biodiesel production cost. ► Major inclusion of smallholders requires a strong government policy to improve their technical production conditions.

  16. Energy Efficiency for Biodiesel Production by Combining Two Orifices in Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlinda Mahlinda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of energy efficiency for biodiesel production process by combining two orifices on  hydrodynamic cavitation reactor had been carried out. The aim of this reseach was to studied effect of the number of orifices toward increasing temperature without using external energy source to produce biodiesel that generated by cavitation effects on orifices. The results of preliminary research showed by combining two orifices arranged in series can produce the highest thermal energy reached 48oC. Result of biodiesel production showed that yield of the highest biodiesel was 96.34% using molar ratio a methanol:oil with comparison 6:1, KOH as catalyst (1% for 50 minutes processing time. For biodiesel quality testing showed all selected parameter met the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 04-7182:2006. Identification of biodiesel compound using GCMS showed the biodiesel compounds consisted of methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, acid linoleid, methyl stearate, palmitic acid and oleic acid with the total contents 98.39%.

  17. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  18. Acousto-chemical analysis in multi-transducer sonochemical reactors for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Noorul; Janajreh, Isam

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is a powerful alternative fuel that is less polluting and problematic to produce and implement. The production process of biodiesel also gives us the byproduct glycerol, which is a useful feedstock to produce hydrogen and syngas as fuels. With such high value as a fuel we are in need of better production technologies for biodiesel, which is currently being pursued through sonochemical reactors. The development of continuous sonochemical reactors for biodiesel production is a crucial requirement for the biofuel industry. Sonochemical reactors make use of ultrasound and acoustic cavitation to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oils (WCO). In this work we carried out both numerical simulation and experimental analysis of sonochemical reactors with multiple transducers. Through simulation, the effect of double vs a single transducer has been tested for a continuous flow sonochemical reactor. In experimental work three different cases with different ultrasound systems (bath, probe and bath+probe) have been tested. In both the studies, acoustic pressure and biodiesel conversion are analyzed. Results for the simulation show that in shorter reactors, the high cavitation from two transducers dampens the acoustic pressures leading to low conversion. However, at taller heights the effect of combined cavitation is less severe and the acoustic pressure and biodiesel yield are very similar between the designs having single and double transducers. From experiments it was found that the biodiesel conversion depends on several acoustic conditions mainly cavitation. A meticulous and insightful analysis was made to understand the difference in bath type and probe type ultrasound systems on acoustic pressure and biodiesel conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanolic Biodiesel Production: A Comparative Study between a Plug Flow Reactor and Reactive Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M. C. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The interest in biodiesel as an alternative source of energy has been extremely intensified by its use as a renewable and economically viable fuel. As a result, continuous production processes have been a requirement to supply growing demand. This work presents experimental and simulated results of two biodiesel production pilot plants and makes a comparison between the processes they use. The first one was designed with three plug flow reactors (PFRs connected with recycle streams. The second one was composed of a reactive distillation process for biodiesel production. Repeated tests in Aspen Plus and Matlab showed that multiple PFRs with high volume are required for 98% ester conversion. However, a single unit of reactive distillation resulted in 99% conversion. In short, to produce large quantities of biodiesel this work indicates continuous reactive distillation as the most adequate process.

  20. A review on green trend for oil extraction using subcritical water technology and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Weal; Ashour, Eman; Naguib, Shahenaz M

    2015-01-01

    It became a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which were domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. Thus, biodiesel was destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. Utilization of the non edible vegetable oils as raw materials for biodiesel production had been handled frequently for the past few years. The oil content of these seeds could be extracted by different oil extraction methods, such as mechanical extraction, solvent extraction and by subcritical water extraction technology SWT. Among them, SWT represents a new promising green extraction method. Therefore this review covered the current used non edible oil seeds for biodiesel production as well as giving a sharp focus on the efficiency of using the SWT as a promising extraction method. In addition the advantages and the disadvantages of the different biodiesel production techniques would be covered.

  1. Nano-Immobilized Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Renewable and Sustainable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keon Hee Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The cost of biodiesel production relies on feedstock cost. Edible oil is unfavorable as a biodiesel feedstock because of its expensive price. Thus, non-edible crop oil, waste oil, and microalgae oil have been considered as alternative resources. Non-edible crop oil and waste cooking oil are more suitable for enzymatic transesterification because they include a large amount of free fatty acids. Recently, enzymes have been integrated with nanomaterials as immobilization carriers. Nanomaterials can increase biocatalytic efficiency. The development of a nano-immobilized enzyme is one of the key factors for cost-effective biodiesel production. This paper presents the technology development of nanomaterials, including nanoparticles (magnetic and non-magnetic, carbon nanotubes, and nanofibers, and their application to the nano-immobilization of biocatalysts. The current status of biodiesel production using a variety of nano-immobilized lipase is also discussed.

  2. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  3. Influence of transesterification reaction temperature on biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@agr.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian government policy has authorized the introduction of biodiesel into the national energy matrix, law no.11.097 of January 13th, 2005. It is necessary, like any new product, to invest in research which is able to cover its entire production chain (planting of oilseeds, vegetable oils extraction and chemical reactions), providing data and relevant information in order to optimize the process and solve critical issues. The objective of this work was to study the effects of temperature on crude sunflower transesterification reaction with ethanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels (25 deg, 32 deg, 47.5 deg, 64 deg and 70 deg C) was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the production suffered the influence of temperature (linear and quadratic effects) and reaction time (linear and quadratic). The generated models did not show significant regression. The model generated was not well suited to the experimental data and the value of the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}=0.52) was low. Consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. (author)

  4. Biodiesel Production from Bombacopsis glabra Oil by Methyl Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce methyl biodiesel from Bombacopis glabra (B. glabra oil degummed with H3PO4. The methyl biodiesel was prepared in an alkaline medium, and characterized by physico-chemical parameters, thin-layer chrmatograghy (TLC, gas chromatograph (GC, (Nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (H-NMR, thermogravimetry and infrared analysis. The physico-chemical parameters of biodiesel were in accordance with the limits established by National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP Resolution 45/2014, except oxidation stability, where it was corrected with the addition of antioxidants such as TBHQ and BHT.

  5. Catalytic properties of a lipase from Photobacterium lipolyticum for biodiesel production containing a high methanol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Seok; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2009-06-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is generated via the transesterification reaction of vegetable oil or animal oil with alcohol. Currently, many reports have noted that microbial lipases might be utilized for the production of biodiesel. Among them, immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym435) is frequently utilized for its biocatalytic efficiency and availability. However, as the enzyme is unstable in a medium containing high concentrations of methanol, a multi-stepwise methanol supply is required for the efficient production of biodiesel. Photobacterium lipolyticum lipase (M37) was determined to be quite stable in a medium containing a high concentration of methanol. The enzyme activity was maintained for longer than 48 h without any loss at a methanol concentration of 10%. In an effort to evaluate enzyme performance in the production of biodiesel, we have compared M37 lipase and Novozym435 in the biodiesel production reaction using fresh or waste oil and methanol. In the 3-stepwise methanol feeding method generally conducted for Novozym435 in biodiesel production, the M37 lipase showed a similar or superior conversion yield to Novozym435. However, the M37 lipase evidenced significantly higher conversion yields in the 2 and 1 step methanol feeding reactions. Particularly in the 1 step process using 10% of methanol where almost no conversion was detected by Novozym435, the biodiesel yield achieved with M37 lipase reached a level of up to 70% of the possible maximum yield. Consequently, this methanol-tolerant lipase, M37, has been shown to be a suitable enzyme for use in the biodiesel production process.

  6. Biodiesel production in methyl esterification in the frying oil using catalyst Ni0,5Zn0,5Fe2O4 to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, E.V.; Dantas, J.; Pereira, K.B.O.; Barros, A.B.; Moura, T.F.B.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of magnetic catalysts for biodiesel production has gaining prominence because of possibility about its recovery and its reuse, as well as, the reuse of materials that would be discarded in the environment. Thus, we propose to evaluate the efficiency of the catalyst Ni 0,5 Zn 0,5 Fe 2 O 4 in methyl esterification in the frying oil to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was produced by combustion reaction using containers with different production capacity and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectrometry with Fourier transform (FTIR). The catalytic tests were conducted in a stainless steel reactor at 180°C/1h, 2% of catalyst, oil/ethanol ratio of 1:12. Regardless of the container production capacity it was verified the catalyst obtaining with the major phase formation of the inverse spinel and traces of segregated phases with an average crystallite size of 42.13, 32.07 and 36.93 nm. All catalysts showed satisfactory results with conversions of 74%, 77% and 71%. (author)

  7. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ying; Yan Yunjun [School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2008-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable biological resources. During the process of biodiesel production, lipase-catalyzed transesterification is a crucial step. However, current techniques using methanol as acyl acceptor have lower enzymatic activity; this limits the application of such techniques in large-scale biodiesel production. Furthermore, the lipid feedstock of currently available techniques is limited. In this paper, the technique of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of five different oils for biodiesel production with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor was investigated, and the transesterification reaction conditions were optimized. The operation stability of lipase under the obtained optimal conditions was further examined. The results showed that under optimal transesterification conditions, both plant oils and animal fats led to high yields of methyl ester: cotton-seed oil, 98%; rape-seed oil, 95%; soybean oil, 91%; tea-seed oil, 92%; and lard, 95%. Crude and refined cotton-seed oil or lard made no significant difference in yields of methyl ester. No loss of enzymatic activity was detected for lipase after being repeatedly used for 40 cycles (ca. 800 h), which indicates that the operational stability of lipase was fairly good under these conditions. Our results suggest that cotton-seed oil, rape-seed oil and lard might substitute soybean oil as suitable lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. Our results also show that our technique is fit for various lipid feedstocks both from plants and animals, and presents a very promising way for the large-scale biodiesel production. (orig.)

  8. Superstructure-based Design and Optimization of Batch Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuh, M. Z.; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel as a fuel comprised of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil and animal fat. Biodiesel production is complex process which need systematic design and optimization. However, no case study using the process system engineering (PSE) elements which are superstructure optimization of batch process, it involves complex problems and uses mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The PSE offers a solution to complex engineering system by enabling the use of viable tools and techniques to better manage and comprehend the complexity of the system. This study is aimed to apply the PSE tools for the simulation of biodiesel process and optimization and to develop mathematical models for component of the plant for case A, B, C by using published kinetic data. Secondly, to determine economic analysis for biodiesel production, focusing on heterogeneous catalyst. Finally, the objective of this study is to develop the superstructure for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst. The mathematical models are developed by the superstructure and solving the resulting mixed integer non-linear model and estimation economic analysis by using MATLAB software. The results of the optimization process with the objective function of minimizing the annual production cost by batch process from case C is 23.2587 million USD. Overall, the implementation a study of process system engineering (PSE) has optimized the process of modelling, design and cost estimation. By optimizing the process, it results in solving the complex production and processing of biodiesel by batch.

  9. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  10. Economics of biodiesel production in the context of fulfilling 20% blending with petro-diesel in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    he dependency on imported petro-diesel along with the escalating price are adversely affecting the national economy of Nepal. As an alternative fuel, prospects of biodiesel production for partial substitution of petro-diesel are felt necessary to reduce the dependency on fossil fuel. This article...... outlines the economics of biodiesel production in the country. Three different cases are developed for the economic analysis in the chain of biodiesel production, which are aimed to overview the influences of yield of plant, cost of cultivation, and price of raw oilseeds to the production cost of biodiesel....... The study concludes that the biodiesel production is economically viable with a plant yield greater than 2 kg/plant and with the price of oil seeds lower than 0.22 USD/kg, which has a positive return on investment. With the yield lower than 2 kg/plant, the production cost of biodiesel cannot compete...

  11. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  12. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  13. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwangdinata, Raymond; Raya, Indah; Zakir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Chaetoceros calcitrans is 35.35%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard levels, except for the viscosity value which was 1.14 g·cm−3. PMID:24688372

  14. Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kwangdinata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Chaetoceros calcitrans through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Chaetoceros calcitrans is 35.35%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 standard levels, except for the viscosity value which was 1.14 g·cm−3.

  15. Prion infected meat-and-bone meal is still infectious after biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin E Bruederle

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has led to a world-wide drop in the market for beef by-products, such as Meat-and-Bone Meal (MBM, a fat-containing but mainly proteinaceaous product traditionally used as an animal feed supplement. While normal rendering is insufficient, the production of biodiesel from MBM has been suggested to destroy infectivity from transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. In addition to producing fuel, this method simultaneously generates a nutritious solid residue. In our study we produced biodiesel from MBM under defined conditions using a modified form of alkaline methanolysis. We evaluated the presence of prion in the three resulting phases of the biodiesel reaction (Biodiesel, Glycerol and Solid Residue in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the reaction products from 263K scrapie infected MBM led to no detectable immunoreactivity by Western Blot. Importantly, and in contrast to the biochemical results the solid MBM residue from the reaction retained infectivity when tested in an animal bioassay. Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process.

  16. Developments and challenges in biodiesel production from microalgae: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Tanvi; Mvss, Manjari; Mehrotra, Rajesh; Shukla, Paritosh; Mehrotra, Sandhya

    2016-09-01

    The imminent depletion of fossil fuels and the surging global demand for renewable energy have led to the search for nonconventional energy sources. After a few decades of trial and error, the world is now testing the sources of the third generation of fossil fuels, which contain for most parts microalgae. With more than 80% oil content, being adaptable in growth parameters and highly versatile, microalgae are highly promising sources of biofuels in the present time. The present article makes a sweeping attempt to highlight the various methods employed for cultivation of microalgae, techniques to harvest and extract biomass from huge algal cultures, as well as their downstream production and processing procedures. The advantages, limitations, and challenges faced by each of them have been described to some extent. Major concerns pertaining to biofuels are supposed to be their environmental sustainability and economic viability along with their cost effectiveness. This would require a great deal of empirical data on existing systems and a great deal of optimization to generate a more robust one. We have concluded our article with a SWOT analysis of using algae for biodiesel production in a tabulated form. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil: Process design, evaluation and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianimanesh Hamid Reza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of reactor performance/configuration of biodiesel production on process parameters (mass & energy consumption, required facilities etc., two diverse production processes (from vegetable oil were implemented/designed using Aspen HYSYS V7.2. Two series reactors were taken into account where overall conversion was set to be 97.7% and 70% in first and second processes respectively. Comparative analysis showed that an increase in conversion yield caused to consumption reduction of oil, methanol, cold energy and hot energy up to 9.1%, 22%, 67.16% and 60.28% respectively; further, a number of facilities (e.g. boiler, heat exchanger, distillation tower were reduced. To reduce mass & energy consumption, mass/heat integration method was employed. Applying integration method showed that in the first design, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 49.81%, 17.46% and 36.17% respectively; while in the second design, oil, methanol, cold and hot energy were decreased by 9%, 60.57% 19.62% and 36.58% respectively.

  18. In-situ pyrogenic production of biodiesel from swine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-11-01

    In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared. These profiles were identical, showing that the introduced in-situ transesterification is technically feasible. This also suggests that in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification has a high tolerance against impurities. This study also shows that FAME yield via in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification of swine fat reached up to 97.2% at 380°C. Therefore, in-situ pseudo-catalytic transesterification can be applicable to biodiesel production of other oil-bearing biomass feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiesel production from various oils under supercritical fluid conditions by Candida antartica lipase B using a stepwise reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kang, Jeong Won; Park, Chulhwan; Tae, Bumseok; Kim, Seung Wook

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effects of various reaction factors, including pressure, temperature, agitation speed, enzyme concentration, and water content to increase biodiesel production. In addition, biodiesel was produced from various oils to establish the optimal enzymatic process of biodiesel production. Optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: pressure 130 bar, temperature 45 degrees C, agitation speed 200 rpm, enzyme concentration 20%, and water contents 10%. Among the various oils used for production, olive oil showed the highest yield (65.18%) upon transesterification. However, when biodiesel was produced using a batch system, biodiesel conversion yield was not increased over 65%; therefore, a stepwise reaction was conducted to increase biodiesel production. When a reaction medium with an initial concentration of methanol of 60 mmol was used and adjusted to maintain this concentration of methanol every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, the conversion yield of biodiesel was 98.92% at 6 h. Finally, reusability was evaluated using immobilized lipase to determine if this method was applicable for industrial biodiesel production. When biodiesel was produced repeatedly, the conversion rate was maintained at over 85% after eight reuses.

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  1. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices. PMID:25809602

  2. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil—A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Karmee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  3. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  4. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  5. Characterization of ionic liquid‐based biocatalytic two‐phase reaction system for production of biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    The property of a variety of ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media was evaluated for the production of biodiesel by enzymatic methanolysis of rapeseed oil. The IL Ammoeng 102, containing tetraaminum cation with C18 acyl and oligoethyleneglycol units, was found to be capable of forming oil....../IL biphasic reaction system by mixing with substrates, which is highly effective for the production of biodiesel with more than 98% biodiesel yield and nearly 100% conversion of oil. Conductor‐like screening model for real solvent (COSMO‐RS) in silico prediction of substrate solubility and simulation...... of partition coefficient change vs. reaction evolution indicated that the amphiphilic property of Ammoeng 102 might be responsible for creating efficient interaction of immiscible substrates; while big difference of partition coefficients of generated biodiesel and glycerol between the two phases suggests...

  6. Production and evaluation of biodiesel and bioethanol from high oil corn using three processing routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aimin; Du, Zhenyi; Ma, Xiaochen; Cheng, Yanling; Min, Min; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Li, Dong; Ruan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Six Korea high oil (KHO) corn varieties varying in germ and endosperm size and oil content (4-21%, wet basis) were subjected to three sequential combinations of milling (M), germ separation (S), fermentation (F), and in situ transesterification (T) to produce bioethanol and biodiesel. Production parameters including saccharification, bioethanol yield, biodiesel yield and composition, and conversion rate were evaluated. The effects of the contents of germ, endosperm size, oil, and non-oil solid mass on the production parameters strongly depended on the processing routes, namely M-F-T, M-T-F, and S-T|F. The M-F-T route produced the highest bioethanol yield while the S-T|F route produced the highest biodiesel yield. The in situ transesterification reaction, if proceeded before fermentation, reduced the bioethanol yield while fermentation and/or presence of endosperm reduced the biodiesel yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Imas Siti Setiasih; Roni Kastaman

    2013-01-01

    The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glyce...

  8. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman; Venkatachalapathy Karuppannan V.S.; Elancheliyan Sellappan

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experim...

  9. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Keneni, Yadessa Gonfa; Marchetti, Jorge Mario

    2017-01-01

    Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fo...

  10. Valorization of waste Date pits biomass for biodiesel production in presence of green carbon catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jrai, Ahmad M.; Jamil, Farrukh; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Baawain, Mahad; Al-Haj, Lamya; Al-Hinai, Mohab; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Rafiq, Sikander

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste Date pits were utilized to produce green catalyst for biodiesel production. • The optimized yield of biodiesel was 91.6% at 65 °C and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio. • Catalyst activity decreases very less upon reusing it up to three runs. • Produced biodiesel possess competent fuel properties as per ASTM and EN standards. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient utilization of waste Date pits biomass for synthesizing green carbon catalyst as well as production of biodiesel were investigated. The green carbon catalyst was modified by KOH and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM and BET. Taguchi method in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to study the effect of several process parameters such as reaction temperature, time, catalysts type and methanol to oil ratio, on the yield of the produced biodiesel. The optimized yield obtained was 91.6% when the process temperature was 65 °C, with catalyst type C3 (6 wt% KOH on carbon) within 1 h and with 9:1 methanol to oil ratio. The produced biodiesel was completely characterized in order to verify its quality, compared with the international standards. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be a cetane number 60.31, density 881 kg/m 3 , viscosity 4.24 mm 2 /s, cloud point 3.9 °C, cold filter plugging point −0.62 °C, pour point −1.4 °C and flash point 141 °C, which lies within the limits specified by the international standards of ASTM and EN. Waste Date pits biomass can be a promising platform for the production of green carbon catalysts as well as biodiesel production.

  11. Investigation of Waste Coffee Ground as a Potential Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Berhe, Mebrahtu Haile; Asfaw, Araya; Asfaw, Nigist

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the utilization of waste coffee ground for biodiesel production was investigated. Waste coffee ground sample was collected from TOMOCA PLC, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The oven dried sample was then soxhlet extracted using n-hexane to yield 19.73 %w/w oil. The biodiesel was obtained by a two-step process, i.e. acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification using catalysts sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide respectively. The conversion of waste coffee gr...

  12. Advances in solid-catalytic and non-catalytic technologies for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Aminul; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Chan, Eng-Seng; Moniruzzaman, M.; Islam, Saiful; Nabi, Md. Nurun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The recent technologies for promoting biodiesel synthesis were elucidated. • The design of catalyst consideration of biodiesel production was proposed. • The recent advances and remaining difficulties in biodiesel synthesis were outlined. • The future research trend in biodiesel synthesis was highlighted. - Abstract: The insecure supply of fossil fuel coerces the scientific society to keep a vision to boost investments in the renewable energy sector. Among the many renewable fuels currently available around the world, biodiesel offers an immediate impact in our energy. In fact, a huge interest in related research indicates a promising future for the biodiesel technology. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The number of well-defined catalyst complexes that are able to catalyze transesterification reactions efficiently has been significantly expanded in recent years. The activity of catalysts, specifically in application to solid acid/base catalyst in transesterification reaction depends on their structure, strength of basicity/acidity, surface area as well as the stability of catalyst. There are various process intensification technologies based on the use of alternate energy sources such as ultrasound and microwave. The latest advances in research and development related to biodiesel production is represented by non-catalytic supercritical method and focussed exclusively on these processes as forthcoming transesterification processes. The latest developments in this field featuring highly active catalyst complexes are outlined in this review. The knowledge of more extensive research on advances in biofuels will allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of these technologies toward meeting the critical energy challenges in future

  13. Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaprakasam, A.; Sivakumar, V. M.; Surendhar, A.; Thirumarimurugan, M.; Kannadasan, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cost of biodiesel produced from virgin vegetable oil through transesterification is higher than that of fossil fuel, because of high raw material cost. To minimize the biofuel cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. Catalysts used in this process are usually acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in biodiesel production is limited. In most cases, NaOH is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reactio...

  14. Simulation of biodiesel production using hydro-esterification process from wet microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana Yano Surya; Fauzi Ardian; Pratama Sangga Hadi; Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Recently, algae have received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. Conventionally, biodiesel is made through esterification or transesterification of oils where the process involves a catalyst and alcohol to be reacted in a reactor. However, this process is energy intensive for drying and extraction step. To overcome this situation, we studied simulation of a new route of hydro-esterification process which is combine hydrolysis ...

  15. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  16. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  17. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhao, Liangliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method with different conditions. • The catalysts were efficient in the soybean oil transesterification. • The catalytic activity and stability of the catalyst were investigated. - Abstract: The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO–SnO 2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO–SnO 2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction

  18. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Soapstock is a less expensive feedstock reservoir for biodiesel production. • Addition of tert-alcohol can enhance the yield of fatty acid methyl ester significantly. • One-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was successfully developed. • FAME yield of 95.2% was obtained with low lipase loading in a shorter reaction time. - Abstract: A major obstacle in the commercialization of biodiesel is its cost of manufacturing, primarily the raw material cost. In order to decrease the cost of biodiesel, soapstock oil was investigated as the feedstock for biodiesel production. Because the soapstock oil containing large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) cannot be effectively converted to biodiesel, complicated two-stage process (esterification followed by transesterification) was generally adopted. In this study, simple one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was developed via one-pot esterification and transesterification. Water produced by lipase catalyzed esterification of FFAs affected the lipase catalyzed transesterification of glycerides in the soapstock oil severely. Addition of tert-alcohol could overcome this problem and enhance the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield from 42.8% to 76.4%. The FAME yield was further elevated to 95.2% by optimizing the methanol/oil molar ratio, lipase amount, and water absorbent. The developed process enables the simple, efficient, and green production of biodiesel from soapstock oil, providing with a potential industrial application

  19. Optimization and Modeling of Process Variables of Biodiesel Production from Marula Oil using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enweremadu, C. C.; Rutto, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization study in the production of biodiesel production from Marula oil. The study was carried out using a central composite design of experiments under response surface methodology. A mathematical model was developed to correlate the transesterification process variables to biodiesel yield. The transesterification reaction variables were methanol to oil ratio, x /sub 1/ (10-50 wt percentage), reaction time, x /sub 2/ (30-90 min), reaction temperature, x /sub 3/ (30-90 Degree C) stirring speed, x /sub 4/ (100-400 rpm) and amount of catalyst, x /sub 5/ (0.5-1.5 g). The optimum conditions for the production of the biodiesel were found to be methanol to oil ratio (29.43 wt percentage), reaction time (59.17 minutes), reaction temperature (58.80 Degree C), stirring speed (325 rpm) and amount of catalyst (1.02 g). The optimum yield of biodiesel that can be produced was 95 percentage. The results revealed that the crucial fuel properties of the biodiesel produced at the optimum conditions met the ASTM biodiesel specifications. (author)

  20. Simulation of biodiesel production using hydro-esterification process from wet microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradana Yano Surya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, algae have received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. Conventionally, biodiesel is made through esterification or transesterification of oils where the process involves a catalyst and alcohol to be reacted in a reactor. However, this process is energy intensive for drying and extraction step. To overcome this situation, we studied simulation of a new route of hydro-esterification process which is combine hydrolysis and esterification processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgae. Firstly, wet microalgae treated by hydrolyzer to produce fatty acids (FAs, separated with separator, and then mixed with methanol and esterified at subcritical condition to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs while H2SO4 conducted as the catalyst. Energy and material balance of conventional and hydrolysis-esterification process was evaluated by Aspen Plus. Simulation result indicated that conventional route is energy demanding process, requiring 4.40 MJ/L biodiesel produced. In contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification method can be reduced significantly into 2.43 MJ/L biodiesel. Based on the energy consumption comparison, hydro-esterification process is less costly than conventional process for biodiesel production.

  1. Alternatives methods for biodiesel production (II): supercritical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachmarian, I.; Vieitez, I.; Grompone, M.; Borges, G.; Corazza, F.; De Oliveira, V.

    2009-01-01

    Several works on the production of biodiesel under supercritical methanol have been published, without the use of catalysts and with the presence of high concentration of water in the reaction media. It is of major interest these processing conditions with ethanol since this alcohol has several advantages over methanol. Here we studied the effect of water on the efficiency of the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol. The effect of the operative conditions on oil conversion, fatty acid composition of the final product and degree of product degradation was studied.Reactions were performed in a tubular reactor (42ml) at a pressure of 200 bar and using a molar ration alcohol/oil of 40:1. The effect of the most important operative parameters was studied:flow rate (in the range 0.8 to 2.5 ml/min) temperature (from 250 to 375 grades C)and water concentration (from 0 to 10%).The maximum ester content obtained was 77.5% corresponding to a flow rate of 1.5ml/min 350 grades C and 0% water. At every condition tested it occurred to some extend, which was increased at the lower flow rates: 29.5% degradation at 2.5 % water and 0.8mL/min.When process was performed at temperatures lower than 325 grades C the presence of water in the reaction media had a favourable effect on the final conversion, which is a significant difference with that observed when process is performed by chemical catalysis.Results shown that oil transesterification can be efficiently performed still under a relatively high concentration of water in the reaction media. Further work must be done for diminishing the degradation of fatty acids, which appears as a key for maximizing the final ester content in the product. (author)-

  2. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  3. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    In the present work, a novel method for immobilization of lipase within hydrophilic polyurethane foams using polyglutaraldehyde was developed for the immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase to produce biodiesel with canola oil and methanol. The enzyme optimum conditions were not affected by immobilization and the optimum pH for free and immobilized enzyme were 6, resulting in 80% immobilization yield. Using the immobilized lipase T. lanuginosus, the effects of enzyme loading, oil/alcohol molar ratio, water concentration, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 20 g of refined canola oil were: 430 {mu}g lipase, 1:6 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.1 g water and 40 C for the reactions with methanol. Maximum methyl esters yield was 90% of which enzymatic activity remained after 10 batches, when tert-butanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase. The immobilized lipase proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses. (author)

  4. Optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Aghel, Babak; Alitabar, Mohammad; Sepahvand, Arash; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Continuous transesterification of soybean oil is studied in a microreactor. • Box–Behnken method and response surface methodology used for optimization. • Fatty Acid Methyl Ester transesterification of 89% obtained at optimum condition. • The microchannel pressure drop was related to energy dissipation rate and FAME %. • Higher FAME % values were obtained at higher energy dissipation rate. - Abstract: Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide, as a catalyst, in a microreactor has been investigated. The transesterification reaction was performed at specific condition in circular tubes with hydraulic diameter of (0.8 mm). In order to further improve the biodiesel production, the experimental design was performed using Box–Behnken method. The results were analyzed using response surface methodology. The influence of reaction variables including; molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1–12:1), temperature (55–65 °C) and catalyst concentration (0.6–1.8 wt.%) and residence time (20–180 s) under various flow rates of reactants (1–11 ml min −1 ) on Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) transesterification reaction was studied. The optimum condition was found at molar ratio of methanol to oil (9:1), catalyst concentration (1.2 wt.%) and temperature (60 °C) with a FAME % of about 89%. Considering optimum parameters, by changing the reactant residence time the FAME % was reached to 98% at 180 s

  5. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  6. Identification of regulatory barriers in the production of biodiesel in Brazil; Identificacao de entraves regulatorios na producao de biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santana [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Santo Amaro, BA (Brazil)], email: marcelosilva@ifba.edu.br; Teixeira, Francisco Lima Cruz [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (CIEnAm/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro Interdisciplinar de Energia e Ambiente

    2010-07-01

    At a time when biofuels are in evidence in the international arena, it is essential to discuss this new market, in particular the biodiesel. To achieve agricultural and industrial sustainability, the main argument is that replacing oil with biofuels raises some questions, because of the lack of experience with the new productive chains. Due to the way the Biodiesel program is being implemented, this program presents several obstacles. Thus, this study aims to investigate the elements in the regulatory hurdles for the production of Biodiesel. In this work it was adopted qualitative descriptive and exploratory procedures, including desk research and recognition of perceptions through questionnaires to staff intentionally selected from different parts of the productive chain, through non-probabilistic sampling. The survey showed the following barriers: differentiated subsidies, which hinder the production of biodiesel by intensive agriculture and benefit familiar agriculture, do not encourage other regions of the country, or other raw material (animal tallow and ORG); incoherent taxation considering the quantity purchased raw materials; strict control on the region distribution to claim the Social Fuel Seal; it isn't prioritized environmental issues in their regulatory context; there's no prestige to small industry, cooperatives and associations; there is a tax for alcohol applied in biodiesel production; and the law penalizes biodiesel plants for the sale of hydrated alcohol. It was observed that these obstacles hinder the increase in biodiesel production, resulting in countless idle biodiesel plants. In this sense, it was found that the regulatory framework needs to be revised due to the investigated barriers. (author)

  7. Biodiesel Production by Using CaO Catalyst and Ultrasonic Assisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Rosyid, R. Ar; Hadiyanto, H.

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy and sustainable products. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil by using homogenous and heterogenous catalyst. In this research, biodiesel was produced by using CaO catalyst from limestone and assisted by ultrasonic wave. CaO catalyst was used 1- 4.4% of oil weight. Ultrasonic wave was generated by using ultrasonic cleaner at 28 and 42 kHz of frequency. Cooking oil was preparated by esterification process by using sulphuric acid as catalyst until amount of free fatty acid (FFA) is under 0.5%. The results shown yield of methyl ester obtained highest 89.98% on the reaction carried on mole ratio methanol to oil, 9: 1 and frequency of 40 kHz. Increasing frequency of ultrasonic wave cause increasing of yield of biodiesel.

  8. OPTIMISATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER CONDITIONS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD DANI SUPARDAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.

  9. Economic assessment of biodiesel production: Comparison of alkali and biocatalyst processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman [Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Health sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641114 (India); Eng-Seng, Chan; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kotakinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    This study deals with the economic assessment of biodiesel production using three catalytic processes (1) alkali (2) soluble enzyme and (3) immobilized enzyme. All the processes were considered to be operated at batch mode with a production capacity of 10{sup 3} tonne. Biodiesel production cost using alkali catalyst process was found to be lowest ($ 1166.67/tonne) compared to soluble lipase catalyst ($ 7821.37/tonne) and immobilized lipase catalyst ($ 2414.63/tonne) process. The higher production cost was due to the higher cost of the enzyme and the higher reaction time of enzymatic process. However, reuse of immobilized catalyst decreased the production cost drastically unlike soluble enzyme catalyst. (author)

  10. Assessing the experimental investigation of milk thistle oil for biodiesel production using base catalyzed transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kifayat; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sofia; Qiu, Fengxian

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work, non edible oil source milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert) plant was investigated for biodiesel production. The extracted crude oil was 26.14% of the total seed dry weight. The free fatty acid content of oil was reduced from 0.56 mg KOH/g to 0.06 mg KOH/g by esterification before the synthesis of biodiesel. The highest conversion percentage of biodiesel was achieved 89.51% and 87.42% using solid base catalyst sodium hydroxide (0.75%) and potassium hydroxide (1.0%), respectively. The protocol for experiment was adjusted as follow: temperature (60 °C); time of reaction (2 h), steering (600 rpm) and the oil molar ratio was fixed 1:6. Qualitatively, the prepared biodiesel was quantified by GC chromatography, 13 C & 1 H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), AAS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of biodiesel were tested and compared with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. - Highlights: • Biodiesel production from non edible seeds of milk thistle species. • High percentage of oil extraction (26.14%) and biodiesel yield (92%). • Reduction in FFA contents via esterification 0.56 mg KOH/g – 0.06 mg KOH/g. • Quantification analysis of biodiesel using GC, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, FT-IR and AAS. • Fuel properties comparison with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards

  11. Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    HARSONO, Soni; SUBRONTO, Bronto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan a...

  12. The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Atadashi Musa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of alcohol and alcohol to oil molar ratio plays an important role on the method of biodiesel production. As a result, this paper examined different alcohols commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel with more emphasis on methanol and ethanol. Further the different alcohol to oil molar ratios used for the production of biodiesel have been extensively discussed and reported. Also the effects of alcohol to molar ratios on biodiesel refining process and its physicochemical properties were investigated.

  13. Alkali-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATICA J. PREDOJEVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the transesterification parameters on the yield and quality of the methyl esters (MEs produced from waste frying oil (WFO were investigated. A two-step alkali transesterification reaction followed by silica gel purification step was applied. The investigated reaction parameters were the methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1 and 9:1, the catalyst/oil weight ratio (1.0 and 1.5 mass % and the type of catalyst (NaOH and KOH. The physical and chemical properties of the employed feedstock and the obtained biodiesel were determined in order to investigate the effects of both the properties of the WFO and the reaction parameters on the characteristics and yields of the product. It was found that the properties of the feedstock had a determinant effect on the physical and chemical properties of the MEs, as the majority of them did not differ significantly under the studied reaction parameters. However, the reaction parameters influenced the yields of the product. Higher yields were obtained with a 1.0 than with a 1.5 mass % catalyst to oil ratio. The increasing yield with decreasing catalyst/oil ratio was more pronounced with NaOH (9.15–14.35 % than with KOH (2.84–6.45 %. When KOH was used as the catalyst, the yields were always higher (the mean yield was 94.86 % in comparison to those obtained with NaOH (the mean was 84.28 %. Furthermore, the efficiency of KOH in conversion of WFO to purified MEs in comparison to NaOH was even more pronounced in the case of the higher methanol/oil ratio, i.e., for the 9:1 methanol/oil ratio, the yield increase with KOH was about 2 times higher than the yield with NaOH, regardless of the applied catalyst/oil ratio.

  14. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fangxia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds.

  15. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  16. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, J.F. Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C.; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  17. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Priti R; Fulekar, M H

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration-dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m 2  g -1 with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yubin; Wang, Zhiyao; Yu, Changjiang; Yin, Yehu; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-09-01

    Nannochloropsis have attracted sustained interest from algal biodiesel researchers due to their high biomass accumulation rate and high lipid content. There are six recognized species in the Nannochloropsis genus that are phylogenetically divided into Nannochloropsis gaditana, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis granulata, Nannochloropsis limnetica, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis oculata. In this study, the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis species from the 6 genus for biodiesel production was evaluated by determining their growth rate, biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, lipid composition, fatty acid profiles and biodiesel properties. The results showed that the best strain was N. oceanica IMET1, with lipid productivity of 158.76 ± 13.83 mg L(-1)day(-1), TAG production of 1.67 ± 0.20 g/L, favorable fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (56.62 ± 1.96%) as well as suitable biodiesel properties of higher cetane number (54.61 ± 0.25), lower iodine number (104.85 ± 2.80 g I2/100g) and relative low cloud point (3.45 ± 0.50°C). N. oceanica IMET1 could be consider as valuable feedstock for microalgal biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil using Solid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Said

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for fossil fuels and the emissions generated from these fuels are increasing daily. Researchers are concerned with global warming as well as climate change; and energy sustainability and material usages are important issues today. Waste cooking oil (WCO can be processed into biodiesel as an alternative fuel to replace diesel. Production of biodiesel using WCO as the feedstock has been of growing interest for the last two decades. A number of research papers related to the improvements in production, raw materials and catalyst selection have been published. This paper reviews the various types of heterogeneous solid catalyst in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification of WCO. The catalysts used can be classified according to their state presence in the transesterification reaction as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts act in the same liquid phase as the reaction mixture, whereas heterogeneous catalysts act in a solid phase with the reaction mixture. Heterogeneous catalysts are non-corrosive, a green process and environmentally friendly. They can be recycled and used several times, thus offering a more economic pathway for biodiesel production. The advantages and drawbacks of these heterogeneous catalysts are presented. Future work focuses on the application of economically and environmentally friendly solid catalysts in the production of biodiesel using WCO as the raw material.

  20. Production of Biodiesel (B100 from Jatropha Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is about the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Other oils can also be used for the production, but jatropha was chosen because it is not edible therefore, it will not pose a problem to humans in terms of food competition. Before the transesterification process was carried out, some basic tests such as free fatty acid content, iodine value, and moisture content were carried out. This was done so as to ascertain quality yield of the biodiesel after the reaction. The production of the biodiesel was done with standard materials and under standard conditions which made the production a hitch-free one. The jatropha oil was heated to 60°C, and a solution of sodium methoxide (at 60°C was added to the oil and stirred for 45 minutes using a magnetic stirrer. The mixture was then left to settle for 24 hours. Glycerin, which is the byproduct, was filtered off. The biodiesel was then thoroughly washed to ensure that it was free from excess methanol and soap. The characterization was done at NNPC Kaduna refinery and petrochemicals. The result shows that the product meets the set standard for biodiesel.

  1. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Piriyakananon, Kingkaew; Tantong, Supalak; Thakernkarnkit, Weerasak; Yongvanich, Tikamporn [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chulalaksananukul, Warawut [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Biofuel Production by Biocatalyst Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity ({eta}) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and {eta} were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMEs of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435- or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (author)

  2. Effects of blending composition of tung oil and ultrasonic irradiation intensity on the biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manh, Do-Van; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Hanh, Hoang-Duc; Chau, Nguyen-Hoai; Tuyen, Trinh-Van; Long, Pham-Quoc; Minh, Chau-Van

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial use of tung oil in pre-blended oil for the production of biodiesel was studied at various blending compositions of tung, canola and palm oils (C BT , C BC and C BP ). The effects of C BT , ultrasonic power (P WUS ) and sample loading (V L ) on the yield (Y F ) and the properties of acid value, iodine values (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV), density and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were investigated. The pre-blending of tung oil with palm oil greatly decreases the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel, whereas the presence of canola and palm oils with tung oil reduces the IV and KV of tung oil biodiesel. For P WUS /V L = 0.92–2.08 W/mL, C BT can be as high as 60 wt.% with 30 wt.% C BC and 10 wt.% C BP to produce biodiesel with high Y F and satisfactory qualities of the said properties. -- Highlights: ► Yield and properties of tung oil biodiesel are improved as tung oil is pre-blended with canola and palm oils. ► Pre-blending of palm oil with tung and canola oils reduces the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel from 13 to −5 °C. ► A beneficial use of tung oil as high as 60 wt.% blended with canola and palm oils is achievable. ► A sufficient P WUS per sample volume is required to ensure satisfactory properties.

  3. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil and Its Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. El Boulifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD was used to optimize biodiesel production process from corn oil. The process variables, temperature and catalyst concentration were found to have significant influence on biodiesel yield. The optimum combination derived via RSM for high corn oil methyl ester yield (99.48% was found to be 1.18% wt catalyst concentration at a reaction temperature of 55.6∘C. To determine how long biodiesel can safely be stored, it is desirable to have a measurement for the stability of the biodiesel against such oxidation. Storage time and oxygen availability have been considered as possible factors influencing oxidative instability. Biodiesel from corn oil was stored for a period of 30 months, and the physico-chemical parameters of samples were measured at regular interval of time. Results show that the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and viscosity (ν increased while the iodine value (IV decreased. These parameters changed very significantly when the sample was stored under normal oxygen atmosphere. However, the ν, AV, and IV of the biodiesel sample which was stored under argon atmosphere were within the limit by the European specifications (EN 14214.

  4. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Anand, R B

    2015-11-01

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Krishan K.; Pragya, Namita; Sahoo, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NEB and NER of high input Jatropha biodiesel system was higher than those of low input. → These values further increase on including the energy content of the co-products, and in the further years. → Maximum energy use was during oil extraction, followed by oil processing and fertilizer use. → Allocation of resources at right time and with proper care increase the overall system productivity. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of depleting energy resources, increasing food insecurity and global warming, Jatropha has emerged as a promising energy crop for India. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle energy balance for Jatropha biodiesel production and greenhouse gas emissions from post-energy use and end combustion of biodiesel, over a period of 5 years. It's a case specific study for a small scale, high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Most of the existing studies have considered low input Jatropha biodiesel system and have used NEB (Net energy balance i.e. difference of energy output and energy input) and NER (Net energy ratio i.e. ratio of energy output to energy input) as indicators for estimating the viability of the systems. Although, many of them have shown these indicators to be positive, yet the values are very less. The results of this study, when compared with two previous studies of Jatropha, show that the values for these indicators can be increased to a much greater extent, if we use a high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Further, when compared to a study done on palm oil and Coconut oil, it was found even if the NEB and NER of biodiesel from Jatropha were lesser in comparison to those of Palm oil and Coconut oil, yet, when energy content of the co-products were also considered, Jatropha had the highest value for both the indicators in comparison to the rest two.

  6. Enhanced biodiesel production in Neochloris oleoabundans by a semi-continuous process in two stage photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Se Young; Hong, Min Eui; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-07-01

    Under autotrophic conditions, highly productive biodiesel production was achieved using a semi-continuous culture system in Neochloris oleoabundans. In particular, the flue gas generated by combustion of liquefied natural gas and natural solar radiation were used for cost-effective microalgal culture system. In semi-continuous culture, the greater part (~80%) of the culture volume containing vegetative cells grown under nitrogen-replete conditions in a first photobioreactor (PBR) was directly transferred to a second PBR and cultured sequentially under nitrogen-deplete conditions for accelerating oil accumulation. As a result, in semi-continuous culture, the productivities of biomass and biodiesel in the cells were increased by 58% (growth phase) and 51% (induction phase) compared to the cells in batch culture, respectively. The semi-continuous culture system using two stage photobioreactors is a very efficient strategy to further improve biodiesel production from microalgae under photoautotrophic conditions.

  7. Biodiesel I: Historical background, present and future production and standards - professional paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel which may be used as pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated acids (about 60% and also poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3 in a lower quantity, as well as some undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in research and the industrial production of biodiesel (palm oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article. The second part focuses on some new concepts for the future development of technology for biodiesel production, based on the application of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions or the use of lipases as an alternative catalyst for this reaction.

  8. Optimization of oil extraction from waste “Date pits” for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Farrukh; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Al-Haj, Lamya; Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Hellier, Paul; Rashid, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil extraction from “Date pits” has been optimized first time by using RSM. • Optimized conditions for oil extraction gave oil yield of 16.5%. • “Date pits” oil as non-edible feedstock was transformed to biodiesel. • Biodiesel from “Date pits” oil posses potential fuel properties. - Abstract: Biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks is increasingly attractive alternative to both fossil diesels and renewable fuels derived from food crops. Date pits are one such lipid containing feedstock, and are widely available in Oman as a waste stream. This study analyses the effects of soxhlet process parameters (temperature, solvent to seed ratio and time) on the extraction of oils from waste Date pits and the subsequent production of biodiesel from it. The highest yield of oil extracted from the Date pits was 16.5 wt% obtained at a temperature of 70 °C, solvent to seed ratio of 4:1 and extraction duration of 7 h. Gas Chromatography analysis showed that Date pits oil consisted of 54.85% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Transesterification of the oil extracted was undertaken at 65 °C, a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 1 h for biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from the Date pits oil was found to have a cetane number of 58.23, density 870 of kg m −3 , cloud point of 4 °C, pour point of −1 °C, CFPP of −0.5 °C and kinematic viscosity of 3.97 mm 2 s −1 (40 °C). In general, Date pit oil appears to be a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.

  9. Low-cost solid catalyst derived from waste Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) for biodiesel production using microalgae oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Syazwani, Osman; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New low-cost catalyst was successfully synthesized by waste shell Cyrtopleura costata. • Microalgae were cultivated by using simple photo bioreactor (PBR) system. • Microalgae oil was extracted and used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. • The highest FAME yield was 84% in 1 h reaction time. - Abstract: In the present work, Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) is used for the first time to synthesis of CaO. The produced CaO was utilized as a catalyst for biodiesel production from microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata oil. The Angel Wing Shell (AWS) was calcined at 800 °C and 900 °C for 2 h to convert CaCO 3 to activate metal oxide phase. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD), BET surface area and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The calcined Angel Wing Shell at 900 °C (CAWS 900) was chosen as the best catalyst due to its high basicity and surface area. This also corresponded to optimization condition where, CAWS 900 showed highest FAME yield (84.11%) at oil to methanol molar ratio 1:150 and catalyst loading of 9 wt.% in 1 h reaction time. The CAWS 900 catalyst also can be reused more than three times with FAME yield greater than 65%. Overall, AWS appears to be an acceptable solid catalyst to convert microalgae oil to biodiesel

  10. Production of Biodiesel Using Immobilized Lipase and the Characterization of Different Co-Immobilizing Agents and Immobilization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125 is widely employed to catalyzed transesterification and can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, the lipase was immobilized by combined adsorption and entrapment to catalyze biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO via transesterification, and investigating co-immobilizing agents as additives according to the enzyme activity. The addition of the mixed co-immobilizing agents has positive effects on the activities of the immobilized lipase. Three different immobilizing methods were compared by the conversion ratio of biodiesel and structured by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, respectively. It was found that entrapment followed by adsorption was the best method. The effect of the co-immobilizing agent amount, lipase dosage, water content, and reuse ability of the immobilized lipase was investigated. By comparison with previous research, this immobilized lipase showed good reuse ability: the conversion ratio excesses 70% after 10 subsequent reactions, in particular, was better than Novozym435 and TLIM on waste cooking oil for one unit of lipase.

  11. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th December 2010, Revised: 10th May 2011; Accepted: 18th May 2011[How to Cite: R. Mat, O.S. Ling, A. Johari, M. Mohamed. (2011. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 53-57. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/678 ] | View in 

  12. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    greenhouse gas emissions [2]. Biodiesel is a non-conventional energy source produced from edible oil such as soya bean oil, corn oil, groundnut oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil and non-edible oil such as animal fat, waste vegetable oil, jatropha oil, algae oil, and castor oil. It is produced through transesterification process.

  13. Process optimization of biodiesel production from wild rapeseed (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were, to optimize the performance of biodiesel from rapeseed wild oil depending on the molar ratio methanol / oil, the concentration of NaOH and KOH homogeneous catalysts, temperature and time of transesterification through the response surface methodology, and determining the physicochemical characteristics of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions. A Plackett and Burman (PB12 design was applied for the screening stage and a rotatable central composite design (DCCR for the final optimization. The conditions that maximize the yield of biodiesel (77.8% were obtained at concentrations of 0 to 0.2% NaOH and 0.4 to 0.6% KOH, with time from 77 to 81 minutes, keeping constant the molar ratio of methanol/oil in 6/1 and a temperature of 60 °C. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel obtained under optimized conditions meet the technical specifications given by ASTM D6751 - 07 and EN14214

  14. Biodiesel production from butter factory effluent | Schabort | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in energy demand coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy sources. Butter waste effluent was identified as a possible feedstock for biodiesel. The effects of the temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and the reaction time were ...

  15. Synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explore the comparison of a suitable heterogeneous catalyst for conversion of triglyceride into fatty acid methyl ester. A series of heterogeneous cerium, manganese, and zinc oxide catalyst supported at mixture of cinder was prepared by co-precipitation and applied for conversion of triglyceride in oil to biodiesel ...

  16. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experimental research, edible rice bran oil used as test material and converted into methyl ester and non-edible jatropha vegetable oil is converted into jatropha oil methyl ester, which are known as biodiesel and they are prepared in the presence of homogeneous acid catalyst and optimized their operating parameters like reaction temperature, quantity of alcohol and the catalyst requirement, stirring rate and time of esterification. In the second step, the physical properties such as density, flash point, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point were found out for the above vegetable oils and their methyl esters. The same characteristics study was also carried out for the diesel fuel for obtaining the baseline data for analysis. The values obtained from the rice bran oil methyl ester and jatropha oil methyl ester are closely matched with the values of conventional diesel and it can be used in the existing diesel engine without any hardware modification. In the third step the storage characteristics of biodiesel are also studied. .

  17. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil?A Case Study of Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-eco...

  18. Screening, growth medium optimisation and heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zongchao; Liu, Ying; Daroch, Maurycy; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a study on screening of microalgal strains from the Peking University Algae Collection and heterotrophic cultivation for biodiesel production of a selected microalgal strain. Among 89 strains, only five were capable of growing under heterotrophic conditions in liquid cultures and Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 was found the best for the production of heterotrophic algal biodiesel. Composition of the growth medium was optimised using response surface methodology and optimised growth conditions were successfully used for cultivation of the strain in a fermentor. Conversion of algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) showed that the lipid profile of the heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 contains fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  19. Energy potential of co-products generated from Jatropha biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Bispo dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the energetic use potential of co-products from chain of Jatropha biodiesel production. For this, the higher heating value and immediate analysis (volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon content were determined for epicarp samples (shell, cake from the press extraction process, and the bran from the solvent extraction process. Co-products of the biodiesel production chain from Jatropha under shells, cake, and bran form have energetic characteristics that make possible its use for energy production for used in different processes. The oil content has an effect on the calorific value of jatropha co-products. The higher the residual oil content in the pie or bran, the greater the energy potential. The peas, the pie and the bran presented calorific power similar to eucalyptus wood and sugarcane bagasse. The last one is widely used in cogeneration systems in the sugar-alcohol industry and can be used directly or compacted in the generation of heat for processes both in the processing industry and in the field. The pie (obtained by mechanical pressing was the co-product that presented better conditions for direct burning when compared to the other evaluated materials.

  20. Production and Testing of Coconut Oil Biodiesel Fuel and its Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J ALAMU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have successfully worked on generating energy from different alternative sources including solar and biological sources such as the conversion of trapped energy from sunlight to electricity and conversion of some renewable agricultural products to fuel. This work considers the use of coconut oil for the production of alternative renewable and environmental friendly biodiesel fuel as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Test quantities of coconut oil biodiesel were produced through transesterification reaction using 100g coconut oil, 20.0% ethanol (wt% coconut oil, 0.8% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 65°C reaction temperature and 120 min. reaction time. The experiment was carried out three times and average results evaluated. Low yield of the biodiesel (10.4% was obtained. The coconut oil biodiesel produced was subsequently blended with petroleum diesel and characterized as alternative diesel fuel through some ASTM standard fuel tests. The products were further evaluated by comparing specific gravity and viscosity of the biodiesel blend, the raw coconut oil and conventional petroleum diesel.

  1. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  2. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  3. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W

    2018-03-15

    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous production of biodiesel under supercritical methyl acetate conditions: Experimental investigation and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2017-10-01

    In this study, biodiesel production by using supercritical methyl acetate in a continuous flow reactor was investigated for the first time. The aim of this study was to elucidate the reaction kinetics of biodiesel production by using supercritical methyl. Experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (300-400°C), residence times (5-30min), oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:40, and a fixed pressure of 20MPa. Reaction kinetics of biodiesel production with supercritical methyl acetate was determined. Finally, biodiesel yield obtained from this method was compared to that obtained with supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether). The results showed that biodiesel yield with supercritical methyl acetate increased with temperature and time. The developed kinetic model was found to fit the experimental data well. The reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate was the lowest, followed by that of supercritical MTBE, ethanol, and methanol, under the same conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production.

  6. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  7. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Temperature influence on biodiesel production by non-catalytic transesterification; Influencia da temperatura na producao de biodiesel por transesterificacao nao catalitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Humberto N.M.; Oliveira, Thomas R.; Sousa, Elisa M.B.D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce biodiesel using supercritical fluids through of the transesterification process without use of catalysts. It become easier the separation of the reaction products when compared with conventional method. In this work the influence of the temperature in the production of biodiesel from mamona oil was studied. Tree temperatures were studied (473.15 K, 523.15 K and 573.15 K) and the pressure (300 bar) and molar ratio (1:40) was keep constant during the process. Excess of Alcohol was used for this synthesis. The influence of temperature on the conversion and the reaction time was evaluated. The castor bean oil and biodiesel obtained were characterized in relation to their properties more significant. For results, higher conversions were found at higher temperatures (573.15 K), however can see a trend to the stability of reaction. The quality of the product was suitable for most properties evaluated. The equipment designed and built for this purpose was feasible but require some modifications to its optimization. The reaction of biodiesel production was confirmed, even without the addition of catalyst. It was the need to use a large excess of alcohol in relation to oil on this route without catalytic converters. In the case of the route of biodiesel production without the addition of catalysts, was felt the need to use excess alcohol in relation to the castor bean oil. (author)

  9. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  10. Fatty acid profile of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production and implications for fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstock accounts for approximately 80% of biodiesel production expenses when commodity lipids such as soybean oil are utilized. Furthermore, commodity lipids have competing food-related applications. Consequently, low-cost alternatives that do not displace existing food production are of interest ...

  11. Biodiesel Fuel Production by the Transesterification Reaction of Soybean Oil Using Immobilized Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Otávio L.; Bevilaqua, Juliana V.; Leal, Márcia C. M. R.; Freire, Denise M. G.; Langone, Marta A. P.

    The enzymatic alcoholysis of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using a commercial, immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), enzyme concentration, molar ratio of alcohol to soybean oil, solvent, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best conditions were obtained in a solvent-free system with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50°C, and enzyme concentration of 7.0% (w/w). Three-step batch ethanolysis was most effective for the production of biodiesel. Ethyl esters yield was about 60% after 4 h of reaction.

  12. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

  13. THE ADDITION OF PETROLEUM BENZIN IN MIXING OF CRUDE PALM OIL AND METHANOL ON BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO using petroleum benzin as solvent has been done. This research aims to determine the optimum concentration of catalyst KOH and NaOH, mole ratio of methanol to oil, volume ratio of solvent to oil, and temperature range of solvent. This research also observes the influence of changing in methanol concentration and levels of palm oil free fatty acids (FFA on biodiesel production. In this research, transesterification was preceded by esterification for 10 min using sulphuric acid catalyst. The results showed that KOH gave better results than NaOH as catalyst with optimum concentration was 1.75% (w/v. Mole ratio of methanol to palm oil optimum was 6:1, and volume ratio of solvent to palm oil optimum was 2:5. Optimum temperature range of the solvent was 70-90 °C. Decreasing on concentration of methanol, and increasing of free fatty acids (FFA level gave negative impact on the biodiesel production, more over on transesterification without solvent. The characteristics (phosphor content, density, water content, ash content, carbon residue, energy content and chemical components of biodiesel which was produced using petroleum benzin relatively similar to biodiesel produced in the normal way (without solvent. Decreasing on concentration of methanol, and increasing on level of free fatty acids (FFA gave a negative impact on the biodiesel, more over on transesterification without solvent. Keywords: transesterification, CPO, solvent, petroleum benzin

  14. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  16. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA content (32 mg KOH/g of oil. Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  17. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Ponnusami, V

    2017-12-01

    Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  18. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Lavanya; Subramanian, Geetha; Nazeer, Thayiba Thanveer; Simpson, Hannah Shalini; Rahuman, Shifina T; Raju, Preetha

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel has become increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Recently, research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Cyanobacteria appeared to be suitable candidates for cultivation in wastes and wastewaters because they produce biomass in satisfactory quantity and can be harvested relatively easily due to their size and structure. In addition, their biomass composition can be manipulated by several environmental and operational factors to produce biomass with concrete characteristics. Herein, we review the culture of cyanobacteria in wastewaters and also the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever-increasing demand for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil using highly catalytic bimetallic gold–silver core–shell nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Dey, Binita; Talukdar, Jayanta; Chandra Kalita, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Gold–silver core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) were synthesized at room temperature, where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core–shell structure was examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The catalytic activity of these nanoparticles toward biodiesel production from Sunflower oil through transesterification was studied. The confirmation for biofuel synthesis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fuel properties are determined by standard ASTM (American society for Testing and Materials) protocols. Our observations show that at certain catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, highest yield of biodiesel (86.9%) is attained. The fuel properties of the synthesized biofuel are at par with standard biofuel. Further, the catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification. - Highlights: • Gold–silver core–shell NPs were used for biofuel synthesis from sunflower oil. • At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 86.9% was achieved. • Fuel properties of the biofuel synthesized are at par with standard biofuel. • The catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification

  20. Combining phospholipases and a liquid lipase for one-step biodiesel production using crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel is becoming an increasingly popular topic in bioenergy literature because of its potential to overcome the problems posed by chemical processes. However, the high cost of the enzymatic process still remains the main drawback for its industrial application, mostly because of the high price of refined oils. Unfortunately, low cost substrates, such as crude soybean oil, often release a product that hardly accomplishes the final required biodiesel specifications and need an additional pretreatment for gums removal. In order to reduce costs and to make the enzymatic process more efficient, we developed an innovative system for enzymatic biodiesel production involving a combination of a lipase and two phospholipases. This allows performing the enzymatic degumming and transesterification in a single step, using crude soybean oil as feedstock, and converting part of the phospholipids into biodiesel. Since the two processes have never been studied together, an accurate analysis of the different reaction components and conditions was carried out. Results Crude soybean oil, used as low cost feedstock, is characterized by a high content of phospholipids (900 ppm of phosphorus). However, after the combined activity of different phospholipases and liquid lipase Callera Trans L, a complete transformation into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs >95%) and a good reduction of phosphorus (P lipase Callera Trans L in biodiesel production can provide numerous and sustainable benefits. Besides reducing the costs derived from enzyme immobilization, the lipase can be used in combination with other enzymes such as phospholipases for gums removal, thus allowing the use of much cheaper, non-refined oils. The possibility to perform degumming and transesterification in a single tank involves a great efficiency increase in the new era of enzymatic biodiesel production at industrial scale. PMID:24571739

  1. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M

    2016-06-24

    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  2. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil in a closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is becoming increasingly popular nowadays due to global energy shortage. The interest in using Jatropha as a non-edible oil feedstock is rapidly growing. Biodiesel produced from crude Jatropha oil with NaOH as a catalyst is investigated. Transesterification by methanol is carried out in a closed vessel as a batch system. Factors affecting the process which included the reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and catalyst amount are investigated. The maximum conversion ratio of methyl ester yield of 97.7% was recorded under the conditions of 65 °C, 1% (by mass NaOH of the oil mass and 6:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  3. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  4. The Potential of Biodiesel Production derived from Fish Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana Samat, Amira; Amirah Safiah Muhamad, Nor; Rasib, Nur Aziera Abd; Hassan, Siti Aminah Mohd; Sohaimi, Khairunissa Syairah Ahmad; Izzati Iberahim, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Petroleum based diesel is one of the largest greenhouse emitters in the worlds based on its contribution to more likely of all carbon, methane and other greenhouse emissions. Besides, the depletion of fossil fuel that indirectly increased its price has force the global oil industry not to be so dependent on the fossil fuel but instead start focusing on alternative sources. Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant from combustion equipment. In this study, the discarded parts of mixed marine fish species were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Marine fish oil was extracted from the discarded part of fish and if refined through a series of pretreatment process. The refined marine fish oil undergoes esterification process to reduce the amount of free fatty acid. The oil was then transesterified with methanol and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline catalyst that will speed up the conversion of oil to methyl ester. The three process parameters considered for this study were reaction time, reaction temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio. Biodiesel obtained was then analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The data obtained was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measure. The results obtained showed that the conversion of FAME yield is the highest at reaction time 180 minutes, reaction temperature 60°C and methanol to oil molar ratio at 15:1 with FAME yield 80.16%, 80.03% and 80.39%. Thus, it can be concluded that the conversion of biodiesel increased as the reaction time, temperature and

  5. Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam F; Bennett, James A; Manayil, Jinesh C; Wilson, Karen

    2014-11-21

    Concern over the economics of accessing fossil fuel reserves, and widespread acceptance of the anthropogenic origin of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change from combusting such carbon sources, is driving academic and commercial research into new routes to sustainable fuels to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population. Here we discuss catalytic esterification and transesterification solutions to the clean synthesis of biodiesel, the most readily implemented and low cost, alternative source of transportation fuels to meet future societal demands.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of microwave power on the production of biodiesel from nyamplung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, L.; Mujaddid, F.; Raka; Dhonny, S. B.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Today, energy needs in Indonesia still rely on fossil energy sources that its availability in the world is increasingly depleted. Therefore, the research for alternative energy of petroleum must be developed, one of them is biodiesel. The use of microwave as energy source of biodiesel production can speed up the reaction time. So the microwave is considered more efficient. Seeds of nyamplung has an oil content of 71.4% (w/w) by weight. With the oil content of the nyamplung seeds has great potential when used as a raw material for biodiesel production. The aim of this research to study the effect of microwave power on the production of biodisel from nyamplung oil. Microwave power affects density, viscosity and yield of the product. The used of alkali catalyst, with higher the power, the lower the density and viscosity of the resulting product, but the resulting yield is 300 W. The power of more than 300 W is the opposite, resulting in the production of biodiesel using the optimum base catalyst at 300 W power.

  8. Ohmic heating pretreatment of algal slurry for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodsuwan, Natthawut; Kamonpatana, Pitiya; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2018-02-10

    Suspensions of the model microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were pretreated by ohmic heating to facilitate release of lipids from the cells in subsequent extraction and lipase-mediated transesterification to biodiesel. After ohmic pretreatment, the moist biomass was suspended in a system of water, hexane, methanol and immobilized lipase for extraction of lipids and simultaneous conversion to biodiesel. The ohmic pretreatment was optimized using an experimental design based on Taguchi method to provide treated biomass that maximized the biodiesel yield in subsequent extraction-transesterification operation. The experimental factors were the frequency of electric current (5-10 5  Hz), the processing temperature (50-70 °C), the algal biomass concentration in the slurry (algal fresh weight to water mass ratio of 1-3) and the incubation time (1-3 min). Extraction-transesterification of the pretreated biomass was carried out at 40 °C for 24 h using a reaction systems of a fixed composition (i.e. biomass, hexane, methanol, water and immobilized enzyme). Compared to control (i.e. untreated biomass), the ohmic pretreatment under optimal conditions (5 Hz current frequency, 70 °C, 1:2 mass ratio of biomass to water, incubation time of 2-min) increased the rate of subsequent transesterification by nearly 2-fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel production from Moringa oleifera oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, Gerald; Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa); Lam, Man Kee; Kansedo, Jibrail; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from Moringa oleifera oil using sulfated tin oxide enhanced with SiO{sub 2} (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/SnO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}) as super acid solid catalyst. The experimental design was done using design of experiment (DoE), specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) with alpha ({alpha}) = 2. The reaction parameters studied were reaction temperature (60 C to 180 C), reaction period (1 h to 3 h) and methanol to oil ratio (1:6 to 1:24). It was observed that the yield up to 84 wt.% of Moringa oleifera methyl esters can be obtained with reaction conditions of 150 C temperature, 150 min reaction time and 1:19.5 methanol to oil ratio, while catalyst concentration and agitation speed are kept at 3 wt.% and 350-360 rpm respectively. Therefore this study presents the possibility of converting a relatively new oil feedstock, Moringa oleifera oil to biodiesel and thus reducing the world's dependency on existing edible oil as biodiesel feedstock. (author)

  10. Impacts of production and use of biodiesel of the Sergipe state, Brazil; Impactos da producao e uso de biodiesel no estado de Sergipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital Brazil, Osiris Ashton; Silva, Maria Susana; Souza, Angela Maria de [Sergipe Parque Tecnologico (SergipeTec), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Vaz, Vitor Hugo Silva [Faculdade Sao Luis de Franca, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The law 11.097/05, establishes that from January 2008 is binding the mixture of 2% biodiesel in diesel (B2) and the same law provides that in 2013 makes it mandatory to blend diesel with 5% biodiesel (B5). This article is motivated by actions that have been developed in the state of Sergipe for the production and use of biodiesel as established by law. The objective of the article is to discuss the impacts of the production and use of biodiesel in Sergipe, specifically seeks to examine the economic impacts in agricultural production and energy matrix state. The discussion of the impacts of biodiesel in the state of Sergipe, is dealt with in this Arctic addresses the demand for oil for the state to become high enough to B2 and B5 in the coming years, the impact of this oil in the energy matrix of the state. This initial discussion projected targets of protection both for agriculture and for the Industrialization of the state. (author)

  11. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  12. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mhanami@utfpr.edu.br; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  13. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  14. Glycerin purification using asymmetric nano-structured ceramic membranes from production of waste fish oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.

  15. Potential use of chicken egg shells and cacao pod husk as catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andherson, T.; Rachmat, D.; Risanti, Doty D.

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggshells and cacao pod husk are known as waste materials that can be used to produce catalyst of CaO and K2CO3, respectively. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is an alternative raw material to produce economical and cheaper biodiesel. WCO first undergoes a pre-treatment process that aims to remove free fatty acid (FFA). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification between triglyceride and alcohol with the presence of a catalyst. To obtain the catalyst, eggshell was calcined in a furnace at temperatures of 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C for 6 hours. On the other hand, K2CO3 catalyst synthesis was carried out by carbonization cacao pod husk at temperature of 650°C and subsequently extracted using aquadest solvent. Catalysts were then characterized by XRD and FTIR. The biodiesel synthesis in this research was conducted at 65°C with molar ratio of 1: 6 WCO to methanol, reaction time for 1 and 2 hours, for K2CO3 and CaO, respectively. The optimum condition for the reaction using CaO was obtained for CaO that carbonized at 900°C. It produced 81.43% conversion of biodiesel. On the other hand, reaction using K2CO3 could reach a higher conversion of 85%. From the results it was clear that the biodiesel fuel production was within the recommended SNI 7182: 2015 standard.

  16. A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed K; Raman, Abdul Aziz A; Sulaiman, Nik M N

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  18. Production of Biodiesel from Marine Algae to Mitigate Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Obaid, M.; Sultana, R.

    2015-01-01

    This research article demonstrates the conversion of oily contents of marine macroalgae, namely Cystoseira indica and Scinia hatei to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) through alkaline transesterification. The algae were dried, crushed and grinded into the powder form, which were analyzed for physical appearance, water content and particle size profile. The oily contents from these powdered algae were extracted by using different non-polar solvents like n-hexane, n-heptane, dichloromethane, diethyl ether and n-hexane: diethyl ether (1:1) mixture at small scale. The efficiency index of the solvent was developed based on the yield of the oily content and boiling point of these solvents, which showed that n-hexane: diethyl ether (1:1) mixture is the best solvent system for the extraction of oils. The yield of oily contents with respect to the dried algal weight was found to be 2.81 ± 0.43 percentage w/w and 3.10 ± 0.27 percentage w/w for C. indica and S. hatei respectively. These oily contents were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. The oily contents were converted into biodiesel by alkaline transesterification using potassium methoxide as catalyst which is prepared by dissolving KOH in methanol (0.5g/12 ml, 4.2 percentage w/v) in a separate flask. All the reactions were carried out under completely anhydrous conditions using silica as desiccant and with continuous stirring so that the reactants in two immiscible phases of oily contents and methanol were remain in contact. The yield of biodiesel was found to be 89.0 ± 0.51 percentage w/w (2.50 percentage w/w of dried alga) and 90.6 ± 0.36 percentage w/w (2.81 percentage w/w of dried alga) of biodiesel from C. indica and S. hatei respectively. Finally, biodiesel was characterized by gas chromatography and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as well as by European (EN) standards which were found to be in agreement with the standard values of biodiesel. (author)

  19. Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a

  20. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  1. Efficient removal of Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions using by-product of biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rita F.L., E-mail: ritaflavia@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Soares, Vitor C., E-mail: vcelios@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Costa, Leticia M., E-mail: leticia@qui.ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascentes, Clesia C., E-mail: clesia@qui.ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorbents were prepared from radish cake, a waste from biodiesel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical treatments used were simple, low-cost and enhanced the Cd{sup 2+} sorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cadmium sorption process was evaluated by Freundlich and Langmuir models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemically treated radish cake is an excellent alternative for removal of Cd{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desorption studies demonstrated that the sorbent-metal interaction is reversible. - Abstract: In this study, chemically modified radish cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, was used to remove Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions. The chemical modification was carried out by treating the radish cake with citric acid (CRC), NaOH (NRC) or the combination of citric acid and NaOH (CNRC). The sorbents were characterized by elemental analysis, surface area analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), potentiometric titration (PT), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the chemical treatment and contact time on cadmium sorption was evaluated. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The maximum sorption capacity obtained by the Langmuir isotherm was 58.5 mg/g and 64.10 mg/g for the CRC, and CNRC sorbents, respectively. Complete desorption of Cd{sup 2+} was achieved using 0.1 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The results obtained demonstrate that chemically modified radish cake has potential as a sorbent for Cd{sup 2+} removal from aqueous solutions.

  2. Statistical optimization for biodiesel production from waste frying oil through two-step catalyzed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenchaitrakool, Manop [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and its Applications in Chemical, Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Thienmethangkoon, Juthagate [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the optimum conditions in biodiesel production from waste frying oil using two-step catalyzed process. In the first step, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid and methanol in order to reduce the free fatty acid content to be approximate 0.5%. In the second step, the product from the first step was further reacted with methanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design of experiment was carried out using the MINITAB RELEASE 14, and the results were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for biodiesel production were obtained when using methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.1:1, 0.68 wt.% of sulfuric acid, at 51 C with a reaction time of 60 min in the first step, followed by using molar ratio of methanol to product from the first step of 9.1:1, 1 wt.% KOH, at 55 C with a reaction time of 60 min in the second step. The percentage of methyl ester in the obtained product was 90.56 {+-} 0.28%. In addition, the fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were in the acceptable ranges according to Thai standard for community biodiesel. (author)

  3. [Stability of whole cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production from renewable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Du, Wei; Liu, Dehua; Li, Wei; Zeng, Jing; Dai, Lingmei

    2009-09-01

    Lipase-mediated biodiesel production becomes increasingly important because of mild reaction conditions, pollution free during the process and easy product separation. Compared with traditional immobilized lipase, whole cell biocatalyst is promising for biodiesel production because it is easy to prepare and has higher enzyme activity recovery. Rhizopus oryzae IFO4697 can be used as the catalyst for biodiesel production. To further study the stability of the whole cell biocatalyst is extremely important for its further application on large scale. This paper focuses on the stability study of Rhizopus oryzae IFO4697 when used for the methanolysis of renewable oils for biodiesel production. The results showed that water content was important for achieving high catalytic activity and good stability of the biocatalyst. The optimum water content was found to be 5%-15%. Both particle size and desiccation methods showed no obvious effect on the stability of the biocatalyst. With GA cross-linking pretreatment, the stability of the biocatalyst could be improved significantly. When Rhizopus oryzae IFO4697 repeatedly used for next batch reaction, direct vacuum filtration was found to be a good way for the maintenance of good stability of the biocatalyst. Under the optimum reaction conditions, the methyl ester yield could keep over 80% during 20 repeated reaction batches.

  4. EXPLORATORY STUDY ON INTERNAL RECYCLING OF CRUDE GLYCEROL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: CATALYST REPLACEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Dias; Leite, P; Conceição Alvim Ferraz; Manuel Fonseca Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the recycling of crude glycerol as source of catalyst for biodiesel production. For that purpose, two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first set (A), biodiesel was synthesized by conventional methanolysis of sunflower oil using NaOH as catalyst at 65°C during 1 h and varying catalyst concentration (0.4 - 1.2 wt.%) or methanol to oil molar ratio (6:1-12:1). The second set (B) was performed by replicating the conditions o...

  5. Integrated flow reactor that combines high-shear mixing and microwave irradiation for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choedkiatsakul, I.; Ngaosuwan, K.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Tabasso, S.; Cravotto, G.

    2015-01-01

    A new simple flow system which is made up of a multi-rotor high-shear mixer connected to a multimode microwave reactor has been assembled. This simple loop reactor has been successfully used in the NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of refined palm oil in methanol. Thanks to optimal mass/heat transfer, full conversion was achieved within 5 min (biodiesel yield of 99.80%). High-quality biodiesel was obtained that is in accordance with international specifications and analytical ASTM standards. The procedure's high efficiency and low energy consumption should pave the way for process scale up. - Highlights: • The combination of HSM-MW flow system for biodiesel production has been proposed. • Highly efficient mass and heat transfer in transesterification reaction. • The hybrid reactor enables a complete conversion in 5 min reaction time. • The new system halved the energy consumption of conventional processes

  6. Waste cockle shell as natural catalyst for biodiesel production from jatropha oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Norulakmal Nor; Idrus, Nur Afini; Ghafar, Faridah; Salleh, Marmy Roshaidah Mohd

    2017-12-01

    Due to the increasing of industrialization and modernization of the world, the demand of petroleum has risen rapidly. The increasing demand for energy and environmental awareness has prompted many researches to embark on alternative fuel platforms that are environmentally acceptable. In this study, jatropha oil was used to produce biodiesel by a new transesterification routine in which cockle shell was used as source of heterogeneous catalyst. The investigation showed the catalyst that was calcined at temperature of 800 °C has the optimum capability to produce high yield. The highest yield of biodiesel production of 93.20 % were obtained by using 1.5 wt% of catalyst. The reaction was conducted at a temperature of 65 °C with the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 6:1. It was found that the physical properties of the biodiesel produced were significant to ASTM standard of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME).

  7. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  8. Biodiesel production from microbial oil derived from wood isolate Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, B; Sowmya, V; Sridharan, Sridevi; Yuvaraj, D; Jayamuthunagai, J; Praveenkumar, R

    2017-09-01

    In the present study Trichoderma reesei, a wood isolate can yield high biomass quantities up to 30g/L, yielding 32.4% of lipids of dry cell weight (DCW). Biodiesel production from Trichoderma reesei involved simple unit operations like filtration and ultrasonication, yet giving good lipid yield with desirable bio-diesel properties. Optimization of ultrasonication conditions was done to ensure maximum lipid extraction. SEM analysis of ultrasonicated samples showed distinct breakage of fungal hyphae. The lipids were found to contain 49.7% saturated fatty acids. Transesterification using chemical and biological catalysts were compared and 96.09% efficiency was observed for lipase-catalyzed transesterification. The bio-diesel properties satisfied ASTM and EN specifications with cetane number: 53.1, iodine value: 63.34g, saponification value: 235.07mg KOH/g, cold flow plugging point: 9.13°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel production from castor oil using heterogeneous Ni doped ZnO nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, G; Aberna Ebenezer Selvakumari, I; Aiswarya, R

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, castor oil with high free fatty acid was used for biodiesel production using heterogeneous Ni doped ZnO nanocatalyst. Ni doped ZnO nanocomposite calcinated at 800 °C has shown better catalytic activity. Process parameters on heterogeneous catalysis of castor oil into biodiesel were optimized using conventional and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). RSM was found more accurate in estimating the optimum conditions with higher biodiesel yield (95.20%). The optimum conditions for transesterification was found to be oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, catalyst loading 11% (w/w), reaction temperature of 55 °C for 60 min of reaction time by response surface method. The reusability studies showed that the nanocatalyst can be reused efficiently for 3 cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid Production from Microalgae as a Promising Candidate for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Widjaja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several strains of microalgae have been studied as they contain high lipid content capable to be converted to biodiesel. Fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris studied in this research was one of the proof as it contained high triacyl glyceride which made it a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Factors responsible for good growing of microalgae such as CO2 and nitrogen concentration were investigated. It was found that total lipid content was increased after exposing to media with not enough nitrogen concentration. However, under this nitrogen depletion media, the growth rate was very slow leading to lower lipid productivity. The productivity could be increased by increasing CO2 concentration. The lipid content was found to be affected by drying temperature during lipid extraction of algal biomass. Drying at very low temperature under vacuum gave the best result but drying at 60oC slightly decreased the total lipid content.

  11. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol −1 . • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol −1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by 1 H and 13 C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  12. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  13. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U.

    2016-01-01

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only ~16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase, Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes. PMID:27053100

  14. Biodiesel production using blue-green cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshol, Gerben

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about global climate change and diminishing supplies of petroleum, there is a need to develop a clean sustainable alternative. The two main alternative fuels are bioethanol and biodiesel. Production of these biofuels using cyanobacteria is a new promising development. I describe the

  15. Bio-Diesel Production from Oil of Orange ( Citrus Sinensis ) Peels as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, in Nigeria orange peels are considered as a waste, this study is intended to convert the waste into wealth by establishing the production of biodiesel with oil obtained from orange peels; using transeterification process. Oil from sun-dried/ ground orange peels were extractedusing n-hexane. Transesterification ...

  16. Capability of microalgae for local saline sewage treatment towards biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.-C.; Yau, Y.-H.; Ho, K.-C.

    2017-08-01

    Seawater flushing was introduced in Hong Kong since 1950’s. High salinity has an inhibitory effect on nitrification and biological phosphorus uptake of microorganisms. Therefore, saline sewage has impact on traditional biological wastewater treatment. Saline conditions of domestic wastewater then pose opportunity to use algal technology in wastewater treatment. During the treatment (phycoremediation), biodiesel can be produced. This study aims to give an in-depth investigation and development on application of local microalgal strains on biodiesel production. Dunaliella tertiolecta was selected the appropriate algal species with high potential for phycoremediation then biodiesel production. D.tertiolecta was further investigated by optimizing its growth in different process condition in preliminary effluent as based medium. The optimized process condition were acclimated culture with medium initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), under 5% CO2 aerations in preliminary effluent adjust to 15 psu (denoting practical salinity unit). Results showed that lipid content increased from 30.2% to 42%, and biomass productivity reached 463.3 mg L-1day-1 by Fatty acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profile was found for biodiesel production in optimized stage. The treatment period of preliminary effluent was shortened from 15d in original design (unacclimated culture, low initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), without CO2 aeration) to 4d.

  17. Enhancing Biodiesel Production Using Green Glycerol-Enriched Calcium Oxide Catalyst : An Optimization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avhad, Mangesh R.; Gangurde, L.S.; Sánchez, Marcos; Bouaid, Abderrahim; Aracil, José; Martínez, Mercedes; Marchetti, Jorge M.

    2018-01-01

    The present article demonstrates a superior catalytic performance of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide for biodiesel production than other calcium-based counterparts. The proficiency of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide in catalyzing the methanolysis of crude Jatropha curcas oil containing high free

  18. Highly active CaO for the transesterification to biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TMCS) for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was studied. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6% under 65 oC with 15:1 ...

  19. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The pre-treatment of free fatty acids in oils and fats in biodiesel production is of pivotal importance, and esterification in acidic medium must be done prior to basic transesterification of glycerides. The free fatty acids may be converted over an acidic catalyst of sulphonated pyrolysed...

  20. Application of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis to a Kinetic Model for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the added benefits of using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the kinetics of enzymatic biodiesel production. For this study, a kinetic model by Fedosov and co-workers is used. For the uncertainty analysis the Monte Carlo procedure was used to statistically quantify...

  1. Understanding the implication of investing in biodiesel production in South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musango, JK

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available -economic development through, for example, job-creation, which, in turn, would lead to the further economic growth of the Province. The development of biodiesel production value chains is influenced by a number of factors such as producer/supplier profitability...

  2. Novel highly integrated biodiesel production technology in a centrifugal contactor separator device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G. N.; Schuur, B.; van Zwol, F.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The base catalyzed production of biodiesel (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) with integrated reaction and phase separation was studied. The effect of catalyst loading (sodium methoxide), temperature, rotational frequency and flow rates of

  3. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  4. An Improvement in Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Applying Thought Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Corral Bobadilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of natural resources has increased petroleum prices and the environmental impact of oil has stimulated the search for an alternative source of energy such as biodiesel. Waste cooking oil is a potential replacement for vegetable oils in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by direct transesterification of vegetable oils, which is controlled by several inputs or process variables, including the dosage of catalyst, process temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, humidity and impurities of waste cooking oil that was studied in this case. Yield, turbidity, density, viscosity and higher heating value are considered as outputs. This paper used multi-response surface methodology (MRS with desirability functions to find the best combination of input variables used in the transesterification reactions to improve the production of biodiesel. In this case, several biodiesel optimization scenarios have been proposed. They are based on a desire to improve the biodiesel yield and the higher heating value, while decreasing the viscosity, density and turbidity. The results demonstrated that, although waste cooking oil was collected from various sources, the dosage of catalyst is one of the most important variables in the yield of biodiesel production, whereas the viscosity obtained was similar in all samples of the biodiesel that was studied.

  5. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  6. Process design of in situ esterification-transesterifica tion for biodiesel production from residual oil of spent bleaching earth (SBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A.; Mubarok, Z.; Suprihatin; Romli, M.; Yunira, E. N.

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is the largest producer of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in the world. CPO refining process produces spent bleaching earth (SBE), which still contains 20-30% oil. This residual oil is very potential to be developed as a biodiesel feedstock. The purpose of this research was to develop an in situbiodiesel production process of residual oil of SBE, which covered stirring speed of esterification and transesterification and also transesterification time to produce biodiesel with the best characteristics. The production was conducted in a 100 L reactor. The stirring speeds applied were 650 rpm and 730 rpm, and the transesterification time varied at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The combination of 730 rpm stirring speed for 90 minutes transesterification resulted in the best biodiesel characteristics with the yield of 85%, the specific energy of 6,738 kJ/kg and the heater efficiency of 48%. The physico-chemical properties of biodiesel was in conformity with the SNI of Biodiesel.

  7. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, S; Nabetani, H; Nakajima, M

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  8. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  9. Production of biodiesel from microalgae through biological carbon capture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Madhumanti; Goswami, Shrayanti; Ghosh, Ashmita; Oinam, Gunapati; Tiwari, O N; Das, Papita; Gayen, K; Mandal, M K; Halder, G N

    2017-06-01

    Gradual increase in concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere due to the various anthropogenic interventions leading to significant alteration in the global carbon cycle has been a subject of worldwide attention and matter of potential research over the last few decades. In these alarming scenario microalgae seems to be an attractive medium for capturing the excess CO 2 present in the atmosphere generated from different sources such as power plants, automobiles, volcanic eruption, decomposition of organic matters and forest fires. This captured CO 2 through microalgae could be used as potential carbon source to produce lipids for the generation of biofuel for replacing petroleum-derived transport fuel without affecting the supply of food and crops. This comprehensive review strives to provide a systematic account of recent developments in the field of biological carbon capture through microalgae for its utilization towards the generation of biodiesel highlighting the significance of certain key parameters such as selection of efficient strain, microalgal metabolism, cultivation systems (open and closed) and biomass production along with the national and international biodiesel specifications and properties. The potential use of photobioreactors for biodiesel production under the influence of various factors viz., light intensity, pH, time, temperature, CO 2 concentration and flow rate has been discussed. The review also provides an economic overview and future outlook on biodiesel production from microalgae.

  10. Biochemical Modulation of Lipid Pathway in Microalgae Dunaliella sp. for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L−1 myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control. Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L−1 myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that “there is a there there” for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality.

  11. Experimental study on methanol recovery through flashing vaporation in continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cunwen; Chen Wen; Wang Weiguo; Wu Yuanxin; Chi Ruan; Tang Zhengjiao

    2011-01-01

    To improve the oil conversion, high methanol/oil molar ratio is required in the continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol transesterification in tubular reactor. And thus the subsequent excess methanol recovery needs high energy consumption. Based on the feature of high temperature and high pressure in supercritical methanol transesterification, excess methanol recovery in reaction system by flashing vaporation is conducted and the effect of reaction temperature, reaction pressure and flashing pressure on methanol recovery and methanol concentration in gas phase is discussed in detail in this article. Results show that at the reaction pressure of 9-15 MPa and the reaction temperature of 240-300 o C, flashing pressure has significant influence on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase, which can be effectively improved by reducing flashing pressure. At the same time, reaction temperature and reaction pressure also have an important effect on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase. At volume flow of biodiesel and methanol 1:2, tubular reactor pressure 15 MPa, tubular reactor temperature 300 o C and the flashing pressure 0.4 MPa, methanol recovery is more than 85% and methanol concentration of gas phase (mass fraction) is close to 99% after adiabatic braising; therefore, the condensate liquid of gas phase can be injected directly into methanol feedstock tank to be recycled. Research abstracts: Biodiesel is an important alternative energy, and supercritical methanol transesterification is a new and green technology to prepare biodiesel with some obvious advantages. But it also exists some problems: high reaction temperature, high reaction pressure and large molar ratio of methanol/oil will cause large energy consumption which restricts supercritical methanol for the industrial application of biodiesel. So a set of tubular reactor-coupled flashing apparatus is established for continuous preparing biodiesel in supercritical

  12. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  14. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  15. Preparation, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production from sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Nahid; Yaghobi, Nakisa; Ezzati, Rohollah

    2017-06-01

    A series of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts were prepared via a co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. The results showed that with increasing Mg/La weight percent the catalytic activity increases obviously. Also the results showed that the catalyst with Mg/La = 60 wt.% (based on weight of La) is an optimal nanocatalyst. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil = 18/1 at 338 K with mechanical stirring 700 rpm for 5 h. Furthermore, the optimal nanocatalyst showed high catalytic activity for biodiesel production and the biodiesel yield reached 97.7% under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, this nanocatalyst was used for 4 runs in biodiesel production without significant decrease of catalytic performance. Also kinetic and thermodynamic of reaction has been studied in the presence of optimal nanocatalyst. From the kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Ea = 77.6 kJ·mol-1, A = 3.5 × 107 l·mol-1 s-1, ΔrHθ = 162 kJ·mol-1 K-1, ΔrSθ = 0.54 kJ·mol-1 K-1 were obtained. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement methods.

  16. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  17. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  18. Using a wire coil insert for biodiesel production enhancement in a microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghel, Babak; Rahimi, Masoud; Sepahvand, Arash; Alitabar, Mohammad; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic view of microreactor system. - Highlights: • A wire coil insert was used to promote mixing in a biodiesel microreactor. • Advantages of using the wire coil in the microreactor over plain one are shown. • A yield of 99% was obtained in the modified microreactor after 180 s. • RSM and the Box–Behnken method were used to optimize the biodiesel production. • Advantages of using this system over other conventional reactors are illustrated. - Abstract: In the present work, the application of wire coil to promote mixing in a microreactor during continuous production of biodiesel was studied. For this aim, soybean oil as a feedstock and potassium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyzed were used. The influences of the various parameters such as geometric and operational conditions on the performance of biodiesel production were experimentally examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the Box–Behnken method was used to statistically analyze and optimize the biodiesel production process. The comparison between two types of reactors (with and without wire coil) shows a significant enhancement in mixing during transesterification. The impacts of different wire coil lengths and wire coil pitchs on methyl ester conversion were also investigated. A reaction yield of 99% at the residence time of 180 s was obtained in the modified microreactor. However, the measured pressure drop show that the microreactor equipped with wire coil consumed more energy. Therefore, performance ratio was defined to evaluate energy efficiency and the results show the advantage of using the wire coil insert in lower feed flow rates

  19. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  20. Investigation to biodiesel production by the two-step homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Tu, Song; Sha, Yong

    2010-10-01

    For the two-step transesterification biodiesel production made from the sunflower oil, based on the kinetics model of the homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification and the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of the transesterification product, the total methanol/oil mole ratio, the total reaction time, and the split ratios of methanol and reaction time between the two reactors in the stage of the two-step reaction are determined quantitatively. In consideration of the transesterification intermediate product, both the traditional distillation separation process and the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product are investigated in detail by means of the rigorous process simulation. In comparison with the traditional distillation process, the improved separation process of the two-step reaction product has distinct advantage in the energy duty and equipment requirement due to replacement of the costly methanol-biodiesel distillation column. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous Low Cost Transesterification Process for the Production of Coconut Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors (5CSTRs. We tested residence times of 16–43min, stirring speeds of 200–800rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH of 0.25–1 wt% of oil (in gram, different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 °C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 ± 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC.

  2. Production, characterization, and evaluation of the stability of biodiesel obtained from greasy agroindustrial waste during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petenucci, Maria Eugênia; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2017-05-01

    Greasy agroindustrial waste from the process of cooking hog meat was used to produce biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters) under a specific storage condition. The operating conditions necessary to achieve the optimal relationship between quality and productivity were assessed. Next, batches of methyl and ethyl biodiesels were produced, generating 2 L of each product to evaluate their stability during 150 days of storage. The following study indicates that, for methyl route, the molar ratio (1:5) and catalyst (0.5%) yielded the best result of 90.77% (w/v) and quality parameters within the international standards. The ethyl route also showed the highest yield (77.09% w/v) and better quality parameters with a molar ratio (1:5) and catalyst (0.5%). No significant differences were observed in the methyl biodiesel obtained from the batch process for up to 45 days, while the ethyl biodiesel degraded in 30 days of storage.

  3. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5±0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous production of biodiesel from microalgae by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Qiao, Baoquan; Li, Gen; Xue, Song; Yin, Jianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Raw material for biodiesel has been expanded from edible oil to non-edible oil. In this study, biodiesel continuous production for two kinds of microalgae Chrysophyta and Chlorella sp. was conducted. Coupling with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the oil of microalgae was extracted firstly, and then sent to the downstream production of biodiesel. The residue after decompression can be reused as the material for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. Results showed that the particle size of microalgae, temperature, pressure, molar ration of methanol to oil, flow of CO 2 and n-hexane all have effects on the yield of biodiesel. With the optimal operation conditions: 40mesh algae, extraction temperature 60°C, flow of n-hexane 0.4ml/min, reaction temperature: 340°C, pressure: 18-20MPa, CO 2 flow of 0.5L/min, molar ration of methanol to oil 84:1, a yield of 56.31% was obtained for Chrysophyta, and 63.78% for Chlorella sp. due to the higher lipid content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Production of Biodiesels from Multiple Feedstocks and Properties of Biodiesels and Biodiesel/Diesel Blends: Final Report; Report 1 in a Series of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinast, J. A.

    2003-03-01

    In a project sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Institute of Gas Technology is conducting an investigation of biodiesels produced from vegetable and animal based feedstocks. This subcontract report presents their findings.

  6. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Gabriel O.; Almeida, Manuel F.; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C.M.; Dias, Joana M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An alkali metal-glyceroxide heterogeneous catalyst was improved aiming biodiesel production. • Optimized reaction conditions were comparable to homogeneous catalysis. • High yield and good product quality was obtained using refined and waste oil. • The catalyst could be reused four times and prepared using methanol or ethanol. - Abstract: In the present work, biodiesel production using a glycerol enriched heterogeneous catalyst was studied. For that purpose, the catalyst performance at different glycerol concentrations and reaction conditions (under ambient atmosphere) was evaluated and two triglyceride sources were used. The most active catalyst was produced using CaO, glycerol and methanol at a mass ratio of 1:1.6:13.4, respectively. By performing the transesterification reaction under ambient atmosphere during 2 h at 333 K, using 0.4 wt.% of catalyst and 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, a good quality product was obtained (EN 14214) using both soybean oil and waste frying oil. The catalyst could be re-used during four cycles and could also be prepared by using ethanol instead of methanol (with differences <4% on product conversion). The glycerol by-product, being rich in calcium soaps, might additionally be used for the enrichment of animal diets. The present process allowed the production of biodiesel from different triglyceride sources using a very active heterogeneous catalyst at competitive reaction conditions compared to the homogeneous process and also enabled a two-way recycling of the glycerol by-product

  7. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  8. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  9. Production of Biodiesel from Oleic Acid and Methanol by Reactive Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. Generally, it is formed by transesterification reaction of triglycerides in the vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol. In this work, esterification reaction was carried out using oleic acid, methanol and sulphuric acid as a catalyst by reactive distillation method. In order to determine the best conditions for biodiesel production by reactive distillation, the experiments were carried out at different temperature (100 oC, 120 oC, 150 oC and 180 oC using methanol/oleic acid molar ratios (1:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 8:1, catalyst/ oleic acid molar ratios (0.5%wt, 1%wt, 1.5%wt and 2%wt and reaction times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Results at temperature 180 oC, methanol/ oleic acid molar ratio of 8:1, amount of catalyst 1% for 90 minute reaction time gives the highest conversion of oleic acid above 0.9571. Biodiesel product from oleic acid was analysed by ASTM (American Standard for Testing Material. The results show that the biodiesel produced has the quality required to be a diesel substitute. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 1st January 2010, Revised: 18th March 2010; Accepted: 18th March 2010[How to Cite: K. Kusmiyati, A. Sugiharto. (2010. Production of Biodiesel from Oleic Acid and Methanol by Reactive Distillation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(1: 1-6. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.37.1-6][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.37.1-6

  10. Efficient solvothermal wet in situ transesterification of Nannochloropsis gaditana for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Chang, Yong Keun; Lee, Jae W

    2017-05-01

    In situ transesterification of wet microalgae is a promising, simplified alternative biodiesel production process that replaces multiple operations of cell drying, extraction, and transesterification reaction. This study addresses enhanced biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana at elevated temperatures. Compared with the previously reported in situ transesterification process of conducting the reaction at a temperature ranging from 95 to 125 °C, the present work employs higher temperatures of at least 150 °C. This relatively harsh condition allows much less acid catalyst with or without co-solvent to be used during this single extraction-conversion process. Without any co-solvent, 0.58% (v/v) of H 2 SO 4 in the reaction medium can achieve 90 wt% of the total lipid conversion to biodiesel at 170 °C when the moisture content of wet algal paste is 80 wt%. Here, the effects of temperature, acid catalyst, and co-solvent on the FAEE yield and specification were scrutinized, and the reaction kinetic was investigated to understand the solvothermal in situ transesterification reaction at the high temperature. Having a biphasic system (water/chloroform) during the reaction also helped to meet biodiesel quality standard EN 14214, as Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ cations and phosphorus were detected only below 5 ppm. With highlights on the economic feasibility, wet in situ transesterification at the high temperature can contribute to sustainable production of biodiesel from microalgae by reducing the chemical input and relieve the burden of extensive post purification process, therefore a step towards green process.

  11. Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silitonga, A.S.; Chong, W.T.; Leong, K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calophyllum inophyllum has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. • Acid and base catalyzed transesterification processes was used to produce biodiesel. • The physiochemical properties of CIME fulfilled specification of ASTM D6751. • Engine performance and emission are conducted for CIME and its blends. - Abstract: In the present study, crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CCIO) has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. C.inophyllum oil has high acid value which is 59.30 mg KOH/g. Therefore, the degumming, esterification, neutralization and transesterification process are carried out to reduce the acid value to 0.34 mg KOH/g. The optimum yield was obtained at 9:1 methanol to oil ratio with 1 wt.%. NaOH catalyst at 50 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, the C.inophyllum biodiesel properties fulfilled the specification of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. After that, the C.inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends were tested to evaluate the engine performance and emission characteristic. The performance and emission of 10% C.inophyllum biodiesel blends (CIB10) give a satisfactory result in diesel engines as the brake thermal increase 2.30% and fuel consumption decrease 3.06% compared to diesel. Besides, CIB10 reduces CO and smoke opacity compared to diesel. In short, C.inophyllum biodiesel can become an alternative fuel in the future

  12. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Native Microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon with Potential for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Cobos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from microalgae triacylglycerols is growing, because this feedstock is a more sustainable and advantageous alternative. In this study, we isolated and identified fourteen strains of native microalgae from the Peruvian Amazon. These strains showed great heterogeneity in biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content, and thus, three of them (Acutodesmus obliquus, Ankistrodesmus sp. and Chlorella lewinii were selected for further evaluation under culture of nitrogen-sufficient (+N and nitrogen-deficient (−N Chu medium No. 10. These microalgae species showed modifications in biomolecule content (protein, lipid and carbohydrate with a pronounced increase of lipids and carbohydrate and a decrease of protein content under stress culture. Furthermore, the fatty acid profile was peculiar for each species, and these patterns showed evident changes, particularly in the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The results of this research suggest that the isolated native microalgae, from the Peruvian Amazon, could be suitable candidates for biodiesel production

  14. Biodiesel production from microalgal isolates of southern Pakistan and quantification of FAMEs by GC-MS/MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus. Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18 by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS, using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation.

  15. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed...... stocks is to employ acid catalysis, which is slow and requires a large excess of methanol, orto evaporate FFA and convert that in a separate process. An attractive option would be to convert the FFA in oil feedstocks to FAME, before introducing it into the alkaline process. The high selectivity of enzyme......, an assessment of process stability in a continuous packed bed system indicates that as much as 15m3 oil could potentially be pretreated by 1 kg of biocatalyst at the given process conditions....

  16. Production and characterization of biodiesel using palm kernel oil; fresh and recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Aladetuyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel oil (PKO was recovered from spent bleaching earth with a yield of 16 %, using n-hexane while the fresh oil was extracted from palm kernel with n-hexane and a yield of 40.23% was obtained. These oils were trans-esterified with methanol under the same reaction conditions: 100 oC, 2 h reaction time, and oil-methanol ratio of 5:1 (w/v. The cocoa pod ash (CPA was compared with potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst. The percentage yields of biodiesel obtained from PKO catalysed by CPA and KOH were 94 and 90%, respectively. While the yields achieved using the recovered oil catalysed by CPA and KOH were measured at 86 and 81.20 %. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that the flash point, viscosity, density, ash content, percentage carbon content, specific gravity and the acid value fell within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The findings of this study suggest that agricultural residues such as CPA used in this study could be explored as alternatives for KOH catalyst for biodiesel production.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  18. Sonication-assisted production of biodiesel using soybean oil and supercritical methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrishnan, Sriramulu; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Seok-Hwan; Indrawan, Natarianto; Rahman, Siti Fauziyah; Park, Don-Hee

    2013-06-01

    High temperature and pressure are generally required to produce biodiesel using supercritical methanol. We reduced the harsh reaction conditions by means of sonicating the reaction mixture prior to transesterification using supercritical methanol. Soybean oil was selected as the raw material for transesterification. As soybean oil contains more unsaturated fatty acid triglycerides, the biodiesel degraded more at high temperature. The reactants were sonicated for 60 min at 35 °C prior to transesterification to avoid degradation of the product and to enhance biodiesel yield at temperatures methanol molar ratio. The temperature and oil to methanol molar ratios were varied from 250 to 280 °C and 1:40-1:50, respectively. The reaction time was tested between 4 and 12 min. The biodiesel was analyzed for any possible degradation by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and for the wt% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained. The maximum FAME yield (84.2 wt%) was obtained at a temperature of 265.7 °C, an oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:44.7, and a time of 8.8 min. The optimum yield was obtained at a pressure of 1,500 psi. The pressure and optimum temperature used to obtain the maximum yield were the lowest reported so far without the use of a co-solvent. Thus, the severity of the supercritical reactions was reduced by adding sonication prior to the reaction.

  19. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  20. Modeling of biodiesel production in algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion (ACAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morken, John; Sapci, Zehra; Strømme, Jon Eivind T.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a model of an ecotechnology that combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion in order to recycle nutrients and to reduce the need for external energy. The concept is to convert organic waste into several products, such as electricity, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. It is labeled as the ACAD biorefinery. The simulation model of the ACAD biorefinery proved itself to be a powerful tool for understanding the symbioses and dynamics of the system, and therefore also a good tool for reaching political decisions. The model shows that the ACAD biorefinery could be totally independent of external energy supplies. Energy calculations indicate that more energy can be produced by combining the algae cultivation and anaerobic digestion processes. For every unit of energy entering the system in feedstock, 0.6 units of energy are exported as either biodiesel or electricity. The exported electricity accounts for approximately 30% of the total exported energy, while the remaining 70% is exported as biodiesel. By producing its own energy, the biorefinery improves its renewability and level of carbon neutrality. - Highlights: • The model combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion. • In the model nutrients and carbon dioxide are recycled. • Organic waste is converted into electrical power, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. • Results showed that more energy can be produced by combining the processes

  1. Economic and ecological aspects of biodiesel production over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Ferenc E.; Boskovic, Goran C. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad (RS); Jovanovic, Milenko [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad (RS)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the economic and ecological differences of biodiesel production over homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts in large-scale industrial plants. Comparative economic assessment of the two processes revealed the advantage of the heterogeneous process in terms of higher yield of biodiesel and higher purity of glycerine, lower cost of catalyst and maintenance, with an estimated cumulative impact on the reduction of the operating cost of US$59 per tonne of biodiesel, relative to the homogeneous process. The biggest challenge for its economic competitiveness is its higher energy consumption. The analysis showed that if the energy costs are below US$85 per tonne of biodiesel, the heterogeneous process can be economically viable. The environmental benefits of the heterogeneous process include absence of strong acids and of energy intensive and waste generating glycerine purification step. However, its application would contribute to depletion of fossil energy resources and higher emission of greenhouse gases due to higher energy and methanol consumption. (author)

  2. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil by transesterification using heterogeneous catalyst natural zeolite modified with K2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim; Iriany; Bani, O.; Parinduri, S. Z. D. M.; Ningsih, P. R. W.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, an effort had been made to use natural zeolite from Tapanuli Utara, North Sumatera as a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Biodiesel production is usuallythrough transesterification, and a catalyst is employed to improve reaction rate and yield. In this research rice bran oil (RBO) was used as feedstock. The objective of this work was to discover the effectiveness of natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 as catalysts in biodiesel production from RBO. K2CO3/natural zeolite catalyst modification was by impregnation method at various K2CO3 concentrations followed by drying and calcination. Transesterification was conducted at 65°C and 500 rpm. Effect of process variables such as the amount of catalyst, reaction time, and the molar ratio of methanol to RBO was investigated.The maximum yield of 98.18% biodiesel was obtained by using 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to RBO at a reaction time of 3 hours in the presence of 4 w% catalyst. The obtained biodiesel was then characterized by its density, viscosity and ester content. The biodiesel properties met the Indonesia standard (SNI).The results showed that natural zeolite modified by K2CO3 was suitable as a catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel through transesterification from RBO.

  3. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L D; Li, Z H; Hiltunen, E

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES OF SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES BY MICROORGANISMS USING WASTE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here literature and our experimental data concerning microbial synthesis using waste biodiesel production, mono- and dihydric alcohols (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, butanol, ethanol, polyols (mannitol, erythritol, arabitol, organic acids (citric, succinic, lactic, glyceric, polymers and compounds with a complex structure (polysaccharides, polyhydroxyalkanoates, surfactants, cephalosporin, cyanocobalamin. In some mentioned cases recombinant producer strains were used. It was shown that due to the presence of potential inhibitors in the composition of technical (crude glycerol (methanol, sodium and potassium salts, the efficiency of synthesis of most microbial products on such a substrate is lower than on the purified glycerol. However, the need of utilization of this toxic waste (storage and processing of crude glycerol is a serious environmental problem due to the high alkalinity and the content of methanol in it, compensates the lower rates of synthesis of the final product. Furthermore, currently considering the volumes of crude glycerol formed during the production of biodiesel, microbial technologies are preferred for its utilization, allowing realizing biosynthesis of practically valuable metabolites in the environment with the highest possible concentration of this waste. Using of crude glycerol as a substrate will reduce the cost of products of microbial synthesis and increase the profitability of biodiesel production.

  5. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.

  6. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production. PMID:27725942

  7. Study on the Production of Biodiesel by Magnetic Cell Biocatalyst Based on Lipase-Producing Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ming; Chen, Guanyi

    Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils by a magnetic cell biocatalyst (MCB) immobilized in hydrophobic magnetic polymicrosphere is studied here. The cells of lipase-producing Bacillus subtilis were encapsulated within the net of hydrophobic carrier with magnetic particles (Fe3O4), and the secreted lipase can be conjugated with carboxyl at the magnetic polymicrosphere surface. Environmental scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and vibrating magnetometer, and so on were used to characterize the MCB. The MCB was proved to be superparamagnetic; and could be recovered by magnetic separation; moreover it could be regenerated under 48 h of cultivation. When methanolysis is carried out using MCB with waste cooking oils under stepwise additions of methanol, the methyl esters in the reaction mixture reaches about 90% after 72h reaction in a solvent-free system. The process presented here is environmentally friendly and simple without purification and immobilized process required by the current lipase-catalyzed process. Therefore, the process is very promising for development of biodiesel fuel industry.

  8. Synthesis of seaweed based carbon acid catalyst by thermal decomposition of ammonium sulfate for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Tang Zo; Lim, Steven; Ling, Pang Yean; Huei, Wong Kam; Chyuan, Ong Hwai

    2017-04-01

    Experiment was carried out to study the feasibility of biomass derived solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesel using Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD). Malaysia indigenous seaweed was selected as the biomass to be carbonized as the catalyst support. Sulfonation of seaweed based carbon material was carried out by thermal decomposition of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4. The effects of carbonization temperature at 200 to 600°C on the catalyst physical and chemical properties were studied. The effect of reaction parameters on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was studied by varying the concentration of ammonium sulfate (5.0 to 40.0 w/v%) and thermal decomposition time (15 to 90 min). Characterizations of catalyst were carried out to study the catalyst surface morphology with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), acid density with back titration and functional group attached with FT-IR. Results showed that when the catalyst sulfonated with 10.0 w/v% ammonium sulfate solution and heated to 235°C for 30 min, the highest FAME yield achieved was 23.7% at the reaction condition of 5.0 wt.% catalyst loading, esterification time of 4 h, methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 20:1 at 100°C reaction temperature.

  9. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Rohit, M V; Chiranjeevi, P; Chandra, Rashmi; Navaneeth, B

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-Environmental Impact Assessment of Oleaginous Crops for Biodiesel Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Socio-environmental impact assessments were carried out on oleaginous crops for biodiesel production under the context of expanding demand in five regions of Brazil. The study brought together representatives of the main interest groups in Delphi-type workshops. Major impacts are related with increases in demand for inputs, resources, and energy, with potential risks on water quality and habitat conservation. In some instances, management practices may improve soil quality, favoring habitats recovery. Crop intensification is expected to bring important contributions for farmer capacitation, income generation and sources diversity, as well as improved management and administration. Institutional especially designed local productive arrangements offer the best options for fostering sustainable development and avoiding environmental degradation risks, under the scenario of expanding demand on oleaginous crops for biodiesel production.

  11. The effect of algae species on biodiesel and biogas production observed by using a data model combines algae cultivation with an anaerobic digestion (ACAD) and a biodiesel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapci, Zehra; Morken, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined ACAD-biorefinery based model was investigated. • The model was implemented in the data analysis program MathCad. • Three different scenarios were modeled. • Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis sp. and Haematococcus pluvialis were evaluated. - Abstract: The influence of an algae species based on the biodiesel yield was investigated by using a combined plant model from the literature. The model has six different processes: algal cultivation, the flocculation and separation process, biodiesel production, anaerobic digestion, scrubbing, and combined heat and power (CHP). The data model in the literature was operated with the values for Chlorella vulgaris. To investigate the roles of the algae species on the biodiesel yield in the model, two different algae species, Nannochloropsis sp. and Haematococcus pluvialis, were selected. Depending on the data from these algae in the literature, three different scenarios were modeled in the study. The model shows that all of the scenarios for biodiesel production can be totally independent of an external energy supply. Energy estimations for all of the applications scenarios show that the system produces more energy than the amount that is required for the processing operation

  12. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Turra de Ávila, Márcio; Pacca, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m 3 ha −1 y −1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha −1 y −1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  13. Screening of freshwater and seawater microalgae strains in fully controlled photobioreactors for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, A; Kandilian, R; Touchard, R; Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Taha, S; Takache, H; Marchal, L; Legrand, J; Pruvost, J

    2016-10-01

    Strain selection is one of the primary hurdles facing cost-effective microalgal biodiesel production. Indeed, the strain used affects both upstream and downstream biodiesel production processes. This study presents a screening procedure that considers the most significant criteria in microalgal biodiesel production including TAG production and wet extraction and recovery of TAGs. Fourteen freshwater and seawater strains were investigated. Large variation was observed between the strains in all the screening criteria. The overall screening procedure ultimately led to the identification of Parachlorella kessleri UTEX2229 and Nannochloropsis gaditana CCMP527 as the best freshwater and seawater strains, respectively. They featured the largest areal TAG productivity equal to 2.7×10(-3) and 2.3×10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1), respectively. These two strains also displayed encouraging cell fragility in a high pressure bead milling process with 69% and 98% cell disruption at 1750bar making them remarkable strains for TAG extraction in wet environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  15. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwei Voon; Juan, Joon Ching; Binti Abdullah, Nurul Fitriyah; Nizah Mf, Rabiah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65°C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.

  16. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  17. Biodiesel production and Environmental CO2 cleanup using Oleaginous Microorganisms from Al-Hassa area in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sinawi, Abdulaziz; Shathele, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. Algae oil is one of the viable feed stocks among others to produce Biodiesel. However the difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie not in the extraction of the oil, but in finding an algal strain with a high lipid content and fast growth rate. This paper presents an experimental work performed to study the production of biodiesel from local algae strains in Al-Hassa territory of the eastern province in Saudi Arabia which was found to contain high lipid contents and show rapid growth. The collected results predict that those types of desert algae are promising and are considered to be a potential feedstock for biofuels.

  18. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, presenting however, high production cost. With the objective of reducing costs and increasing the efficiency we have searched the enzymes immobilization through alternative method and to use them as biocatalysts in the biodiesel production. The immobilization of the lipase PS Amano was accomplished in spheres formed by the hydration of commercial hydrogel in aqueous solution containing the enzyme. With the immobilized enzyme it was accomplished the transesterification, in which it was obtained conversions in methyl esters of up to 70%, in organic solvent, with 24h, 55°C, 100 rpm and 40 hydrogel spheres with immobilized enzyme. The method comes as a promising alternative technology for the biodiesel obtaining.

  19. Optimization of non-catalytic transesterification of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed oil using supercritical methanol to biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Martínez, Nuria; Andreo-Martínez, Pedro; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Pérez de los Ríos, Antonia Pérez; Chica, Antonio; Beneito-Ruiz, Rubén; Carratalá-Abril, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel from tobacco oil was produced by non-catalytic supercritical methanolysis. • Maximum experimental yield of FAMEs (92.8%) was reached at 300 °C and 90 min. • Optimal conditions by RSM (303.4 °C and 90 min) predicted a maximum FAME yield of 91.1%. • Thermal decomposition of biodiesel was observed above 325 °C and 60 min of reaction. • Glycerol generated at 300 °C and 90 min was degraded and incorporated to the biodiesel. - Abstract: The biodiesel production from non-edible oils has high potential as renewable and ecological fuel. Few researches have been conducted to date on the production of biodiesel from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seed oil. The aim of this study was to optimize the biodiesel production from this crude oil by non-catalytic supercritical methanolysis using response surface methodology (RSM). Triglyceride conversion, total and individual FAME yield, monoglyceride and diglyceride yield, and thermal decomposition degree of biodiesel were determined in the temperature and reaction time ranges of 250–350 °C (12–43 MPa) and 15–90 min, respectively, at a fixed methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. According to the RSM, the optimal conditions were 303.4 °C and 90 min, reaching a predicted maximum FAME yield of 91.1 ± 3.2 mol%. This maximum was very close to that obtained experimentally (92.8 ± 2.1 mol%) at 300 °C and 90 min. Decomposition of biodiesel became evident at 325 °C and 60 min of reaction due to the thermal instability of unsaturated methyl esters (methyl linoleate and oleate). The biodiesel obtained in the best experimental reaction conditions (300 °C and 90 min), where no thermal decomposition of FAMEs was observed, contained most of the byproduct glycerol generated, which was degraded and incorporated to the product. This biodiesel basically failed to meet the content of FAMEs as required by the standard EN 14214, the content of monoglycerides and total glycerol, and the acid value, being a

  20. Real-Time Model Based Process Monitoring of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model f......, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.......In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model...

  1. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Hindryawati, Noor; Nurfitri, Irma; Jose, Rajan; Ab. Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Yusoff, Mashitah M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanter cake as a potential waste feedstock for biodiesel production. • Ultrasound-aided transesterification achieving nearly 86% conversion in 1 h. • Boiler ash, a waste product, was successfully used as a catalyst. - Abstract: Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 ± 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 °C

  2. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  3. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.; Dube, M.A.; McLean, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kates, M. [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    The reaction kinetics of acid-catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil in excess methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for possible use as biodiesel, was studied. Rate of mixing, feed composition (molar ratio oil:methanol:acid) and temperature were independent variables. There was no significant difference in the yield of FAME when the rate of mixing was in the turbulent range 100 to 600rpm. The oil:methanol:acid molar ratios and the temperature were the most significant factors affecting the yield of FAME. At 70{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios of 1:245:3.8, and at 80{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios in the range 1:74:1.9-1:245:3.8, the transesterification was essentially a pseudo-first-order reaction as a result of the large excess of methanol which drove the reaction to completion (99+/-1% at 4h). In the presence of the large excess of methanol, free fatty acids present in the waste oil were very rapidly converted to methyl esters in the first few minutes under the above conditions. Little or no monoglycerides were detected during the course of the reaction, and diglycerides present in the initial waste oil were rapidly converted to FAME. (author)

  4. Biodiesel production by using lipase immobilized onto novel silica-based hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Garcia, Annick Babeau; Oestreicher, Victor; Durand, Fabien; Backov, Renal [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Deleuze, Herve [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Laurent, Guillaume; Sanchez, Clement [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    The covalent immobilization of crude lipases within silica-based macroporous frameworks have been performed by combining sol-gel process, concentrated direct emulsion, lyotropic mesophase and post-synthesis functionalizations. The assynthesized open cell hybrid monoliths exhibit high macroscopic porosity, around 90%, providing interconnected scaffold while reducing the diffusion low kinetic issue. The entrapment of enzymes in such foams deals with a high stability over esterification of fatty acids, hydrolysis of triglycerides (not shown herein) and biodiesel production by transesterification. (orig.)

  5. Biodiesel fuel production with solid amorphous-zirconia catalysis in fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Satoshi; Matsuhashi, Hiromi; Arata, Kazushi

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous zirconia catalysts, titanium-, aluminum-, and potassium-doped zirconias, were prepared and evaluated in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol at 250 deg. C, and the esterification of n-octanoic acid with methanol at 175-200 deg. C. Titanium- and aluminum-doped zirconias are promising solid catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuels from soybean oil because of their high performance, with over 95% conversion in both of the esterifications

  6. The utilization of hydroxyapatite-supported CaO-CeO2 catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Guanyi; Shan, Rui; Ma, Wenchao; Liu, Changye

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite derived from waste animal bones was served as the support for bimetallic CaO-CeO 2 catalyst. • The 30%CaO-CeO 2 /HAP-650 catalyst exhibited excellent performance on biodiesel production. • The yield of FAME was 84.4 % after eight cycles. • Minor leaching concentrations of cerium and calcium species were detected in the product. - Abstract: The study investigated the effect of a bimetallic supported catalyst in biodiesel production. Calcined waste bone derived hydroxyapatite (HAP), a solid waste from animal, was served as the support for CaO-CeO 2 catalyst. Various characterization techniques such as FT-IR, BET, SEM-EDS, CO 2 -TPD and XRD analysis were used to analyse the activity of this heterogeneous catalyst. The effect of main parameters in preparation process such as calcination temperature and active component loading on catalyst performance were discussed to obtain the optimal preparation conditions. Under the optimal reaction conditions (11 wt.% dosage of 30%CaO-CeO 2 /HAP-650 catalyst and 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 65 °C for 3 h) the highest biodiesel yield of 91.84% was obtained. Stability test indicated that the yield (84.4%) of fatty acid methyl ester was produced after 8 re-used cycles due to the low leaching of catalyst components. The experimental results showed that biodiesel production cost might be lowered while producing relatively high yield at the present of long life-span catalyst.

  7. In vitro degradation and total gas production of byproducts generated in the biodiesel production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Kiara oliveira de Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro degradation and total gas production of different oil seed press cakes from a biodiesel production chain gas through the use of a semi-automatic technique of gas production in vitro. The treatments consisted of substituting elephant grass in increasing levels, 0%, 30, 50 and 70%, with the byproducts of Gossyypium hirsutum, Ricinus communis, Moringa oleifeira, Jatropha curcas and Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira had the highest rate of in vitro degradation of dry matter compared with other foods but did not result in a higher final volume of gases production. Gossyypium hirsutum, Pinhão manso curcas and Ricinus communis showed a higher in vitro degradability of similar dry matter. The highest total gas production was obtained by the oil seed press cakes of Helianthus annus. The oil seed press cakes of Moringa oleifeira can replace elephant grass up to 70% and therefore reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and energy loss for the animal.

  8. Production of Aspergillus niger biomass on sugarcane distillery wastewater: physiological aspects and potential for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuppa-Tostain, Graziella; Hoarau, Julien; Watson, Marie; Adelard, Laetitia; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Grondin, Isabelle; Bourven, Isabelle; Francois, Jean-Marie; Girbal-Neuhauser, Elisabeth; Petit, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane distillery waste water (SDW) or vinasse is the residual liquid waste generated during sugarcane molasses fermentation and alcohol distillation. Worldwide, this effluent is responsible for serious environmental issues. In Reunion Island, between 100 and 200 thousand tons of SDW are produced each year by the three local distilleries. In this study, the potential of Aspergillus niger to reduce the pollution load of SDW and to produce interesting metabolites has been investigated. The fungal biomass yield was 35 g L -1 corresponding to a yield of 0.47 g of biomass/g of vinasse without nutrient complementation. Analysis of sugar consumption indicated that mono-carbohydrates were initially released from residual polysaccharides and then gradually consumed until complete exhaustion. The high biomass yield likely arises from polysaccharides that are hydrolysed prior to be assimilated as monosaccharides and from organic acids and other complex compounds that provided additional C-sources for growth. Comparison of the size exclusion chromatography profiles of raw and pre-treated vinasse confirmed the conversion of humic- and/or phenolic-like molecules into protein-like metabolites. As a consequence, chemical oxygen demand of vinasse decreased by 53%. Interestingly, analysis of intracellular lipids of the biomass revealed high content in oleic acid and physical properties relevant for biodiesel application. The soft-rot fungus A. niger demonstrated a great ability to grow on vinasse and to degrade this complex and hostile medium. The high biomass production is accompanied by a utilization of carbon sources like residual carbohydrates, organic acids and more complex molecules such as melanoidins. We also showed that intracellular lipids from fungal biomass can efficiently be exploited into biodiesel.

  9. Numerical investigation of a bubble-column photo-bioreactor design for biodiesel production from microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, I.H.; Lee, I.B.; Hwang, H.S.; Hong, S.W.; Bitog, J.P.; Kwon, K.S.; Choi, J.S.; Song, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of). Dept. of Rural Systems Engineering and Research Inst. for Agriculture and Life Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel made from vegetable oil is among the most desirable of renewable energy sources because it can be a substitute for diesel oil. However, biodiesel from soybean or corn can be confronted with a food crisis. Microalgae is a new biodiesel source which contains high oil lipids with a high growth rate, and which also offers value-added products from the residue, such as cosmetics, health functional food or pharmaceuticals. Microalgae are best cultivated in photo-bioreactors (PBRs) where light, nutrients, carbon dioxide and temperature can be controlled. Despite the current availability of PBRs, only a few can be practically used for mass production. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used in this study to design an optimum bubble-column PBR for mass production of microalgae. Multi-phase models including bubble movement, meshes and time step independent tests were considered to develop the 3-dimensional CFD model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) tests were used to enhance and validate the model. Different types of PBRs were simulated and compared quantitatively with the microalgae's growth model.

  10. Study of the fluid flow pattern in a bubble column reactor for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, A. A.; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-09-01

    The applications of bubble column reactor (BCR) are very important as multiphase reactors in process industry. In biodiesel production, one of the reactors that are used is BCR. The advantages of BCR are low operating cost and maintenance due to the compactness and no moving parts. It is important to understand the nature of hydrodynamics and operational parameters to characterize their operation, including gas superficial velocity and bubble rise velocity to make the design and scale-up process. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to evaluate the performance of BCR at lower cost compared to the experimental setup for biodiesel production. In this work, a commercial CFD software, FLUENT 14.0 was used for modeling of gas-liquid flow in a BCR for biodiesel production. Multiphase simulations were performed using an Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model. In this study, the simulation was conducted by using three different temperature, which are 523 K, 543 K and 563 K. The CFD result predicts the turbulent kinetic energy, gas hold-up and the liquid velocity were fairly good, although the results seem to suggest that further improvement on the interface exchange models and possibly further refine the two-fluid modeling approaches are necessary especially for the liquid velocity and turbulent kinetic energy.

  11. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 isolated from Antarctica: a suitable renewable lipid source for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Gong, Yangmin; Fang, Xiantao; Hu, Hanhua

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal lipids are promising alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1, an oil-rich freshwater microalga isolated from Antarctica, was identified to be a suitable candidate to produce biodiesel in this study. This strain could grow at temperatures ranging from 4 to 35 °C. With regular decrease in nitrate concentration in the medium, large quantities of triacylglycerols accumulated under batch culture conditions detected by thin layer chromatography and BODIPY 505/515 fluorescent staining. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 achieved the average biomass productivity of 0.105 g l⁻¹ d⁻¹ (dry weight) and nearly the highest lipid content (35 % of dry cell weight) was reached at day 28 in the batch culture. Neutral lipids accounted for 78 % of total lipids, and C18:1 (n-9), C16:0 were the major fatty acids in total lipids, composing 37 and 20 % of total fatty acids of Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 grown for 36 days, respectively. These results suggested that Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 was a good source of microalgal oils for biodiesel production.

  12. A two-stage enzymatic ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M

    2012-12-31

    A two-stage enzymatic process for producing fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) in a packed bed reactor is reported. The process uses an experimental immobilized lipase (NS 88001) and Novozym 435 to catalyze transesterification (first stage) and esterification (second stage), respectively. Both stages were conducted in a simulated series of reactors by repeatedly passing the reaction mixture through a single reactor, with separation of the by-product glycerol and water between passes in the first and second stages, respectively. The second stage brought the major components of biodiesel to 'in-spec' levels according to the European biodiesel specifications for methanol-based biodiesel. The highest overall productivity achieved in the first stage was 2.52 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)⁻¹ h⁻¹ at a superficial velocity of 7.6 cm min⁻¹, close to the efficiency of a stirred tank reactor under similar conditions. The overall productivity of the proposed two-stage process was 1.56 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)⁻¹ h⁻¹. Based on this process model, the challenges of scale-up have been addressed and potential continuous process options have been proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  16. Mixotrophic transition induced lipid productivity in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under stress conditions for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Ratnapuram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of mixotrophic mode and its transition to various trophic modes under stress conditions was assessed during two stage cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Significant lipid productivity was triggered under low light intensity, glucose + bicarbonate supplementation and nitrogen starvation. The association between biomass and lipid productivity, fatty acid composition during mixotrophic transition was critically evaluated. Biomass in growth phase (GP and stress phase (SP was 6.14 g/l and 5.14 g/l, respectively, in mixotrophic mode. Higher lipid productivity of 284 g/kg and 154.3 g/kg of neutral lipids was achieved in SP in mixotrophic-mixotrophic (MM and mixotrophic-heterotrophic (MH modes, respectively. Stress conditions resulted in high unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in MH mode. In addition, neutral lipid content was 58% in MH and 52% in MM, that can be attributed to carbon source that is supplemented even in stress phase. Exploring such novel strategies can generate sustainable avenues for biodiesel production.

  17. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Aoki, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste c...

  18. One-step production of biodiesel from Nannochloropsis sp. on solid base Mg-Zr catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuesong; Lian, Shuang; Tong, Dongmei; Song, Ruili; Yang, Wenyan; Fan, Yong; Qing, Renwei; Hu, Changwei

    2011-01-01

    Nannochloropsis sp., one kind of green microalgae cultivated autotrophically and axenically in laboratory, is used as raw material to produce biodiesel by one-step method in an amended reactor. The effects of several reaction parameters on transesterification over Mg-Zr solid base catalyst were investigated through both conventional method and one-step method. One-step method could give a higher yield of methyl ester than conventional two-step method, which demonstrates that the present one-step method is suitable for biodiesel production from the microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. Moreover, the present one-step method realizes the convenient in situ separation of catalyst from microalgae residue which can be easily used consequently, reducing the procedure units as well as the overall costs.

  19. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiesel production via the transesterification of soybean oil using waste starfish (Asterina pectinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Beom; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ko, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 °C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.