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Sample records for biodegradation du 2-ethylhexyl

  1. Biodegradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in a typical tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo de Moura Carrara, Silvia Marta; Morita, Dione Mari [Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Boscov, Maria Eugenia Gimenez, E-mail: meboscov@usp.br [Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scarce literature on contamination of tropical soils by phthalates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of mobility of DEHP in a tropical soil by infiltration tests showed that DEHP is retained in the upper layer of the soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low air and water permeability indicate that in situ bioremediation is not feasible for this soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Respirometric tests were inadequate to investigate biodegradation because tropical soils are acidic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slurry-phase reactor with cement mixer provided significant biodegradation (99% in 49 days). - Abstract: The aim of this research was to evaluate the possibility of biodegradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), widely used as an industrial plasticizer and considered an endocrine-disrupting chemical included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority list, in a Brazilian tropical soil, which has not been previously reported in the literature, despite the geographic importance of tropical soils. Preliminary laboratory testing comprised respirometric, air and water permeability, and pilot scale infiltration tests. Standard respirometric tests were found inadequate for studying biodegradation in tropical contaminated soils, due to the effect of the addition of significant amounts of calcium carbonate, necessary to adjust soil pH. Pilot scale infiltration tests performed for 5 months indicated that DEHP was retained in the superficial layer of the soil, barely migrating downwards, whereas air and water permeability tests discarded in situ bioremediation. However, ex situ bioremediation was possible, using a slurry-phase reactor with acclimated microorganisms, in pilot scale tests conducted to remediate a total mass of 150 kg of contaminated soil with 100 mg DEHP/kg. The removal of DEHP in the slurry-phase reactor achieved the percentage of 99% in 49 days, with biodegradation following a first

  2. Effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation on biodegradation of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Surampalli, R Y

    2011-02-01

    The presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolites, i.e. 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-ethylhexanoic acid in wastewater sludge (WWS) were investigated during aerobic digestion and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based fermentation of WWS. Ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment was applied to improve biodegradability of WWS and bioavailability of the target compounds for digestion and fermentation. DEHP and 2-ethylhexanoic acid were observed at higher concentration, meanwhile 2-ethylhexanol and 2-ethylhexanal were observed at lower concentration in WWS. After 20-day aerobic digestion, DEHP removal was 72%, 89%, and 85%, and 2-ethylhexanoic acid removal was 71%, 84%, 79%, respectively for raw, ultrasonicated, and Fenton-oxidized sludges. Bt was found to degrade DEHP, leading to DEHP removal of 21%, 40%, and 30%, respectively for raw, ultrasonicated, and Fenton-oxidized sludges in the fermentation. The results suggested that aerobic stabilization and Bt-based fermentation can remove the phthalates, and pre-treatment of WWS was also effective in improvement of DEHP biodegradation. Hence, Bt-based biopesticide production from WWS can be applied safely when taking into consideration the phthalate contaminants.

  3. Biodegradation of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Elodie; Kerhoas, Lucien; Lettere, Martine; Jouanneau, Yves; Marchal, Rémy

    2008-01-01

    2-Ethyhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) is a major additive of fuel that is used to increase the cetane number of diesel. Because of its wide use and possible accidental release, 2-EHN is a potential pollutant of the environment. In this study, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173 was selected from among several strains as the best 2-EHN degrader. The 2-EHN biodegradation rate was increased in biphasic cultures where the hydrocarbon was dissolved in an inert non-aqueous-phase liquid, suggesting that the transfer of the hydrophobic substrate to the cells was a growth-limiting factor. Carbon balance calculation, as well as organic-carbon measurement, indicated a release of metabolites in the culture medium. Further analysis by gas chromatography revealed that a single metabolite accumulated during growth. This metabolite had a molecular mass of 114 Da as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and was provisionally identified as 4-ethyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Identification was confirmed by analysis of the chemically synthesized lactone. Based on these results, a plausible catabolic pathway is proposed whereby 2-EHN is converted to 4-ethyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one, which cannot be metabolized further by strain IFP 2173. This putative pathway provides an explanation for the low energetic efficiency of 2-EHN degradation and its poor biodegradability. PMID:18723659

  4. Synergistic extraction of praseodymium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; WU Dong-bei; BAO Bo-rong

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of Pr3+ from hydrochloric medium using mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507, HL) and 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) in heptane was investigated. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of Pr3+ was discussed. The effect of extractant concentraction, different diluents, equilibrium time and acetate ion concentration on extraction reaction were also studied. With a method of double-logarithmic slope, composition of the extracted species on 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinolinc was derived. The result shows that the synergistic extraction system not only overcomes emulsification of 8-Hydroxyquinoline, but also shows perfect capacity of synergistic extraction. The largest synergistic enhancement factor can be calculated to be 5.49 at pH 3.6 for Pr3+.

  5. Synergistic extraction of rare earth by mixtures of 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid from sulfuric acid medium?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; LI Jianning; LONG Zhiqi; ZHANG Yongqi; XUE Xiangxin; ZHU Zhaowu

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of Nd3+ and Sm3+, including the extraction and stripping capability as well as the separation effect of Nd3+ or Sm3+, from a sulfuric acid medium, by mixtures of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP, H2A2(0)) and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH/EHP, H2L2(0)) were studied. The distribution ratios and synergistic coefficients of Nd3+ and Sm3+ in different acidities were also determined. A synergistic extractive effect was found when HDEHP and HEH/EHP were used as mixed extractants for Sm3+ or Nd3+. The chemical compositions of the extracted complex were determined as Nd·(HA2)2·HL2 and Sm·(HA2)2·HL2. The extraction equilibrium constants, enthalpy change, and entropy change of the extraction reaction were also determined.

  6. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    are considered recalcitrant. Moreover, they inhibit methanogenesis. However, studies have not been made on the effect of feeding a combination of recalcitrant and biodegradable PAEs into anaerobic digesters treating wastewater sludge. The present study was conducted with wastewater sludge from the Los Angeles...... Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...... populations in the anaerobic bioreactor. Our results imply that high levels of DEHP or other recalcitrant PAEs in wastewater sludge are likely to compromise methanogenesis and removal of biodegradable PAEs in sludge digesters....

  7. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; de Fluiter P; van Leeuwen FXR

    1993-01-01

    In a study in which male rats have been exposed to 0, 200, 600, 2000, 6000 and 20000 mg di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA)/kg diet for 2 weeks, body weight and liver weight and a number of enzyme parameters which are related with peroxisome proliferation (palmitoyl coenzyme-A oxidase (PCO), enoyl coenzy

  8. Occurrence, Hazard and Biodegradation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Environment%增塑剂邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯的危害、分布及生物降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟雪征; 牛贵龙; 曾明; 柳学速; 韩玉伟; 曹相生

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely found in plastics, leather, building materials, personal care products, detergents, paint, pharmaceuticals etc. As one of the synthetic organic compounds, DEHP is used as the most popular plasticizer in the world. This review present the toxic effects, regulations, occurrence and biodegradation of DEHP based on a wide range of papers and articles. The current and future directions in the field of DEHP researches are put forward. DEHP is toxic to immune system, embryo and liver etc. It also has carcinogenicity and is considered as an endocrine disrupter. Studies have shown the positively relation between DEHP and breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, testicular cancer, respiratory cancer and multiple myeloma etc., but there are no sufficient evidences to prove that DEHP can cause these cancers in human bodies. Since the severe lack of data of human beings, the toxicity of DEHP on human bodies has not fully confirmed. That is the reason why WHO suggests DEHP listed in the Group 2B carcinogen. As the toxic of DEHP to human beings is fundamental to other research works related to DEHP, We recommend the DEHP toxicity continuous experiments on human bodies should be performed as soon as possible. DEHP is widely present in water, food containers, air and soil. Data of samples from Songhua River, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River show that the concentrations of DEHP are beyond the limits of Chinese drinking water source standards or Chinese surface water quality standards. DEHP is also a common chemical in effluent of wastewater treatment plants. It is widely found in cheese, cereals and seafood, particularly in high lipid content foods such as milk, meat and fishes. If foods with plastic packages are stored for a long period, it will lead to more DEHP released to the foods. Furniture and decoration materials will also release DEHP to their environment;therefore the indoor air contains a certain amount of DEHP. In some

  9. The acute effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) on testes of prepubertal Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lam, Henrik Rye;

    2001-01-01

    A single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the testis toxic metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. was given to 28-day-old male Wistar rats and the testis toxic effects were investigated 3, 6. and 12 h after exposure. Detachment and sloughing of germ cell...

  10. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S.

  11. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of 0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50ÀC will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  12. 75 FR 4292 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2... residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2... permissible level for residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and...

  13. 77 FR 20314 - 2-Propenoic Acid, 2-Methyl-, 2-Ethylhexyl Ester, Telomer With 1-Dodecanethiol, Ethenylbenzene and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic Acid, 2-Methyl-, 2-Ethylhexyl Ester, Telomer With 1- Dodecanethiol...-methyl-, 2- ethylhexyl ester, telomer with 1-dodecanethiol, ethenylbenzene and 2- methyloxirane polymer...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-ethylhexyl ester, telomer with 1-dodecanethiol, ethenylbenzene and...

  14. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Testa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11 ± 5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12 ± 5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (r s=0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  15. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Latini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11±5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12±5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (rs = 0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  16. Solvent extraction of La(III) with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) by membrane dispersion micro-extractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海龙; 王运东; 徐建鸿; 陈晋南

    2013-01-01

    The conventional rare earth solvent extraction equipments have many problems such as long mixing time, low processing capacity, large factory area occupation, high energy consumption and so on. In order to solve the problems, many types of equipments were brought out. In this work, studies were carried out on the La(III) extraction process with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) by membrane dispersion micro-extractor. Equilibrium studies showed that the initial aqueous pH value 4.15 with the saponification rate 40%was the optimal operation condition. The effects of membrane dispersion micro-extractor operational conditions such as dispersion mode, bulk flow rate and organic phase flow rate on the extraction efficiency were studied. The results showed that when the organic solution was the dispersed phase, the extraction efficiency was higher than that of others. Increasing bulk flow ratio could enhance the extraction efficiency greatly. When the ratio of organic phase flow rate to that of aque-ous phase was 80:80, the extraction efficiency was over 95%. The effect of stripping phase acidity on the La(III) recovery was studied. The results showed that when the stripping phase pH was 2.0, organic phase flow rate to stripping phase flow rate was 20:80;the re-covery efficiency of La(III) can reach 82%.

  17. Biodegradation of Mexel 432 By Bacteria From the Seine River; Biodegradation du Mexel 432 par des bacteries de la Seine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allonier, A.S.; Khalanski, M.

    1996-12-31

    This report deals with a study of the biodegradation of a filmogenic organic product (Mexel 432) usable in the fight against corrosion, scale and fouling, presenting a certain interest in the research of processes enabling a functional and environmental efficiency for the cooling systems of thermal power stations. The study of the degradation of this product is followed by a global colorimetric method. It shows that the product is stable on the long-term in demineralized water. On the other hand, its rate of disappearance in river waters is significant (50 % in 2 or 3 days). In this phenomenon of disappearance, biodegradation seems to play a part. Some bacteria from the natural environment (river Seine) have been isolated. Two of them seem to play a significant part, since they can degrade the product in three weeks. During the degradation, the amines with long chains (more than six carbons) of the Mexel, measured by the colorimetric method, disappear. The other compounds generated by the biodegradation process are not identified. (authors). 16 refs.

  18. Biodegradation of chrysene by isolated bacteria in contaminated soils; Biodegradation du chrysene par des bacteries isolee de sols contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, P.A.; Bisaillon, J.G.; Lepine, F.; Paquette, G. [Institut Armand Frappier, Laval, PQ (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a study on the destruction of chrysene in soils by microbial biotreatment were presented. Chrysene is a member of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that is a toxic and carcinogen substance often found in petroleum residues. Biotreatment is an effective method for the destruction of PAHs such as fluorene and phenanthrene that have 2 or 3 aromatic cycles. PAHs with 4 or more cycles such as chrysene and pyrene are, however, difficult to destroy by biotreatment methods, principally because of their very low solubility in water. Tests were done using the bacteria Sphingomonas S107 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to biodegrade chrysene. Further studies will focus on the degradation kinetics of chrysene. 7 figs.

  19. Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of vegetables from plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Du, Qizhen

    2011-11-09

    Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) of nine vegetables including potherb mustard, bok choy, celery, spinach, cabbage, leaf of tube, lettuce, garlic, and edible amaranth in plastic film greenhouses with different plastic films, film thickness, greenhouse age, and greenhouse height was studied. The results showed that the higher the DEHP content of film, the thicker the film, the lower the height of the greenhouse, and the younger the age of the greenhouse were, the higher the DEHP concentration of vegetables was. The results afford significant information for production of safe vegetables with low level DEHP contamination.

  20. Micelles and reverse micelles in the nickel bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate/water/isooctane microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cristina; Carbajal-Tinoco, Mauricio D; Castillo, Rolando

    2004-12-01

    The ternary system Ni(2+)(AOT)(2) (nickel 2-bis[2-ethylhexyl] sulfosuccinate)/water/isooctane presents w/o and o/w microemulsions with a Winsor progression (2Phi-3Phi-2Phi), without the addition of salt; the "fish diagram" was obtained for alpha=0.5 and gamma=0.02-0.22. Using static and dynamic light scattering the micellar size, the ratio of water to surfactant, and the density of micelles for this system were estimated. In addition, the mean interfacial curvature as a function of temperature was obtained.

  1. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, I.L. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: ssaidman@criba.edu.ar [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2012-03-01

    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  2. Survey of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate plasticiser contamination of retail Danish milks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of residues of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in retail whole milk in samples from one German and 14 Danish dairies is reported. The investigation was performed about six months after the use of DEHP-plasticized milk tubing was banned in Denmark. The results indicate a mean...... concentration of DEHP lower than 50-mu-g/litre in retail whole milk. Based on these data and the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for DEHP of 25-mu-g/kg body weight laid down by the EEC Scientific Committee for Food, it is concluded that the intake of DEHP from milk and milk products does not, even through a whole...

  3. Distribution Behavior of Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in n-octane or 1-octanol was carried out. The effects of aminobenzoic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. The infrared spectra of the organic phase loaded with solute illustrated that pH had little effect on the structure of the complex formed. There proceed ion association and cation-exchange reaction in the extraction. An expression of the equilibrium distribution was proposed.

  4. Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Administrations on Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Apoptosis and Gene Quantification in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Absalan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP and di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mouse strain (6-8 weeks, were divided into seven different experimental and control groups. Control group oocytes were retrieved from mice that received only normal saline. The experimental groups I, II or III oocytes were retrieved from mice treated with 50, 100 or 200 μl DEHP (2.56 μM solution, respectively. The experimental groups IV, V or VI oocytes were retrieved from mouse exposed to 50, 100 or 200 μl MEHP (2.56 μM solution, respectively. Fertilization and embryonic development were carried out in OMM and T6 medium. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit, with PI staining. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pou5f1, Ccna1 and Asah1 were examined in oocytes. Finally, mouse embryo at early blastocyst stage was stained with acridine-orange (AO and ethidium-bromide (EB, in order to access their viability. Results: The proportion of oocytes that progressed up to metaphase II (MII and 2-cells embryo formation stage was significantly decreased by exposure to MEHP or DEHP, in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and PI positive oocytes showed greater quantity in the treated mice than control. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR revealed that expression levels of Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 were significantly lower in the treated mouse oocytes than control. The total cell count for blastocyst developed from the treated mouse oocytes was lower than the controls

  5. Spectral Properties and Solubilization Location of 2'-Ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzoate in Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ding; Xin-zhen Du; Chun Wang; Xiao-quan Lu

    2008-01-01

    Dual fluorescence and UV absorption of 2'-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHDMAB) were investigated in cationic,non-ionic and anionic miceUes.When EHDMAB was solubilized in different micellss, the UV absorption of EHDMAB was enhanced.Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission with longer wavelength was observed in ionic micelles,whereas TICT emission with shorter wavelength was obtained in non-ionic micelles.In particular,dual fluorescence of EHDMAB was significantly quenched by the positively charged pyridinium ions arranged in the Stern layer of cationic micelles.UV radiation absorbed mainly decays via TICT emission and radiationless deactivation.The dimethylamino group of EHDMAB experiences different polar environments in ionic and non-ionic micelles according to the polarity dependence of TICT emission of EHDMAB in organic solvents.In terms of the molecular structures and sizes of EHDMAB and surfactants,each individual EHDMAB molecule should be buried in micelles with its dimethylamino group toward the polar head groups of different micelles and with its 2'-ethylhexyl chain toward the hydrophobic micellar core.Dynamic fluorescence quenching measurements of EHDMAB provide further support for the location of EHDMAB in different micelles.

  6. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  7. Aqueous leaching of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and "green" plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joshua; Cooper, David G; Marić, Milan; Dodd, Patrick; Yargeau, Viviane

    2012-08-15

    A method was developed to assess leaching of several poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in aqueous media using gas chromatography (GC), and compared to a gravimetric standard test method (ASTM Method D1239). The GC method was a more direct measurement of plasticizer concentration in the aqueous phase. The leaching of commercial plasticizers, as well as several series of "green" candidate plasticizers, were assessed as a function of their molecular characteristics and compared to the industry standard PVC plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). It was found that plasticizers containing longer alkyl chains or non-polar branching emanating from polar structural units, increased the hydrophobicity of the molecule and reduced its aqueous leaching rate. Several "green" plasticizer candidates were found to minimize aqueous leaching to rates ten times below that of DEHP; notably dioctyl succinate (DOS), dihexyl maleate (DHM), methyl cyclohexyl diester (MCDE), diethylhexyl succinate (DEHS), hexanediol dibenzoate (C6), and the commercially available Hexamoll® DINCH.

  8. Vaporization behavior of tetraoctylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Luo, H. M.; Qu, J.

    2017-01-01

    The equilibrium vapor pressures, pe, of the ionic liquid tetraoctylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([P8888][DEHP]) over the temperature range 409-495 K were determined for the first time using mass loss Knudsen effusion. The pe versus temperature relationship compares well to 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C8mim][NTf2]) but is lower than that of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) when measured using the same technique. The discrepancies between the pe determined in this work for [C8mim][NTf2] and [C2mim][NTf2] with previous studies is discussed. The enthalpy and entropy of vaporization for all three fluids are estimated from the Clasius-Clapeyron relation.

  9. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Meeker, John D; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in 2 disparate US populations: partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families...... the fact that these 2 populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites, and reproductive hormone levels. We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones-follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone (T), inhibin B......, and estradiol (E(2))-and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the pooled population. The magnitude of the associations seen were similar to those reported for each population separately, but effect estimates were more precise because of the increased sample size and the greater range of phthalate metabolite...

  10. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE) that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, metallothionein (MT) content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD) activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT) and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (psoils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms. PMID:28319143

  11. Prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs development of the mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Munekazu; Gendai, Yuuya; Kagawa, Nao; Nagao, Tetsuji

    2016-09-30

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is currently the most commonly used phthalate for the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates including DEHP have been labeled as potential endocrine disruptors. The effect on the development of the neocortex, however, is unknown. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal DEHP exposure at 1 and 100mg/kg/day or 100 and 500mg/kg/day in fetal and newborn mice, we performed a detailed histologic analysis of the developing dorsal telencephalon and neocortex. The observation of fetuses exposed to DEHP revealed reductions of proliferation and neurogenesis (1 and 100mg/kg) and an increase in cell death (500mg/kg). In addition, the newborns prenatally exposed to DEHP showed an abnormal neuronal distribution and a decrease in neurons. These findings suggest that prenatal DEHP exposure induces neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with the neural stem cell niche and corticogenesis.

  12. Aqueous solubility and Daphnia magna chronic toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, K A; Dufresne, D L; Gorsuch, J W; Stubblefield, W A; Staples, C A; Parkerton, T F

    2008-06-01

    A water solubility of 5.5 (+/-0.22) microg/L for di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was measured using the slow-stir method. This value is consistent with computer estimations and over two orders of magnitude lower than that previously determined using the shake-flask method. We performed a 21-day chronic Daphnia magna limit test at an average exposure of 4.4 microg/L in laboratory diluent water to avoid insoluble test material and avoid physical entrapment. One hundred percent of the DEHA-treated organisms survived compared to 90% survival in both the controls and solvent controls. Mean neonate reproduction was 152, 137, and 148 and mean dry weight per surviving female was 0.804, 0.779, and 0.742 mg in the DEHA treatment, control, and solvent control, respectively. No adverse effects were observed.

  13. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetz, Lauren M., E-mail: ltetz@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, 360 Huntingon Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  14. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhai

    Full Text Available Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8 and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG. However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity.

  15. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats. The determination of a no-observed-effect-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; Dormans JAMA; van Apeldoorn ME; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    Two animal experiments are described in which male rats have been exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) for 2 and 4 weeks. Besides morphometric analysis using both light and electron microscopy, a number of enzyme parameters in liver homogenates have been determined which have a relation with

  16. Separation of middle rare earths by solvent extraction using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danilo; Fontana; Loris; Pietrelli

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of the trivalent middle rare earths from chloride media by kerosene solutions of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant was studied. The separation factors between the elements using solution simulating wastes from NiMH spent batteries have been evaluated: the order of the extractive ability of extractant can be confirmed in ThGdEuSm.

  17. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  18. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  19. BIODEGRADATION DU PETROLE BRUT EN MER PAR : ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE, ESCHERICHIA COLI ET PSEUDOMONAS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. OULD BOUDIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La pollution de la mer méditerranéenne par les rejets industriels d’origine pétrolière est l’un des problèmes de santé marine qui menace les ressources aquatiques ; parmi de nombreuses raffineries qui sont situées le long des côtes algériennes, la raffinerie d’Arzew au Nord-Ouest de l’Algérie. Le but de ce travail est la mise en évidence d'une méthode de lutte contre la pollution en utilisant des moyens biologiques représentés par le phénomène de biodégradation et ceci par la sélection des microorganismes hétérotrophes efficaces dans le traitement des effluents et des nappes d’hydrocarbures en cas d’accidents en eau de mer.L’estimation de taux de biodégradation du pétrole par les microorganismes est basée sur l’utilisation d’un respiromètre de Warburg qui permet l’analyse de la biodégradation d’échantillons via la mesure : CO2 dégagé = DCO de l’oxygène consommé lors de la réaction. Au bout du 12ème jour, nous observons des valeurs élevées pour les souches Enterobacter cloacae et Pseudomonas spp., par contre pour la souche Escherichia coli,ces valeurs sont nulles. Nous notons que le taux de fermentation le plus élevé de pétrole brute est obtenu au 12ème et au 16ème jour d’incubation, est relié individuellement à la souche de Enterobacter cloacae. La comparaison de taux de CO2, a indiqué que: Enterobacter cloacae> Pseudomonas spp.> Escherichia coli. Ceci montre que dans toutes les populations bactériennes étudiées, sauf la bactérie Enterobacter cloacae, sont capables d’assimiler les substances pétrolières.

  20. Effective remediation of phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in farm effluent using Guar gum--A plant based biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Yang Ling; Mukherjee, Sumona; Pariatamby, Agamuthu

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of Guar gum in removing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), viz. phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from farm effluent. The removal efficiency was compared with alum. The results indicated that 4.0 mg L(-1) of Guar gum at pH 7 could remove 99.70% and 99.99% of phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and DEHP, respectively. Box Behnken design was used for optimization of the operating parameters for optimal POPs removal. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies were conducted on the flocs. SEM micrographs showed numerous void spaces in the flocs produced by Guar gum as opposed to those produced by alum. This indicated why Guar gum was more effective in capturing and removal of suspended particles and POPs as compared to alum. FTIR spectra indicated a shift in the bonding of functional groups in the flocs produced by Guar gum as compared to raw Guar gum powder signifying chemical attachment of the organics present in the effluent to the coagulant resulting in their removal. Guar gum is highly recommended as a substitute to chemical coagulant in treating POPs due to its non-toxic and biodegradable characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the quantity of residual monomer vinyl chloride in PVC chest drainage tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicheva, Y I; Richter, H; Popova, E

    2004-08-01

    The effect of amount of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) amount on the amount of residual monomer vinyl chloride (VC) was determined in samples of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with different concentration of plasticiser (22.32-33.05%), before and after sterilisation by a titrimetric method. The titrimetric method was used to determine the VC concentration in a KMnO4 solution where the samples were kept immersed under the same conditions for 2 h. The influence of PVC film extracts with different amounts of DEHP on mouse fibroblast cells L-929 in a culture medium was evaluated by using quantitative tests: the amount of cells (protein determination), viability (MTT test) and proliferation (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). The amount of vinyl chloride before and after heat sterilisation at 120 degrees C for 30 min was found to be almost the same for all samples and without any dependence on the concentration of DEHP. The extracts of the PVC films which were tested have no toxic effect on cells in a culture medium.

  2. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  3. Emerging dynamics in surfactant-based liquid mixtures: Octanoic acid/bis(2-ethylhexyl) amine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Pietro; Mandanici, Andrea; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo; Pochylski, Mikolaj; Aliotta, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This work focuses on the dynamic phenomena emerging in self-assembled transient intermolecular networks formed when two different surfactants are mixed. In particular, the relaxation processes in liquid mixtures composed by bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) and octanoic acid (OA) in the whole composition range has been investigated by dielectric spectroscopy and Brillouin spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of all the experimental data consistently suggests that, mainly driven by acid-base interactions arising when the two surfactants are mixed, supra-molecular aggregates formation causes the slowing down of molecular dynamics. This, in turn, reflects to longer-range relaxations. These changes have been found to be composition-dependent, involving strong departures of the mixture physico-chemical properties from an ideal behaviour, and reflecting the structural and dynamical features of local structures. In particular, the peculiar dynamic processes occurring in these local inter-molecular structures, have been found to be the factors responsible for the observed and quite surprising increase of direct-current conductivity which occurs when two different (and pretty non-conductive) surfactants are mixed. The discovery can be used not only to design novel materials for application purposes but also to shed more light on the basic principles regulating charge migration in structured liquid systems.

  4. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2000-01-01

    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...... were 0, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 4-week study the doses of DEHP were increased to 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 9-week study, the relative liver weight was increased in the rats exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. No interaction of DEHP and acetone was observed in any...... of the measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain...

  5. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-27

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  6. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  7. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  8. Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP in Hemodialysis-Related Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

  9. Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Promotes Pro-Labor Gene Expression in the Human Placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximi K Wang

    Full Text Available Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy are at increased risk for delivering preterm, but the mechanism behind this relationship is unknown. Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 are key mediators of parturition and are regulated by the non-canonical NF-kB (RelB/p52 signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that one of the major phthalate metabolites, mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, increased CRH and COX-2 mRNA and protein abundance in a dose-dependent manner in primary cultures of cytotrophoblast. This was coupled with an increase in nuclear import of RelB/p52 and its association with the CRH and COX-2 promoters. Silencing of NF-kB inducing kinase, a central signaling component of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway, blocked MEHP-induced upregulation of CRH and COX-2. These results suggest a potential mechanism mediated by RelB/p52 by which phthalates could prematurely induce pro-labor gene activity and lead to preterm birth.

  10. Sol-Gel Transition in Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyung [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae Woon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kil Won [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Airan [Biotechnology and Environmenttal Eng. Div., Agency for Technology and Standards, Kwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    The gelation for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) was studied by measuring time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and a flow of the solutions in test tube. It was found that for the gelation there were three regimes. At Regime I, the solution rapidly changed to a gel, and the SAXS intensity showed a peak and the peak intensity increased, keeping the peak angle constant. Applying the SAXS intensity to the kinetic analysis of the liquid-liquid phase separation, it was revealed that the spinodal decomposition proceeded to develop a periodic length of 29.9 nanometer in size, a hydrogen-bonding-type association in polymer rich phase followed, and then it induced fast gelation rate. At Regime II, the gelation slowly occurred and the SAXS intensity was not observed, suggesting that a homogeneous gel network was formed by a hydrogen-bonding. At regime III, the solution was a homogeneous sol.

  11. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy disturbs temporal sex determination regulation in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou

    2015-10-02

    Animal researches and clinical studies have supported the relevance between phthalates exposure and testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). These disorders may comprise common origin in fetal life, especially during sex determination and differentiation, where the mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluated the disturbances in gene regulatory networks of sex determination in fetal mouse by in utero Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure. Temporal expression of key sex determination genes were examined during the critical narrow time window, using whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative-PCR. DEHP exposure resulted in significant reduction in mRNA of Sry during sex determination from gestation day (GD) 11.0 to 11.5 in male fetal mice, and the increasing of Sry expression to threshold level on GD 11.5 was delayed. Meanwhile, Gadd45g and Gata4, the upstream genes of Sry, and downstream gene Sox9 were also significantly downregulated in expression. In fetal females, the expression of Wnt4 and beta-catenin were up-regulated by DEHP exposure. Taken together, the results suggest that the potential mechanism of gonadal development disorder by DEHP may origin from repression of important male sex determination signaling pathway, involving Gadd45g → Gata4 → Sry → Sox9. The results would promote a better understanding of the association between phthalate esters (PAEs) exposure and the reductive disorder.

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of palladium(II) from nitric acid by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, J.P. (Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay 400085 (India)); Singh, R.K.; Sawant, S.R.; Varadarajan, N. (Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay 400085 (India))

    1993-04-15

    The extraction of palladium(II) nitrate by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide (BESO) was evaluated over a wide range of acidity, and BESO was shown to have a strong extraction ability toward this thiophilic 'soft' metal. Essentially quantitative extraction of trace and macro amounts of palladium is easily accomplished from about 8 M HNO 8 M HNO[sub 3] down to pH 2 solutions by 0.2 M BESO into toluene. Optimum conditions such as aqueous phase acidity, solvent, period of equilibration, aqueous to organic phase ratios, reagent concentration and strippant were established for the selective and reversible extraction and separation of palladium. Slope analyses applied to Pd(II) distribution experiments from nitrate solutions showed a predominant formation of the solvated organic phase complex Pd(NO[sub 3])[sub 2].2BESO. Recovery of the extractant from loaded palladium is easily accomplished by using sodium thiosulphate or a mixture of 2 M sodium carbonate+0.5 M ammonia solution. The extracted complex was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and UV-visible spectrometry, and its composition was confirmed to be Pd(NO[sub 3])[sub 2].2BESO

  13. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on degradation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in polyvinyl chloride sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rie; Miura, Naoko; Ushiro, Masaru; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Nakamura, Hiroko; Iguchi, Hirofumi; Ogino, Jun-Ichi; Oishi, Manabu; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    The risk assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) migration from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices is an important issue for patients. The aim of this study was to determine DEHP degradation and migration from PVC sheets. To this end, the method for the simultaneous determination of DEHP and its breakdown products (mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and phthalic acid (PA)) was improved. Their migration levels from 0 to 50 kGy gamma-ray irradiated PVC sheets were determined. DEHP migration level decreased in proportion to the dose of gamma-ray irradiation, while MEHP and PA migration levels increased. The hardness and the elastic modulus of PVC sheets were examined, but no clear relationship between DEHP migration and these parameters was observed.

  14. Evaluation of the Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate released from polyvinyl chloride medical devices that contact blood

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hongyu; Sun, Guangyu; Shi, Yanping; Shen, Yong; Xu, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Extraction methods that simulate those used in the clinic are recommended for obtaining extraction solutions. For polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medical devices that have contact with human blood, an alternative medium (ethanol/water mixture) is suggested as an extraction screening vehicle to evaluate the di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) released. A test comparing the extraction ability between the alternative medium and whole blood from three healthy volunteers has been conducted. An experimental ...

  15. Progress in the removal of di-[2-ethylhexyl]-phthalate as plasticizer in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is used in blood component containers as well as in many other medical devices because it shows optimal inertness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals. However, the polymer itself does not provide good handling characteristics or the necessary properties for red blood cell (RBC) survival. PVC thus needs to be plasticized, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been the most common plasticizer to produce the required flexibility to PVC. However, DEHP has been found to leach out from the containers, causing toxic effects, as demonstrated mainly in rodents. It is considered to be a possible carcinogen and suspected to also produce endocrine effects especially in young males. Although controversial, it is commonly accepted that in vulnerable patients such as newborns, trauma patients, or pregnant women, high exposure to DEHP should be avoided. The replacement of the common PVC + DEHP blood bags poses technical challenges due to the positive influence of the DEHP molecules on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and thus it has been shown to affect RBC storage and survival after transfusion. Different approaches are thus being taken to find a suitable alternative to DEHP for blood components bags. Environmentalists even favor the substitution of the PVC to avoid not only the plasticizers but even the other residues contained in the polymer material. Consequently, whereas the simplest solution is the substitution of the DEHP by other plasticizers, alternative plasticizer-free materials are becoming explored. Even modifications of existing materials are being presented by some research groups, ranging from covering of the DEHP-containing materials to alloys or special additive solutions. Different strategies as well as the most promising approaches are presented in this review. In any case, the degree of stabilization of RBCs undergoing prolonged storage will dictate the final acceptance for such alternatives.

  16. Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Exposure Impairs Growth of Antral Follicle in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    Full Text Available Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection. Our results demonstrated that the percentage of large antral follicles was significantly reduced when mice were exposed to 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP every 5 days from postnatal day 0 (0 dpp to 15 dpp. In 20 dpp, we performed microarray of these ovaries. The microarray results indicated that mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes were increased. The mRNA levels of the apoptosis and cell proliferation (negative related genes Apoe, Agt, Glo1 and Grina were increased after DEHP exposure. DEHP induced the differential gene expression of Hsp90ab1, Rhoa, Grina and Xdh which may play an important role in this process. In addition, TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence showed that DEHP exposure significantly increased the number of TUNEL, Caspase3 and γH2AX positive ovarian somatic cells within the mouse ovaries. Flow cytometer analyses of redox-sensitive probes showed that DEHP caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ovarian somatic cell antioxidative enzymes was down-regulated both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that DEHP exposure induced oxidative stress and ovarian somatic cell apoptosis, and thus may impact antral follicle enlargement during the pre-pubertal stage in mice.

  17. Quercetin attenuates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ellah, M F; Aly, H A A; Mokhlis, H A M; Abdel-Aziz, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential oxidative damage of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the rat testis and to further elucidate the potential modulatory effect of quercetin. DEHP was diluted in corn oil and given to rats by oral gavage at doses 0, 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg/day (groups I, III, IV, or V, respectively) for 15 consecutive days. Group VI was pretreated with quercetin (90 mg/kg), 24 h before starting the experiment and then treated with DEHP (900 mg/kg/day) for 15 consecutive days. Group II was treated with quercetin (90 mg/kg/day). The relative testes weight and sperm motility were significantly decreased by treatment with 900 mg/kg of DEHP. Both sperm count and daily sperm production were significantly decreased by DEHP treatment at doses of 600 and 900 mg/kg. Serum testosterone level and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and testicular lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) activity were significantly decreased in animals treated with 900 mg/kg. Serum total ACP activity was significantly increased in animals treated with 600 and 900 mg/kg of DEHP. DEHP treatment induced oxidative stress and histopathological abnormality. These abnormalities were effectively normalized by pretreatment with quercetin except for LDH-X near normalcy. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that DEHP impairs testicular function at least, in part, by inducing oxidative stress and quercetin has a potent protective effect against DEHP-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

  18. Effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on chicken germ cells cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Edith; Prieur, Bérénice; Cariou, Ronan; Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean Philippe; Pain, Bertrand; Brillard, Jean Pierre; Froment, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    In recent decades, many toxicological tests based on in vivo or in vitro models, mainly from mammalian (rat-mouse) and fish species, were used to assess the risks raised by contact or ingestion of molecules of pharmaceutical, agricultural, or natural origin. But no, or few, in vitro tests using other non-mammalian models such as bird have been explored despite their advantages: the embryonic gonads of birds have a high plasticity of development sensitive to estrogen, and sperm production is nearly two times faster than in rodents. Hence, we have established an in vitro culture of germ cells and somatic cells from chicken post-natal testis, and we have evaluated the sensitivity against the endocrine disruptor compound mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in comparison to previous studies using rodent and human models. After 96 h of exposure in presence of 10 μM MEHP, chicken seminiferous tubules cultures present a structural alteration, a reduction in cell proliferation and in germ cells population. Apoptosis of germ and somatic cells increases in presence of 1 μM MEHP. Furthermore, MEHP does not affect inhibin B and lactate production by Sertoli cells. These results are in accordance with previous studies using rat, mice, or human culture of testicular cells and in similar range of exposures or even better sensitivity for some "end-points" (biological parameters). In conclusion, the establishment of this postnatal testicular cells culture could be considered as an alternative method to in vivo experiments frequently used for evaluating the impact on the terrestrial wildlife species. This method could be also complementary to mammal model due to the limiting number of animals used and its elevated sensitivity.

  19. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate disrupts placental growth and development in pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Teng; Lai, Lidan [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Hu, Jia [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China); Guo, Meijun; Li, Mo; Zhang, Lu; Zhong, Chengxue; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Dalei; Tang, Min [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Kuang, Haibin, E-mail: kuanghaibin@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The influence of DEHP on the development of placenta was investigated. • DEHP disrupts the growth and development of placenta. • DEHP disrupts the formation of labyrinth vascularization. • DEHP inhibits the proliferation of ectoplacental cone and placenta. • DEHP induces the apoptosis of placenta via activated MAPK signaling pathway. - Abstract: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and widely dispersed in the environment. DEHP exposure reduces embryo implantations, increases embryonic loss, and decreases fetal body weights. However, no detailed information is available about the effect of DEHP on the placentation during pregnancy. Thus, our aim was to explore the effect of DEHP on the growth and development of placenta in vivo. Mice were administered DEHP by gavages at 125, 250, 500 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 1 until sacrifice. Results showed that DEHP treatment significantly reduced the weight of placenta at GD 13. Histopathologically, in DEHP-treated group, the ectoplacental cones significantly became smaller at GD9, and total area of placenta and area of spongiotrophoblast were significantly reduced at GD 13. Expression levels of Ascl2, Esx1 and Fosl1 mRNA dramatically decreased in DEHP-treated placenta at GD 13. DEHP administration disrupted labyrinth vascularization of placentas, and inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of placenta by the activation of caspase-3 and -8, up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein at GD 13. In conclusion, these results suggest that adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth-weight and pregnancy loss exposed to DEHP are possibly mediated, at least in part, via the suppression of placental growth and development.

  20. Performance of electrochemical oxidation process for removal of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Josué Daniel García; Drogui, Patrick; Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Dirany, Ahmad; Ledesma, Maria Teresa Orta; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected and concentrated plasticizer in environment and wastewaters, worldwide. In this study, different operating parameters such as current intensity, treatment time, type of anodes, and supporting electrolytes were tested to optimized the electro-oxidation process (EOP) for the removal of DEHP in the presence of methanol as a dissolved organic matter. Among the anodes, the Nb/BDD showed the best degradation rate of DEHP, at low current intensity of 0.2 A after 90 min of treatment time with a percentage of degradation recorded of 81 %, compared to 70 % obtained with the Ti/IrO2-RuO2. Furthermore, due to the combination of direct and indirect oxidation, the removal of DEHP in the presence of 1 g/L Na2SO4 was higher than NaBr, even though the oxidant production of NaBr was 11.7 mmol/L against 3.5 mmol/L recorded in the presence of sulfate at 0.5 A and after 60 min of electrolysis time. Under optimal condition (current intensity = 0.5 A, time = 120 min, using Nb/BDD anode and Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte), the removal of 87.2 % of DEHP was achieved. The total cost of 0.106 US$/m(3) of treated water was achieved based on economical optimization of reactor with current intensity of 0.2 A and 1 g/L Na2SO4.

  1. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction.

  2. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  3. Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate-Induced Hippocampus-Derived Neural Stem Cells Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdanipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain and spinal cord have a limited capacity for self-repair under damaged conditions. One of the best options to overcome these limitations involves the use of phytochemicals as potential therapeutic agents. In this study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP on hippocampus-derived neural stem cells (NSCs proliferation to search phytochemical candidates for possible treatment of neurological diseases using endogenous capacity. In this experimental study, neonatal rat hippocampus-derived NSCs were cultured and treated with various concentrations of DEHP (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 µM and Cirsium vulgare (C. vulgare hydroethanolic extract (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg/ml for 48 hours under in vitro conditions. Cell proliferation rates and quantitative Sox2 gene expression were evaluated using MTT assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. We observed the highest average growth rate in the 400 µM DEHP and 800 µg/ml C. vulgare extract treated groups. Sox2 expression in the DEHP-treated NSCs significantly increased compared to the control group. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS results demonstrated that the active ingredients that naturally occurred in the C. vulgare hydroethanolic extract were 2-ethyl-1-hexanamine, n-heptacosane, 1-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, 1-heptadecanamine, 2,6-octadien-1-ol,2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, and DEHP. DEHP profoundly stimulated NSCs proliferation through Sox2 gene overexpression. These results provide and opportunity for further use of the C. vulgure phytochemicals for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases via phytochemical mediated-proliferation of endogenous adult NSCs.

  4. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects immune cells from atopic prone mice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2009-05-02

    Phthalate esters as plasticizers have been widespread in the environment and may be associated with development of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on immune cells from atopic prone NC/Nga mice in vitro. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) as a professional antigen-presenting cell and splenocytes as mixture of immune cells were used. BMDC were differentiated by culture with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence of DEHP (0.1-10microM) for 6 days. In another experiments, BMDC were differentiated by culture with GM-CSF for 8 days then these BMDC were exposed to DEHP (0.1-100microM) for 24h. Splenocytes were exposed to DEHP for 24h (0.1-100microM) or 72h (0.1-1000nM). After the culture, the phenotypic markers and the function of BMDC and splenocytes were evaluated. BMDC differentiated in the presence of DEHP showed enhancement in the expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD11c and DEC205, and in their antigen-presenting activity. On the other hand, the function of the differentiated BMDC was not activated by DEHP although DEHP partly enhanced their expression of DEC205. DEHP-exposed splenocytes showed increases in their TCR and CD3 expression, interleukin-4 production, and antigen-stimulated proliferation. These results demonstrate that DEHP enhances BMDC differentiation but not activation and also enhances Th2 response in splenocytes from atopic prone mice. The enhancement might contribute to the aggravating effect of DEHP on allergic disorders.

  5. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  6. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uren-Webster, Tamsyn M.; Lewis, Ceri; Filby, Amy L.; Paull, Gregory C. [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Santos, Eduarda M., E-mail: e.santos@exeter.ac.uk [Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and are known to adversely affect male reproductive health in mammals through interactions with multiple receptor systems. However, little is known about the risks they pose to fish. This project investigated the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used phthalate, on the reproductive health of male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Males were treated with 0.5, 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} (body weight) for a period of 10 days via intraperitoneal injection. The effects of the exposure were assessed by analysing fertilisation success, testis histology, sperm DNA integrity and transcript profiles of the liver and testis. A significant increase in the hepatosomatic index and levels of hepatic vitellogenin transcript were observed following exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1}. Exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} also resulted in a reduction in fertilisation success of oocytes spawned by untreated females. However, survival and development of the resulting embryos were unaffected by all treatments, and no evidence of DEHP-induced sperm DNA damage was observed. Exposure to 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} caused alterations in the proportion of germ cells at specific stages of spermatogenesis in the testis, including a reduction in the proportion of spermatozoa and an increase in the proportion of spermatocytes, suggesting that DEHP may inhibit the progression of meiosis. In parallel, exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg{sup -1} increased the levels of two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and enoyl-coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ehhadh). These data demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DEHP disrupts spermatogenesis in adult zebrafish with a consequent decrease in their ability to fertilise oocytes spawned by untreated females. Furthermore, our data suggest that the adverse effects caused by

  7. Obtention of Samarium and Gadolinium concentrates by solvent extraction using mono-2-ethylhexyl ester of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid; Obtencao de concentrados de samario e gadolinio via extracao por solventes com o ester mono-2-etilhexil do acido 2-etilhexilfosfonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Junior, Pedro

    1996-07-01

    The rare earth chlorides solution employed in this study, which is constituted by medium and heavy fractions, is derived from monazite processing accomplished by NUCLEMON-Mineroquimica (SP). This solution shows an acidity about 1.18 M and 189 g/L of rare earth oxides, containing as main constituents: Sm(34.55%), Gd(23.85%), Dy (6.82%), and Y (24.45%). It was used, as organic phase, 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid, mono-2-ethylhexylester diluted to 1 M in isododecane. (author)

  8. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn- thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  9. Specific migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) from plasticized PVC film: results from an enforcement campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    1998-01-01

    , olive oil, followed by clean-up using size exclusion chromatography and final determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) by combined capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the initial screening, the samples were exposed to the alternative food simulant, isooctane, and DEHA...... Units. Initially, all films were screened for the migration into isooctane (exposed 2 h at 40 degrees C) of DEHA and other potentially present low molecular weight plasticizers using full scanning mass spectrometry. Films showing a substantial migration of DEHA were further tested with olive oil...

  10. Characterization of polypyrrole films electrosynthesized onto titanium in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamini, D.O. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B., E-mail: ssaidman@criba.edu.a [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    Films of polypyrrole (PPy) were successfully electrosynthesized onto titanium in neutral and alkaline solutions of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) by potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and potentiostatic techniques. Results of the characterization of the films by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion measurements are presented. It was found that the AOT molecule remains entrapped within the polymer matrix. The initial growth of the polymer produces electroactive toroidal deposits whereas for electropolymerization of longer duration the typical globular structure is developed. Adherence to Ti increases with deposition time and this result is interpreted as a consequence of the growth of a composite PPy/Ti oxide.

  11. The use of bis (-2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid for the extraction of zinc from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, S.; Luis, A.; Cuadra, A. de la; Caravaca, C.

    1994-01-01

    The extraction of zinc from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions by means of the bis(-2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid is studied. Mass balances and chemical equilibria relating the different chemical species in both phases are presented in order to establish a model describing the behaviour of the different species. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical curves is obtained. A comparison of the zinc extraction from a strong complexing medium as that of concentrated ammonium chloride solutions with an uncomplexing zinc perchlorate solution is made, in order to see the influence of the complexing effect of the aqueous phase on zinc extraction. (Author) 36 p.

  12. Investigation of molecular interactions in the complex formation of tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Bin; ZHAI Zheng; LUO GuangSheng; WANG JiaDing

    2008-01-01

    The molecular interactions in the complex formation of two tartaric acid derivatives with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid are investigated. The complex formation with a 1:1 stoichiometry between tartaric acid derivatives and D2EHPA can be obtained through UV-Vis titration, NMR chemical shifts and molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, the differences of the two complexes on the binding constants and strength of hydrogen bonds can also be determined. Such research will ideally provide insight into ways of regulating the complex forming properties of tartaric acid derivatives for composing or syn-thesizing new chiral resolving agents.

  13. Human biofluid concentrations of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in chimeric mice with humanized liver administered with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichiro; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a reproductive toxicant in male rodents. The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP, a primary metabolite of DEHP) in humans by using data from oral administration of DEHP to chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. MEHP and its glucuronide were detected in plasma from control mice and chimeric mice after single oral doses of 250mg DEHP/kg body weight. Biphasic plasma concentration-time curves of MEHP and its glucuronide were seen only in control mice. MEHP and its glucuronide were extensively excreted in urine within 24h in mice with humanized liver. In contrast, fecal excretion levels of MEHP glucuronide were high in control mice compared with those with humanized liver. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated urine MEHP concentrations in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. This research illustrates how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of the primary or secondary metabolites of DEHP.

  14. Decoupling of dynamic processes in surfactant-based liquid mixtures: the case of lithium-containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotera, Isabella; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo; Calandra, Pietro

    2014-07-22

    Pure surfactant liquids and their binary mixtures, because of the amphiphilic nature of the molecules involved, can exhibit nanosegregation and peculiar transport properties. The idea that inspired this work is that the possibility of including in such media salts currently used for technological applications should lead to a synergy between the properties of the salt and those of the medium. Therefore, the dynamic features of bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid mixtures were investigated as a function of composition and temperature by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and rheometry. Inclusion of litium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiT) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient NMR, and conductimetry methods to highlight the solubilizing and confining properties of these mixtures as well as the lithium conductivity. It was found that BEEA/HDEHP binary liquid mixtures show zero-threshold percolating self-assembly with a maximum in viscosity and a minimum in molecular diffusion at a 1:1 composition. Dissolution of LiT in such system can occur via confinement in the locally self-assembled polar domains. Despite this confinement, Li(+) conduction is scarcely dependent on the medium composition because of the possibility of a field-induced hopping decoupled by the structural and dynamical features of the medium.

  15. Experimental study on infusion devices containing polyvinyl chloride: to what extent are they di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genay, Stéphanie; Luciani, Chiara; Décaudin, Bertrand; Kambia, Nicolas; Dine, Thierry; Azaroual, Nathalie; Di Martino, Piera; Barthélémy, Christine; Odou, Pascal

    2011-06-30

    The use of medical devices containing highly criticized phthalates including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been challenged by European directive 2007/47/CE, put into effect in March 2010. New plasticizers are now being used to soften PVC in medical devices: trioctyltrimellitate (TOTM), di-isononyl-cyclohexan-1,2-dicarboxilate (DINCH) and di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT). To quantify DEHP in nine DEHP-free medical devices made of PVC softened by alternative plasticizers, high performance liquid chromatography analysis with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm wavelength was achieved. An NMR spectroscopy was performed to confirm DEHP presence. Only two medical devices out of the nine tested were truly without DEHP. One of them showed traces of DEHP exceeding the threshold contamination of 0.1% in plastic mass set by REACH regulations. TOTM plasticizer is still incriminated when polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) is contaminated with DEHP. Manufacturers must verify the purity of their raw material, not only on PVC, but also on other soft plastics entering into the composition of medical infusion devices. The clinical consequences of exposure to certain levels of DEHP have not been evaluated. A solution could be to use alternative PVC-free materials.

  16. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and 20 phthalates in composite food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Dabeka, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used for simultaneous analysis of di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 20 selected phthalates in the food samples from the 2013 Canadian Total Diet Study. At least one of the 21 target chemicals was detected in 141 of the 159 different food composite samples analysed. However, only seven of the 21 target chemicals were detected, with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DEHA being detected most frequently, in 111 and 91 different food composite samples, respectively, followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (n = 44), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) (32), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) (27), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) (3), and di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) (1). Levels of DEP (di-ethyl phthalate), DiBP, DBP, BBzP and DCHP were low, in general, with average concentrations of 9.63, 8.26, 23.2, 12.4 and 64.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Levels of DEHA and DEHP varied widely, ranging from 1.4 to 6010 ng g(-1) and from 14.4 to 714 ng g(-1), respectively. High levels of DEHA were found mainly in the composite samples where the individual food items used to prepare the composite were likely packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrapping film, while the highest DEHP levels were found in the vegetable and fruit samples.

  17. Electromembrane extraction of polar basic drugs from plasma with pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite as supported liquid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In contrast to other SLMs reported for polar basic drugs in the literature, the SLM of DEHPi was highly stable in contact with plasma, and the system-current across the SLM was easily kept below 50 μA. Thus......Electromembrane extraction (EME) of polar basic drugs from human plasma was investigated for the first time using pure bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite (DEHPi) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM). The polar basic drugs metaraminol, benzamidine, sotalol, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine......, and trimethoprim were selected as model analytes, and were extracted from 300 μL of human plasma, through 10 μL of DEHPi as SLM, and into 100 μL of 10 mM formic acid as acceptor solution. The extraction potential across the SLM was 100 V, and extractions were performed for 20 min. After EME, the acceptor solutions...

  18. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, respectively. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were decreased in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish following 15 and 30d of exposure, respectively. In DEHP treated goldfish, gnrh3, kiss1 and its receptor (gpr54) mRNA levels did not change during the experimental period. In E2 treated goldfish, gnrh3 mRNA levels were...... decreased at day 7, but kiss1 and gpr54 mRNA levels were increased at day 30 of exposure. The mRNA levels of genes encoding testicular LH and androgen receptors remained unchanged in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish. In contrast to E2 treated goldfish, vitellogenin production was not induced in DEHP treated...

  19. Determination of Activity Coefficients of di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid Dimer in Select Organic Solvents Using Vapor Phase Osmometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Gray; Peter Zalupski; Mikael Nilsson

    2013-08-01

    Effective models for solvent extraction require accurate characterization of the nonideality effects for each component, including the extractants. In this study, the nonideal behavior of the industrial extractant di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid has been investigated using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). From the osmometry data, activity coefficients for the HDEHP dimer were obtained based on a formulation of the regular solution theory of Scatchard and Hildebrand, and the Margules two- and three-suffix equations. The results show similarity with a slope-analysis based relation from previous literature, although important differences are highlighted. The work points towards VPO as a useful technique for this type of study, but care must be taken with the choice of standard and method of analysis.

  20. Characterizing interfacial friction in bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate reverse micelles from photoisomerization studies of carbocyanine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamallaiah, V.; Dutt, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Photoisomerization of two carbocyanine derivatives has been examined in bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles to understand the factors that govern this process in the interfacial region of organized assemblies. To this effect, fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide and merocyanine 540 have been measured in AOT/isooctane/water and AOT/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar systems as a function of the mole ratio of water to the surfactant, W. The nonradiative rate constants, which have been identified as the rates of photoisomerization for these solutes, were obtained from the experimentally measured parameters. The steady rise and subsequent saturation observed in the nonradiative rate constants upon increasing W has been rationalized in terms of micellar packing. An inverse correlation has been obtained between the nonradiative rate constants and the critical packing parameter, indicating that the interfacial friction experienced by the solute molecule is essentially described by this parameter.

  1. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  2. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate in a convenience sample of U.S. adults from 2000 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manori J; Wong, Lee-Yang; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2017-03-17

    Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a plasticizer used in a variety of commercial applications, but data on Americans' exposure to DEHTP do not exist. We investigated the exposure to DEHTP in a convenience group of U.S. adults by analyzing urine collected anonymously in 2000 (N = 44), 2009 (N = 61), 2011 (N = 81), 2013 (N = 92), and 2016 (N = 149) for two major DEHTP oxidative metabolites: mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP). For comparison, we also quantified the analogous DEHP metabolites mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP). We detected MECPTP, MEHHP, and MECPP in all samples collected in 2016 with geometric means of 13.1, 4.1, and 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; we detected MEHHTP in 91% of the samples (geometric mean = 3.1 ng/mL). Concentrations of MECPTP correlated well with those of MEHHTP (R (2) = 0.8, p  0.05) suggesting different sources of exposure to DEHP and DEHTP. We also evaluated the fraction of the metabolites eliminated in their free (i.e., unconjugated) form. The median percent of unconjugated species was lower for the DEHP metabolites (MECPP [45.5%], MEHHP [1.9%]) compared to the DEHTP metabolites (MECPTP [98.8%], MEHHTP [21.2%]). Contrary to the downward trend from 2000 to 2016 in urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MECPP, we observed an upward trend for MEHHTP and MECPTP. These preliminary data suggest that exposure to DEHTP may be on the rise. Nevertheless, general population exposure data using MEHHTP and MECPTP as exposure biomarkers would increase our understanding of exposure to DEHTP, one of the known DEHP alternatives.

  3. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates early folliculogenesis and inhibits steroidogenesis in cultured mouse whole ovaries and antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Brannick, Katherine E; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-05-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2-20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) for 24-96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels.

  4. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or reprodu

  5. Assessment of Carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a short-term assay using Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Bertram, Margareta; Aarup, V.;

    2002-01-01

    The potential of Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice for short-term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Groups of 15 male and female Xpa(-/-) mice, received diets containing 0, 1,500, 3, 000, or 6,000 ppm DEHP, and wild-type (WT) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice 0...

  6. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP.

  7. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: kessler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  8. ELIMINATION DU PHENOL : COUPLAGE DE L’ADSORPTION SUR CHARBON ACTIF ET LA BIODEGRADATION PAR PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zeboudj; M. Loucif Seiad; Namane, A.; D. Hank; A. Hellal

    2014-01-01

    Le charbon actif en grains (CAG) est utilisé en tant qu’adsorbant dans les opérations de séparation. Associé à une biomasse il peut allier les phénomènes physico-chimiques et biologiques s’il est utilisé comme support biologique. L’étude cinétique montre que l'adsorption du phénol sur charbon actif en grains peut être décrite par une équation correspondant à un modèle de pseudo second ordre etl’exploitation de l’isotherme d’adsorption indique que le meilleur ajustement est obtenu avec le modè...

  9. Transcriptional deregulation of genetic biomarkers in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to ecologically relevant concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Gloria; Planelló, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G). Environmentally relevant concentrations (10−3 to 105 μg/L) and exposure conditions (24 to 96 h) have been tested, as well as the toxic effects after DEHP withdrawal. Although the compound caused no mortality, significant changes were detected in almost all the studied biomarkers: e.g. strong repression of hsp70; general inhibition of EcR; GAPDH activity loss in long exposures; among others. Our data show a general transcriptional downregulation that could be associated with an adaptive response to cell damage. Besides, the activity of the compound as an ecdysone antagonist and its delayed effects over almost all the biomarkers analyzed are described as novel toxic targets in insects. PMID:28166271

  10. Estimating Emissions and Environmental Fate of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Yangtze River Delta, China: Application of Inverse Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Sun, Jianteng; Luo, Yuzhou; Pan, Lili; Deng, Xunfei; Wei, Zi; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-03-01

    A georeferenced multimedia model was developed for evaluating the emissions and environmental fate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Due to the lack of emission inventories, the emission rates were estimated using the observed concentrations in soil as inputs for the multimedia model solved analytically in an inverse manner. The estimated emission rates were then used to evaluate the environmental fate of DEHP with the regular multimedia modeling approach. The predicted concentrations in air, surface water, and sediment were all consistent with the ranges and spatial variations of observed data. The total emission rate of DEHP in YRD was 13.9 thousand t/year (95% confidence interval: 9.4-23.6), of which urban and rural sources accounted for 47% and 53%, respectively. Soil in rural areas and sediment stored 79% and 13% of the total mass, respectively. The air received 61% of the total emissions of DEHP but was only associated with 0.2% of the total mass due to fast degradation and intensive deposition. We suggest the use of an inverse modeling approach under a tiered risk assessment framework to assist future development and refinement of DEHP emission inventories.

  11. Di2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis through activating the Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and inducing hepatic enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hanfeng; Ha, Mei; Yang, Min; Yue, Ping; Xie, Zhengyuan; Liu, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were reduced. DEHP caused ROS production, oxidative stress and k-Ras upregulation, thereby activating the ERK and Akt pathways in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was elevated after the activation of the Akt pathway and was downregulated after the inhibition of the Akt pathway. However, TRHr was not modulated by the ERK pathway. Additionally, hepatic enzymes, including Ugt1a1, CYP2b1, Sult1e1, and Sult2b1, were significantly induced after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP can perturb TH homeostasis and reduce TH levels. The activated Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and induced hepatic enzymes play vital roles in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP. PMID:28065941

  12. Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hu Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is used to increase the flexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In conclusion, the validated UPLC-MS/MS method is suitable for analyzing the rat plasma sample of DEHP and the oral bioavailability of DEHP was about 7% in rats.

  13. Isolation and molecular identification of landfill bacteria capable of growing on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and deteriorating PVC materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Isomar; Hwang, Sangchul; Montalvo-Rodriguez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Waste materials containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a suspected endocrine disruptor and reasonably anticipated human carcinogen, are typically disposed of in landfills. Despite this, very few studies had been conducted to isolate and identify DEHP-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria in landfill leachate growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source and deteriorating PVC materials. Four strains LHM1, LHM2, LHM3 and LHM4, not previously reported as DEHP-degraders, were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence. Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 had a greater than 97% similarity with Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. Gram-negative strains LHM3 and LHM4 were related to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T) (90.7% similarity) and Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89(T) (96.0% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also corroborated these similarities of strains LHM1 and LHM2 to the corresponding bacteria species. Strains LHM2 and LHM4 grew faster than strains LHM1 and LHM3 in the enrichment where DEHP was the sole carbon source. When augmented to the reactors with PVC shower curtains containing DEHP, strains LHM1 and LHM2 developed greater optical densities in the solution phase and thicker biofilm on the surfaces of the shower curtains.

  14. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  15. ELIMINATION DU PHENOL : COUPLAGE DE L’ADSORPTION SUR CHARBON ACTIF ET LA BIODEGRADATION PAR PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeboudj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Le charbon actif en grains (CAG est utilisé en tant qu’adsorbant dans les opérations de séparation. Associé à une biomasse il peut allier les phénomènes physico-chimiques et biologiques s’il est utilisé comme support biologique. L’étude cinétique montre que l'adsorption du phénol sur charbon actif en grains peut être décrite par une équation correspondant à un modèle de pseudo second ordre etl’exploitation de l’isotherme d’adsorption indique que le meilleur ajustement est obtenu avec le modèle de Langmuir. La bactérie Pseudomonas aeruginosa, préalablement adaptée à ce polluant à 500 mg.L-1 a été utilisée pour son pouvoir de dégrader le phénol. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que cette bactérie adaptée le dégrade rapidement en solution (17 h. Les résultats expérimentaux de labiosorption indiquent que la quantité de phénol éliminée au cours de la bioadsorption est plus faible que celle au cours de l’adsorption seule pour la même durée de traitement.

  16. Rodent Thyroid, Liver, and Fetal Testis Toxicity of the Monoester Metabolite of Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) Tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), a Novel Brominated Flame Retardant Present in Indoor Dust

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is widely used as a replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in commercial flame retardant mixtures such as Firemaster 550. It is also used in a commercial mixture called DP 45. Mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) is a potentially toxic metabolite. Objectives: We used in vitro and rodent in vivo models to evaluate human exposure and the potential metabolism and toxicity of TBPH. Methods: Dust collected from ho...

  17. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  18. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  19. Toxic effects of polyethylene terephthalate microparticles and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on the calanoid copepod, Parvocalanus crassirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindler, Franz M; Alajmi, Fahad; Huerlimann, Roger; Zeng, Chaoshu; Newman, Stephen J; Vamvounis, George; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2017-03-30

    Large amounts of plastic end up in the oceans every year where they fragment into microplastics over time. During this process, microplastics and their associated plasticizers become available for ingestion by different organisms. This study assessed the effects of microplastics (Polyethylene terephthalate; PET) and one plasticizer (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; DEHP) on mortality, productivity, population sizes and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris. Copepods were exposed to DEHP for 48h to assess toxicity. Adults were very healthy following chemical exposure (up to 5120µg L(-1)), whereas nauplii were severely affected at very low concentrations (48h LC50value of 1.04 ng L(-1)). Adults exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of DEHP (0.1-0.3µg L(-1)) or microplastics (10,000-80,000 particles mL(-1)) exhibited substantial reductions in egg production. Populations were exposed to either microplastics or DEHP for 6 days with 18 days of recovery or for 24 days. Populations exposed to microplastics for 24 days significantly depleted in population size (60±4.1%, precovery) experienced less severe depletions (75±6.0% of control, precovery and both treatments (6 and 24 days) yielded the same average population size at the termination of the experiment (59±4.9% and 59±3.4% compared to control; precovery. Hsp70-like expression showed to be unresponsive to either DEHP or microplastic exposure. Clearly, microplastics and plasticizers pose a serious threat to zooplankton and potentially to higher trophic levels.

  20. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  1. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on human and mouse fetal testis: In vitro and in vivo approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muczynski, V. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Cravedi, J.P. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Lehraiki, A.; Levacher, C.; Moison, D.; Lecureuil, C.; Messiaen, S. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Perdu, E. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Frydman, R. [Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital A. Béclère, Université Paris Sud F-92141 Clamart (France); Habert, R. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); and others

    2012-05-15

    The present study was conducted to determine whether exposure to the mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) represents a genuine threat to male human reproductive function. To this aim, we investigated the effects on human male fetal germ cells of a 10{sup −5} M exposure. This dose is slightly above the mean concentrations found in human fetal cord blood samples by biomonitoring studies. The in vitro experimental approach was further validated for phthalate toxicity assessment by comparing the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure in mouse testes. Human fetal testes were recovered during the first trimester (7–12 weeks) of gestation and cultured in the presence or not of 10{sup −5} M MEHP for three days. Apoptosis was quantified by measuring the percentage of Caspase-3 positive germ cells. The concentration of phthalate reaching the fetal gonads was determined by radioactivity measurements, after incubations with {sup 14}C-MEHP. A 10{sup −5} M exposure significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in human male fetal germ cells. The intratesticular MEHP concentration measured corresponded to the concentration added in vitro to the culture medium. Furthermore, a comparable effect on germ cell apoptosis in mouse fetal testes was induced both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that this 10{sup −5} M exposure is sufficient to induce changes to the in vivo development of the human fetal male germ cells. -- Highlights: ► 10{sup −5} M of MEHP impairs germ cell development in the human fetal testis. ► Organotypic culture is a suitable approach to investigate phthalate effects in human. ► MEHP is not metabolized in the human fetal testis. ► In mice, MEHP triggers similar effects both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  3. Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Wang, Christina; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of environmental chemicals, may interfere with typical reproductive hormone production both in utero and in adulthood. Although they are best known as anti-androgens, increasingly, evidence suggests that phthalates, particularly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), may also suppress estrogen production. Given that both androgens and estrogens are essential for sexual function, particularly sexual interest, it is plausible that adult exposure to phthalates alters sexual function. To this end, we used data from 360 women participating in a pregnancy cohort study (the Study for Future Families) to examine whether urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with two dimensions of self-reported sexual dysfunction in the months prior to conception: lack of sexual interest and vaginal dryness. Women in the highest quartile of urinary concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, a DEHP metabolite, had 2.58 (95% CI 1.33, 5.00) times the adjusted odds of reporting that they almost always or often lacked interest in sexual activity, and results were similar for mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.32, 4.95), another DEHP metabolite. Self-reported vaginal dryness was not associated with any phthalate metabolite concentration. This study is novel in its focus on sexual function in relation to environmentally relevant (rather than occupational) exposure to phthalates in adult women and these preliminary findings merit replication in a large, prospective study. Better understanding how adult exposure to phthalates may affect reproductive health, including sexual function, is of public health interest given that virtually all Westerners are exposed to phthalates.

  4. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  5. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, S. [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India); Benjamin, Sailas, E-mail: sailasben@yahoo.co.in [Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Biotechnology Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala 673 635 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three novel phthalate utilizing fungi: A. parasiticus, F. subglutinans and P. funiculosum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungi utilize DEHP in PVC plastics in situ, in simple mineral salt medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employing these fungi, a batch process can remediate phthalates in plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalate-free PVC can be recycled afresh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral salt and phthalate remediated into fungal biomass. - Abstract: This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 Degree-Sign C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass ({approx}0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD {approx}7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large

  6. Synthesis and characterization of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization, reverse atom transfer radical polymerization and radical polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruba Jyoti Haloi; Bishnu Prasad Koiry; Prithwiraj Mandal; Nikhil Kumar Singha

    2013-07-01

    This investigation reports a comparative study of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and conventional free radical polymerization (FRP). The molecular weights and the molecular weight distributions of the polymers were measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. Structural characterization of the polymers was carried out by 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymerization results and the thermal properties of PEHAs prepared via ATRP, RATRP and FRP were compared.

  7. A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschle, Tom; Reiter, Rudolf; Butte, Werner; Heinzow, Birger; Keck, Tilman; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have yet addressed the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in house dust on human nasal mucosa. Objectives We investigated the effects of house dust containing DEHP on nasal mucosa of healthy and house dust mite (HDM)–allergic subjects in a short-term exposure setting. Methods We challenged 16 healthy and 16 HDM-allergic subjects for 3 hr with house dust at a concentration of 300 μg/m3 containing either low (0.41 mg/g) or high (2.09 mg/g) levels of DEHP. Exposu...

  8. Diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (DINCH) and Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) in indoor dust samples: concentration and analytical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorka, Regine; Conrad, André; Scheller, Christiane; Süssenbach, Bettina; Moriske, Heinz-Jörn

    2011-01-01

    Possible human health effects of phthalate plasticizers have been intensely discussed during the last decade. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the phthalate acid ester with the largest production volume worldwide, has been substituted by new compounds like Diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (DINCH) or Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) in many applications. There are numerous reports about concentration levels of phthalates in indoor environments, but data on concentrations of these alternative plasticizers are not available yet. Also, the methods for the determination of phthalate substitutes are not yet established. This study presents the results achieved by quantification using different analytical methods. Data on the concentration of DEHT and DINCH in 953 dust samples from German households are presented. These samples were obtained in four different studies conducted from 1997 to 2009. Maximum concentrations of 110 mg DINCH/kg dust and 440 mg DEHT/kg dust were found. Especially the amount of DINCH has increased significantly after the market introduction of this plasticizer in 2002. Up to the beginning of 2006, DINCH was found in 44% of the dust samples. Dust samples collected in 2009 indicate an increased concentration for both softeners.

  9. Environmental biodegradability of diesel oil: composition and performances of degradative micro-floras; Biodegradabilite du gazole dans l'environnement: composition et performances des microflores degradatrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S.

    2004-09-01

    The large use of petroleum products makes them a significant source of pollutants in ground water and soils. Biodegradation studies are therefore relevant either to evaluate possibilities of natural attenuation or define bio-remediation strategies. In this study, the possible relationship between the environmental microflora structures and their capabilities for diesel oil biodegradation was investigated. The degradation capacities, i.e. kinetics and extent of biodegradation, were evaluated in closed batch systems by hydrocarbon consumption and CO{sub 2} production, both determined by gas chromatography. The intrinsic biodegradability of different types of diesel oils and the degradation capacities of microflora from ten polluted and ten unpolluted soils samples were determined. The data showed that: i) diesel oil was biodegradable, ii) n-alkanes were totally degraded by each microflora, the final amount of residual hydrocarbons being variable, iii) polluted-soil samples exhibited a slightly higher degradation rate (80%) that polluted-soil samples (67%) or activated sludge (64%). In order to define the contribution of various bacterial groups to diesel oil degradation, enrichment cultures were performed on hydrocarbons representative from the structural classes of diesel oil: hexadecane for n-alkanes, pristane for iso-alkanes, decalin for cyclo-alkanes, phenanthrene for aromatics. By using a 16S rDNA-sequencing method, the bacterial structures of the adapted microflora were determined and compared to that of the native microflora. A marked effect of the selection pressure was observed on the diversity of the microflora, each microflora harboring a major and specific bacterial group. The degradation capacities of the adapted microflora and the occurrence of genes coding for initial hydrocarbon oxidation (alkB, nahAc, cypP450) were also studied. No clear relationship between microflora genes and degradation performances was noted. This seemed to indicate that

  10. In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Testicular Effects in Neonatal Rats That Are Antagonized by Genistein Cotreatment1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Boisvert, Annie; Francois, Sade; Zhang, Liandong; Culty, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) is believed to predispose males to reproductive abnormalities. Although males are exposed to combinations of chemicals, few studies have evaluated the effects of ED mixtures at environmentally relevant doses. Our previous work showed that fetal exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) and the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced unique alterations in adult testis. In this follow-up study, we examined Postnatal Day 3 (PND3) and PND6 male offspring exposed from Gestational Day 14 to parturition to corn oil, 10mg/kg GEN, DEHP, or their combination, to gain insight into the early molecular events driving long-term alterations. DEHP stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of the steroidogenic enzyme HSD3B, uniquely at PND3. DEHP also increased the mRNA expression of Nestin, a Leydig progenitor/Sertoli cell marker, and markers of Sertoli cell (Wt1), gonocyte (Plzf, Foxo1), and proliferation (Pcna) at PND3, while these genes were unchanged by the mixture. Redox (Nqo1, Sod2, Sod3, Trx, Gst, Cat) and xenobiotic transporter (Abcb1b, Abcg2) gene expression was also increased by DEHP at PND3, while attenuated when combined with GEN, suggesting the involvement of cellular stress in short-term DEHP effects and a protective effect of GEN. The direct effects of GEN and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP, on testis were investigated in PND3 organ cultures, showing a stimulatory effect of 10 μM mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on basal testosterone production that was normalized by GEN. These effects contrasted with previous reports of androgen suppression and decreased gene expression in perinatal rat testis by high DEHP doses, implying that neonatal effects are not predictive of adult effects. We propose that GEN, through an antioxidant action, normalizes reactive oxygen species-induced neonatal effects of DEHP. The notion that these EDs do not follow classical

  11. Solid phase extraction of zinc(II) using a PVC-based polymer inclusion membrane with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Spas D; Baba, Yoshinari; Cattrall, Robert W; Tasaki, Tsutomu; Pereira, Natalie; Perera, Jilska M; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2009-05-15

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is reported consisting of 45% (m/m) di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) immobilized in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for use as a solid phase absorbent for selectively extracting Zn(II) from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II). Interference from Fe(III) in the sample is eliminated by precipitation with orthophosphate prior to the extraction of Zn(II). Studies using a dual compartment transport cell have shown that the Zn(II) flux (2.58 x 10(-6)mol m(-2)s(-1)) is comparable to that observed for supported liquid membranes. The stoichiometry of the extracted complex is shown to be ZnR(2).HR, where R is the D2EHPA anion.

  12. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shaffei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of polybutyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl maleate (BEHM. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  13. New Environment-Friendly Approach for Bastnasite Metallurgic Treatment (I): Extraction of Tetravalent Cerium from Sulphuric Acid Medium with Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhaowu; Zhao Na; Long Zhiqi; Li Dedong; Cui Dali; Zhang Guocheng

    2005-01-01

    The extraction of cerium(IV) from sulphuric acid medium with Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(DEHPA) was studied. The influence of sulphate ion, acidity, extractant concentration as well as the presence of fluoride ion on the extraction of Ce(IV) was investigated, and the extraction mechanism was also discussed. The results show that sulphate ion can inhibit the extraction of Ce(IV) significantly due to its complexation with Ce(IV). Fluoride ion can enhance Ce(IV) extraction dramatically by the formation of CeF22+ and less amount of CeF3+ which can almost be extracted completely. Nevertheless, in the case as F/Ce(mole ratio) in the initial aqueous phase is approximately more than 1.5, the precipitate will be formed and the extraction can not be progressed smoothly.

  14. Study of the photochemical transformation of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA) under conditions relevant to surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, P; Vione, D; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Dal Bello, F; Medana, C

    2016-01-01

    We studied the aquatic environmental fate of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA), a widespread sunscreen, to assess its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformation. Direct photolysis is shown to play a key role in phototransformation, and this fast process is expected to be the main attenuation route of OD-PABA in sunlit surface waters. The generation of transformation products (TPs) was followed via HPLC/HRMS. Five (or four) TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVB (or UVA) radiation, respectively. The main detected TPs of OD-PABA, at least as far as HPLC-HRMS peak areas are concerned, would involve a dealkylation or hydroxylation/oxidation process in both direct photolysis and indirect phototransformation. The latter was simulated by using TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis, involving the formation of nine additional TPs. Most of them resulted from the further degradation of the primary TPs that can also be formed by direct photolysis. Therefore, these secondary TPs might also occur as later transformation intermediates in natural aquatic systems.

  15. Central metal ion exchange in a coordination polymer based on lanthanide ions and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid: exchange rate and tunable affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Abe, Yukie; Ooi, Kenta; Tanaka, Mikiya; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the exchange of lanthanide(III) ions (Ln(3+)) between a solution and a coordination polymer (CP) of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (Hdehp), [Ln(dehp)3], is studied. Kinetic and selectivity studies suggest that a polymeric network of [Ln(dehp)3] has different characteristics than the corresponding monomeric complex. The reaction rate is remarkably slow and requires over 600 h to reach in nearly equilibrium, and this can be explained by the polymeric crystalline structure and high valency of Ln(3+). The affinity of the exchange reaction reaches a maximum with the Ln(3+) possessing an ionic radius 7% smaller than that of the central Ln(3+), therefore, the affinity of the [Ln(dehp)3] is tunable based on the choice of the central metal ion. Such unique affinity, which differs from the monomeric complex, can be explained by two factors: the coordination preference and steric strain caused by the polymeric structure. The latter likely becomes predominant for Ln(3+) exchange when the ionic radius of the ion in solution is smaller than the original Ln(3+) by more than 7%. Structural studies suggest that the incoming Ln(3+) forms a new phase though an exchange reaction, and this could plausibly cause the structural strain.

  16. Lanthanide ion exchange properties of a coordination polymer consisting of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and trivalent metal ions (Ce3+, Fe3+, or Al3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kenta; Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Abe, Yukie; Wakisaka, Akihiko

    2014-03-28

    Three kinds of coordination polymers ([M(dehp)3], M = Ce, Fe, or Al) were prepared by mixing the sodium form (Na(dehp)) of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and MCl3 in an ethanol-water binary mixture. They have monoclinic crystalline structure with similar lattice parameters. The lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) = La(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+), or Yb(3+)) exchange properties were studied in a 20 : 80 vol% ethanol-water binary mixture containing 2 mM Ln(NO3)3 at room temperature. The rate of Ln(3+) adsorption is relatively slow; it requires over 3 weeks to reach equilibrium. [M(dehp)3] has different Ln(3+) affinities depending on the kind of central metal ions: the affinity order at 3 week adsorption is Yb(3+) coordination preference and steric strain caused by the polymeric structure. The chemical and structural analyses suggested that the Ln(3+) adsorption progresses first by the central M(3+)/Ln(3+) exchange, followed by a morphological change to a rod-like or fibrous form by a solid phase reaction. In the case of [Fe(dehp)3], the eluted Fe(3+) may be hydrolyzed and precipitated as amorphous iron hydroxide.

  17. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Smith

    Full Text Available Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  18. Reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF expression following acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in male Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine A; Holahan, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Early developmental exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental changes, particularly in rodents. The primary goal of this work was to establish whether acute postnatal exposure to a low dose of DEHP would alter hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF and caspase-3 mRNA expression in male and female Long Evans rats. Treatment with DEHP in male rats led to a reduction in spine density on basal and apical dendrites of neurons in the CA3 dorsal hippocampal region compared to vehicle-treated male controls. Dorsal hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression was also down-regulated in male rats exposed to DEHP. No differences in hippocampal spine density or BDNF mRNA expression were observed in female rats treated with DEHP compared to controls. DEHP treatment did not affect hippocampal caspase-3 mRNA expression in male or female rats. These results suggest a gender-specific vulnerability to early developmental DEHP exposure in male rats whereby postnatal DEHP exposure may interfere with normal synaptogenesis and connectivity in the hippocampus. Decreased expression of BDNF mRNA may represent a molecular mechanism underlying the reduction in dendritic spine density observed in hippocampal CA3 neurons. These findings provide initial evidence for a link between developmental exposure to DEHP, reduced levels of BDNF and hippocampal atrophy in male rats.

  19. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 1. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films during home-use and microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startin, J R; Sharman, M; Rose, M D; Parker, I; Mercer, A J; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) into a diverse range of foods arising from the domestic use of plasticized PVC films has been determined using a stable isotope dilution GC/MS procedure. Aspects of home use reported in this study include the wrapping and covering of foods such as cheese, cooked meats, sandwiches, cakes, fresh fruit and vegetables; the use of films during food preparation such as marinading; covering during microwave reheating of previously prepared foods, and covering during microwave cooking. Contact between film and foods was for differing temperatures and times, representative of the range of conditions likely to be experienced in practice in the home. Migration increased with both the length of contact time and temperature of exposure, with the highest levels observed where there was a direct contact between the film and food, and where the latter had a high fat content on the contact surface. Highest levels of migration were observed for cheese, cooked meats, cakes and for microwave-cooked foods, whilst lower levels were observed for wrapping of unfilled sandwiches, fruit and vegetables (except avocado), and for food preparation including microwave reheating where there was covering of the food in a container but little or no direct contact.

  20. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in urine show age-related changes and associations with adiposity and parameters of insulin sensitivity in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    Full Text Available Phthalates might be implicated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the levels of primary and secondary metabolites of Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in urine in obese and normal-weight subjects both before and during puberty, and investigated their relationships with auxological parameters and indexes of insulin sensitivity.DEHP metabolites (MEHP, 6-OH-MEHP, 5-oxo-MEHP, 5-OH-MEHP, and 5-CX-MEHP, were measured in urine by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Traditional statistical analysis and a data mining analysis using the Auto-CM analysis were able to offer an insight into the complex biological connections between the studied variables.The data showed changes in DEHP metabolites in urine related with obesity, puberty, and presence of insulin resistance. Changes in urine metabolites were related with age, height and weight, waist circumference and waist to height ratio, thus to fat distribution. In addition, clear relationships in both obese and normal-weight subjects were detected among MEHP, its products of oxidation and measurements of insulin sensitivity.It remains to be elucidated whether exposure to phthalates per se is actually the risk factor or if the ability of the body to metabolize phthalates is actually the key point. Further studies that span from conception to elderly subjects besides further understanding of DEHP metabolism are warranted to clarify these aspects.

  1. Study on Toxicity of Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate%邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 张琨; 吴晓刚; 宋昕恬; 张晶莹

    2011-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)是日常生活中使用最多的增塑剂,广泛用于各种塑料制品中.在塑料加工过程中,DEHP与塑料基质间是以氢键和范德华力相连接,因此可不断地从塑料中释放出,挥发至大气、土壤、水域中,造成对环境、生物、食品等的污染,并经消化道、呼吸道等途径进入机体,对机体产生毒性作用.作者就DEHP对机体的毒性作用作一综述.%Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate ( DEHP) is a kind of plasticizers which is widely used in our daily life and all kinds of plas-tic product. In the manufacturing process of plastic, DEHP is connected with plastic matrix by hydrogen bond and van der waals force, so it can be released and evaporated to air, soil and water. That will contaminate the environments, organism and foods, and enters body through digestive tract and respiratory tract, which can induce toxicity. In this paper, authors make a review about toxici-ty of DEHP in body.

  2. Solution processed white light photodetector based N, N′-di (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide thin film phototransistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozlu, Cem, E-mail: tozlu.cem@gmail.com [Department of Energy System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Can, Mustafa [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Cigli, 35620 Izmir (Turkey); Ersöz, Mustafa [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey)

    2014-10-31

    In this study, a solution-processed n-type photo-sensing organic thin film transistor was investigated using polymeric dielectric under different white light illuminations. N, N′-di (2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide and divinyl tetramethyl disiloxane-bis (benzo-cyclobutene) were used as a soluble active organic semiconductor and as a dielectric material, respectively. Stable amplification was observed in the visible region without gate bias by the device. The electrical characterization results showed that an n-type phototransistor with a saturated electron mobility of 0.6 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V·s and a threshold voltage of 1.8 V was obtained. The charge carrier density of the channel of the device exhibited photo-induced behaviors that strongly affected the electrical properties of the transistor. The photosensitivity and photoresponsivity values of the device were 63.82 and 24 mA/W, respectively. These findings indicate that perylene diimide is a promising material for use on organic based phototransistors. - Highlights: • A solution processed n-type organic phototransistor was fabricated. • The geometry of device allows to be used double sided photo-sensor to detect light. • The accumulation of charge carrier is effected strongly by illumination intensity. • The current amplification was observed clearly under illumination without gate bias.

  3. Extraction Equilibrium of Mn2+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ from Chloride Solutions by Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid Dissolved in Kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfu; Cao, Wenxin; Zhan, Jing; Ding, Fenghua; Hwang, Jiann-Yang

    2015-05-01

    The presence of calcium and magnesium affects the purity of the final product MnCl2 in hydrometallurgical treatment processes. The solvent extraction method can be used to separate Ca2+ and Mg2+ from Mn2+ solutions containing impurity ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+. This article aims to investigate the single-stage extraction equilibrium of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ in chloride medium using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in kerosene (O:A = 1:1). The results show that the pH0.5 values are 1.11, 1.56, and 2.18 for Ca2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+, respectively. The mechanism of extraction and stoichiometries of metal-containing extracted species were illustrated based on a slope analysis. The composition of the extracted species in the organic phase is proposed to be MnR2·R2H2, CaR2·R2H2, and MgR2·(R2H2)2, respectively.

  4. Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Exposure In Utero Damages Sertoli Cell Differentiation Via Disturbance of Sex Determination Pathway in Fetal and Postnatal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongan; Yang, Qing; Liu, Wei; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-07-01

    Mice may share similar mechanism with human underlying reproductive toxicity induced by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is not supposed to be associated with decreased testicular testosterone. Pregnant mice were exposed to DEHP by gavage, with the dosage regime beginning at human relevant exposure level. After in utero DEHP exposure, loss of Sertoli cells and germ cells were observed in the male pups at postnatal days 21. And SRY-related HMG box 9 (SOX9), Fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9), and Double-sex and Mab-3 related transcripttion factor 1 (DMRT1) proteins were significantly downregulated by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above, suggesting the depression of Sertoli cell differentiation. The repression of Sox9 genes expression was supported by whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time real-time-quantitative PCR. The expressions of Cyp11α1 and Star were not significantly affected by in utero DEHP exposure, indicating the absence of effects on testosterone biosynthesis. Furthermore, the testosterone-independent pathway regulating Sertoli cells differentiation was disturbed in fetus by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above during the critical time window of sex determination, involving Gadd45g → Gata4/Fog2 → Sry → Sox9 → Fgf9 The results suggest that in utero DEHP exposure damaged Sertoli cells in the postnatal life of mice offspring via disturbance of the differentiation regulating pathway, potentially inducing declines in spermatogenesis.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics and subacute toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rats and marmosets: extrapolation of effects in rodents to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, C.; Orton, T.C.; Pratt, I.S.; Batten, P.L.; Bratt, H.; Jackson, S.J.; Elcombe, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    Certain phthalate esters and hypolipidemic agents are known to induce morphological and biochemical changes in the liver of rodents, which have been associated with an increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors in these species. There is evidence that hypolipidemic agents do not induce these effects in either subhuman primates or man. The oral and intraperitoneal administration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to the marmoset monkey at doses up to 5 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day for 14 days did not induce morphological or biochemical changes in the liver or testis comparable with those obtained in rats given the same amount of DEHP. In the marmoset, the excretion profile of (/sup 14/C)-DEHP following oral, IP, and IV administration and the lower tissue levels of radioactivity demonstrated a considerably reduced absorption in this species compared to the rat. The urinary metabolite pattern in the marmoset was in many respects qualitatively similar to but quantitatively different from that in the rat. The pharmacokinetic differences between these two species indicate that the tissues of the marmoset are exposed to a level of DEHP metabolites equivalent to the complete absorption of a dose of Ca. 0.1 to 0.25 mmole DEHP/kg body weight/day without significant toxicological effects. The evidence suggests that in some nonrodent species the hepatocellular and testicular response to DEHP is considerably less than that in rodents and is dose-dependent.

  6. Facilitated transport of Cr(III) through activated composite membrane containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as carrier agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Gulsin [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Campus, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali, E-mail: ator@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, 42031 Campus, Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Campus, Konya (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The facilitated transport of chromium(III) through activated composite membrane (ACM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was investigated. DEHPA was immobilised by interfacial polymerisation on polysulfone layer which was deposited on non-woven fabric by using spin coater. Then, ACM was characterised by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Initially, batch experiments of liquid-liquid distribution of Cr(III) and the extractant (DEHPA) were carried out to determine the appropriate pH of the feed phase and the results showed that maximum extraction of Cr(III) was achieved at a pH of 4. It was also found that Cr(III) and DEHPA reacted in 1/1 molar ratio. The effects of Cr(III) (in feed phase), HCl (in stripping phase) and DEHPA (in ACM) concentrations were investigated. DEHPA concentration varies from 0.1 to 1.0 M and it was determined that the transport of Cr(III) increased with the carrier concentration up to 0.8 M. It was also observed that the transport of Cr(III) through the ACM tended to increase with Cr(III) and HCl concentrations. The stability of ACM was also confirmed with replicate experiments.

  7. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants. [Lactuca sativa L. ; Daucus carota L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, J.M.; O' Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net {sup 14}C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with {sup 14}C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net {sup 14}C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net {sup 14}C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net {sup 14}C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops.

  8. The adjuvant effect induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is mediated through oxidative stress in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Huihui; Chen, Shaohui; Mao, Lin; Li, Bing; Yuan, Ye; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-09-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, as the most commonly used plasticizer, is considered to be related to the asthma prevalence. There are studies affirming that the DEHP has an adjuvant effect in the pathogenesis of allergy asthma. Oxidative stress is one possible pathway for DEHP-adjuvant effect. Thus, this study explored whether DEHP could induce adjuvant effect in mouse asthma model via oxidative stress pathway. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: (1) saline group, (2) DEHP group, (3) ovalbumin (OVA) group, (4) DEHP+OVA group, (5) OVA+vitamin E (Vit E) group, (6) DEHP+OVA+Vit E group. The exposure dose of DEHP was 30 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. After 18 days of the exposure protocol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels and biomarkers related to asthma model were measured. Collectively, these data indicated higher ROS and MDA levels and lower GSH contents in DEHP+OVA group than that in OVA group, while Vit E, an antioxidant, could restore ROS, MDA and GSH levels to control levels and attenuate the DEHP and/or OVA effects. Our observations suggested that there was a relationship between oxidative stress and the adjuvant effect induced by DEHP in this mouse asthma model.

  9. Development of an extractive spectrophotometric method for estimation of uranium in ore leach solutions using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid-mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) mixture as extractant and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylozo)-5-diethyl aminophenol (Br-PADAP) as chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sujoy; Pathak, P N; Roy, S B

    2012-06-01

    An extractive spectrophotometric analytical method has been developed for the determination of uranium in ore leach solution. This technique is based on the selective extraction of uranium from multielement system using a synergistic mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid-mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in cyclohexane and color development from the organic phase aliquot using 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl aminophenol (Br-PADAP) as chromogenic reagent. The absorption maximum (λ(max)) for UO(2)(2+)-Br-PADAP complex in organic phase samples, in 64% (v/v) ethanol containing buffer solution (pH 7.8) and 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (CyDTA) complexing agent, has been found to be at 576 nm (molar extinction coefficient, ɛ: 36,750 ± 240 L mol(-1)cm(-1)). Effects of various parameters like stability of complex, ethanol volume, ore matrix, interfering ions etc. on the determination of uranium have also been evaluated. Absorbance measurements as a function of time showed that colored complex is stable up to > 24h. Presence of increased amount of ethanol in colored solution suppresses the absorption of a standard UO(2)(2+)-Br-PADAP solution. Analyses of synthetic standard as well as ore leach a solution show that for 10 determination relative standard deviation (RSD) is ore leach solutions and results were compared with standard methods like inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPAES). The determined values of uranium concentrations by these methods are within ± 2%. This method can be used to determine 2.5-250 μg mL(-1) uranium in ore leach solutions with high accuracy and precision.

  10. Migration of di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and acetyltributyl citrate plasticizers from food-grade PVC film into sweetened sesame paste (halawa tehineh): kinetic and penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Antonios E; Zygoura, Panagiota; Karatapanis, Andreas; Georgantelis, Dimitris; Kontominas, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling-film containing 5.3% (w/w) di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 3.0% (w/w) acetyltributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticizers was used to wrap halawa tehineh (halva) samples. Samples were split into two groups and stored at 25+/-1 degrees C. One group was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content at intervals between 0.5 and 240h of contact (kinetic study) and a second group was cut into slices (1.5mm thick) after 240h of halva/PVC contact and was analyzed for DEHA and ATBC content (penetration study). Determination of both plasticizers was performed using a direct gas chromatographic (GC) method after extraction of DEHA from halva samples. DEHA readily migrated into halva samples: the equilibrium amount of DEHA in halva (3.31mg/dm(2) film or 81.4mg/kg halva) corresponding to a loss of 54.7% (w/w) DEHA from PVC film. This value is slightly higher than the limit of 3mg/dm(2) of film surface set by the European Union for DEHA. The equilibrium amount of ATBC in halva was 1.46mg/dm(2) (36.1mg/kg) corresponding to a loss of 42.7% ATBC from PVC film. With regard to the penetration of both placticizers into halva samples, migration of DEHA was detectable up to the 7th slice beneath the surface of halva (total depth 10.5mm) while the migration of ATBC was detectable up to the 5th slice (total depth 7.5mm).

  11. Development of a simple method for predicting the levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate migrated from PVC medical devices into pharmaceutical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishima, Yuji; Seshimo, Fumie; Higuchi, Tae; Yamazaki, Haruko; Hasegawa, Chie; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakahashi, Keisuke; Ito, Rie; Inoue, Koichi; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Saito, Koichi; Yagami, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Toshie; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-07-14

    This study deals with the development of a simple method for predicting the elution levels of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from medical devices made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using the physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical injections as a marker. GC-MS analysis showed that the release of DEHP from medical grade PVC product was concentration-dependently increased by extraction with two kinds of lipophilic injections (Sandimmun and Prograf) and three kinds of surfactants (HCO-60, Tween 80, and SDS). The solubility of lipophilic pigments such as Sudan III, methyl yellow, and 1,4-diamino-anthraquinone against these solutions were also increased in a concentration-dependent manner, in which methyl yellow showed the highest response regarding the increase of optical density (O.D.). Further, electrical conductivity and static contact angle to the PVC sheet of the solutions were also increased or decreased in the same manner. As a result of the comparative study, significant correlation was found between DEHP release levels and these three physicochemical properties, particularly methyl yellow solubility, of the solutions tested. To evaluate the relationship in detail, DEHP release levels from PVC tubing and methyl yellow solubility of 53 injections used in gynecologic and obstetric fields were determined. None of the hydrophilic medicines showed any significant release of DEHP, and all showed low solubility of methyl yellow. On the other hand, the lipophilic medicines releasing a large amount of DEHP showed high solubility of methyl yellow (greater than O.D. 0.8). These results indicate that a significant proportional relationship exists between DEHP release potency and methyl yellow solubility of pharmaceutical solutions, and the risk of DEHP exposure to the patients administered pharmaceuticals through transfusion set could be easily predicted by the solubility test without complicated elution tests of DEHP using GC-MS or LC-MS.

  12. Mutagenicity of the peroxisome proliferators clofibrate, Wyeth 14,643 and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in the lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mouse mutation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boerrigter Michaël

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferators are considered rodent carcinogens that are putative human non-carcinogens based on the presumed absence of direct genetic toxicity in rodent and human cells and the resistance of human cells to the induction of peroxisomes by peroxisome proliferators. The highly sensitive lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mouse mutation assay was employed to investigate the mutagenicity of several peroxisome proliferators based on several lines of evidence suggesting that these agents may in fact exert a genotoxic effect. Methods Male and female lacZ-plasmid based transgenic mice were treated at 4 months of age with 6 doses of 2,333 mg di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DHEP, 200 mg Wyeth-14,643, or 90 mg clofibrate per kg of bodyweight, respectively, over a two-week period. Control animals were treated with the respective vehicles only (35% propyl glycol for DEHP and Wyeth-14,643 treatment controls and sterile water for clofibrate treatment controls. The mutant frequency in liver, kidney and spleen DNA was determined as the proportion of retrieved mutant and wild-type lacZ plasmids expressed in Escherichia Coli C host cells employing a positive selection system for mutant plasmids. Results Exposure to DEHP or Wyeth-14,643 significantly increased the mutant frequency in liver, but not in kidney or spleen, of both female and male mice. Treatment with clofibrate did not lead to an increased mutant frequency in any of the organs studied. Conclusion The results indicate that some peroxisome proliferators display an organ-specific mutagenicity in lacZ plasmid-based transgenic mice consistent with historical observations of organ- and compound-specific carcinogenicity.

  13. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced apoptosis in rat INS-1 cells is dependent on activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppression of antioxidant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Lin, Yi; Huang, Qiansheng; Shi, Junpeng; Qiu, Ling; Kang, Mei; Chen, Yajie; Fang, Chao; Ye, Ting; Dong, Sijun

    2015-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as plasticizer and is ubiquitously found in the environment. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes; however, it is unknown whether DEHP exposure contributes to this risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of DEHP on INS-1 cells and to further explore the related underlying mechanisms. INS-1 cells were exposed to 0, 5, 25, 125 or 625 μM DEHP for 24 hrs. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular antioxidant response, Ca(2+) homoeostasis and the levels of genes and proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were measured. The results showed that DEHP decreased insulin secretion and content and induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ROS generation was increased and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defence protection was dysregulated in INS-1 cells after DEHP exposure. Most importantly, DEHP effectively depleted ER Ca(2+) and triggered the ER stress response as demonstrated by the elevated transcription and translation of the ER chaperone GRP78 and GRP94, the increased phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and its downstream substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), as well as the increased levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Taken together, DEHP exerted toxic effects on INS-1 cells by inducing apoptosis, which is dependent on the activation of the PERK-ATF4-CHOP ER stress signalling pathway and the suppression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant protection.

  14. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid-coconut oil supported liquid membrane for the separation of copper ions from copper plating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Permeation of Cu(II) from its aqueous solution through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) carrier dissolved in coconut oil has been studied. The effects of Cu(II), pH (in feed), H2SO4 (stripping) and D2EHPA (in membrane) concentrations have been investigated. The stability of the D2EHPA-coconutoil has also been evaluated. High Cu(II) concentration in the feed leads to an increase in flux from 4.1 × 10-9 to 8.9 × 10-9 mol/(m2·s) within the Cu(II) concentration range 7.8×10-4-78.6×10-4 mol/L at pH of 4.0 in the feed and 12.4 × 10-4 mol/L D2EHPA in the membrane phase. Increase in H2SO4 concentration in strip solution leads to an increase in copper ions flux up to 0.25 mol/L H2SO4, providing a maximum flux of 7.4 × 10-9 mol/(m2·s). The optimum conditions for Cu(II) transport are, pH of feed 4.0, 0.25 mol/L H2SO4 in strip phase and 12.4 × 10-4 mol/L D2EHPA (membrane) in 0.5 (m pore size polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. It has been observed that Cu(II) flux across the membrane tends to increase with the concentration of copper ions. Application of the method developed to copper plating bath rinse solutions has been found to be successful in the recovery of Cu(II). rane. It

  15. Evaluation of the direct toxicity of trioctyltrimellitate (TOTM), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their hydrolysis products on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambia, K; Dine, T; Gressier, B; Dupin-Spriet, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C

    2004-11-01

    Plasticizers are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility to the polymer. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used of them. However, due to its non covalent bond to the PVC, DEHP tends to vaporize easily. A significant exposure has been recorded in dialyzed patients since medical tubings. Most animal species metabolize DEHP rapidly into monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH). Because of the suspected toxicity of DEHP, an alternative plasticizer, trioctyltrimellitate (TOTM) has aroused increasing interest. The aim of this study was to determine on isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro, the direct hepatotoxic potential of both DEHP and TOTM and their hydrolytic products. To evaluate the possible toxic liver risk resulting from exposure to DEHP and TOTM, isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with either DEHP, TOTM, MEHP or their common metabolite (2-EH) for 3 hours. Cell viability was periodically estimated thanks to trypan blue tests (15 - 180 min). The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was also monitored (1h, 2h, 3h). The results obtained with trypan blue test and with direct LDH activity measurements, were satisfactorily correlated. Hepatocytes treated with both plasticizers and metabolites on the one hand, and the controls (untreated suspension) on the other hand, showed important differences as for cell viability. The acute toxicity on hepatocytes is mainly due to MEHP. Among DEHP, TOTM, MEHP, 2-EH and after intraperitoneal injection of those compounds, only DEHP and MEHP were able to induce a significant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by the rat hepatocytes. These observations enable us to confirm the hypothesis according to which DEHP and MEHP cause an imbalance between the synthesis and the degradation of H2O2. Our results suggest a short-term in vitro cytotoxicity of MEHP. Even if trypan blue and LDH tests offered good results and were easily branded, further assays as well as MTT-tests should

  16. Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vroman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources or from biological resources (renewable resources. In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. The following review presents an overview of the different biodegradable polymers that are currently being used and their properties, as well as new developments in their synthesis and applications.

  17. Transcriptomic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate in Syrian hamster embryo cells: an important role of early cytoskeleton disturbances in carcinogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atienzar Franck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP is a commonly used plasticizer in polyvinylchloride (PVC formulations and a potentially non-genotoxic carcinogen. The aim of this study was to identify genes whose level of expression is altered by DEHP by using a global wide-genome approach in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE cells, a model similar to human cells regarding their responses to this type of carcinogen. With mRNA Differential Display (DD, we analysed the transcriptional regulation of SHE cells exposed to 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM of DEHP for 24 hrs, conditions which induced neoplastic transformation of these cells. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm differential expression of genes identified by DD. Results Gene expression profiling showed 178 differentially-expressed fragments corresponding to 122 genes after tblastx comparisons, 79 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated. The genes of interest were involved in many biological pathways, including signal transduction, regulation of the cytoskeleton, xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, lipidogenesis, protein conformation, transport and cell cycle. We then focused particularly on genes involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton, one of the processes occurring during carcinogenesis and in the early steps of neoplastic transformation. Twenty one cytoskeleton-related genes were studied by qPCR. The down-regulated genes were involved in focal adhesion or cell junction. The up-regulated genes were involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and this would suggest a role of cellular plasticity in the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis. The gene expression changes identified in the present study were PPAR-independent. Conclusion This study identified a set of genes whose expression is altered by DEHP exposure in mammalian embryo cells. This is the first study that elucidates the genomic changes of DEHP involved in the organization of the

  18. The effect of linoleic acid on pH inside sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles in isooctane and on the enzymic activity of soybean lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodakiewicz-Nowak, J; Maślakiewicz, P; Haber, J

    1996-06-01

    The effective pH of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles (pHrm), containing buffers of different pH (pHst) and various amounts of linoleic acid, was studied within the range of compositions used to study the activity of soybean lipoxygenase in reverse micelles. Significant shifts of pHrm versus pHst were observed for the solutions of relatively higher pHst, dependent on linoleic acid and buffer concentrations. The effect diminished as pHst became closer to 7. When low-ionic-strength buffers were added to AOT solutions in isooctane, a significant buffering effect of linoleic acid in reverse micelles was observed. Solubilization of > 3 mM linoleic acid in micellar solutions containing 25 mM buffers gave the observed pHrm values almost independent of pHst. This effect diminished with the ionic strength of the buffering solution, but did not vanish even at 200 mM buffer. The observed effects result from the balance between ionization of linoleic acid and its partition between the water pool and the micellar interface. The enzymic activity of soybean lipoxygenase in the AOT reverse micellar solutions of the determined pHrm values was also studied. A significant reduction of the kinetics of the enzymic activity was observed, for all studied reverse micellar solutions. Changes of pHrm, caused by the presence of acidic substrate (linoleic acid) do not explain the observed reduction of activity directly through the effect on the enzyme. Due to unfavourable partition of the substrate between the microphases present in the systems, enhanced by reduction of pH at higher total concentrations of linoleic acid, the saturation of the enzyme with the substrate was not observed in the system and is difficult to attain experimentally in reverse micelles. A shift of the lipoxygenase activity/pHrm profile but negligible shift of the activity/pHst profile, with respect to aqueous buffer solutions, were observed. This indicates that either the information given

  19. 丙烯酸-2-乙基己酯的遗传毒性研究%The study of mutagenicity of 2-ethylhexyl acr ylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍娇; 张梦云; 张立实; 徐培渝

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测丙烯酸-2-乙基己酯的遗传毒性,为其安全性评价提供资料。方法:采用鼠伤寒沙门菌回复突变试验(Ames试验),小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验和小鼠淋巴瘤细胞TK基因突变试验检测丙烯酸-2-乙基己酯的遗传毒性。Ames试验设每皿0.08、0.4、2.0、10.0和50.0μL剂量组,另设空白、溶剂、阳性对照;微核试验设350、700和1400 mg/kg剂量组,另设溶剂、阳性对照;TK基因突变试验设12.5、25、50和100μmol/L剂量组,另设溶剂、阳性对照。结果:Ames试验中,加或不加S9的情况下,丙烯酸-2-乙基己酯对TA97、TA98、TA100和TA102菌株均显示致突变作用。微核试验中,雌雄鼠微核率均呈现剂量-反应关系;雄鼠高剂量组微核率与对照组比较差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。TK基因突变试验中高剂量组突变频率与对照组比较,差异具统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在本实验条件下,Ames试验和TK基因突变试验均显示阳性结果,微核试验显示可疑阳性。丙烯酸-2-乙基己酯遗传毒性需结合其他检测系统综合评定。%OBJECTIVE:To add data about mutagenicity of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate(2-EHA),so as to assess its safety. METHODS:Three genotoxicity tests,bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test),micronucleus test of bone morrow cells and TK gene mutation assay with cell line L5178Y were performed in this study. Doses were designed at 0.08,0.4,2.0,10.0,50.0 μL/palte of Ames test,at 350,700,1 400 mg/kg of micronucleus test and at 12.5,25,50,100 μmol/L of TK gene mutation assay. RESULTS:In Ames test,2-EHA showed mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA97,TA98,TA100 and TA102 strains with or without S9. The micronucleus rate of the highest dose group in male mice (1 400 mg/kg) was significant increased compared with control group,while it was slightly increased in female mice. In TK gene mutation assay,the mutation frequency in two highest

  20. 食品塑料包装材料中邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己)酯的暴露评估%Exposure Assessment of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate of Plastic Food Packaging Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳红; 许珂; 赵电波

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly reviewed the nature, source, toxicity and hazard of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, one of the phthalate plasticizers of food plastics packaging materials. Preventive measures and proposals for this reference were discussed to provide security for plastic food packaging materials, as well as for packed food security research.%文中主要综述了食品塑料包装材料所用邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂中,邻苯二甲酸二(2.乙基己)酯(DEHP)的性质、来源、毒性及危害.提出了预防措施和建议,为食品塑料包装材料的安全性以及包装食品的安全性的相关研究提供参考依据.

  1. Solvent extraction bis (the 2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid catecholamine structural property quantitative correlation; Bisu (2-echiruhekishiru) rinsan wo mochiita katekoru amin rui no yobai chushutsu to teiryoteki kozo bussho sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Fujimoto, Yuko; Owatari, Keisuke; Inoue, Katsutoshi

    1999-03-05

    As a basic research of separation and refinement of catecholamine (CA) by solvent extraction method which is chemical messenger of central neuron in the internal, it was extracted from dopamine (DA), adrenalin (Ad) and in hydrochloric acid aqueous solution of noradrenaline (NA). Then, each solution of chloroform. Hexane and toluene of bis (the 2 - ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used in respect of the stripping. All CA is CA by D2EHPA in mechanism of ion exchange: It was clarified that it was extracted as D2EHPA=1:4 complex and the extraction equilibrium constant was obtained. In addition, the consideration by molecule modeling considering the solvent effect of continuous medium types using semi-experience molecular orbital method by quantitative structural property correlation (QSPR) was carried out on got extraction equilibrium constant. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chloride solutions with N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide as new extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.A. Mowafy; D. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) in 75 vol.% n-dodecane-25 vol.% n-octanol as agents for the extraction and separation of Nd(III), Sm(III), Dy(III), Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) from concentrated chlo-ride solution was investigated. Different extraction behaviors were obtained towards rare earth elements (REE) studied and Fe(III), Ni(II) and Cs(I). Efficient separation of Nd(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) from Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cs(I) was achieved by TEHDGA, depending on the HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4 concentration. A systematic investigation was carried out on the detailed extraction prop-erties of Nd(III), Sm(III), and Dy(III) with TEHDGA from chloride media. The IR spectra of the extracted species were investi-gated.

  3. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna [Laboratorio di Immunologia, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli (Italy); Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T., E-mail: canzon@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  4. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CATALYTIC SYNTHESIS OF 2-ETHYLHEXYL SALICYLATE IN IONIC LIQUID%微波辅助离子液体合成水杨酸-2-乙基己酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彩云; 史长林; 徐学敏; 尚小妹

    2011-01-01

    实验以水杨酸与2-乙基己醇为原料,以离子液体[Hnmp] HSO4为催化剂,在微波辐射下合成了水杨酸-2-乙基己酯.通过红外光谱、紫外光谱、色质联用等手段对产物进行了确证.考察了影响反应的因素,实验结果表明最佳反应条件为:水杨酸0.05 mol,n(水杨酸):n(2-乙基己醇)为1:4,微波时间80 min,微波功率400 W,催化剂用量0.9g,不加带水剂,收率可达95.03%.%2-Ethylhexyl salicylate was synthesized by 2-ethyl hexanol and salicylic acid with [Hnmp] HSO4 ionic liquid as catalyst under microwave radiation. The product was confirmed by IR, UV, and GC/MS . The effects of different factors were investigated. The optimum conditions were found as follows: 0.05 mol salicylic acid, n(salicylic acid) : n(2-ethyl hexanol) = 1: 4, microwave time 80 min, microwave power 400 W, 0. 9 g catalyst, and with no water-carrying reagent. Under the above conditions, the yield of 2-ethylhexyl salicylate could reach up to 95. 03%.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  6. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  7. Du fratinoj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Vivis iam du fratinoj-Aje kaj Fatme.Iliapatrino estis duon-patrino por Fatme kaj in neamis.Foje i diris al sia edzo:-Faru kion ajn,sed mi ne plu volas vidiFatme.La sekvan tagon la patro forkondukis la

  8. Effects of water content and chain length of n-alkane on the interaction enthalpy between the droplets in water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate/n-alkane microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dashuang; Zheng, Peizhu; Ma, Yuanming; Yin, Tianxiang; Zhao, Jihua; Shen, Weiguo

    2015-04-14

    The concentration-dependent enthalpies of mixing for water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-alkane microemulsions with different water contents ω0 and chain lengths n of n-alkane were determined by isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and flow-mixing microcalorimetry at 298.15 K and used to calculate the interaction enthalpies (-ΔH(C)) between the droplets. It was found that -ΔH(C) increased with ω0, and changed from negative to positive at about ω0 = 10. The investigation of the dependence of -ΔH(C) on n revealed that the values of -ΔH(C) were negative and had a minimum for ω0 = 5; while they were positive and had a maximum for ω0 = 15. These phenomena were discussed based on the competition of the overlapping contribution of the surfactant tails between two neighbouring droplets and the penetration contribution of the solvent molecules into the surfactant tails. These results indicated the important role of entropy in the stability of the microemulsion systems.

  9. Separation of indium(Ⅲ),gallium(Ⅲ),and zinc(Ⅱ) with Levextrel resin containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (CL-P204):Part Ⅱ.Mechanism and kinetics of adsorbing indium(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junshen; ZHOU Baoxue; CAI Chunguang; CAI Jun; CAI Weimin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of adsorbing indium(Ⅲ) from sulfate solutions with CL-P204 Levextrel resin containing di(-2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid was examined by batch operation and infrared spectra. The results showed that the P204 adsorbed on the resin behaved in the similar way to solvent extraction except that it was as a monomer in resin adsorbing but in dimeric form in solvent extraction. Three factors including temperature, indium(Ⅲ) concentration of solution, and the size of resin particles which influence the In3+/H+ exchange on CL-P204 Levextrel resin were investigated by the modified limited batch technique in order to determine the kinetics of In3+/H+ exchange. It was found that the rate of ion exchange increased with the temperature and the concentration of solution increasing and with the size of the resin particles decreasing.According to the expression developed by Boyd et al., the controlling factor of In3+/H+ exchange on CL-P204 Levextrel resin was the diffusion through the resin particles. The effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, and entropy of activation in the particle-diffusion were determined as 1.57 x l0-10 m2/s, 11.9 KJ/mol, -84.1 J/(mol. K), respectively.

  10. Biodegradable thermogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Hee; Joo, Min Kyung; Choi, Bo Gyu; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2012-03-20

    All living creatures respond to external stimuli. Similarly, some polymers undergo conformational changes in response to changes in temperature, pH, magnetic field, electrical field, or the wavelength of light. In one type of stimuli-responsive polymer, thermogel polymers, the polymer aqueous solution undergoes sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases. Drugs or cells can be mixed into the polymer aqueous solution when it is in its lower viscosity solution state. After injection of the solution into a target site, heating prompts the formation of a hydrogel depot in situ, which can then act as a drug releasing system or a cell growing matrix. In this Account, we describe key materials developed in our laboratory for the construction of biodegradable thermogels. We particularly emphasize recently developed polypeptide-based materials where the secondary structure and nanoassembly play an important role in the determining the material properties. This Account will provide insights for controlling parameters, such as the sol-gel transition temperature, gel modulus, critical gel concentration, and degradability of the polymer, when designing a new thermogel system for a specific biomedical application. By varying the stereochemistry of amino acids in polypeptides, the molecular weight of hydrophobic/hydrophilic blocks, the composition of the polypeptides, the hydrophobic end-capping of the polypeptides, and the microsequences of a block copolymer, we have controlled the thermosensitivity and nanoassembly patterns of the polymers. We have investigated a series of thermogel biodegradable polymers. Polymers such as poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), polycaprolactone, poly(trimethylene carbonate), polycyanoacrylate, sebacic ester, polypeptide were used as hydrophobic blocks, and poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) were used as hydrophilic blocks. To prepare a polymer sensitive to pH and temperature, carboxylic acid or amine groups were introduced

  11. Involvement of a chromatin modifier in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury: Probably an indirect action via the regulation of NFκB/FasL circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiwei [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Dong, Yushu [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China); Xu, Chun; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Yongjie; Jiang, Cheng [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Hou, Wugang, E-mail: gangwuhou@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: liweipepeyato@163.com [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •MTA1 expression is upregulated in SCs upon MEHP treatment. •Knockdown of MTA1 in SCs impairs the MEHP-induced NFκB signaling activation. •Knockdown of MTA1 inhibits recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter in MEHP-treated SCs. -- Abstract: The Fas/FasL signaling pathway, controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) at the transcriptional level, is critical for triggering germ cell apoptosis in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell (SC) injury, but the exact regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we discovered that expression level of Metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, was upregulated in SCs during the early recovery after MEHP exposure. This expression change was in line with the dynamic changes in germ cell apoptosis in response to MEHP treatment. Furthermore, a knockdown of MTA1 by RNAi in SCs was found to impair the MEHP-induced early activation of NFκB pathway and abolish the recruitment of NFκB onto FasL promoter, which consequently diminished the MEHP-triggered FasL induction. Considering that Fas/FasL is a well characterized apoptosis initiating signaling during SCs injury, our results point to a potential “switch on” effect of MTA1, which may govern the activation of NFκB/FasL cascade in MEHP-insulted SCs. Overall, the MTA1/NFκB/FasL circuit may serve as an important defensive/repairing mechanism to help to control the germ cell quality after SCs injury.

  12. DEHP对神经生长因子表达影响的体内实验%Nerve growth factor expression in mice by Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) exposure in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 王黎明

    2013-01-01

    目的 为了探讨DEHP对SPF级昆明纯系雄性小鼠组织中NGF表达的诱导作用,以小鼠肺组织中肥大细胞为实验材料.方法 通过RT-PCR实验,检验了肺组织中神经生长因子(NGF)中mRNA表达水平,结果显示:经125 mg/kg DEHP染毒组染毒两周的小鼠,肺组织中NGF mRNA相对表达水平与空白组相比无明显变化.同时250mg/kg DEHP染毒组的小鼠肺组织中NGF mRNA相对表达水平与空白组相比有极显著上调(P<0.01).结果 表明DEHP有可能是通过NGF途径引发哮喘.结论%Objective Expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) mRNA in lung tissues of SPF mice induced by Di (2ethylhexyl) phthalate was explored. In this study, the mast cells of the lung tissue of mice were used for experimental materials. Methods By using RT-PCR test, the mRNA expression level of NGF in lung tissue was detected. Results It showed that there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups when the mice were exposed to 125 mg/kg DEHP for two weeks. When the concentration was 250 mg/kg DEHP,there was significant difference of expression level of NGF mRNA in mice lung. Conclusions The results showed that DEHP might be able to trigger NGF pathway and contribute to asthma attack finally.

  13. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  14. Epigenetic Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that, in addition to genetic changes, environmental pollutants can affect human health through altering epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA expression. There is evidence in anima...

  15. [Biodegradation of polyethylene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Song, Yi-ling; Qin, Xiao-yan

    2007-05-01

    Plastic material is one of the most serious solid wastes pollution. More than 40 million tons of plastics produced each year are discarded into environment. Plastics accumulated in the environment is highly resistant to biodegradation and not be able to take part in substance recycle. To increase the biodegradation efficiency of plastics by different means is the main research direction. This article reviewed the recent research works of polyethylene biodegradation that included the modification and pretreatment of polyethylene, biodegradation pathway, the relevant microbes and enzymes and the changes of physical, chemical and biological properties after biodegradation. The study directions of exploiting the kinds of life-forms of biodegradation polyethylene except the microorganisms, isolating and cloning the key enzymes and gene that could produce active groups, and enhancing the study on polyethylene biodegradation without additive were proposed.

  16. La maquette digitale du tunnel du LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Brouns, G

    2000-01-01

    Pour l'installation du LHC et son équipement périphérique (ligne cryogénique, câbles, tuyauterie, etc.) dans le tunnel du LEP, une maquette digitale CAO doit être faite. Après un rappel de la définition théorique du tunnel du LEP, cette LHC project Note décrit comment sont utilisées et intégrées d'anciennes et de nouvelles mesures du tunnel pour arriver à un ensemble de données qui permettent de construire la maquette digitale (CAO) du tunnel du LHC. Ensuite, les résultats sont comparés à leur valeur théorique d'une part, et aux anciennes valeurs disponibles d'autre part.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  18. Synthesis and study of the mechanisms of action of biodegradable additives for corrosion and scale inhibition in industrial cooling water systems; Mise au point et etude des mecanismes d'action d'additifs biodegradables pour l'inhibition du pouvoir entartrant et corrosif des eaux de refroidissement industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estievenart, C.

    2003-11-01

    Industrial cooling water systems undergo more and more environmental constraints. The recycling of water increases the risks of scale deposition and corrosion. The use of chemical additives to inhibit these phenomena is necessary. Poly-aspartates are proposed as green multi-functional inhibitors. Polymers of different characteristics have been synthesized by different ways. Their efficiency towards scale deposition and corrosion is determined by electrochemical techniques in different test conditions (composition of the test water, temperature, flow rate, concentration of additive...). Their biodegradability is also evaluated. These poly-aspartates inhibit both nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate crystals, but also corrosion. Their efficiency depends on the characteristics of the polymers and their way of synthesis. The morphology of scale and corrosion deposits is modified in the presence of poly-aspartate. The mechanism of action of poly-aspartates combines adsorption, dispersion, complexation with both iron and calcium ions and insertion in the crystal lattice. (author)

  19. Effect of wettability of Wilhelmy plate and du Nouey ring on interfacial tension measurements in solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaonkar, A.G.; Neuman, R.D.

    1984-03-01

    The interfacial tension, ..gamma.., of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/n-dodecane/0.0010 N HCl systems was investigated at 20/sup 0/C to develop appropriate experimental techniques for use in liquid-liquid solvent extraction studies. The stringent precautions and purification procedures necessary to ensure that the system is free from interfering surface-active impurities are discussed. The Wilhelmy plate method was found to be superior to the du Nouey ring technique. Sandblasted glass plates gave reliable and reproducible values of ..gamma... However, with sandblasted platinum plates, increasingly lower ..gamma.. values were obtained with higher HDEHP concentrations. This behavior was attributed to the change in the wetting characteristics of the platinum plate by the adsorption of HDEHP on the platinum plate during its passage through the n-dodecane phase containing HDEHP. 30 references, 4 figures.

  20. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  1. 深圳市水厂水中邻苯二甲酸二酯污染状况分析%Analysis of di-2 ethylhexyl phthalate pollution in treated drinking water in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小云; 黎大林; 陈锋; 谢锦尧; 蔡俊源

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析近年监测深圳市各主要水厂出厂水中邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)的污染状况及其变化规律性.方法:从2008年起每年采集雨季和旱季的出厂水,用氢火焰离子化气相色谱法(GC-FID)测定其DEHP含量.结果:各主要水厂出厂水DEHP合格率每批次都在90%以上,DEHP污染水平随季节气候变化呈现周期性波动,雨季较高旱季较低,且在东南部地区水厂中有逐年增高的趋势.结论:深圳市出厂水DEHP污染总体水平在国家标准限量内,其波动性明显受季节气候影响,较高的气温和降雨有利于DEHP的迁移和进入饮用水,水厂的生产需要有针对性的预防处理措施.%Objective:To understand the pollution condition and change rules of di-2 ethylhexyl phthalate(DE-HP) in treated water of water plants in Shenzhen based on water quality monitoring of recent years. Methods: The drinking water of 53 water plants were collected in both the rainy and dry seasons of each year since 2008 and their DEHP levels were measured with the gas chromatography - flame ionization detector(GC - FID). Results: In each batch of drinking water, the DEHP level pass rate exceeded 90% in the main water plant. The DEHP pollution level performed cyclical fluctuations with the seasonal climate changes, higher levels in rainy seasons and lower levels in dry seasons, and there was an increasing trend year by year in water plants of southeast area. Conclusion: The o-verall level of DEHP contamination in treated drinking water of Shenzhen was in line with national standards of China. Its cyclical fluctuations were significantly affected by seasonal climate, higher temperatures and rainfall conducive to the migration of DEHP into the drinking water. Water treatment plant production needs to take targeted prophylactic treatment measures.

  2. Synthesis of 2-Ethylhexyl Stearate Using Brönsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst%Brönsted酸性离子液体催化合成硬脂酸异辛酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴之; 左臣盛; 宋燊; 曹淑云; 孙宏月; 刘丹; 刘道胜; 桂建舟

    2014-01-01

    以硬脂酸和异辛醇为原料,Brönsted酸性离子液体为催化剂,合成硬脂酸异辛酯,考察反应条件和催化剂重复使用情况。结果表明,在反应温度150℃,反应时间6 h,酸醇物质的量比1∶1.4,离子液体与硬脂酸物质的量比为1∶25时,酯化率高达96.9%,产品酸值小于0.5 mg(KOH)/g。反应结束后,产物和催化剂分层,通过简单的倾倒即可分离,Brönsted酸性离子液体经真空干燥回收后可重复使用,且循环使用6次后,催化活性基本不变。%2-Ethylhexyl stearate was synthesized by esterification of stearic acid with 2-ethylhexanol using Brönsted acidic ionic liquid as catalyst.The conditions of the synthesis and the recycling capability of the catalyst were investigated.The results indicated that Brönsted acidic ionic liquid possessed high catalytic activity for the esterification reaction.The optimal synthesis conditions were as follows:the reaction temperaturewas at 150 ℃,the reaction time was 6 h,the molar ratio of stearic acid to 2-ethylhexanol was 1∶1.4,and the molar ratio of catalyst to stearic acid was 1∶25.On this condition,the conversion rate was up to 96.9% and the acid value of the product was smaller than 0.5 mg(KOH)/g.After the reaction,the ester could be simply decanted out from the ionic liquid,and the ionic liquid could be reused after removal of water under vacuum.The activity of the catalyst remained at a high level after reuse of six cycles.

  3. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  4. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam; Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge; González-Pérez, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Sánchez, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (Xmax), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t1/2) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest Xmax occurred in media supplemented with 1000mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000mg/L) within 60h of growth. The k and t1/2 were 0.024h(-1) and 28h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC-MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP.

  5. Biodegradable fiksasyon malzemeleri

    OpenAIRE

    Seber, Sinan

    2004-01-01

    Problems related to metallic implant had increased the interest to biodegradables. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, degradation modalities, implant design, clinical studies with techniques, and complications of biodegradable implants, especially polylactic and polyglycolic acid, were reviewed. Also our studies, on the antibiotic delivery capacities of these implants; and the prediction of immunological reactions with our clinical experiences were presented.

  6. Short-term effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on testes, liver, kidneys and pancreas in mice%2-(2-乙缩醛)邻苯二甲酸酯对小鼠睾丸、肝脏、肾脏和胰腺的短期影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumi Miura; Masahiro Itoh; Munekazu Naito; Maira Ablake; Hayato Terayama; Shuang-Qin Yi; Ning Qu; Lin-Xian Cheng; Shigeru Suna; Fumihiko Jitsunari

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the biochemical effect of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on testes, liver, kidneys and pancreas on day 10 in the process of degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium. Methods: Diets containing 2% DEHP were given to male Crlj:CD1(ICR) mice for 10 days. The dose of DEHP was 0.90 ± 0.52 mg/mouse/day. Their testes, livers, kidneys and pancreata were examined for detection of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced by peroxidation of nitric oxide (NO) with free radicals, and lipid peroxidation induced by the chain reaction of free radicals. Results: Histological observation and serum analysis showed the presence of severe spermatogenic disturbance, Leydig cell dysfunction, liver dysfunction and dehydration. Unexpectedly, the concentration of MEHP in the testes was extremely low compared with that in the liver. However, the concentration of the NOx in the testes was as high as the hepatic concentration. Furthermore, free radical-induced lipid peroxidation was histochemically detected in the testes but not in the liver. Conclusion: The results indicate that DEHP-induced aspermatogenesis is caused by the high sensitivity of the testicular tissues to MEHP rather than the specific accumulation or uptake of circulating MEHP into the testes.

  7. Biodegradation of UV-filters in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Angela; Pagano, Michele; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Grenni, Paola; Rossetti, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of two of the most frequently used UV-filters was investigated through microcosm studies. Marine sediments sampled from two sites in Italy (La Spezia harbour and Sarno river estuary, S1 and S2 respectively) were used to set up aerobic and anaerobic sets of reactors. The sediments were spiked with a methanol solution of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EH-DPAB), at concentrations of either 25 or 50mgkg(-1) each. Methanol (6.3g/L) also served as an organic amendment and growth substrate for improving microbial activity. Monitoring of the biotic and abiotic degradation of the selected contaminants over 16months revealed that 4-MBC biodegradation was very slow and incomplete, whereas over 90% of EH-DPAB was degraded both in the aerobic and the anaerobic reactors by the natural microbial communities of both sediments. Repeated spikes of EH-DPAB were followed by complete decay, characterised by first-order kinetics. The calculated kinetic rate constants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were similar. In reactors inoculated with the S1 sediment the degradation rate constants progressively increased after each spike, up to the value of 0.039d(-1). For the S2 sediment the rate constant was around 0.020d(-1) throughout the duration of the experiment. Mass spectrometry analysis of sediment extracts allowed detection of potential transformation products of EH-DPAB and 4-MBC. Moreover, the natural microbial community of the sediments was studied using the CAtalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) both in the initial sediments and after degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  8. BIODEGRADABLE MICROSPHERES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Dupinder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers having a particle size ranging from 1-1000 μm. The range of techniques for the preparation of microspheres offers a variety of opportunities to control aspects of drug administration and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. Of the many polymeric drug delivery systems, biodegradable polymers have been used widely as drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The majority of biodegradable polymers have been used in the form of microparticles, from which the incorporated drug is released to the environment in a controlled manner. They can be employed to deliver medication in a rate-controlled and sometimes targeted manner. Medication is released from a microsphere by drug leaching from the polymer or by degradation of the polymer matrix. This review discusses characteristics and degradation behaviors of biodegradable polymers which are currently used in drug delivery.

  9. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learning About Prostate Cancer Learning About Cri du Chat Syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? What ... cri du chat syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? Cri du chat syndrome - also known as ...

  10. Molecularly Imprinted Biodegradable Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Bertero, Alice; Bifone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization. PMID:28071745

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Biodegradable Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Bertero, Alice; Bifone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization.

  12. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  13. Restaurant du Rivage, Vevey

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Sari Bianca; Glocki, Ryszard Nikodem

    2015-01-01

    Après cinquante ans de mutilations, d'abandon et de spéculations économiques, le complexe du château de l'Aile et de la salle du Castillo à Vevey doit redéfinir son rôle public par rapport à la place du Marché et au Jardin du Rivage. S'appuyant sur la mémoire historique en ajoutant une unité à l'ensemble, nous créons un îlot regroupant des fonctions publiques. Il dessert ainsi l'espace ouvert environnant en articulant la relation entre le jardin et la place. L'élargissement de la promenade du...

  14. Simultanneous determination of five groups content in acrylic acid 2-ethylhexyl ester reaction product by capillary gas chronmatography%气相色谱法测定丙烯酸2-乙基己酯反应产物中5组份的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆君良; 陈科杰; 邵德贵

    2014-01-01

    采用毛细管气相色谱法同时测定丙烯酸2-乙基己酯反应产物中丙烯酸等5组份的含量。用面积归一法,测定各组份的含量,测定结果的相对标准偏差不大于1.5%(n=5),加标回收率为97.8%~102.5%。%Simultaneous determination of crylic acid etc five groups content in acrylic acid 2-ethylhexyl ester reaction product by capillary gas chronmatography.With the area normalization method ,determinayion of the content each component.The relative standart deviation of results were less than 1.5%(n=5) for five groups ,and recoreries were 97.8%~102.5%.

  15. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  16. Degradation of di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Fusarium culmorum: Kinetics, enzymatic activities and biodegradation pathway based on quantum chemical modelingpathway based on quantum chemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam [Doctorado en Biología Experimental, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-I) (Mexico); Facultad de Agrobiología, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala, San Pedro Xalcatzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala CP 90180 (Mexico); González-Pérez, Manuel [Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla CP 72410 (Mexico); Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, D.F (Mexico); Sánchez, Carmen, E-mail: sanher6@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Research Centre for Biological Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala CP. 90062 (Mexico)

    2016-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the manufacture of plastics, and it is an environmental contaminant. The specific growth rate (μ), maximum biomass (X{sub max}), biodegradation constant of DEHP (k), half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of DEHP biodegradation and removal efficiency of DEHP, esterase and laccase specific activities, and enzymatic yield parameters were evaluated for Fusarium culmorum grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000 mg/L). The greatest μ and the largest X{sub max} occurred in media supplemented with 1000 mg of DEHP/L. F. culmorum degraded 95% of the highest amount of DEHP tested (1000 mg/L) within 60 h of growth. The k and t{sub 1/2} were 0.024 h{sup −1} and 28 h, respectively, for both DEHP concentrations. The removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Much higher specific esterase activity than specific laccase activity was observed in all media tested. The compounds of biodegradation of DEHP were identified by GC–MS. A DEHP biodegradation pathway by F. culmorum was proposed on the basis of the intermolecular flow of electrons of the identified intermediate compounds using quantum chemical modeling. DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum with butanediol as the final product. This fungus offers great potential in bioremediation of environments polluted with DEHP. - Highlights: • F. culmorum degraded 95% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 60 h. • Removal efficiency of DEHP was 99.8% and 99.9% for 1000 and 500 mg/L, respectively. • DEHP was fully metabolized by F. culmorum, with butanediol as the final product. • A DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using on quantum chemical modeling.

  17. Editorial: Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schaschke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Biodegradable Materials” features research and review papers concerning recent advances on the development, synthesis, testing and characterisation of biomaterials. These biomaterials, derived from natural and renewable sources, offer a potential alternative to existing non-biodegradable materials with application to the food and biomedical industries amongst many others. In this Special Issue, the work is expanded to include the combined use of fillers that can enhance the properties of biomaterials prepared as films. The future application of these biomaterials could have an impact not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of the environment.

  18. Atlas du Liban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Philippe Maalouf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Compte-rendu de l’ouvrage Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sous la direction d’Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour et Sébastien Velut, édition franco-libanaise de l’IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient et du CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beyrouth 2007.Resenha do livro Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sob a direção de Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour e Sébastien Velut, editado por iniciativa franco-libanesa do IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient e pelo CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beirute, 2007.Review of Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, edited by Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour and Sébastien Velut, french-lebanese edition by IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient and CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban Beirut, 2007.

  19. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  20. Biodegradable Materials for Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for nonwovens is increasing globally, particularly in the disposable products area. As the consumption of nonwoven products with short life increases, the burden on waste disposal also rises. In this context, biodegradable nonwovens become more important today and for the future. Several new ...

  1. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  2. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  3. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  4. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  5. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  6. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  7. Biodegradation of Silk Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bochu Wang; Yang Cao

    2009-01-01

    Silk fibroin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, has excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation, non-toxicity, adsorption properties, etc. As a kind of ideal biomaterial, silk fibroin has been widely used since it was first utilized for sutures a long time ago. The degradation behavior of silk biomaterials is obviously important for medical applications. This article will focus on silk-based biomaterials and review the degradation behaviors of silk materials.

  8. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Jelen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have strictly anaerobic conditions. This review gives an overview on anaerobic biodegradation processes, the methods for testing anaerobic biodegradability, and the anaerobic biodegradability of different detergent surfactant types (anionic, nonionic, cationic, amphoteric surfactants.

  9. La profanation du montage

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Cet article examine les liens entre, pour l’aspect technique, le plan séquence et le montage, et, pour l’aspect philosophico-historique, la vie quotidienne et la politique mondiale, du point de vue d’une profanation capable de désamorcer la puissance et avec une attention particulière portée à l’unique film expérimental de Pasolini : La sequenza del fiore di (1968). Ce court métrage n’a pas seulement un statut spécial dans la filmographie de Pasolini, il marque aussi un tournant du tragique v...

  10. Adsorption of di-2-ethylhexyle phthalate onto nanofiltration membranes at filtering initial phase%纳滤初期邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在膜上的吸附行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱华; 王磊; 王旭东

    2012-01-01

    研究了NF90膜和NF70膜对纯水、模拟水和河水中邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)的截留和吸附.结果表明:NF90膜能实现对微量DEHP(浓度为100 μg/L)的有效去除,截留率高达95%以上;纳滤初始阶段,DEHP在膜面的吸附作用较强,吸附率达40%左右.操作压力,pH,共存有机物、无机物和膜孔径影响DEHP在膜上的吸附,初始浓度的影响不大.%The adsorption and retention of di-2-ethylhexyle phthalate(DEHP) in different water matrices (Milli-Q water, simulated water and river water) were examined using two types of nanofiltration membranes (NF90 and NF70). The results showed that DEHP at a concentration of 100 μg/L could be effectively removed by the NF90, and the retention was more than 95%, and the adsorption was about 40% at filtering initial phase. Adsorption of DEHP on membranes was related to operation pressure, pH, coexisting organic and inorganic compounds, and membrane pore size. But no significant effect of DEHP concentration was observed.

  11. Origine du vieux slave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mańczak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comme, pour prouver l'identité du vieux slave et du vieux bulgare, on invoque uniquement des critères phonétiques, rappelons que l'orientaliste allemand du XVIIe siècle Ludolf affirmait déjà que "die Sprachverwandtschaft offenbart sich nicht im Wörterbuch, sondern in der Grammatik"3. Pendant les 300 dernières années, tellement d'autorites ant approuvé !l’opinion de Ludolf qu'elle est devenue un dogme de la linguistique. Pourtant il nous est venu à l'esprit de le confronter avec des faits et ainsi nous sommes arrivé à la conclusion qu'en réalité, c'est le vocabulaire (et non la phonétique et la flexion qui décide du degre de la parenté des langues4. Voici des arguments à l'appui de cette thèse.

  12. La foret du Banco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    1983-01-01

    Deze publicatie over het Nationaal Park 'La Forêt du Banco' nabij Abidjan, Ivoorkust, verschijnt als resultaat van vier jaar veldwerk (1972-1976) in dat land.Het Centre Néerlandais, onderzoeks- en stageverblijf van de Landbouwhogeschool, was basis en de faciliteiten verleend door het Franse ORSTOM-i

  13. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  14. Microbial biosurfactants and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen P

    2010-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules having typical molecular weights of 500-1500 Da, made up of peptides, saccharides or lipids or their combinations. In biodegradation processes they mediate solubilisation, mobilization and/or accession of hydrophobic substrates to microbes. They may be located on the cell surface or be secreted into the extracellular medium and they facilitate uptake of hydrophobic molecules through direct cellular contact with hydrophobic solids or droplets or through micellarisation. They are also involved in cell physiological processes such as biofilm formation and detachment, and in diverse biofilm associated processes such as wastewater treatment and microbial pathogenesis. The protection of contaminants in biosurfactants micelles may also inhibit uptake of contaminants by microbes. In bioremediation processes biosurfactants may facilitate release of contaminants from soil, but soils also tend to bind surfactants strongly which makes their role in contaminant desorption more complex. A greater understanding of the underlying roles played by biosurfactants in microbial physiology and in biodegradative processes is developing through advances in cell and molecular biology.

  15. Biodegradation of Polypropylene Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Brandi Nechelle

    The primary aim of the current research is to document the biodegradation of polypropylene nonwovens and filament under composting environments. To accelerate the biodegradat ion, pre-treatments and additives were incorporated into polypropylene filaments and nonwovens. The initial phase (Chapter 2) of the project studied the biodegradation of untreated polypropylene with/without pro-oxidants in two types of composting systems. Normal composting, which involved incubation of samples in food waste, had little effect on the mechanical properties of additive-free spunbond nonwovens in to comparison prooxidant containing spunbond nonwovens which were affected significantly. Modified composting which includes the burial of samples with food and compressed air, the polypropylene spunbond nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants displayed an extreme loss in mechanical properties and cracking on the surface cracking. Because the untreated spunbond nonwovens did not completely decompose, the next phase of the project examined the pre-treatment of gamma-irradiation or thermal aging prior to composting. After exposure to gamma-irradiation and thermal aging, polypropylene is subjected to oxidative degradation in the presence of air and during storage after irradiat ion. Similar to photo-oxidation, the mechanism of gamma radiation and thermal oxidative degradation is fundamentally free radical in nature. In Chapter 3, the compostability of thermal aged spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidant additives. The FTIR spectrum confirmed oxidat ion of the polypropylene nonwovens with/without additives. Cracking on both the pro-oxidant and control spunbond nonwovens was showed by SEM imaging. Spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were also preirradiated by gamma rays followed by composting. Nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were severely degraded by gamma-irradiation after up to 20 kGy exposure as explained in Chapter 4. Furthermore (Chapter 5), gamma

  16. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  17. Lung toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, Elias; Grabowski, Nadége; Mura, Simona; Vergnaud, Juliette; Tsapis, Nicolas; Hillaireau, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable nanoparticles exhibit high potentialities for local or systemic drug delivery through lung administration making them attractive as nanomedicine carriers. However, since particulate matter or some inorganic manufactured nanoparticles exposed to lung cells have provoked cytotoxic effects, inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, it becomes important to investigate nanomedicine toxicity towards the lungs. This is the reason why, in the present review, the behavior of biodegradable nanoparticles towards the different parts of the respiratory tract as well as the toxicological consequences, measured on several models in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo, are described. Taken all together, the different studies carried out so far conclude on no or slight toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles.

  18. Biodegradable micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Greve, Anders; Schmid, Silvan

    The development of biopolymers for food packaging, medical engineering or drug delivery is a growing field of research [1]. At the same time, the interest in methods for detailed analysis of biopolymers is increasing. Micromechanical sensors are versatile tools for the characterization of mechani......The development of biopolymers for food packaging, medical engineering or drug delivery is a growing field of research [1]. At the same time, the interest in methods for detailed analysis of biopolymers is increasing. Micromechanical sensors are versatile tools for the characterization...... of biopolymers to microfabrication is challenging, as these polymers are affected by common processes such as photolithography or wet etching. Here, we present two methods for fabrication of biodegradable micromechanical sensors. First, we fabricated bulk biopolymer microcantilevers using nanoimprint lithography...

  19. Biodegradation of propellant ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Sundaram, S.T.; Sharma, A. [Geo-centers, Inc., Lake Hopatcong, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes efforts to degrade nitrocellulose (NC) and nitroglycerin (NG) with fungi. Screening experiments were performed to determine the ability of mycelial fungi to biodegrade NC. The greatest amount of NC degradation was obtained with Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 24459 and Fusarium solani IFO 31093. These fungi were then tested for NG degradation. It was found that the combined culture aerobically degraded 100% of the NG to form a mixture of 55% dinitroglycerin (DNG) and 5% of mononitroglycerin (MNG) in two days, with no further change observed afterward. In the presence of 1.2% glucose and 0.05% ammonium nitrate, NG was completely degraded in two days and a mixture of 20% DNG and 16% MNG was formed after 11 days. Based on these results, it appears that the combination of the fungi in a one to one ratio can be used to degrade both of these energetic compounds.

  20. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  1. Images du Valais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline COSINSCHI

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Une étude des revenus fiscaux ventilés par branches économiques permet de clore un ouvrage portant sur ce canton alpin suisse par excellence qu’est le Valais. Pris comme traceurs de l’activité régionale, l’analyse de leurs configurations spatiales permet une évaluation pouvant être considérée comme une mesure de l’efficacité différentielle du système socio-spatial valaisan. L’article décrit certains processus qui ont permis la réalisation du dernier chapitre d’un atlas portant sur le Valais.

  2. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  3. Effects on neurobehavioral development in offspring rats after embryonic exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)%邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)胚胎期暴露对子代大鼠神经行为发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华; 刘秋芳; 潘亮; 于涛; 肖莎; 逯晓波

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the effects of Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) on the development of central nerve system and neuro behavior in offspring by embryonic exposure and to explore the mechanism of DEHP developmental neurotoxicity. Methods The female Wistar rats were gavaged consecutively with the DEHP dose of 0 mg/(kg-d) ,10 mg/(kg-d) ,100 mg/(kg'd) and 500 mg/(kg-d) from pregnancy day 1 to 19. After the offspring were born, the changes of behavior teratology and neurobehavioral and Ca2* concentration of hippocampus neurons cells on PND 21 were observed. Results The time of 500 mg/( kg-d) DEHP group was shorter than that of the control group on negative geotaxis reflection experiment, the time of 100 mg/(kg-d) and 500 mg/(kg-d) DEHP groups were longer than control group on Air righting reflex. The difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference of error times and incubation period were found in DEHP-treated groups compared with the control group; Electric shock times increasing and active escape time prolong in the DEHP-treated groups compared to the control group. Both the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). The [ Ca * ] concentrations of the DEHP-treated groups were increasing significantly compared with control group and there was a certain dose-response relationship. Conclusion After embryonic exposure to DEHP the develop mental toxicity of rat offsprings appeared. The changes of [Ca2* ] concentration may be mechanism of DEHP developmental neurotoxicity.%目的 通过邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯( Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,DEHP)胚胎期暴露,评价DEHP对子代大鼠神经行为发育的影响,初步探讨DEHP的发育神经毒性机制.方法 成熟雌性Wister大鼠从妊娠日起用10、100和500 mg/(kg·d) DEHP连续灌胃染毒至孕19 d,同时设立溶剂对照组.观察仔鼠的行为畸胎学及神经行为学指标的改变,另外Fura-2/AM探针法检测出生后21 d

  4. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  5. Har du sikret din alderdom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Aagaard, Peter Gjerndrup

    2006-01-01

    Daglig fysisk aktivitet kan betragtes som indbetaling op din personlige helbredspension. Jo mere du sætter ind på kontoen, og jo oftere du gør det, jo større er sandsynligheden for, at du lever længere og får et sundere helbred. Og det er aldrig for sent at starte med indbetalingerne....

  6. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Manavitehrani; Ali Fathi; Hesham Badr; Sean Daly; Ali Negahi Shirazi; Fariba Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have be...

  7. 邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在青春期小鼠体内的代谢动力学研究%Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in Pubertal Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 叶逵; 王家家; 徐海; 宋星星; 金忠秀; 盛杰; 李李; 刘开永

    2015-01-01

    研究邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate,DEHP)在青春期小鼠体内的代谢动力学,以300 mg/kg DEHP灌胃青春期小鼠,血清样品经固相萃取(solid phase extraction,SPE)提取和净化,气相色谱-质谱联用(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS)法测定不同时间点的血药质量浓度,以3p97软件拟合其动力学参数.DEHP在青春期小鼠体内的主要药物代谢动力学参数:药峰质量浓度ρmax为(0.476±0.028)μg/mL,达峰时间Tpeak为(2.539±0.424)h,药-时曲线下面积AUC(0-1)为(32.209±11.220) h·μg/mL,分布半衰期t1/2α为(1.886±0.480)h,消除半衰期t1/2β为(36.473±8.324)h.本方法简便快捷,其灵敏度和准确度均可满足青春期小鼠体内DEHP代谢动力学研究.DEHP在青春期小鼠体内药物代谢动力学过程符合一级吸收二室开放模型,其分布较快,代谢较慢.

  8. Biodegradable intestinal stents:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhui Wang; Nan Li; Rui Li; Yawei Li; Liqun Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable stents are an attractive alternative to self-expanding metal stents in the treatment of intestinal strictures. Biodegradable stent can be made of biodegradable polymers and biodegradable metals (magnesium alloys). An overview on current biodegradable intestinal stents is presented. The future trends and perspectives in the development of biodegradable intestinal stents are proposed. For the biodegradable polymer intestinal stents, the clinical trials have shown promising results, although improved design of stents and reduced migration rate are expected. For the biodegradable magnesium intestinal stents, results of preliminary studies indicate magnesium alloys to have good biocompatibility. With many of the key fundamental and practical issues resolved and better methods for adjusting corrosion resistance and progressing biocompatibilities of magnesium alloys, it is possible to use biodegradable intestinal stents made of magnesium alloys in hospital in the not too distant future.

  9. 78 FR 6213 - Styrene-2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... integral part of its composition the atomic elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 3. The polymer does not contain as an integral part of its composition, except as impurities, any element other than those listed...: January 23, 2013. Lois Rossi, Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. Therefore,...

  10. Synthesis and physical properties of coriander estolide 2-ethylhexyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is new crop that is currently being investigated for cultivation in Central Illinois by USDA-NCAUR. Coriander is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family and indigenous to the Mediterranean basin areas and the Near East. This plant is widely ...

  11. Les pirogues du Maroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie François

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the

  12. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafang Li; Yufeng Zheng; Ling Qin

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable metals (BMs) are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompat-ibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  13. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals (BMs are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompatibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  14. Biodegradation of polyethoxylated nonylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yassellis; Medina, Luis; Borusiak, Margarita; Ramos, Nairalith; Pinto, Gilberto; Valbuena, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Polyethoxylated nonylphenols, with different ethoxylation degrees (NPEO x ), are incorporated into many commercial and industrial products such as detergents, domestic disinfectants, emulsifiers, cosmetics, and pesticides. However, the toxic effects exerted by their degradation products, which are persistent in natural environments, have been demonstrated in several animal and invertebrate aquatic species. Therefore, it seems appropriate to look for indigenous bacteria capable of degrading native NPEO x and its derivatives. In this paper, the isolation of five bacterial strains, capable of using NPEO 15 , as unique carbon source, is described. The most efficient NPEO 15 degrader bacterial strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain Yas2) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (strain Yas1). Maximal growth rates were reached at pH 8, 27°C in a 5% NPEO 15 medium. The NPEO 15 degradation extension, followed by viscometry assays, reached 65% after 54.5 h and 134 h incubation times, while the COD values decreased by 95% and 85% after 24 h for the Yas1 and Yas2 systems, respectively. The BOD was reduced by 99% and 99.9% levels in 24 h and 48 h incubations. The viscosity data indicated that the NPEO 15 biodegradation by Yas2 follows first-order kinetics. Kinetic rate constant (k) and half life time (τ) for this biotransformation were estimated to be 0.0072 h(-1) and 96.3 h, respectively.

  15. L'Origine du Monde

    CERN Multimedia

    CNET & Ecole Polytechnique Paris; Vincent Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Création, théologie, science, découverte, recherche, religion, condition humaine.Avec Maurice Jacob physicien, Hubert Curien Président du Conseil du CERN, Michael Doser physicien, Frère Emile Communauté de Taizé.

  16. discours du Directeur General

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    L'année 2007 est une année très spéciale pour le CERN. Je vous propose de nous retrouver pour faire le point sur les activités en cours. Rendez-vous le mercredi 27 juin à 15h00 dans l'amphithéâtre principal. La transmission simultanée sera assurée dans les amphithéâtres IT, AT, AB Prevessin et dans la Salle du Conseil. Robert Aymar

  17. Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarfelt, K.; Dalgaard, M.; Hass, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    led to the hypothesis that DEHA can modulate the effects of DEHP. Wistar rats were gavaged with either vehicle, DERP (300 or 750 mg/kg bw/day) or DEHP (750 mg/kg bw/day) in combination with DEHA (400 mg/kg bw/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17. Decreased anogenital distance (AGD...

  18. Adhesion of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.S.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Souza, E.J.; Schick, B.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of pillar dimensions and stiffness of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces on adhesion on different compliant substrates. The micropatterned adhesives were based on biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PL

  19. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  20. 邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯在广式腊肠中的迁移特性%Migration of plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC packaging material into cured meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海光; 肖乃玉; 刘朝霞; 谭贵良; 刘垚

    2011-01-01

    利用增塑剂DEHP的皂化反应,采用膜/肉接触的比色管模式和气相色谱法,研究了温度、时间、脂肪含量和加工方式等因素对PVC膜中的增塑剂DEHP向广式腊肠迁移的影响。结果表明:随着温度的升高,时间的延长,脂肪含量的增加,DEHP向肉中的迁移量均会增大;在紫外照射、微波辐射和高温蒸煮等条件下,DEHP的迁移量也会增加,其中微波辐射的作用较为明显,如微波照射18 s后,DEHP的迁移量高达189.3342 mg/kg,紫外光照射48 h后,迁移量是173.5921 mg/kg。同时研究了DEHP迁移溶出后,PVC%The migration of plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)existing in food packaging PVC film into Guangdong style sausage(GSS),was studied by the saponification reaction of DEHP,and the influence of temperature,time,fat content and processing method was also investigated by using the model of colorimetric tube of film/meat contact.The results indicated that the higher the temperature,the longer the time and the more the fat content,the faster the migration was.It showed that ultraviolet irradiation and microwave heating could enhance the migration of DEHP from PVC film into meat.After microwave heating for 18 s,the amount of migration of DEHP was 189.3342 mg/kg,while the amount of migration of DEHP was 173.5921 mg/kg after ultraviolet irradiation for 48 h.PVC film mechanical properties,and penetration of oxygen and moisture were studied after migration of plasticizer DEHP from PVC into GSS.It was observed that with the transfer of DEHP the power of pulling and breaking changed in PVC film,and the transfer of air and moisture distinctly decreased.

  1. 邻苯二甲酸单乙基己基酯抑制人卵巢黄素化颗粒细胞激素合成机制的研究%Effect of Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Steroidogenesis in Human Granulosa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓辉; 石程; 沈浣

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究邻苯二甲酸单乙基己基酯[Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate,MEHP]抑制人卵巢黄素化颗粒细胞激素合成的机制.方法:选取在北京大学人民医院行体外受精-胚胎移植的患者6例,分别收集卵泡液,提取颗粒细胞进行原代体外培养72 h后,分别加入MEHP 25,300,500 μmol/L,并于之后48 h通过实时聚合酶链反应(real-time PCR)检测胆固醇侧链裂解酶(CYP11A1)、过氧化物酶体激活受体γ(peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor,PPAR-γ)、芳香化酶基因(CYP19A1)、3β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶(3β-HSD)的表达.结果:MEHP为300及500μmol/L时CYP19A1的表达均明显降低(P<0.05);500 μmol/L的MEHP可使CYP11A1表达明显降低(P<0.05);当MEHP为500 μmol/L时3β-HSD的表达明显降低(P<0.05);当MEHP达到300,500 μmol/L时,PPAR-γ的表达明显增加(P<0.05).结论:MEHP不仅能降低雌激素合成关键酶CYP19A1的合成,也抑制了孕激素合成关键酶CYP11A1及3β-HSD的合成.此外,MEHP能促进PPAR--γ的生成.

  2. Biodegradable congress 2012; Bioschmierstoff-Kongress 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Within the Guelzower expert discussions at 5th and 6th June, 2012 in Oberhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of biodegradable lubricants by means of research and development as well as public relations (Steffen Daebeler); (2) Biodegradable lubricants - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the engaged product groups (Hubertus Murrenhoff); (3) Standardization of biodegradable lubricants - CEN/DIN standard committees - state of the art (Rolf Luther); (4) Market research for the utilization of biodegradable lubricants and means of proof of sustainability (Norbert Schmitz); (5) Fields of application for high performance lubricants and requirements upon the products (Gunther Kraft); (6) Investigations of biodegradable lubricants in rolling bearings and gears (Christoph Hentschke); (7) Biodegradable lubricants in central lubrication systems Development of gears and bearings of offshore wind power installations (Reiner Wagner); (8) Investigations towards environmental compatibility of biodegradable lubricants used in offshore wind power installations (Tolf Schneider); (9) Development of glycerine based lubricants for the industrial metalworking (Harald Draeger); (10) Investigations and utilization of biodegradable oils as electroinsulation oils in transformers (Stefan Tenbohlen); (11) Operational behaviour of lubricant oils in vegetable oil operation and Biodiesel operation (Horst Hamdorf); (12) Lubrication effect of lubricating oil of the third generation (Stefan Heitzig); (13) Actual market development from the view of a producer of biodegradable lubricants (Frank Lewen); (14) Utilization of biodegradable lubricants in forestry harvesters (Guenther Weise); (15) New biodegradable lubricants based on high oleic sunflower oil (Otto Botz); (16) Integrated fluid concept - optimized technology and service package for users of biodegradable lubricants (Juergen Baer); (17) Utilization of a bio oil sensor to control

  3. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  4. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  5. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  6. Poly (3-Hydroxyalkanoates): Biodegradable Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    During the 1920’s, a polyester called poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) was discovered in bacterial cells. This compound, otherwise known as PHB, is part of a polyester family called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Polyhydroxyalkanoates are used as an energy and carbon sto rage compound within certain bacterial cells. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are thermoplastic, biodegradable polyesters synthesized by some bacteria from rene...

  7. Biodegradable polymeric prodrugs of naltrexone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennet, D.B.; Li, X.; Adams, N.W.; Kim, S.W.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Feijen, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the narcotic antagonist naltrexone may improve patient compliance in the treatment of opiate addiction. Random copolymers consisting of the ¿-amino acids N5-(3-hydroxypropyl--glutamine and -leucine were synthesized with equimolar

  8. Biodegradation kinetics at low concentrations (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in groundwater added sediment fines. At concentrations at or below 1 mu g/L of 2,4-D degradation kinetic was of true first order without significant growth of specific degraders and with half-life for mineralization...

  9. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  10. A kinetic model for predicting biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, S; Pavlov, T; Nedelcheva, D; Reuschenbach, P; Silvani, M; Bias, R; Comber, M; Low, L; Lee, C; Parkerton, T; Mekenyan, O

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation plays a key role in the environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals. The need to assess biodegradability of a chemical for regulatory purposes supports the development of a model for predicting the extent of biodegradation at different time frames, in particular the extent of ultimate biodegradation within a '10 day window' criterion as well as estimating biodegradation half-lives. Conceptually this implies expressing the rate of catabolic transformations as a function of time. An attempt to correlate the kinetics of biodegradation with molecular structure of chemicals is presented. A simplified biodegradation kinetic model was formulated by combining the probabilistic approach of the original formulation of the CATABOL model with the assumption of first order kinetics of catabolic transformations. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to fit the model parameters to OECD 301F biodegradation kinetic data for a set of 208 chemicals. The new model allows the prediction of biodegradation multi-pathways, primary and ultimate half-lives and simulation of related kinetic biodegradation parameters such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), carbon dioxide production, and the nature and amount of metabolites as a function of time. The model may also be used for evaluating the OECD ready biodegradability potential of a chemical within the '10-day window' criterion.

  11. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment.

  12. UV photolysis for accelerating pyridine biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Chang, Ling; Yan, Ning; Tang, Yingxia; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Pyridine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, is slowly biodegradable, and coupling biodegradation with UV photolysis is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation and mineralization. The initial steps of pyridine biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. We employed an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor for pyridine biodegradation following three protocols: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P+B), and biodegradation with succinic acid added (B+S). Succinic acid was the main UV-photolysis product from pyridine, and its catabolic oxidation generates internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of pyridine biodegradation. Compared with direct biodegradation of pyridine (B), the removal rate for the same concentration of photolyzed pyridine (P+B) was higher by 15 to 43%, depending on the initial pyridine concentrations (increasing through the range of 130 to 310 mg/L). Adding succinic acid alone (B+S) gave results similar to P+B, which supports that succinic acid was the main agent for accelerating the pyridine biodegradation rate. In addition, protocols P+B and B+S were similar in terms of increasing pyridine mineralization over 10 h: 84% and 87%, respectively, which were higher than with protocol B (72%). The positive impact of succinic acid-whether added directly or produced via UV photolysis-confirms that its catabolism, which produced intracellular electron carriers, accelerated the initial steps of pyridine biotransformation.

  13. Aerobic biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate and toxicity of the biodegradation metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Núñez-Olea, Josefa; Lechuga, Manuela

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a study was made of the biodegradation of a non-ionic surfactant, a nonylphenol polyethoxylate, in biodegradability tests by monitoring the residual surfactant matter. The influence of the concentration on the extent of primary biodegradation, the toxicity of biodegradation metabolites, and the kinetics of degradation were also determined. The primary biodegradation was studied at different initial concentrations: 5, 25 and 50 mg/L, (at sub-and supra-critical micelle concentration). The NPEO used in this study can be considered biodegradable since the primary biodegradation had already taken place (a biodegradation greater than 80% was found for the different initial concentration tested). The initial concentration affected the shape of the resulting curve, the mean biodegradation rate and the percentage of biodegradation reached (99% in less than 8 days at 5 mg/L, 98% in less than 13 days at 25 mg/L and 95% in 14 days at 50 mg/L). The kinetic model of Quiroga and Sales (1991) was applied to predict the biodegradation of the NPEO. The toxicity value was measured as EC(20) and EC(50). In addition, during the biodegradation process of the surfactant a toxicity analysis was made of the evolution of metabolites generated, confirming that the subproducts of the biodegradation process were more toxic than the original.

  14. Le collisionneur du futur?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Pourquoi deux études parallèles pour un même collisionneur linéaire ? Loin d’être un double effort et un gaspillage de ressources, ces deux études s’inscrivent dans une stratégie de complémentarité afin de fournir la meilleure technologie requise par la physique du futur. Vendredi 12 juin a eu lieu au CERN la première réunion conjointe CLIC et ILC. Elle n’a pas été avare de bons résultats et d’importantes décisions. Le Collisionneur Linéaire International (ILC) et le Collisionneur Linéaire Compact (CLIC) sont deux études qui font, tous deux, appel à des technologies de pointe. A première vue en compétition, les deux études sont en réalité complémentaires et elles ont un objectif commun : proposer dans les plus brefs délais et au moindre coût, l‘accélérateur linéaire le mieux adapté pour prendre le relais de la physique des très hautes énergies après le LHC.

  15. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  16. Effect of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on indexes of oxidative damage in serum and lung tissue in mice%邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯对小鼠血清及肺组织中氧化损伤指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海玲; 方鑫; 戴红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(diethylhexyl phthalate,DEHP)对小鼠血清及肺组织中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力及谷胱甘肽(GSH)和过氧化氢含量的影响.方法 将40只健康4周龄清洁级昆明小鼠按体重随机分为4组,分别为对照组和低( 1/40 LD50,750 mg/kg)、中(1/20 LD50,1500 mg/kg)、高(1/10 LD50,3000 mg/kg)剂量DEHP染毒组,每组10只,雌雄各半.采用自由摄食方式进行染毒,连续染毒4周.测定小鼠血清和肺组织匀浆中GSH-Px活力和GSH、过氧化氢含量.结果 DEHP染毒可使小鼠血清和肺组织匀浆中GSH-Px活力和GSH含量显著下降,过氧化氢含量显著升高.结论 DEHP可致小鼠肺组织发生氧化性损伤,使机体的抗氧化能力降低.%Objective To study the effect of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the activity of GSH-Px and the content of GSH and H2O2 in serum and lung tissue of mice. Methods A total of 40 Kunming mice aged four weeks, (20±2) g, were randomly divided into four groups, 10 in each, low DEHP group (1/40 LD50,750 mg/kg body weight), moderate DEHP group(1/20 LD50, 1 500 mg/kg body weight), high DEHP group (1/10 LD50,3 000 mg/kg body weight) and control group. The rats were exposed to DEHP by food for four consecutive weeks. At the end of the 4th week,the activity of GSH-Px and contents of GSH, H2O2 in blood and lung tissue were determined. Results With the increase of DEHP exposure,the activity of GSH-Px and the content of GSH in the blood and lung tissue decreased significantly,while the contents of H2O2 in the blood and lung tissue signicial increased significantly. Conclusion DEHP exposure may cause lung tissue oxidative damage and reduce antioxidant ability in mice.

  17. Study on DNA damage and oxidative stress in testicular tissue of rats induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate%邻苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯对大鼠睾丸细胞DNA损伤和睾丸组织氧化应激影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红平; 肖雯; 朱静; 衷筱琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯(DEHP)对大鼠睾丸细胞DNA的损伤和睾丸组织氧化应激的作用.方法 雄性Wistar大鼠25只,随机分为5组,每组5只,通过灌胃的方法摄入DEHP,4个染毒组剂量分别为1 500、3 000、4 500、6000mg·kg-1 ·d-1,1个阴性对照组.用单细胞凝胶电泳技术检测大鼠睾丸细胞DNA的损伤,睾丸组织中活性氧(ROS)、丙二醛(MDA)的水平以及睾丸组织中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活力.结果 各染毒组和阴性对照组大鼠睾丸细胞DNA损伤率分别为29.0%、71.0%、89.0%、95.0%和15.0%,各染毒组睾丸细胞DNA损伤程度与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01),且大鼠睾丸细胞DNA损伤率与染毒剂量之间呈剂量-反应关系(r =0.930,P<0.01);各染毒组大鼠睾丸组织的ROS、MDA的水平均较阴性对照组显著升高(P<0.05,P<0.01),而GSH-Px、SOD的活力又较阴性对照组明显下降(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 DEHP可造成大鼠睾丸组织明显的氧化应激并引起睾丸细胞DNA的损伤.%Objective To study the effect of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on DNA damage and oxidative stress in testicular tissue of rats. Methods Wistar male rats were divided into 5 groups, including 4 experimental groups, which were respectively exposed to 1 500, 3 000, 4 500 and 6 000 mg·kg-1·d-1 DEHP, and a control group. The degree of DNA damage in rat testicle cells was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis. Detected were the contents of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) , malondialdehyde ( MDA) in testicular tissue, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) in testicular tissue. Results The rates of testicle cell DNA damage in each experimental groups and the control group were 29. 0% ,71. 0% ,89. 0% ,95. 0% ,and 15. 0% respectively, showing DNA damage in all experimental groups were significantly higher than those

  18. Oxidative Damage Induced by Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Protective Effects of Soybean Isoflavones in Mice%邻苯二甲酸二乙基己酯(DEHP)对小鼠的氧化损伤及黄豆异黄酮对其保护作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 郭靖; 韩冰; 秦龙娟; 杨旭

    2012-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is widespread in the environment.As endocrine disruptors,it has seriously threatened human health and ecological environment safety.Male Kunming mice were treated daily with DEHP at the dosages of 250,500 and 1000 mg·kg - 1·d-1,the relative organ weight,the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA)and L-Glutathione (GSH),and testis histology were investigated after 30-d DEHP treatment.Liver and lung enlargement and severe testicular atrophy were observed in a dose-dependent manner.The contents of hepatic MDA significantly increased,while the levels of hepatic and blood GSH both significantly decreased.In testis histological analysis,disruptions of spermatogenesis were observed such as necrosis and apoptosis of testicular cells,and massive sloughing of seminiferous tubule epithelium.The results showed that DEHP caused oxidative damage and reproductive toxicity in immature male mice,particularly at relatively high doses (500 and 1000 mg·kg-1·d-1).To investigate the protective effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) on DEHP-induced oxidative damage and testicular injury,the mice were exposed to 1000 mg·kg-1-d-1 DEHP and 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 SI.It is demonstrated that SI supplementation could significantly attenuate DEHP-induced oxidative stress and testicular injury in mice,probably due to the properties of SI as antioxidant and estrogen regulator.%邻苯二甲酸二乙基己酯(DEHP)是环境中广泛存在的污染物,作为一种内分泌干扰物,已严重威胁到人类健康和生态环境安全.每天用250、500和1000mg·kg-1·d-1的DEHP对雄性昆明小鼠进行灌胃处理,连续处理30 d后,分别考察了小鼠的器官相对质量、丙二醛(MDA)和谷胱甘肽(GSH)的含量以及睾丸组织学等指标的变化.结果显示,小鼠的肝、肺组织肿大,睾丸严重萎缩,并呈剂量依赖性.肝脏MDA含量显著增加,肝脏和血液GSH水平显著下降.从睾丸组织学分析结果可见,精子生长发育条件已受

  19. 二乙基己基邻苯二甲酸致小鼠附睾生殖毒性及锌保护作用实验研究%The experimental research on reproductive toxicity of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and protective effect of Zinc on mice epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 宋晓峰; 刘星; 张德迎; 魏光辉

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study reproductive functional lesions of Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate(DEHP) on epididymis, and to find antagon which can repress the toxicity. Methods In vivo study,postnatal day 20 (PND20) and PND50 male KM mice were randomly divided into normal control, cornoil, DEHP and DEHP + Zinc gluconate group. In each stage and group, after been garaged for 10days, epididymal histopathologic changes and androgen receptor (A.R) and estrogen receptor (ER) inepididymis were detected. In vitro study, epididymal epithelial cells of PND20 and PNDS0 mice werecultured. Viability of epididymal epithelial ceils were measured using MTT assay, content of sialic acid(SA) and the activity of α-1,4-glucosidase and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated. Re-sults DEHP induced epididymis atrophy and conspicuous histopathologic uhrastructure changes, up-regulated AR and down-regulated ER. No conspicuous variations were found in DEHP + Zinc gluco-hate group. Conclusions DEHP can induce lesions of epididymaI structure and function. Zinc is an an-tagon to DEHP toxicity.%目的 探讨二乙基己基邻苯二甲酸(DEHP)埘附睾生殖功能的损害和可能机制,探寻DEHP毒件作用的拮抗剂.方法 出生后20d(PND20)和50d(PND50)雄件KM小鼠分别随机分为正常对照组、玉米油组、DEHP组和DEHP+葡萄糖酸锌组,连续灌胃10d,观察各期各组小鼠附睾组织学改变,检测雄激素受体(AR)、雌激素受体(ER)表达水平;体外培养PND20和PND50小鼠附睾上皮细胞.MTT法测定附睾上皮细胞活性.测定唾液酸(SA)含量、α-1,4-糖苷酶活性及乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活力.结果 体内实验表明DEHP可导致附睾萎缩等组织病理学改变.并可导致附睾组织AR水平上调和ER水平下调(P0.01);体外实验表明DEHP可导致附睾上皮细胞活性降低.而DEHP+葡萄糖酸锌组附睾的形态、结构及功能均未见明显改变.结论DEHP可使附睾的结构和功能受损.锌对DEHP所致附睾牛殖毒性具有拮抗作用.

  20. Effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during mid to late pregnancy on fetal de velopment%孕中晚期不同剂量邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯暴露对胎鼠生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾潇; 徐婉; 尚丽新; 王心

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕中、晚期不同剂量邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯( DEHP)暴露对孕鼠妊娠结局及胎鼠生长发育的影响. 方法:将40只雌性Wistar大鼠随机分为4组:对照组(玉米油)、低剂量组(100mg/kg)、中剂量组(500mg/kg)和高剂量组(1000mg/kg).妊娠11日起每天给予DEHP灌胃,妊娠第19日处死孕鼠. 观察DEHP对孕鼠的一般情况及其对妊娠结局的影响. 记录胎盘质量、活胎数、畸胎数、胎鼠体重、身长、尾长及脏器系数,明确DEHP对胎鼠生长发育的不良作用. 结果:各组孕鼠的一般状况良好,中、高剂量组胎盘发生明显病理改变. 与对照组相比,中剂量和高剂量染毒组的活胎数、畸胎数、胎鼠体重、身长、尾长及脏器系数比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0. 05). 结论:妊娠中晚期DEHP暴露可影响胎盘及胚胎发育,使活胎数降低,胎儿发育不良、胎儿畸形数增加,导致不良妊娠结局.%Objective:To discuss the effect of different doses of di ( 2-ethylhexyl ) Phthalate ( DEHP) exposure on pregnancy outcome and fetal development during mid to late pregnant. Methods:40 healthy female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups,control group (corn oil),low dose group (DEHP 100mg/kg),middle dose group (DEHP 500mg/kg) and high dose group (DEHP 1000mg/kg). On eleventh day of pregnancy,rats were given DE-HP/corn oil daily respectively by intragastric administration. On the nineteenth day pregnant rats were killed. The general condition of pregnant rats and the effects of pregnancy outcome were observed. Then recorded the placenta weight,the number of live births,the number of de-fects,the fetal body weight, body length, tail length and organ coefficient, to know DEHP ad-verse effects on fetal development. Result:Groups of pregnant rats were in good condition. Me-dium and high dose group of placenta tissue have obvious pathological change. Compared with the control group,the live births,the number of

  1. BIODEGRADABLE COATING FROM AGATHIS ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORYAWATI MULYONO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  2. Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Manavitehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus in the field of biomedical engineering has shifted in recent years to biodegradable polymers and, in particular, polyesters. Dozens of polyester-based medical devices are commercially available, and every year more are introduced to the market. The mechanical performance and wide range of biodegradation properties of this class of polymers allow for high degrees of selectivity for targeted clinical applications. Recent research endeavors to expand the application of polymers have been driven by a need to target the general hydrophobic nature of polyesters and their limited cell motif sites. This review provides a comprehensive investigation into advanced strategies to modify polyesters and their clinical potential for future biomedical applications.

  3. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Detergent Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Jelen; Ute Merrettig-Bruns

    2009-01-01

    Detergent surfactantscan be found in wastewater in relevant concentrations. Most of them are known as ready degradable under aerobic conditions, as required by European legislation. Far fewer surfactants have been tested so far for biodegradability under anaerobic conditions. The natural environment is predominantly aerobic, but there are some environmental compartments such as river sediments, sub-surface soil layer and anaerobic sludge digesters of wastewater treatment plants which have str...

  4. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  5. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  6. Main: 1DU5 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DU5 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Zeamatin Precursor. Name=Zlp; Zea Mays Molecule: Zeama...NNACPVFKKDEYCCVGSAANDCHPTNYSRYFKGQCPDAYSYPKDDATSTFTCPAGTNYKVVFCP corn_1DU5.jpg ...

  7. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment.

  8. Biodegradation of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stloukal, Petr; Koutny, Marek; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Kucharczyk, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Polylactid acid seems to be an appropriate replacement of conventional non-biodegradable synthetic polymer primarily due to comparable mechanical, thermal and processing properties in its high molecular weight form. Biodegradation of high molecular PLA was studied in compost for various forms differing in their specific surface area. The material proved its good biodegradability under composting conditions and all investigated forms showed to be acceptable for industrial composting. Despite expectations, no significant differences in resulting mineralizations were observed for fiber, film and powder sample forms with different specific surface areas. The clearly faster biodegradation was detected only for the thin coating on porous material with high specific surface area.

  9. Study on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwang Chen; Licheng Tan; Lie Chen; Yan, Yang; Xiaofeng Wang [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering. Inst. of Polymer Materials]. E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Progress on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters based on aliphatic and aromatic diacids, diols and ester monomers was reviewed. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability. Physical properties and biodegradability of copolyesters varied with chain length of the aliphatic polyester segment and atacticity of copolyesters. The process ability of copolyesters could be improved significantly after incorporating a stiff chain segment through copolymerization of aliphatic polyesters with an aromatic liquid crystal element. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters as a new type of biodegradable materials could replace some general plastics in certain applications, namely biomedical and environmental friendly fields. (author)

  10. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  11. Cri du Chat syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerruti Mainardi Paola

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-. The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF and δ-catenin (CTNND2, which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable

  12. Gestion durable du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  13. Les paradoxes du littoral Swahili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le contact entre l'océan Indien occidental et le continent africain a forgé l'identité et l'originalité du littoral swahili. Cette interface, longue d'environ 2 000 kilomètres, du sud de la Somalie au nord du Mozambique, constitue un monde original où, au gré de traditions anciennes de circulation maritime et continentale se sont diffusées et mêlées des influences culturelles venues du continent africain, de la péninsule arabique et de la péninsule indienne. Le développement du continent, du littoral et des archipels s'inscrit dans une double logique de fragmentation et d'ouverture au monde. Dans cette vaste aire géographique, le rôle de relais des îles et des axes de pénétration continentale à partir des ports est essentiel.The identity and the original features of the Swahili seashore mainly proceed from the contact of African mainland and western indian Ocean. This coastal interface, stretching over 2 000 kilometres from southern Somalia to northern Mozambique, is characterized by ancient traditions of trade movements through maritime areas and mainland as well, which spread and mixed different cultural influences originating from Africa and both Arabic and Indian peninsulas. The development of this area is linked to both fragmentation and opening dynamics. In such a wide area, the relaying function of islands and continental corridors from main harbours is very important.

  14. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  15. Here today, gone tomorrow: biodegradable soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Winfield, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a broken item and then procure a new one. In the 20th century enlightened environmentalists campaigned for recycling and reuse (R and R). R and R has continued to be an important part of new technology development, but there is still a huge problem of non-recyclable materials being dumped into landfill and being discarded in the environment. The challenge is even greater for robotics, a field which will impact on all aspects of our lives, where discards include motors, rigid elements and toxic power supplies and batteries. One novel solution is the biodegradable robot, an active physical machine that is composed of biodegradable materials and which degrades to nothing when released into the environment. In this paper we examine the potential and realities of biodegradable robotics, consider novel solutions to core components such as sensors, actuators and energy scavenging, and give examples of biodegradable robotics fabricated from everyday, and not so common, biodegradable electroactive materials. The realisation of truly biodegradable robots also brings entirely new deployment, exploration and bio-remediation capabilities: why track and recover a few large non-biodegradable robots when you could speculatively release millions of biodegradable robots instead? We will consider some of these exciting developments and explore the future of this new field.

  16. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  17. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation.

  18. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively.

  19. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshetti, G.K.; Parshetti, S.G.; Telke, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    and phenol. We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A. radiobacter. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A. radiobacter, P. aurugenosa and A. vinelandii) contributing to soil...

  20. Current trends in biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprateep, Suchada

    2010-12-01

    The microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) positively impact global climate change scenarios by reducing the amount of non-degradable plastic used. A wide variety of different monomer compositions of PHAs has been described, as well as their future prospects for applications where high biodegradability or biocompatibility is required. PHAs can be produced from renewable raw materials and are degraded naturally by microorganisms that enable carbon dioxide and organic compound recycling in the ecosystem, providing a buffer to climate change. This review summarizes recent research on PHAs and addresses the opportunities as well as challenges for their place in the global market.

  1. Cri-du-chat syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15 000 to 1:50 000 live-born infants. Its main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds,

  2. Biodegradable polymers for electrospinning: towards biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Dan; Liow, Sing Shy; Loh, Xian Jun

    2014-12-01

    Electrospinning has received much attention recently due to the growing interest in nano-technologies and the unique material properties. This review focuses on recent progress in applying electrospinning technique in production of biodegradable nanofibers to the emerging field of biomedical. It first introduces the basic theory and parameters of nanofibers fabrication, with focus on factors affecting the morphology and fiber diameter of biodegradable nanofibers. Next, commonly electrospun biodegradable nanofibers are discussed, and the comparison of the degradation rate of nanoscale materials with macroscale materials are highlighted. The article also assesses the recent advancement of biodegradable nanofibers in different biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensor and immunoassay. Future perspectives of biodegradable nanofibers are discussed in the last section, which emphasizes on the innovation and development in electrospinning of hydrogels nanofibers, pore size control and scale-up productions.

  3. Biodegradation and toxicological evaluation of lubricant oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Shodji Tamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare different toxicity levels of lubricant oils. The tests were performed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei, arugula seeds (Eruca sativa and lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa, with three types of contaminants (mineral lubricant oil, synthetic lubricant oil and used lubricant oil for various biodegradation periods in the soil. The toxicity tests indirectly measured the biodegradation of the contaminants. The samples were analyzed at t0, t60, t120 and t180 days of biodegradation. The used lubricant oil was proved very toxic in all the tests and even after biodegradation its toxicity was high. The mineral and synthetic oils were biodegraded efficiently in the soil although their toxicity did not disappear completely after 180 days.

  4. Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure on reproductive development and PPARs in prepubertal female rats%青春期前邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯暴露对雌性大鼠生殖发育及过氧化物酶体增殖剂激活受体的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明月; 张玉敏; 裴秀丛; 段志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)暴露对青春期前雌性大鼠性发育及生殖内分泌功能的影响及其可能机制.方法 将40只健康3周龄雌性SD大鼠,随机分成对照组(玉米油)和3个实验组,每组10只.实验组按50、150、500mg/kg DEHP经口灌胃,连续染毒28天.观察阴道开口、乳房发育、第一次发情周期的日龄及体重,于末次染毒24小时后进行阴道涂片,确定动情间期,处死动物.Real-time PCR测定卵巢组织相关基因表达水平;ELlSA法检测血清中卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P4)及睾酮(T)水平;通过病理学观察卵巢组织的变化;免疫组织化学法测定卵巢组织中PPARy的表达.结果 500mg/kg组阴道开口日龄提前,150、500mg/kg组阴道开口时体重增加(P<0.05);150、500mg/kg组芳香化酶(P450Arom) mRNA表达与对照组比较,显著下降;各剂量组与对照组相比,T水平明显下降,150、500mg/kg组FSH、E2水平明显减少,而LH水平明显升高(P<0.05);150、500mg/kg组闭锁卵泡明显增多、黄体数目明显减少;150、500mg/kg组卵泡颗粒细胞和黄体颗粒细胞中PPARy阳性光密度相对量明显高于对照组及50mg/kg组(P<0.05).结论 青春期前DEHP暴露对雌性大鼠性发育及生殖内分泌功能产生影响,其作用机制可能与激活PPARs有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure on pubertal development and reproductive endocrine function in prepubertal female rats and its possible mechanisms. Methods 40 female SD rats at 3-week-old were randomly divided into a control group (corn oil) and three exposure groups, which were exposed consecutively for 28 days to DEHP by oral gavage at doses of 50,150 and 500 mg/( kg- d). The onset of puberty was determined by daily examination for vaginal opening (OV) , breast development and the first estrous cycle. By the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed

  5. LES GITES PLOMBO-ZINCIFERES DU DISTRICT MINIER DU KOUDIAT SIDU AUSUD DU KEF EN TUNISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont dćcrit l:i stratigiaphie. I.i tectonique, le corps de minerals, la paragenese et la genese dcs gttes Koudiat Sidri situ&s environ 20 km au sud de la ville du Kef en Tunisie.

  6. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lihui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Yongming, E-mail: zhym@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA.

  7. Dynamique narrative du texte, du film et de la musique

    OpenAIRE

    Wildgen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    La narrativité est foncièrement liée à la dynamique des événements et des actions représentés, et elle dépend du champ pragmatique narrateur/récepteur, c’est-à-dire du discours narratif. Cette dynamique demande une théorisation adéquate, par exemple au sein de la théorie des systèmes dynamiques ou de l’analyse vectorielle, et elle se manifeste dans des modalités différentes. Nous présentons des exemples d’analyse dans la modalité linguistique (récit oral spontané, conte populaire), dans la mo...

  8. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  9. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  10. Biodegradable Metals From Concept to Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2012-01-01

    This book in the emerging research field of biomaterials covers biodegradable metals for biomedical applications. The book contains two main parts where each of them consists of three chapters. The first part introduces the readers to the field of metallic biomaterials, exposes the state of the art of biodegradable metals, and reveals its application for cardiovascular implants. It includes some fundamental aspects to give basic understanding on metals for further review on the degradable ones is covered in chapter one. The second chapter introduces the concept of biodegradable metals, it's st

  11. Preparation and degradation mechanisms of biodegradable polymer: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S. H.; Duan, P. P.; Shen, M. X.; Xue, Y. J.; Wang, Z. Y.

    2016-07-01

    Polymers are difficult to degrade completely in Nature, and their catabolites may pollute the environment. In recent years, biodegradable polymers have become the hot topic in people's daily life with increasing interest, and a controllable polymer biodegradation is one of the most important directions for future polymer science. This article presents the main preparation methods for biodegradable polymers and discusses their degradation mechanisms, the biodegradable factors, recent researches and their applications. The future researches of biodegradable polymers are also put forward.

  12. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  13. Engineered biosynthesis of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, Pooja; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-08-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in the rapid development of biobased plastics and the major drivers for this expansion are rising environmental concerns of plastic pollution and the depletion of fossil-fuels. This paper presents a broad view on the recent developments of three promising biobased plastics, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS), well known for their biodegradability. The article discusses the natural and recombinant host organisms used for fermentative production of monomers, alternative carbon feedstocks that have been used to lower production cost, different metabolic engineering strategies used to improve product titers, various fermentation technologies employed to increase productivities and finally, the different downstream processes used for recovery and purification of the monomers and polymers.

  14. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  15. Prairie du Chien: A Historical Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Naudouwessee with whom this governor made peace and introduced trade and commerce among the whole nation. His son the successor told me that some of the...Nicholas Perrot, French Commandant of the West, with a party of couriers du bois and voyageurs descended the Wisconsin River and erected Fort St...number of traders and voyageurs settled at Prairie du Chien. Thomas Anderson who settled at Prairie du Chien in 1800 described the conditions on his

  16. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions cri-du-chat syndrome cri-du-chat syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Cri-du-chat (cat's cry) syndrome, also known as 5p- (5p ...

  17. Lubricant Biodegradation Enhancers:Designed Chemistry and Engineered Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Boshui; Gao Lingyue; Fang Jianhua; Zhang Nan; Wu Jiang; Wang Jiu

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing worldwide trend of developing the biodegradable lubricants has been prevailing to form a speciifc ifeld of green chemistry and green engineering. Enhancement of biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable petroleum-based lubricants has as such become an urgent must. For over a decade the authors have been focusing on the im-provement of biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable lubricants such as petroleum-based lubricating oils and greases. A new idea of lubricant biodegradation enhancer was put forward by the authors with the aim to stimulate the biodegradation of unreadily biodegradable lubricants by incorporating the enhancer into the lubricants in order to turn the lubricants into greener biodegradable ones and to help in situ bioremediation of lubricant-contaminated environment. This manuscript sum-marizes our recent efforts relating to the chemistry and technology of biodegradation enhancers for lubricants. Firstly, the chemistry of lubricant biodegradation enhancers was designed based on the principles of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Secondly, the ability of the designed biodegradation enhancers for increasing the biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable industrial lubricants was investigated through biodegradability evaluation tests, microbial population analysis, and biodegradation kinetics modeling. Finally, the impact of biodegradation enhancers on some crucial performance characteristics of lubricants such as lubricity and oxidation stability was tested via tribological evaluation and oxidation determinations. Our results have shown that the designed chemistry of nitrogenous and/or phos-phorous compounds such as lauroyl glutamine, oleoyl glycine, oleic diethanolamide phosphate and lauric diethanolamide borate was outstanding in boosting biodegradation of petroleum-based lubricants which was ascribed to increase the micro-bial population and decrease the oil-water interfacial

  18. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-11-29

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands.

  19. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  20. Transport of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, H.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport behavior of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers. Such transport occurs during in situ bioremediation which is based on the injection of an electron acceptor or electron donor. The main interests in this thesis are the mutual influences of underlying processes, i.e. transport, adsorption and biodegradation, and their influence on in situ bioremediation performance. To gain insight in these influences, the processes in a homogeneous aquifer ar...

  1. Ball Powder Production Wastewater Biodegradation Support Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Any unusual removal criteria (NO3, toxic compound, etc.): * None 9 Type of wastewater treated: Dairy ( whey and grease) 1 Design basis for scale-up... WASTEWATER BIODEGRADATION SUPPORT STUDIES (TASK ORDER NO. 11) February 1989 Contract No. DAAK11-85-D-0008 w MAR 2 9 1983 Prepared by: Arthur D...United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency February 1989 I Ball Powder Production Wastewater Pilot-Scale £ Biodegradation Support Studies I

  2. Biodegradability of Chlorinated Anilines in Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO WANG; GUAN-GHUA LU; YAN-JIE ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the bacteria tolerating chlorinated anilines and to study the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline and its coexistent compounds. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicant. Biodegradability of chlorinated anilines was determined using domesticated complex bacteria as an inoculum by shaking-flask test. Results The complex bacteria were identified, consisting of Xanthomonas, Bacillus alcaligenes,Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetaceae nocardia. The obtained complex bacteria were more tolerant to o-chloroaniline than mixture bacteria in natural river waters. The effects of exposure concentration and inoculum size on the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline were analyzed, and the biodegradation characteristics of single o-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichloroaniline were compared with the coexistent compounds. Conclusion The biodegradation rates can be improved by decreasing concentration of compounds and increasing inoculum size of complex bacteria. When o-chloroaniline coexists with aniline, the latter is biodegraded prior to the former, and as a consequence the metabolic efficiency of o-chloroaniline is improved with the increase of aniline concentration. Meanwhile, when o-chloroaniline coexists with 2,4-dichloroaniline, the metabolic efficiency of 2,4-dichloroaniline is markedly improved.

  3. Immersed multilayer biodegradable ureteral stent with reformed biodegradation: An in vitro experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ganggang; Xie, Hua; Huang, Yichen; Lv, Yiqing; Zhang, Mingqing; Shang, Yafeng; Zhou, Junmei; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jin-Ye; Chen, Fang

    2017-03-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a novel immersed multilayer biodegradable ureteral stent with reformed biodegradation and evaluate it in vitro. Methods Poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PGLA), microsphere zein and BaSO4 were employed to produce a multilayer biodegradable stent using immersion technology. Tests of the biodegradable stents and conventional control stents were conducted in human urine in vitro to evaluate the biodegradable properties. The biocompatibility was assessed by the morphology and proliferation of urine-derived cells cultured with extracted media from the biodegradable stent and a latex material positive control. Results An immersed multilayer biodegradable stent was successfully produced. It began to degrade in week 2 and was fully degraded by week 4. The mass loss ratio in the first 2 weeks was low (approximately 10.0% at 1 week, 20.0% at 2 weeks) and increased after 3 weeks (approximately 70%) to the end of testing. During the first 2 weeks, the radial compression load performances of the biodegradable stents were better than those of the control stents with statistically significant differences ( p = 0.00, p = 0.01) and the tensile strengths were lower in the biodegradable stents than those in the control stents throughout the experiment. SEM showed that the stents degraded layer by layer from the outer to the inner wall. The influences on the cells of extracted medium from the biodegradable stents were morphologically slight and lower than 10% in relative growth rates. Conclusions This preliminary study demonstrates that the immersed multilayer biodegradable ureteral stent has good radial compression and biocompatible performance and can be degraded in vitro within 4 weeks in a moderate manner.

  4. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes.

  5. 两种胚胎干细胞实验模型评价邻苯二甲酸(2-乙基己基)酯胚胎发育毒性的比较研究%Comparison of embryotoxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate using mouse and human embryonic stem cell test models in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莎; 方海琴; 杨辉; 张立实; 贾旭东

    2016-01-01

    别函数公式得出函数Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ值分别为3.21、5.77、-6.46,因Ⅱ>Ⅰ>Ⅲ, hEST模型评价DEHP为弱胚胎发育毒性。结论 hEST模型相对于mEST模型在评价受试物的弱胚胎发育毒性方面可能更为敏感。%Objective To establish a mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST) model and human embryonic stem cell test (hEST) model, to evaluate the embryotoxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Methods We developed mEST and hEST models according to the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). We used penicillin G (PN-G) as the standard negative reference and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the standard positive reference, respectively, to verify validity of the models. Based on model validity, mouse embryonic stem cells D3 (mESC-D3), mouse Balb/c-3T3 (3T3), and human embryonic stem cells H9 (hESC-H9) were administered different concentrations of DEHP (15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125.0, 250.0, 500.0, and 1 000.0 μg/ml) for 7 days. A cell counting Kit-8 was used to detect the 50%inhibitory proliferation concentration (IC50) of mESC-D3 cells, 3T3 cells, and hESC-H9 with DEHP. mESC-D3 and hESC-H9 were treated with DEHP (15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125.0, 250.0μg/ml, and 500.0μg/ml) for 10 days based on the cytotoxicity results. At day 10, the expression of cardiomyocyte differentiation gene alpha-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) was detected by real-time PCR and the 50% inhibition of cardiomyocycte differentiation (ID50) determined. Based on the values of IC50 and ID50, functionsⅠ,ⅡandⅡcould be calculated by three linear discriminant functions in the EST model and the embryotoxicity of DEHP described by comparing the three functions. Results Nontrophoblast lineage both ES cells were cultured under optimal conditions and highly expressed hESC markers OCT4 , SSEA4, and TRA-1-60. The embryoid bodies formed were uniform in size and shape, and these results were highly repeatable. The PN-G and 5-FU results coincided with the prediction

  6. BIODEGRADATION DU PETROLE BRUT EN MER PAR : ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE, ESCHERICHIA COLI ET PSEUDOMONAS SPP.

    OpenAIRE

    A. OULD BOUDIA; K. HAMMADI

    2011-01-01

    La pollution de la mer méditerranéenne par les rejets industriels d’origine pétrolière est l’un des problèmes de santé marine qui menace les ressources aquatiques ; parmi de nombreuses raffineries qui sont situées le long des côtes algériennes, la raffinerie d’Arzew au Nord-Ouest de l’Algérie. Le but de ce travail est la mise en évidence d'une méthode de lutte contre la pollution en utilisant des moyens biologiques représentés par le phénomène de biodégradation et ceci par la sélection des mi...

  7. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  8. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  9. Des Taiwanais dans Ie sud du Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Se trouvant dans le sud-est de la Chine au bord dela mer, la province du Fujian s’appelle aussi toutsimplement "Min". Les anc(?)tres d’une grande partie de lapopulation de Taiwan sont venus du Fujian (Min). Les deux

  10. Image du savoir, image du pouvoir dans le Lapidaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LACOMBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available À travers le prologue et les enluminures de présentation, le Lapidaire d’Alphonse X oriente l’interprétation de l’œuvre. Ces paratextes mettent en avant le rôle capital du savoir, représenté par la métaphore du trésor caché, qui a ici une valeur topique. Ils mettent également en exergue le rôle que s’attribue le roi dans la transmission de ce savoir, et placent cette nouvelle attribution royale au cœur de son projet politique.A través del prólogo y las miniaturas de presentación, el Lapidario de Alfonso X orienta la interpretación de la obra. Estos paratextos subrayan el papel capital del saber, representado por la metáfora del tesoro escondido, que tiene aquí un valor tópico. Ponen asimismo de manifiesto el papel que se atribuye el monarca en la transmisión de ese saber y colocan esta nueva atribución real en el centro de su proyecto político.

  11. Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nickel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman Colloque international organisé par l’Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, en partenariat avec l’Université de Stuttgart 19-20 novembre 2015   Organisateurs :  Pierre-Marie Héron, Annie Pibarot, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, centre de recherche Rirra21. Françoise Joly, Beatrice Nickel, Universität Stuttgart 

  12. Du comptoir à la toge

    OpenAIRE

    Buti, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Descendant d’une famille de petits notables du Dauphiné, Antoine Anthoine (1749-1826) qui n’a pas pu accéder à la magistrature se destine à la marchandise. Après un apprentissage à Marseille au comptoir des Seimandy, il est nommé, par ces négociants, régisseur pour leur commandite de Constantinople. La mobilisation de sa proche parenté et les soutiens des pouvoirs politiques locaux, nationaux et internationaux lui permettent d’obtenir une mission destinée à ouvrir le commerce de la Russie mér...

  13. Les esclaves du commandant Quiquandon

    OpenAIRE

    Tymowski, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Le 10 janvier 1895, Albert Grodet, gouverneur général du Soudan français, adressa au ministère des Colonies une dépêche accusant le commandant Quiquandon, dirigeant de la région Nord-Est (Ségou), d'exploiter illégalement un domaine sur lequel travaillent 140 esclaves. À partir de ce cas particulier, l'auteur analyse les conflits qui existaient à l'époque entre l'administration civile et un groupe d'officiers soudanais. Il se demande si la possession d'esclaves par des officiers, prenant...

  14. Biomechanical Challenges to Polymeric Biodegradable Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao S; Moore, James E

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable implants have demonstrated clinical success in simple applications (e.g., absorbable sutures) and have shown great potential in many other areas of interventional medicine, such as localized drug delivery, engineered tissue scaffolding, and structural implants. For endovascular stenting and musculoskeletal applications, they can serve as temporary mechanical support that provides a smooth stress-transfer from the degradable implant to the healing tissue. However, for more complex device geometries, in vivo environments, and evolving load-bearing functions, such as required for vascular stents, there are considerable challenges associated with the use of biodegradable materials. A biodegradable stent must restore blood flow and provide support for a predictable appropriate period to facilitate artery healing, and subsequently, fail safely and be absorbed in a controllable manner. Biodegradable polymers are typically weaker than metals currently employed to construct stents, so it is difficult to ensure sufficient strength to keep the artery open and alleviate symptoms acutely while keeping other design parameters within clinically acceptable ranges. These design challenges are serious, given the general lack of understanding of biodegradable polymer behavior and evolution in intimal operating conditions. The modus operandi is mainly empirical and relies heavily on trial-and-error methodologies burdened by difficult, resource-expensive, and time-consuming experiments. We are striving for theoretical advancements systematizing the empirical knowledge into rational frameworks that could be cast into in silico tools for simulation and product development optimization. These challenges are evident when one considers that there are no biodegradable stents on the US market despite more than 30 years of development efforts (and currently only a couple with CE mark). This review summarizes previous efforts at implementing biodegradable stents, discusses the

  15. 聚氯乙烯静脉留置针中邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯含量测定方法的建立及在3种药物中的迁移研究%Study on the determination of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in polyvinylchloride venous indwelling acus and the migration to injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李樾; 王峰; 孙会敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an effective HPLC method for determination of di - (2 - ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)in polyvinylchloride venous indwelling acus and investigate the migration of DEHP from venous indwelling acus to different injections. Methods: The separation of DEHP was performed with a Agilent XDB - Cl8 column (4. 6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)at 30 ℃ and the detective wavelength was set at 275 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol - water(95:5 )at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min-1 and the injection volume was 20 μL. Results: The calibration curve was linear over the concentration ranged from 0. 008 - 1 mg · mL-1 (r -0. 9999)and the average recovery was 93. 2% ( RSD = 1. 6% ,n =9) . Conclusion: This method is simple,rapid, accurate and suitable for the determination of DEHP in polyvinylchloride venous indwelling acus and the migration to injection.%目的:建立HPLC法测定聚氯乙烯静脉留置针中增塑剂邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)的含量,并考察DEHP在单硝酸异山梨酯、硝酸甘油及尼莫地平注射液中的迁移情况.方法:采用Agilent XDB-C18(4.6 mm×150mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相:甲醇-水(95∶5);流速:1.0mL·min-1;检测波长:275 nm;柱温:30℃;进样量20 μL.结果:DEHP在浓度0.008~1 mg·mL-1范围内具有良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为93.2%,RSD=1.6% (n =9).结论:本方法灵敏、准确、可靠,可用于聚氯乙烯静脉留置针中DEHP含量及迁移情况的测定.

  16. Liquid phase microextraction of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from polymer films with deep eutectic solvent by open circuit potentiometric and PM7 semiempirical molecular orbital method%塑料膜中塑化剂(DEHP)低共熔溶剂液相微萃取的开路电位和PM7半经验分子轨道法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆阳; 高杰; 朱永春

    2016-01-01

    Liquid phase microextraction of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP)with deep eutectic solvent(DES)of choline chloride-urea was studied by opencircuit potentiometry,which shows a first order dynamic property with apparent first order dynamic constant of 6. 35×10-4 s-1,and can be used in the detection the amount of DEHP from different plastic films. Thermodynamic parameters of molecular clusters composed of DES and DEHP were calculated by PM7 semiempirical molecular orbital method. The results show that the interactions between DES and DEHP is a spontaneous process with three DES molecules supporting one DEHP molecule, which offers an theoretical evidence for the microextraction of DEHP with DES.%开路电位法研究了邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己基酯在尿素-氯化胆碱碳糊电极表面上微萃取行为。在6000s的饱和萃取时间下的开路电位差与邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己基酯在萃取溶液中的浓度呈反比,其表观一级动力学常数为6.35×10-4 s-1,可应用于不同塑料膜中邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己基酯的相对含量的检测。基于DES与DEHP相互作用的分子簇模型,半经验分子轨道量子化学方法计算了分子簇的热力学参数,表明DES与DEHP相互作用形成分子簇过程为自发过程,三个DES可以支撑一个DEHP分子,为DES萃取有机酯类化合物提供理论依据。

  17. Rejets et environnement du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2007-01-01

    La radioactivité de l’environnement autour de l’Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) et les doses de rayonnements qui en résultent pour la population avoisinante sont contrôlées par la Commission de Sécurité du CERN et de manière indépendante par les autorités compétentes des deux États Hôtes, l’Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) côté France et l’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique (OFSP) côté Suisse (voire Chapitre 8.6). Dans ce rapport, les résultats de mesures concernent en particulier le territoire suisse. L’ensemble des mesures effectuées en 2006 prouve que le fonctionnement des installations du CERN était sans conséquence radiologique sur l’environnement et la population. Le contrôle des émissions montre que les rejets effectifs se situent, également en 2006, nettement en dessous des limites réglementaires. Ce constat est confirmé par le contrôle des immissions dans l’environnement. Le CERN a bien respecté en 2...

  18. Sociologie et sociolinguistique du franbreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Rafael Eliezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Des enquêtes ont montré que plus de 20 % des adultes israéliens ont quelque connaissance du français. Parmi cette population, 250 000 à 300 000 personnes pouvaient être considérées comme francophones. Le français a affirmé une présence importante – pas toujours reconnue – dès la phase cruciale du développement de cette société. Une immigration de masse suivit la création de l’État (1948 dont la population a quasiment triplé en moins de deux décennies, avec l’arrivée de plus de 200 000 immigrants d’Afrique du Nord et des dizaines de milliers des Balkans et du Moyen-Orient. Beaucoup parmi ces immigrants étaient francophones – le français étant pour eux soit la première langue soit une deuxième qu’ils contrôlaient. C’est depuis lors que la présence du français est devenue démographiquement significative dans la société israélienne, se prolongeant de nos jours dans l’immigration en provenance de France qui se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Comme nous l’avons montré ailleurs (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013, Israël fait l’expérience simultanée de plusieurs francophonies originales qui diffèrent par leurs sources aussi bien que leurs expressions (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013. Un premier modèle est le « français vernaculaire » (voir Boudras-Chapon 2008 amené par les immigrants de classes défavorisées arrivant d’Afrique du nord qui se sont regroupés en Israël. Leur français n’a offert qu’une faible résistance à l’hébreu qui s’est imposée dans le processus d’intégration. Un bilinguisme fonctionnant sur un mode additif au début qui s’est mué progressivement en modèle soustractif. Un second modèle concerne les immigrants de même origine ainsi que des immigrants francophones d’autres pays (pays balkaniques, Turquie ou Egypte formant une strate instruite de classe moyenne, pour qui le français était d’utilisation quotidienne aussi bien que de langue de

  19. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  20. Development of mold for biodegradable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japitana, F.H.; Jabrica, A.M. [Metals Industry Research and Develeopment Center, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Science and Technology; Komatsu, M. [Komatsu Consulting Engineer Office, Iwaki City, Fukushima (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The improper disposal of non-biodegradable plastics adversely affect global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology and ecoefficiency. Therefore, a new generation of bio-based polymeric products has been developed. These polylactides (PLA), cellulose esters, starch plastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are made from renewable natural resources and are biodegradable. They meet environmental conditions and can compete with their petrochemical counterparts. Among them, PLA is particularly attractive as a sustainable alternative to synthetic polymers and a potential candidate for the fabrication of biocomposites. Certain blends have proved successful in medical implants, sutures and drug delivery systems because of their capacity to dissolve away with time. However, widespread use of PLA is limited because of cost. Biodegradable plastic products are currently 6 to 10 times more expensive than traditional plastics. Environmentalists argue that the cheaper price of traditional plastics does not reflect their true cost when their impact is considered. This paper presented a solution to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics. In particular, it described a newly developed plastic injection mold for biodegradable materials which can produce a scrapless product. The system reduces processing time because it is not necessary to remove any gating or runners after the injection process. Takeout robots ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. 12 figs.

  1. Bio-Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biodegradable polymers and more particularly that of polymers obtained from renewable resources such as the polysaccharides (e.g., starch have long been recognized. However, these biodegradable polymers have been largely used in some applications (e.g., food industry and have not found extensive applications in the packaging industries to replace conventional plastic materials, although they could be an interesting way to overcome the limitation of the petrochemical resources in the future. The fossil fuel and gas could be partially replaced by greener agricultural sources, which should participate in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials based exclusively on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle, especially as it relates to carbon-based polymeric materials such as plastics, water soluble polymers and other carbon based products like lubricants, biodiesel, and detergents. Identification and quantification of bio based content uses radioactive C-14 signature. Biopolymers are generally capable of being utilized by living matter (biodegraded, and so can be disposed in safe and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Single use, short-life, disposable products can be engineered to be bio-based and biodegradable.

  2. The effects of biodegradation on the compositions of aromatic hydrocarbons and maturity indicators in biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By the aid of GC-MS technique,a series of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin have been analyzed. The results show that the concentrations and relative compositions of various aromatic compounds in the biodegraded crude oils will change with increasing biodegradation degree. The concentrations of alkyl naphthalenes,alkyl phenanthrenes,alkyl dibenzothiophene are decreased,and the concentration of triaromatic steroids will increase with increasing biodegradation degree in biodegraded oils. Those phenomena indicate that various aromatic compounds are more easily biodegraded by bacteria like other kinds of hydrocarbons such as alkanes,but different series of aromatic compounds have a varied ability to resistant to biodegradation. The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenenthrene(DBTH/P) and methyl dibenzothiophene to methyl phenanthrene(MDBTH/MP) are related to the features of depositional environment for source rocks such as redox and ancient salinity. However,in biodegraded oils,the two ratios increase quickly with the increase of the biodegradation degree,indicating that they have lost their geochemical significance. In this case,they could not be used to evaluate the features of depositional environment. Methyl phenanthrene index,methyl phenanthrene ratio and methyl dibenzoyhiophene ratio are useful aromatic maturity indicators for the crude oils and the source rocks without vitrinite. But for biodegraded oils,those aromatic maturity indicators will be affected by biodegradation and decrease with the increase of the biodegradation degree. Therefore,those aromatic molecular maturity indicators could not be used for biodegraded oils.

  3. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  4. Introduction of environmentally degradable parameters to evaluate the biodegradability of biodegradable polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Guo

    Full Text Available Environmentally Degradable Parameter ((EdK is of importance in the describing of biodegradability of environmentally biodegradable polymers (BDPs. In this study, a concept (EdK was introduced. A test procedure of using the ISO 14852 method and detecting the evolved carbon dioxide as an analytical parameter was developed, and the calculated (EdK was used as an indicator for the ultimate biodegradability of materials. Starch and polyethylene used as reference materials were defined as the (EdK values of 100 and 0, respectively. Natural soil samples were inoculated into bioreactors, followed by determining the rates of biodegradation of the reference materials and 15 commercial BDPs over a 2-week test period. Finally, a formula was deduced to calculate the value of (EdK for each material. The (EdK values of the tested materials have a positive correlation to their biodegradation rates in the simulated soil environment, and they indicated the relative biodegradation rate of each material among all the tested materials. Therefore, the (EdK was shown to be a reliable indicator for quantitatively evaluating the potential biodegradability of BDPs in the natural environment.

  5. Le cas du Haut-Adige ou Tyrol du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Bagini Scantamburlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La situation de cette région italienne est vraiment emblématique des rapports entre « les territoires et l’identité » à cause de la présence de différentes communautés linguistiques autochtones, dont les plus importantes sont les minorités germanophone et latine. S’il est vrai que cette situation existe également dans d’autres régions italiennes, il est incontestable que dans le Haut-Adige/Tyrol du Sud elle présente des caractéristiques très spécifiques et uniques pour l’Italie, car les italo...

  6. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113. Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  7. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  8. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  9. Biodegradable nanoparticles for gene therapy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinkhani@mail.ntust.edu.tw; He, Wen-Jie [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Chiang, Chiao-Hsi [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center (China); Hong, Po-Da [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Yu, Dah-Shyong [Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center (China); Domb, Abraham J. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and The Alex Grass Center for Drug Design and Synthesis (Israel); Ou, Keng-Liang [College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production (China)

    2013-07-15

    Rapid propagations in materials technology together with biology have initiated great hopes in the possibility of treating many diseases by gene therapy technology. Viral and non-viral gene carriers are currently applied for gene delivery. Non-viral technology is safe and effective for the delivery of genetic materials to cells and tissues. Non-viral systems are based on plasmid expression containing a gene encoding a therapeutic protein and synthetic biodegradable nanoparticles as a safe carrier of gene. Biodegradable nanoparticles have shown great interest in drug and gene delivery systems as they are easy to be synthesized and have no side effect in cells and tissues. This review provides a critical view of applications of biodegradable nanoparticles on gene therapy technology to enhance the localization of in vitro and in vivo and improve the function of administered genes.

  10. Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repairs: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tan; Xiaoming Yu; Peng Wan; Ke Yang

    2013-01-01

    With attractive research and development of biomaterials,more and more opportunities have been brought to the treatments of human tissue repairs.The implant is usually no need to exist in the body accompanied with the recovery or regeneration of the tissue lesions,and the long-term effect of exotic substance to human body should be reduced as lower as possible.For this purpose,biodegradable materials,including polymers,magnesium alloys and ceramics,have attracted much attention for medical applications due to their biodegradable characters in body environment.This paper in turn introduces these three different types of widely studied biodegradable materials as well as their advantages as implants in applications for bone repairs.Relevant history and research progresses are summarized.

  11. Novel biodegradable nanocarriers for enhanced drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina

    2016-12-01

    With the refinement of functional properties, the interest around biodegradable materials, in biorelated applications and, in particular, in their use as controlled drug-delivery systems, increased in the last decades. Biodegradable materials are an ideal platform to obtain nanoparticles for spatiotemporal controlled drug delivery for the in vivo administration, thanks to their biocompatibility, functionalizability, the control exerted on delivery rates and the complete degradation. Their application in systems for cancer treatment, brain and cardiovascular diseases is already a consolidated practice in research, while the bench-to-bedside translation is still late. This review aims at summarizing reported applications of biodegradable materials to obtain drug-delivery nanoparticles in the last few years, giving a complete overview of pros and cons related to degradable nanomedicaments.

  12. Biodegradable Hybrid Stomatocyte Nanomotors for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yingfeng; Peng, Fei; André, Alain A M; Men, Yongjun; Srinivas, Mangala; Wilson, Daniela A

    2017-02-28

    We report the self-assembly of a biodegradable platinum nanoparticle-loaded stomatocyte nanomotor containing both PEG-b-PCL and PEG-b-PS as a potential candidate for anticancer drug delivery. Well-defined stomatocyte structures could be formed even after incorporation of 50% PEG-b-PCL polymer. Demixing of the two polymers was expected at high percentage of semicrystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), resulting in PCL domain formation onto the membrane due to different properties of two polymers. The biodegradable motor system was further shown to move directionally with speeds up to 39 μm/s by converting chemical fuel, hydrogen peroxide, into mechanical motion as well as rapidly delivering the drug to the targeted cancer cell. Uptake by cancer cells and fast doxorubicin drug release was demonstrated during the degradation of the motor system. Such biodegradable nanomotors provide a convenient and efficient platform for the delivery and controlled release of therapeutic drugs.

  13. Biodegradation of resorcinol by Pseudomonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Hajizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ability of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatographymass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl. Conclusions: The findings revealed that Pseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  14. Biodegradation of resorcinol byPseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Hajizadeh; Najibeh Shirzad; Ali Farzi; Mojtaba Salouti; Azra Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the ability ofPseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results:This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl). Conclusions: The findings revealed thatPseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  15. Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.

  16. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meijuan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-04-29

    It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  17. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  18. Effect of Exposure to Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate during Pregnancy on Testis Lipid Peroxidation of Offspring Rats and Protective Effect of Vitamin C%邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯宫内暴露所致子代雄性大鼠睾丸氧化应激及维生素C的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 逯晓波; 潘亮; 刘艳华; 肖莎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on lipid peroxidation in the testis of offspring rats and the protective effect of Vit C. Methods Twenty pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups, control group (corn oil), 10 mg/kg DEHP group, 100 mg/kg DEHP group, 500 mg/kg DEHP, 100 mg/kg DEHP+125 g/L Vit C and 500 mg/kg DEHP+ 125 g/L Vit C. The treatment was conducted from GD 0 to 19, for DEHP through gavage, once a day, and for Vit C through drinking water. At the 6th week of life, the testis of all offspring rats were removed immediately, and the organ indices were measured, the level of MDA was detected by TBA method, the levels of the GSH and GSH-Px were analyzed by modified DTNB method, the activity of the SOD was measured by xanthine oxidase method, the activity of the CAT was observed by spectrophotometry. Results Compared with the control,the level of MDA in 500 mg/kg DEHP group increased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of GSH-Px significantly decreased in 500 mg/kg DEHP and in 500 mg/kg DEHP+Vit C group, Vit C presented an obvious protective effect. The activity of the SOD decreased significantly in 100 mg/kg DEHP,500 mg/kg DEHP,and in 100 mg/kg DEHP+Vit C group, Vit C also presented an obvious protective effect. Conclusion Exposure to DEHP during pregnancy may cause the increase of lipid peroxidation level in the testis of offspring in rats. Vitamin C has a protective effect on DEHP induced oxidative damage up to a point.%目的 探讨邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯(di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,DEHP)宫内暴露对子代雄性大鼠睾丸脂质过氧化水平的影响及维生素C(vitamin C,Vit C)的抗氧化应激作用.方法将20只健康成年清洁级Wistar妊娠大鼠按体重随机分为6组,分别为对照(玉米油)组和低(10 mg/kg)、中(100 mg/kg)、高(500 mg/kg)剂量DEHP染毒组以及中(100mg/kg)、高(500 mg/kg)剂量DEHP+Vit C染毒组,中、

  19. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  20. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-PTFE...... that e-PTFE was well tolerated and encapsulated by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. There was capsule formation around Resolut and Vicryl and around Bio-Gide in the early phase there was a wide inflammatory zone already. e-PTFE and Vicryl were stable materials while Resolut and Bio-Gide fragmented...

  1. Biodegradable polyesters based on succinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two series of aliphatic polyesters based on succinic acid were synthesized by copolymerization with adipic acid for the first series of saturated polyesters, and with fumaric acid for the second series. Polyesters were prepared starting from the corresponding dimethyl esters and 1,4-butanediol by melt transesterification in the presence of a highly effective catalyst tetra-n-butyl-titanate, Ti(0Bu4. The molecular structure and composition of the copolyesters was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effect of copolymer composition on the physical and thermal properties of these random polyesters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of crystallinity was determined by DSC and wide angle X-ray. The degrees of crystallinity of the saturated and unsaturated copolyesters were generally reduced with respect to poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The melting temperatures of the saturated polyesters were lower, while the melting temperatures of the unsaturated copolyesters were higher than the melting temperature of PBS. The biodegradability of the polyesters was investigated by enzymatic degradation tests. The enzymatic degradation tests were performed in a buffer solution with Candida cylindracea lipase and for the unsaturated polyesters with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. The extent of biodegradation was quantified as the weight loss of polyester films. Also the surface of the polyester films after degradation was observed using optical microscopy. It could be concluded that the biodegradability depended strongly on the degree of crystallinity, but also on the flexibility of the chain backbone. The highest biodegradation was observed for copolyesters containing 50 mol.% of adipic acid units, and in the series of unsaturated polyesters for copolyesters containing 5 and 10 mol.% of fumarate units. Although the degree of crystallinity of the unsaturated polyesters decreased slightly with increasing unsaturation, the biodegradation

  2. Soluble Eggshell Mebrane Protein:Antibacterial Property and Biodegradability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Feng; YU Jian; LI Qiang; GUO Zhaoxia

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial property and biodegradability of soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP)are reported. Unlike the natural eggshell membrane (ESM), SEP does not possess antibacterial property against E.coli. The biodegradation tests with trypsin show that both ESM and SEP are biodegradable.

  3. Sylvain Fagot, Le cirque. Entre culture du corps et culture du risque

    OpenAIRE

    Crochet-Giacometti, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Cet ouvrage écrit par Sylvain Fagot, chercheur en sociologie associé à l'université du Québec, et auteur d'une thèse soutenue en 2003 intitulée « Ethno-sociologie du cirque. Arts de la piste / Arts du corps / Arts du risque », s'intéresse à un monde peu connu : celui du cirque. L'objectif y est de montrer comment chaque forme du cirque, le cirque dit « classique » et le cirque dit « nouveau », ont des stratégies sociales et économiques différentes mais surtout un rapport au corps et au risque...

  4. Radiation crosslinking of Bionolle and its biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhartini, Meri; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Biodegradable aliphatic polymer such as poly(butylene succinate) (Bionolle no.1001), poly(butylene succinate adipate copolymer) (Bionolle no.3001 and no.3020) were irradiated to give crosslinking structure in the presence of inorganic materials. Pure Bionolle no.1001, Bionolle no.3001 and no. 3020 have low gel fraction in radiation. These samples have high gel fraction by irradiation in the presence of silicon dioxide and carbon black, especially for Bionolle no.3001. Biodegradability of crosslinked Bionolle no.3001 evaluated by enzymatic and soil burial tests were accelerated by addition of inorganic materials. (author)

  5. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  6. Comparative study on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of silicate bioceramic coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy as biodegradable biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, M.; Fathi, M. H.; Savabi, O.; Razavi, S. M.; Hashemibeni, B.; Yazdimamaghani, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2014-03-01

    Many clinical cases as well as in vivo and in vitro assessments have demonstrated that magnesium alloys possess good biocompatibility. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys degrade too quickly in physiological media. In order to improve the biodegradation resistance and biocompatibility of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have prepared three types of coating include diopside (CaMgSi2O6), akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O6) and bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. In this research, the biodegradation and biocompatibility behavior of samples were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro analysis was performed by cytocompatibility and MTT-assay and the in vivo test was conducted on the implantation of samples in the greater trochanter of adult rabbits. The results showed that diopside coating has the best bone regeneration and bredigite has the best biodegradation resistance compared to others.

  7. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  8. L’abolition du vieillissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Reindl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I « L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. (... »« L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. Nous devons résoudre le problème de notre propre vieillissement pour résoudre celui du monde entier. » M. Schirrmacher, l’un des intellectuels médiatiques les plus connus de l’Allemagne, joue comme toujours de façon magistrale la partition de l’effroi. Il ne se contente nullement de s’arranger avec son propre vieillissement, mais il veut sauver le monde à travers « une révolution militante...

  9. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Smeets

    2013-01-01

    Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le v...

  10. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  11. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  12. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  13. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Les spécialistes de Flaubert ont fait de nombreux reproches à Maxime Du Camp et ne prêtent plus guère d’attention à ce qu’il a écrit. C’est une situation très regrettable, qui prive les lecteurs d’informations nombreuses, susceptibles d’éclairer les enjeux mais aussi les impasses et les contradictions du projet esthétique de Flaubert. Quelques cas significatifs sont évoqués dans le présent article, qui se penche plus particulièrement sur la ressemblance entre un passage du livre de Du Camp Le Nil (1854 et les lignes de L’Éducation sentimentale (1869 qui rapportent l’“apparition” de Mme Arnoux.

  14. Biodegradability of leathers through anaerobic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, K; Fathima, N Nishad; Gnanamani, A; Rao, J Raghava; Nair, B Unni; Ramasami, T

    2007-01-01

    Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic conditions has been addressed. Two different sources of anaerobes have been used for this purpose. The effect of detanning as a pretreatment method before subjecting the leather to biodegradation has also been studied. It has been found that vegetable tanned leather leads to more gas production than chrome tanned leather. Mixed anaerobic isolates when employed as an inoculum are able to degrade the soluble organics of vegetable tanned material and thus exhibit an increased level of gas production during the initial days, compared to the results of the treatments that received the anaerobic sludge. With chrome tanned materials, there was not much change in the volume of the gas produced from the two different sources. It has been found that detanning tends to improve the biodegradability of both types of leathers.

  15. Natural Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of field data and theoretical approaches is used to assess the natural attenuation and status of a complex plume of phenolic compounds (phenol, cresols, xylenols) in a deep, consolidated, UK Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer. Biodegradation of the phenolic compounds at concentrations up to 12500mg·L-1 is occurring under aerobic, NO-3-reducing, Mn/Fe-reducing, SO2-4-reducing and methanogenic conditions in the aquifer, with the accumulation of inorganic and organic metabolites in the plume. An electron and carbon balance for the plume suggests that only 6% of the source term has been degraded in 50 years. The residual contaminant mass in the plume significantly exceeds estimates of electron acceptor inputs, indicating that the plume will grow. Two detailed vertical profiles through the plume show that contaminant distributions are controlled more by source history than by biodegradation processes. Microbiological and mass balance studies show that biodegradation is greatest at the plume fringe where contaminant concentrations are diluted by transverse mixing. Active bacterial populations exist throughout the plume but biodegradation is inhibited in the plume core by high contaminant concentrations. Stable isotope studies show that SO2-4-reduction is particularly sensitive to contaminant concentration. The aquifer is not oxidant-deficient but natural attenuation of the phenolic compounds in this system is limited by toxicity from the pollutant load and the bioavailability of electron acceptors. Natural attenuation of these contaminants will increase only after increased dilution of the plume.

  16. Enhancement of 4-chlorophenol biodegradation using glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarighian, Alireza; Hill, Gordon; Headley, John [Division of Environmental Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 105 Maintenance Road, S7N 5C5, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Pedras, Soledad [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, S7N 5C9, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Toxic, xenobiotic chemicals present challenging problems for the environment since they are normally resistant to biodegradation. Sometimes it is possible to induce biodegradation activity by the use of growth cosubstrates. In this study, pure solutions and binary mixtures of glucose, phenol and 4-chlorophenol have been metabolized in batch cultures by a pure strain of Pseudomonas putida. Following a lag period during which slow growth and low production of biomass occurred, phenol was metabolized according to the Monod model. Glucose was also metabolized according to the Monod model but exponential growth commenced immediately after inoculation with no noticeable lag phase. Biokinetic behavior for growth on a mixture of phenol and glucose paralleled the behavior on individual substrates with simultaneous consumption of both substrates. 4-chlorophenol was not consumed as a sole substrate by Pseudomonas putida but was consumed as a cometabolite with either glucose or phenol acting as the primary growth cosubstrate. Surprisingly, glucose was found to be the superior growth cosubstrate, suggesting that inexpensive sugars can be used to enhance the biodegradation of chlorophenol-contaminated sites. Glucose and the excreted metabolic products of the biodegradation process, including a bright yellow pigment, demonstrated negligible toxicity towards Artemia salina, unlike the phenol and 4-chlorophenol substrates. (orig.)

  17. Transport of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, H.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport behavior of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers. Such transport occurs during in situ bioremediation which is based on the injection of an electron acceptor or electron donor. The main interests in this thesis are the mutual influences of underlyin

  18. Biodegradable polymersomes for targeted ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Meng, F.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polymersomes with a sub-micron size were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol)–polylactide (PEG–PDLLA) block-copolymers in aqueous media. Air-encapsulated polymersomes could be obtained by a lyophilization/rehydration procedure. Preliminary results showed that these polymersomes were

  19. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pego, Ana Paula; Poot, André A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more r

  20. Neuronal growth and differentiation on biodegradable membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sabrina; Piscioneri, Antonella; Messina, Antonietta; Salerno, Simona; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2015-02-01

    Semipermeable polymeric membranes with appropriate morphological, physicochemical and transport properties are relevant to inducing neural regeneration. We developed novel biodegradable membranes to support neuronal differentiation. In particular, we developed chitosan, polycaprolactone and polyurethane flat membranes and a biosynthetic blend between polycaprolactone and polyurethane by phase-inversion techniques. The biodegradable membranes were characterized in order to evaluate their morphological, physicochemical, mechanical and degradation properties. We investigated the efficacy of these different membranes to promote the adhesion and differentiation of neuronal cells. We employed as model cell system the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y, which is a well-established system for studying neuronal differentiation. The investigation of viability and specific neuronal marker expression allowed assessment that the correct neuronal differentiation and the formation of neuronal network had taken place in vitro in the cells seeded on different biodegradable membranes. Overall, this study provides evidence that neural cell responses depend on the nature of the biodegradable polymer used to form the membranes, as well as on the dissolution, hydrophilic and, above all, mechanical membrane properties. PCL-PU membranes exhibit mechanical properties that improve neurite outgrowth and the expression of specific neuronal markers.

  1. Fabrication of Environmentally Biodegradable Lignin Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangville, C.; Rutkevicius, M.; Richter, A.P.; Velev, O.D.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method for the fabrication of novel biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) from lignin which are apparently non-toxic for microalgae and yeast. We compare two alternative methods for the synthesis of lignin NPs which result in particles of very different stability upon change of pH. The fi

  2. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  3. Biodegradation of Guanidinium By Aquatic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates . Appl. Microbiol. 30:922-929. 21. Pfaender, F.K. and G.W. Bartholomew. 1982. Measurement of Aquatic Biodegradation Rates by...incubation, after which time its disappearance became linear , and it could no longer be detected by the 20th day. Results for an identical water sample

  4. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  5. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  6. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  7. Development of biodegradable materials; balancing degradability and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.M.; Allen, A.L.; Dell, P.A.; McCassie, J.E.; Shupe, A.E.; Stenhouse, P.J. Stenhouse, Welch, E.A.; Kaplan, D.L. [Army Natick Research Development, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biodegradable materials suitable for packaging must take into consideration various performance criteria such as mechanical and barrier properties, as well as rate of biodegradability in given environments. Individual or blended biopolymer films were obtained commercially or blown into film in the laboratory and tested for tensile strength, ultimate elongation and oxygen barrier. These films were then subjected to accelerated marine biodegradation tests as well as simulated marine respirometry. Starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol films exhibited good mechanical and excellent oxygen barrier properties, but were very slow to biodegrade in the simulated and excellent oxygen barrier properties, but were very slow to biodegrade in the simulated marine environment. Polyhydroxyalkanoates had good mechanical properties, average oxygen barrier and good biodegradability. Data indicate that performance and biodegradability of packaging can be tailored to needs by combining individual biopolymers in different proportions in blends and laminates.

  8. Comportement du carbone aux joints de grains du molybdène

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Pas de résumé en anglais; La mise en évidence et l'interprétation du rôle bénéfique du carbone et du rôle néfaste de l'oxygène sur la cohésion intergranulaire du molybdène en l'absence de précipitation visible au MEB constituaient le but de cette étude. Une méthode efficace de purification du molybdène a été mise au point. Les mesures de la concentration intergranulaire de carbone en fonction de la température de carburation et de la teneur volumique ont été effectuées à l'aide d'un spectromè...

  9. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Smeets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le voyageur français au XIXe, c'est le home sweet home.

  10. [Biodegradable catheters and urinary stents. When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, F; Morcillo, E; López de Alda, A; Pastor, T; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-10-01

    One of the main wishes in the field of urinary catheters and stents is to arm them with biodegradable characteristics because we consider a failure of these devices the need for retrieval, the forgotten catheter syndrome as well as the adverse effects permanent devices cause after fulfilling their aim. The efforts focused in new designs, coatings and biomaterials aim to increase the biocompatibility of theses internal devices. Lately, there have been correct advances to answer the main challenges regarding biodegradable ureteral devices. Thus, modulation of the rate of degradation has been achieved thanks to new biomaterials and the use of copolymers that enable to choose the time of permanence as it is programmed with conventional double J catheters. Biocompatibility has improved with the use of new polymers that adapt better to the urine. Finally, one of the main problems is elimination of degraded fragments and experimentally it has be demonstrated that new designs elicit controlled degradation, from distal to proximal; using stranding and combination of copolymers degradation may be caused by dilution, reducing fragmentation to the last stages of life of the prosthesis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that biodegradable catheters potentially may cause less urinary tract infection, less encrustation and predictably they will diminish catheter morbidity, since their degradation process reduces adverse effects. Regarding the development of biodegradable urethral stents, it is necessary to find biomaterials that enable maintaining their biomechanical properties in the long term, keeping open the urethral lumen both in patients with BPH and urethral stenosis. Modulation of the time of degradation of the prosthesis has been achieved, but the appearance of urothelial hyperplasia is still a constant in the initial phases after implantation. The development of drug eluting stents, anti-proliferative or anti-inflammatory, as well as biodegradable stents biocoated is a

  11. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  12. Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, R; Unmar, G D; Mudhoo, A; Khadoo, P

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive control for both mediums. The composting process was monitored in terms of temperature, moisture and volatile solids and the biodegradation of the samples were monitored in terms of mass loss. Monitoring results showed a biodegradation of 27.1% on a dry basis for MB plastic within a period of 72 days of composting. Biodegradability under an anaerobic environment was monitored in terms of biogas production. A cumulative methane gas production of 245 ml was obtained for MB, which showed good degradation as compared to CFP (246.8 ml). However, EPI plastic showed a cumulative methane value of 7.6 ml for a period of 32 days, which was close to the blank (4.0 ml). The EPI plastic did not biodegrade under either condition. The cumulative carbon dioxide evolution after 32 days was as follows: CFP 4.406 cm3, MB 2.198 cm3 and EPI 1.328 cm3. The cumulative level of CO2 varying with time fitted sigmoid type curves with R2 values of 0.996, 0.996 and 0.995 for CFP, MB and EPI, respectively.

  13. Influence du pH, d'acides aminés et de diverses substances organiques sur la fongitoxicité du pyriméthanil, du glufosinate, du captafol, du cymoxanil et du fenpiclonil vis-à-vis de certaines souches de Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    L’effet du pyriméthanil, du fenpiclonil, du captafol, du glufosinate et du cymoxanil sur l’élongation des filaments germinatifs des spores de Botrytis cinerea est étudié dans diverses conditions culturales du champignon. Si le fenpiclonil présente un niveau d’activité stable entre pH 3,6 et 7,3, en revanche les autres pesticides voient leur toxicité chuter dans des milieux acides (ex pyriméthanil) ou neutres à faiblement basiques (ex captafol, cymoxanil, glufosinate). L’adjonction d’extrait d...

  14. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dalia Khraibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  15. Établissements recevant du public

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Synthèse pour les installations électriques, des règles de sécurité contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public (ERP), selon l’arrêté du 25 juin 1980 modifié. L'ouvrage traite à la fois des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe (1ère à 4ème catégorie), du 2ème groupe (5ème catégorie) et des règles particulières applicables aux différents types d'établissements (structures d'accueil pour personnes âgées ou handicapées, hôtels, magasins de vente, restaurants et débit de boisson, établissements de soins, administration, châpiteaux, etc...) Sont ainsi notamment traités, dans le cadre des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe, pour les installations électriques normales : les installations des appareils, tableaux et canalisations, les locaux électriques et installation de machines, l'éclairage normal des locaux accessibles au public, le chauffage et la ventilation, l'installation d'eau chaude sanita...

  16. Biodegradation studies of rosin-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satturwar, P M; Mandaogade, P M; Darwhekar, G N; Fulzele, S V; Joshi, S B; Dorle, A K

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate two rosin-based polymers (R-1 and R-2) for their in vitro and in vivo biodegradation behavior. The in vitro hydrolytic degradation was carried out in buffer solutions of pH 4.4, 7.4, and 10.4 at 37 degrees C. Enzymatic degradation was studied using enzymes lipase, pancreatine, and pectinase. Free films of the two polymers were subcutaneously implanted in rabbits for the in vivo biodegradation. The extent of degradation was determined quantitatively by weight loss and was followed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy. The extent and the rate of degradation was better in vivo than in vitro. The polymers showed poor enzymatic degradation and a highly pH-dependent hydrolytic degradation.

  17. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands.

  18. BIODEGRADATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE FILMS BY FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lina; LIU Haiqing; ZHENG Lianshuang; ZHANG Jiayao; DU Yumin; LIU Weili

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradability of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Mucor (M-305) and Trichoderma (T-311) strains on regenerated cellulose films in media was investigated. The results showed that T-311 strain isolated from soil adhered on the cellulose film fragments has stronger degradation effect on the cellulose film than A. niger strain. The weights, molecular weights and tensile strengths of the cellulose films in both shake culture and solid media decreased with incubation time, accompanied by producing CO2 and saccharides. HPLC, IR and released CO2 analysis indicated that the biodegradation products of the regenerated cellulose films mainly contain oligosaccharides, cellobiose, glucose, arabinose, erythrose, glycerose,glycerol, ethanal, formaldehyde and organic acid, the end products were CO2 and water.After a month, the films were completely decomposed by fungi in the media at 30℃.

  19. [Development of biodegradable magnesium-based biomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengfa; Xu, Li; Huang, Nan

    2009-04-01

    Magnesium is a macroelement which is indispensable to human bodies. As a lightweight metal with high specific strength and favorable biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have been introduced in the field of biomedical materials research and have a broad application prospect. It is possible to develop new type of biodegradable medical magnesium alloys by use of the poor corrosion resistance of magnesium. Bioabsorbable magnesium stents implanted in vivo could mechanically support the vessel in a short term, effectly prevent the acute coronary occlusion and in-stent restenosis, and then be gradully biodegraded and completely absorbed in a long term. Osteoconductive bioactivity in magnesium-based alloys could promote the apposition growth of bone tissue. This paper reviews the progress of magnesium and its alloys applied in bone tissue and cardiovascular stents, and the prospect of the future research of magnesium-based biomaterials is discussed.

  20. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  1. Modeling ready biodegradability of fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriani, Lidia; Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Boethling, Robert; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, quantitative structure activity relationships were developed for predicting ready biodegradability of approximately 200 heterogeneous fragrance materials. Two classification methods, classification and regression tree (CART) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN), were applied to perform the modeling. The models were validated with multiple external prediction sets, and the structural applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach. The best models had good sensitivity (internal ≥80%; external ≥68%), specificity (internal ≥80%; external 73%), and overall accuracy (≥75%). Results from the comparison with BIOWIN global models, based on group contribution method, show that specific models developed in the present study perform better in prediction than BIOWIN6, in particular for the correct classification of not readily biodegradable fragrance materials.

  2. Starch-based completely biodegradable polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a natural polymer which possesses many unique properties and some shortcoming simultaneously. Some synthetic polymers are biodegradable and can be tailor-made easily. Therefore, by combining the individual advantages of starch and synthetic polymers, starch-based completely biodegradable polymers (SCBP are potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. Therefore it received great attention and was extensively investigated. In this paper, the structure and characteristics of starch and some synthetic degradable polymers are briefly introduced. Then, the recent progress about the preparation of SCBP via physical blending and chemical modification is reviewed and discussed. At last, some examples have been presented to elucidate that SCBP are promising materials for various applications and their development is a good solution for reducing the consumption of petroleum resources and environmental problem.

  3. De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    L’exposition De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre co-organisée par le Musée du Louvre, le Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie de Valence et le Musée des Beaux-arts de Quimper présentait une sélection de 35 peintures de la collection du Louvre, complétée par 38 dessins du département des Arts Graphiques. Les commissaires de l'exposition étaient : Guillaume Faroult, conservateur en charge des peintures françaises du 18ème siècl...

  4. Catechol biodegradation kinetics using Candida parapsilopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Rigo; Ranulfo Monte Alegre; José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra; Narjara Coelho; Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of catechol by a yeast strain of Candida parapsilopsis in standard medium in Erlenmeyer flasks. Results shown that the highest concentration of catechol caused the longer lag period, demonstrating that acclimatized cultures could completely degrade an initial catechol concentration of 910 mg/L within 48 h. Haldane's model validated the experimental data adequately for growth kinetics over the studied catechol concentration ranges of 36 to 910 mg/L. The ...

  5. Kinetics of dimethoate biodegradation in bacterial system

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha DebMandal; Shyamapada Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an investigation on the kinetics of dimethoate biodegradation and an estimation of residual dimethoate in bacterial culture by spectrophotometry. The methylene chloride extract of the culture medium was used for determination of dimethoate through its reaction with 1 chloro-2, 4 dinitrobenzene to produce methylamine whose absorbance at 505 nm gave an estimation of dimethoate content. The dimethoate standard curve follows Beer’s law at 505 nm with a slope of 0.0129 absorba...

  6. Polymers from plants to develop biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Udo

    2005-11-01

    Katrin Neumann et al. have recently shown that transgenic tobacco and potato plants can accumulate high levels of cyanophycin, a possible source for poly-aspartate. This work opens the way to the future production of biodegradable plastics using a plant-based production system. Several problems need to be overcome first, such as growth retardation as a result of cyanophycin accumulating in the cytosol, and a co-production system needs to be developed for economical reasons.

  7. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  8. Fabrication of Biodegradable Polyester Nanocomposites by Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cai Xing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanocomposites have emerged as an efficient strategy to upgrade the structural and functional properties of synthetic polymers. Polyesters have attracted wide attention because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility. A logic consequence has been the introduction of natural extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, organic or inorganic nanostructures to biodegradable polymers to produce nanocomposites with enhanced properties. Consequently, the improvement of the interfacial adhesion between biodegradable polymers and natural ECM molecules or nanostructures has become the key technique in the fabrication of nanocomposites. Electrospinning has been employed extensively in the design and development of tissue engineering scaffolds to generate nanofibrous substrates of synthetic biodegradable polymers and to simulate the cellular microenvironment. In this paper, several types of biodegradable polyester nanocomposites were prepared by electrospinning, with the aim of being used as tissue engineering scaffolds. The combination of biodegradable nanofibrous polymers and natural ECM molecules or nanostructures opens new paradigms for tissue engineering applications.

  9. Analyse énonciative du point du vue, narration et analyse de discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Rabatel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre que l’analyse énonciative du point de vue (PDV, en rupture avec la typologie des focalisations de Genette, peut renouveler partiellement la narratologie, à la condition de substituter à l’approche immanentiste du récit une analyse interactionnelle de la narration. L’article présente d’abord l’approche énonciative du PDV, en appui des théories de Ducrot, et, sur cette base, propose diverses modalités de PDV (représenté, raconté, asserté qui donnent corps au point de vue des personnages ou du narrateur en modifiant sensiblement les analyses de Genette. Dans une deuxième partie, l’article envisage le rôle des PDV dans la narration, notamment dans la réévaluation des dimensions cognitive et pragmatique de la mimésis, puis dans les mécanismes inférentiels-interprétatifs, proches du système de sympathie de Jouve, enfin, dans la revalorisation du rôle du narrateur •puisque ce dernier se construit dans le même temps qu’il construit ses personnages.

  10. Titanate nanotube coatings on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632, Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, A. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Anjum, F.; Brandi, F. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Rigid, biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were coated with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using a spin-coating method. TNTs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 150 °C under 4.7 bar ambient pressure. The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. For scaffold coating, a stable ethanolic TNT sol was prepared by a simple colloid chemical route without the use of any binding compounds or additives. Scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis revealed that the scaffolds were homogenously coated by TNTs. The developed TNT coating can further improve the surface geometry of fabricated scaffolds, and therefore it can further increase the cell adhesion. Highlights: ► Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. ► Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. ► The titanate nanotube coating can further improve the surface geometry of scaffolds. ► These reproducible platforms will be of high importance for biological applications.

  11. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtuvia, Viviana; Villegas, Pamela; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Petroleum-based plastics constitute a major environmental problem due to their low biodegradability and accumulation in various environments. Therefore, searching for novel biodegradable plastics is of increasing interest. Microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics. Life cycle assessment indicates that PHB is more beneficial than petroleum-based plastics. In this report, bacterial production of PHAs and their industrial applications are reviewed and the synthesis of PHAs in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is described. PHAs are synthesized by a large number of microorganisms during unbalanced nutritional conditions. These polymers are accumulated as carbon and energy reserve in discrete granules in the bacterial cytoplasm. 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two main PHA units among 150 monomers that have been reported. B. xenovorans LB400 is a model bacterium for the degradation of polychlorobiphenyls and a wide range of aromatic compounds. A bioinformatic analysis of LB400 genome indicated the presence of pha genes encoding enzymes of pathways for PHA synthesis. This study showed that B. xenovorans LB400 synthesize PHAs under nutrient limitation. Staining with Sudan Black B indicated the production of PHAs by B. xenovorans LB400 colonies. The PHAs produced were characterized by GC-MS. Diverse substrates for the production of PHAs in strain LB400 were analyzed.

  12. Water-curable and biodegradable prepolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Hyon, S H; Ikada, Y

    1991-12-01

    In an attempt to develop biodegradable polymers which can be shaped in situ and adhere to living tissues, we synthesized esterurethane prepolymers which can be cured upon contact with water in living tissues. First, D,L-lactide polymerization or D,L-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone (50:50) copolymerization was carried out using ethylene glycol or poly(ethylene glycol) as initiator to obtain hydroxyl-terminated biodegradable polyesters. They were then reacted with an excess of diisocyanate such as hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluylene diisocyanate, and diphenylmethane diisocyanate to introduce a reactive isocyanate group to both of the end groups of the polyesters. The isocyanate-terminated prepolymers could be cured in the presence of water and the cured polymers were degraded by hydrolysis both in vitro and in vivo. It was found that the presence of appropriate amounts of hydrophilic units in the main chain was essential for giving a high curing rate and a high degradation rate for the biodegradable urethane prepolymers. The tissue responses to the cured polymers were not severe.

  13. "Rational" management of dichlorophenols biodegradation by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2013-01-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus exhibited the ability to biodegrade dichlorophenols (dcps) under specific autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. According to their biodegradability, the dichlorophenols used can be separated into three distinct groups. Group I (2,4-dcp and 2,6 dcp - no meta-substitution) consisted of quite easily degraded dichlorophenols, since both chloride substituents are in less energetically demanding positions. Group II (2,3-dcp, 2,5-dcp and 3,4-dcp - one meta-chloride) was less susceptible to biodegradation, since one of the two substituents, the meta one, required higher energy for C-Cl-bond cleavage. Group III (3,5-dcp - two meta-chlorides) could not be biodegraded, since both chlorides possessed the most energy demanding positions. In general, when the dcp-toxicity exceeded a certain threshold, the microalga increased the energy offered for biodegradation and decreased the energy invested for biomass production. As a result, the biodegradation per cell volume of group II (higher toxicity) was higher, than group I (lower toxicity) and the biodegradation of dichlorophenols (higher toxicity) was higher than the corresponding monochlorophenols (lower toxicity). The participation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the respiratory mechanism of microalga to biodegrade the group I and the group II, highlighted different bioenergetic strategies for optimal management of the balance between dcp-toxicity, dcp-biodegradability and culture growth. Additionally, we took into consideration the possibility that the intermediates of each dcp-biodegradation pathway could influence differently the whole biodegradation procedures. For this reason, we tested all possible combinations of phenolic intermediates to check cometabolic interactions. The present contribution bring out the possibility of microalgae to operate as "smart" bioenergetic "machines", that have the ability to continuously "calculate" the energy reserves and "use" the most energetically

  14. Degradation of Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Mateus Dias Nunes; Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ul...

  15. Les métamorphoses du pouvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    On sait que la sorcellerie en Afrique peut s'exercer du faible au fort ou l'inverse. Les situations qui sont ici analysées sont celles où les rois ou les chefs sont expressément désignés comme sorciers, soit qu'ils le deviennent du fait même de leur investiture, soit qu'il leur ait fallu le devenir pour accéder au pouvoir et le conserver face à des rivaux usant des mêmes moyens. Quoi qu'il en soit, un roi-sorcier offre une figure paradoxale du pouvoir, et cela doublement : garant de l'...

  16. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à ...

  17. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  18. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  19. Silicon microneedles array with biodegradable tips for transdermal drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, B; Tay, Francis; Wong, Y T; Iliescu, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication process, characterization results and basic functionality of silicon microneedles array with biodegradable tips. In order to avoid the main problems related to silicon microneedles : broking of the top part of the needles inside the skin, a simple solution can be fabrication of microneedles array with biodegradable tips. The silicon microneedles array was fabricated by using reactive ion etching while the biodegradable tips were performed using and anodization process that generates selectively porous silicon only on the top part of the skin. The paper presents also the results of in vitro release of calcein using microneedles array with biodegradable tips

  20. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  1. L’ombre du Condor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gaudichaud

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on observe aujourd’hui, avec un regard d’historien, le Cône Sud à la fin des années soixante soixante-dix et que par, la suite, on tourne une page de quelques années, pour fixer la même partie du monde, le constat est sans appel : le sous-continent latino-américain est passé, en général, d’une phase de forte mobilisation et politisation sociale, montée en puissance de partis et organisations révolutionnaires, surgissements de gouvernements populistes de gauche ou progressistes – appelant à une rupture avec l’impérialisme –, à un reflux généralisé du mouvement ouvrier, une ère de violence politique étatisée, la destruction massive de tous les espaces d’expression et de participation démocratiques, l’écrasement physique et idéologique sans relâche des militants et mouvements révolutionnaires, la mise en place de modèles économiques capitalistes dirigistes puis/ou néolibéraux. Que s’est-il passé ? Quel fil conducteur a été rompu et par quels moyens l’Amérique Latine a été conduite à ce reflux des luttes sociales ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous contenterons dans cet article de focaliser notre objectif sur un aspect spécifique et essentiel de ce retournement de tendance que vit alors l���Amérique Latine : celui de la mise en place d’un terrorisme d’Etat contre-révolutionnaire transnational, appuyé par l’impérialisme américain, nommé « l’Opération Condor ». Dans cet article, il s’agit de montrer le fonctionnement d’un terrorisme hégémonique dont l’impact sur les sociétés latino-américaines est considérable en termes de destruction du mouvement social, des activités culturelles et de l’ensemble de la vie sociale et politique qui restent marquées, encore aujourd’hui à des degrés divers, par la violence, la peur et l’atomisation structurelle.Si miramos hoy en día, desde una perspectiva histórica, el Cono Sur hacia finales de

  2. ESTIMATION OF BIODEGRADATION AND BIO-CORROSION OF MATERIALS IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varchenko E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems that arise when evaluating biodegradation of materials, items, structures and products in natural environments.. The causes of biodegradations are revealed

  3. Dibutyl Phthalate and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Contents in Plastic Packaged Beverages and Potential Exposure Risk to College Students%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸二丁酯和邻苯二甲酸-(2-乙基己基)酯含量及其对大学生的潜在暴露风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉莉; 李荔群; 张励倩; 陈波; 厉曙光

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对大学生每日经由塑料瓶装饮料摄入邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸-(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)的暴露量进行风险评估.[方法]通过方便抽样的方法对196名大学生进行塑料瓶装饮料摄入情况在线问卷调查,结合114种市售塑料瓶装饮料中DBP及DEHP的检测数据,计算调查人群经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DBP和DEHP的慢性每日摄入值和安全限值分布,运用蒙特卡洛概率模型拟合大学生群体DBP和DEHP每日暴露情况并进行相应的敏感度分析.[结果]受访大学生不同种类饮料摄入量不同,但男、女生的塑料瓶装饮用水摄入量均居首位.DBP和DEHP含量亦因饮料种类而各异,其中咖啡类、乳类及果汁类相对较高.大学生经塑料瓶装饮料DBP和DEHP的暴露值均低于其每日允许摄入量,安全限值均小于1.蒙特卡洛概率模型显示99.90%的大学生经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DBP的暴露量是安全的,仅0.10%存在潜在生殖发育毒性风险,男、女生的生殖发育毒性风险分别为0.02%和0.09%;大学生经塑料瓶装饮料摄入DEHP的暴露量尚不存在健康风险.[结论]大学生经塑料瓶装饮料DBP的摄入水平可能存在一定的潜在生殖发育毒性风险,DEHP的摄入水平则处于安全范围.%[ Objective ] To estimate the exposure levels to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic packaged beverages among college students. [ Methods ] The chronic daily intake and margin of safety of DBP and DEHP were estimated by the gas-chromatography-determined concentrations of DBP and DEHP in 114 brands of plastic packaged beverages, and the drinking patterns among 196 college students were collected via an online questionnaire using convenience sampling strategy. Monte Carlo models were applied to simulate the daily exposures to DBP and DEHP in target students and related sensitive analyses were also performed. [ Results ] The daily intakes of

  4. Utilisation du langage signal pour l'etude d'algorithmes de traitement du Signal electrocardiographique

    OpenAIRE

    Médigue, Claire; Clairambault, Jean; Kauffmann, François; Sorine, Michel; Cursi-Dascalova, Lilia

    1992-01-01

    Projet SOSSO; Pour etudier la maturation du Systeme Nerveux Autonome (SNA) chez les nouveaux nes, on analyse la Variabilite du Rythme Cardiaque (VRC), en relation avec d'autres informations biologiques telles que les changements de stades de sommeil. La VRC est calculee par la Transformee de Fourier a Court Terme dans trois bandes de frequence : la haute frequence, refletant le controle para sympathique seul et liee au cycle respiratoire ; les moyenne et basse frequences, refletant a la fois ...

  5. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  6. Sociobiology of biodegradation and the role of predatory protozoa in biodegrading communities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tejashree Modak; Shalmali Pradhan; Milind Watve

    2007-06-01

    Predatory protozoa are known to enhance biodegradation by bacteria in a variety of systems including rumen. This is apparently counterintuitive since many protozoa do not themselves produce extracellular degradative enzymes and prey upon bacterial degraders. We propose a mechanism of protozoal enhancement of bacterial biodegradation based on the sociobiology of biodegradation. Since extracellular enzyme production by degraders involves a cost to the bacterial cell, cheaters that do not make the enzyme will have a selective advantage. In the presence of cheaters, degraders that physically attach to water-insoluble substrate will have a selective advantage over free-floating degraders. On the other hand, cheaters will benefit by being free floaters since they consume the solubilized products of extracellular enzymes. Predatory ciliated protozoa are more likely to consume free-floating cheaters. Thus, due to protozoan predation a control is exerted on the cheater population. We illustrate the dynamics of such a system with the help of a computer simulation model. Available data on rumen and other biodegradation systems involving protozoa are compatible with the assumptions and predictions of the model.

  7. Clinical Application of the Du Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑娅; 王世杰

    2003-01-01

    @@ The authors have, in recent years, obtained quite good therapeutic results in their acupuncture treatment of mental diseases, heat syndromes and cerebrovascular diseases through treating mainly the Du Channel with the methods of resuscitating and regulating the mind, and clearing and activating the channels and collaterals. The illustrative cases are reported below.

  8. ESTIMATION DU MODELE LINEAIRE GENERALISE ET APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika CHIKHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente  le modèle linéaire généralisé englobant les  techniques de modélisation telles que la régression linéaire, la régression logistique, la régression  log linéaire et la régression  de Poisson . On Commence par la présentation des modèles  des lois exponentielles pour ensuite estimer les paramètres du modèle par la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance. Par la suite on teste les coefficients du modèle pour voir leurs significations et leurs intervalles de confiances, en utilisant le test de Wald qui porte sur la signification  de la vraie valeur du paramètre  basé sur l'estimation de l'échantillon.

  9. Néotoponymie contestée à Potchefstroom / Tlokwe (Province du Nord-Ouest, Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 - Extrait du site de la municipalité de Potchefstroom / TlokweSource : http://www.potch.co.za/newsarchive/streetnames.htmlIllustration 2- Potchefstroom (Afrique du SudAuteur : Béatrice Obry-Guyot, début décembre 2007.Illustration 3 - Extrait du plan Google Map de PotchefstroomSource : Google Map.La question toponymique en Afrique du Sud sur la longue durée porte sur deux thèmes essentiels porteurs de controverses : le plurilinguisme et le marquage symbolique et mémoriel du te...

  10. Sébastien Broca, Utopie du logiciel libre. Du bricolage informatique à la réinvention sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Goëta, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Traitant des pratiques et des conceptions du logiciel libre mais aussi, plus largement, du mouvement pour l’ouverture des savoirs, Utopie du logiciel libre ambitionne, premièrement, de nourrir une réflexion critique sur l’ethos du libre au sens d’un « ensemble de valeurs qui constituent un cadre pour l’action et s’actualisent dans des pratiques » (p. 24) et, deuxièmement, d’élaborer une sociologie critique du libre. Reprenant la notion d’utopie concrète chez Ernst Bloch (Le principe Espérance...

  11. Development of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Gautam, Santosh; Liu, Li; Dey, Jagannath; Chen, Wei; Mason, Ralph P.; Serrano, Carlos A.; Schug, Kevin A.; Tang, Liping

    2009-01-01

    None of the current biodegradable polymers can function as both implant materials and fluorescent imaging probes. The objective of this study was to develop aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs) and their associated cross-linked variants (CBPLPs) for biomedical applications. BPLPs are degradable oligomers synthesized from biocompatible monomers including citric acid, aliphatic diols, and various amino acids via a convenient and cost-effective polycondensation reaction. BPLPs can be further cross-linked into elastomeric cross-linked polymers, CBPLPs. We have shown representatively that BPLP-cysteine (BPLP-Cys) and BPLP-serine (BPLP-Ser) offer advantages over the traditional fluorescent organic dyes and quantum dots because of their preliminarily demonstrated cytocompatibility in vitro, minimal chronic inflammatory responses in vivo, controlled degradability and high quantum yields (up to 62.33%), tunable fluorescence emission (up to 725 nm), and photostability. The tensile strength of CBPLP-Cys film ranged from 3.25 ± 0.13 MPa to 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa and the initial Modulus was in a range of 3.34 ± 0.15 MPa to 7.02 ± 1.40 MPa. Elastic CBPLP-Cys could be elongated up to 240 ± 36%. The compressive modulus of BPLP-Cys (0.6) (1:1:0.6 OD:CA:Cys) porous scaffold was 39.60 ± 5.90 KPa confirming the soft nature of the scaffolds. BPLPs also possess great processability for micro/nano-fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of using BPLP-Ser nanoparticles (“biodegradable quantum dots”) for in vitro cellular labeling and noninvasive in vivo imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds. The development of BPLPs and CBPLPs represents a new direction in developing fluorescent biomaterials and could impact tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging. PMID:19506254

  12. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-03-15

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation.

  13. [Biodegradation of pyridine under UV irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Miao-Miao; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2012-02-01

    Pyridine, a complex nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, is usually difficult to degrade by means of single biological method. The internal loop photobiodegradation reactor (ILPBR) was used for degradation of pyridine in batch and continuous experiments following three protocols: photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B) to investigate the regularity of pyridine degradation. The experimental results indicated that pyridine removal rate by P&B was fastest among three protocols in batch experiment, in which protocol B was faster than P. For initial pyridine concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the pyridine removal rates were respectively 4.95, 10.2 and 14.58 mg (L x h)(-1) corresponding to protocol P, B and P&B. Pyridine degradation kinetic equations were established based on Monod model, and the saturation constants decreased from 1920.4 mg x L(-1) for protocol B to 1094.1 mg x L(-1) for protocol P&B. Protocols P, B and P&B were also used for pyridine degradation in continuous flow and influent pyridine concentration increased from 50 to 300 mg x L(-1), and their average removal rates were respectively 15.8 mg (L x h)(-1) for protocol P, 23.1 mg x (L x h)(-1) for protocol B and 24.9 mg x (L x h)(-1) for protocol P&B, in which the removal rates were higher than that in batch. Experiments suggested that the inhibition of pyridine to biofilm could be relieved due to UV irradiation in process of intimately coupled UV photolysis and biodegradation, and biofilm had kept its bioactivity degrading pyridine and enhanced pyridine removal rates.

  14. The effects of biodegradation on biomarker maturity indicators in sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By aid of gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry(GC-MS) ,the distributions and the compositions of biomarkers in a set of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin,China,have been quantitatively analyzed,and it has been found that during the biodegradation process of crude oils,the molecular maturity parameters such as Ts/Tm,homohopane C31 22S/(22S+22R) and sterane C29 20S/(20S+20R) ratios will be affected to different extent. The results show that except homohopane C31 22S/(22S+22R) ratio,Ts/Tm ratio will decrease with increasing biodegradation,but for C29 20S/(20S+20R) ratio,it will almost remain constant in slightly and moderately biodegraded oils,and then will increase quickly in severely biodegraded oils. The main reason is that there are some differences in the ability of resistant biodegradation for different isomer of biomarkers with different stereo configuration,resulting in the fact that destroying rate by bacteria for those biomarkers with weak ability will be higher than those with strong ability in resistant biodegradation. For example,18α(H) -22,29,30-trisnorhopanes(Ts) will be destroyed more quickly than 17α(H) -22,29,30-trisnorshopanres(Tm) ,and 20R isomer is more quickly than 20S isomer for C29 sterane,resulting in the relative ratios changed with increasing biodegradation. Therefore,much more attention should be paid to the biodegradation extent of crude oils and the type of biomarker maturity indicators,when the distributions and the compositions of biomarkers in biodegraded oils are used to determine the maturity of biodegraded oils.

  15. Esquisse du parlementarisme et du monopartisme en Afrique: le cas du Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. B. van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessed the last hundred years profound political and constitutional changes. In this respect there are many differences between African States depending on which kind of colonial overlord has been the ruling power. The African State was a juridical entity in international law, but was it also, at the time of independence, an empirical entity in national fact?In almost all cases the empirical reality as a functioning government was still primarily the presence of European bureaucrats who has embodied the colonial state. Independence therefore opened a gap between the international legitimacy and the internal marginality of many emergent African State. The gap often presented a real political dilemma to the new African rulers: they usually could retain European officials only by compromising their national independence and could dispense with them only at the risk of undermining governmental performance. After adoption of European constitutional law and with, initially, a high degree of similarity between most constitutions in French-speaking Africa, nowadays these constitutions differ widely, contrary to the Commonwealth Africa that has experienced fewer innovations and constitutional breakdowns.Parliamentary systems of government gave way to One Party Systems, introduced in many cases by the national army, as the best equiped, trained, paid and organised power in the country. This has been the political and constitutional development in Togo as well. Since 1969, it has a One Party System, the Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, founded by the President of the Togolese Republic, Gen. Gnassingbé Eyadéma. But, as everywhere else, doubts are growing about the effectiveness of the One Party System. Are the Togolese perspectives such that Eyadéma is willing to have an open mind and to be all ears for the critics to his own creation? Another intriguing question is to know in which way the Africantraditional authorities (" chieftancy", as the core

  16. SCREENING OF BACTERIAL PRODUCTS FOR THEIR CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION EFFECTIVENESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons have been known to be biodegradable for decades (1-5), use of microbial cultures to enhance natural biodegradation (bioaugmentation) has met with limited success (6-10). Despite the paucity of controlled field studies demonstrating the effectivene...

  17. Methods for Evaluating the Biodegradability of Environmentally Degradable Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current knowledge on experimental methods for monitoring the biodegradability of polymeric materials. The focus is, in particular, on the biodegradation of materials under environmental conditions. Examples of in vivo degradation of polymers used in biomedica

  18. Biodegradable hollow fibres for the controlled release of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, J.M.; Oosterbaan, J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Molenaar, I.; Olijslager, J.; Potman, W.; Eenink, M.J.D.; Feijen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradable hollow fibres of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) filled with a suspension of the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel in castor oil were implanted subcutaneously in rats to study the rate of drug release, rate of biodegradation and tissue reaction caused by the implant. The in vivo drug rele

  19. Biodegradation of clofibric acid and identification of its metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal do Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setubal (Portugal); Oehmen, A. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. da Republica (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Noronha, J.P. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Reis, M.A.M., E-mail: amr@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Metabolites produced during clofibric acid biodegradation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clofibric acid is biodegradable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mainly heterotrophic bacteria degraded the clofibric acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metabolites of clofibric acid biodegradation were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metabolic pathway of clofibric acid biodegradation is proposed. - Abstract: Clofibric acid (CLF) is the pharmaceutically active metabolite of lipid regulators clofibrate, etofibrate and etofyllinclofibrate, and it is considered both environmentally persistent and refractory. This work studied the biotransformation of CLF in aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with mixed microbial cultures, monitoring the efficiency of biotransformation of CLF and the production of metabolites. The maximum removal achieved was 51% biodegradation (initial CLF concentration = 2 mg L{sup -1}), where adsorption and abiotic removal mechanisms were shown to be negligible, showing that CLF is indeed biodegradable. Tests showed that the observed CLF biodegradation was mainly carried out by heterotrophic bacteria. Three main metabolites were identified, including {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid, lactic acid and 4-chlorophenol. The latter is known to exhibit higher toxicity than the parent compound, but it did not accumulate in the SBRs. {alpha}-Hydroxyisobutyric acid and lactic acid accumulated for a period, where nitrite accumulation may have been responsible for inhibiting their degradation. A metabolic pathway for the biodegradation of CLF is proposed in this study.

  20. Nanocomposites with biodegradable polymers synthesis properties and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are used in practically every facet of daily life. Most polymers come from fossil fuels and are not biodegradable, causing long-term environmental hazards. Biodegradable polymers provide an alternative class of materials. Composites of such polymers have high potential within a wide spectrum of applications.

  1. A Sensitive and Biodegradable Pressure Sensor Array for Cardiovascular Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Clementine M; Nguyen, Amanda; Lawal, Qudus Omotayo; Chortos, Alex; Rondeau-Gagné, Simon; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-11-18

    An array of highly sensitive pressure sensors entirely made of biodegradable materials is presented, designed as a single-use flexible patch for application in cardiovascular monitoring. The high sensitivity in combination with fast response time is unprecedented when compared to recent reports on biodegradable pressure sensors (sensitivity three orders of magnitude higher), as illustrated by pulse wave velocity measurements, toward hypertension detection.

  2. Wet air oxidation induced enhanced biodegradability of distillery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, S N; Saratchandra, T; Tembhekar, P D; Padoley, K V; Mudliar, S L; Mudliar, S N

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a pretreatment option for enhanced biodegradation of complex distillery effluent. Initially, the distillery effluent was pretreated by WAO at different process conditions (pressure, temperature and time) to facilitate enhancement in the biodegradability index (BI = BOD5: COD ratio). The biodegradability of WAO pretreated effluent was evaluated by subjecting it to aerobic biodegradation and anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation. Aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent with enhanced biodegradability index (BI = 0.4-0.8) showed enhanced COD reduction of up to 67.7%, whereas the untreated effluent (BI = 0.17) indicated poor COD reduction of only 22.5%. Anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent has shown up to 87.9% COD reduction, while the untreated effluent has shown only 43.1% COD reduction. Bio-kinetic parameters also confirmed the increased rate of bio-oxidation at enhanced BIs. The results indicate that the WAO pretreatment facilitates enhanced bio-oxidation/bio-degradation of complex effluents like the distillery spent wash.

  3. Biodegradable elastomers for biomedical applications and regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bat, Erhan; Zhang, Zheng; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Poot, Andre A.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biodegradable polymers are of great value for the preparation of implants that are required to reside only temporarily in the body. The use of biodegradable polymers obviates the need for a second surgery to remove the implant, which is the case when a nondegradable implant is used. After

  4. Compared in vivo toxicity in mice of lung delivered biodegradable and non-biodegradable nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao-Santiago, Letícia; Hillaireau, Hervé; Grabowski, Nadège; Mura, Simona; Nascimento, Thais L; Dufort, Sandrine; Coll, Jean-Luc; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

    2016-01-01

    To design nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems for pulmonary administration, biodegradable materials are considered safe, but their potential toxicity is poorly explored. We here explore the lung toxicity in mice of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) and compare it to the toxicity of non-biodegradable ones. NP formulations of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated with chitosan (CS), poloxamer 188 (PF68) or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which renders 200 nm NPs of positive, negative or neutral surface charge respectively, were analyzed for their biodistribution by in vivo fluorescence imaging and their inflammatory potential after single lung nebulization in mice. After exposure, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell population, protein secretion and cytokine release as well as lung histology were carried out. The inflammatory response was compared to the one induced by non-biodegradable counterparts, namely, TiO2 of rutile and anatase crystal form and polystyrene (PS). PLGA NPs were mostly present in mice lungs, with little passage to other organs. An increase in neutrophil recruitment was observed in mice exposed to PS NPs 24 h after nebulization, which declined at 48 h. This result was supported by an increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in BAL supernatant at 24 h. TiO2 anatase NPs were still present in lung cells 48 h after nebulization and induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells to BAL. In contrast, regardless of their surface charge, PLGA NPs did not induce significant changes in the inflammation markers analyzed. In conclusion, these results point out to a safe use of PLGA NPs regardless of their surface coating compared to non-biodegradable ones.

  5. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium; Biodegradation des hydrocarbures en milieu poreux insature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, C

    2007-12-15

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  6. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  7. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot.

  8. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  9. Injectable, Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Tan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have many different applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Biodegradable, injectable hydrogels could be utilized as delivery systems, cell carriers, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Injectable hydrogels are an appealing scaffold because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, can often be processed under relatively mild conditions, and may be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. This review will discuss recent advances in the field of injectable hydrogels, including both synthetic and native polymeric materials, which can be potentially used in cartilage and soft tissue engineering applications.

  10. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y.Y.; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E.; Seppaelae, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M. [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  11. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  12. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  13. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  14. Radio-induced oxidation of n-paraffins for obtaining biodegradable detergents; L'oxydation radioinduite des n-paraffines pour l'obtention de detergents biodegradables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, J.R.; Laizier, J.; Blin, M.F.; Marchand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    N-paraffins oxidation is a feasible way to obtain biodegradable detergents. This reaction can be radio-initiated and it proceeds by a branched chain mechanism, with an induction pseudo-period. A suitable analysis of the reaction is allowed by the semi-logarithmic plot of its evolution. Influence of the different parameters of the reaction is studied, results show that the use of radiation for initiating the reaction is of no economical interest. (authors) [French] L'oxydation des n-paraffines est une voie possible d'obtention des detergents biodegradables. Cette reaction, qui peut etre radioinitiee, procede d'un mecanisme en chaine branchee et presente une pseudoperiode d'induction. La representation semi-logarithmique de l'avancement de la reaction permet une analyse commode de celle-ci. L'influence des differents parametres est etudiee. Les resultats montrent que l'utilisation du rayonnement pour l'initiation de la reaction est sans interet economique. (auteurs)

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Whan; Kim, Young-Bum; Shin, Jae-Dong; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Effectiveness of a microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid, was evaluated in washing and biodegradation of model hydrocarbons and crude oil in soil. Thirty percent of 2-methylnaphthalene was effectively washed and solubilized with 10 g/L of sophorolipid with similar or higher efficiency than that of commercial surfactants. Addition of sophorolipid in soil increased biodegradation of model compounds: 2-methylnaphthalene (95% degradation in 2 days), hexadecane (97%, 6 days), and pristane (85%, 6 days). Also, effective biodegradation method of crude oil in soil was observed by the addition of sophorolipid, resulting in 80% biodegradation of saturates and 72% aromatics in 8 weeks. These results showed the potentials of the microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid, as an effective surfactant for soil washing and as an in situ biodegradation enhancer.

  16. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides,acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organicmatters addition were measured during 35 days laboratoryincubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS(sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid)mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in thedifferent treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soilalone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation.Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlorbiodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. Thebiodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone,soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6d, 6.1d, 5.4d, and5.3d, 4.9d, and 5.3d respectively. The biodegradation products werehydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, andhydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  17. Biodegradable plastic agricultural mulches and key features of microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhagen, Marion; Peyron, Mark; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra Ann

    2015-02-01

    The development of biodegradable plastic mulch films for use in agriculture has been ongoing for decades. These films consist of mixtures of polymers with various additives. As a result, their physical and chemical properties differ from those of the pure polymers often used for in vitro enzymatic and microbial degradation studies, raising questions about the biodegradation capability of mulch films. Currently, standards exist for the biodegradation of plastics in composting conditions but not in soil. Biodegradation in soil or compost depends on a complex synergy of biological and abiotic degradative processes. This review discusses the physicochemical and structural properties of biodegradable plastic mulches, examines their potential for on-site decomposition in light of site-to-site variance due to environmental and biological conditions, and considers the potential for long-term effects on agroecosystem sustainability and functionality.

  18. Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Based Models for Chemical Biodegradability Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Sabljic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a review of biodegradability modeling efforts including a detailed assessment of two models developed using an artificial intelligence based methodology. Validation results for these models using an independent, quality reviewed database, demonstrate that the models perform well when compared to another commonly used biodegradability model, against the same data. The ability of models induced by an artificial intelligence methodology to accommodate complex interactions in detailed systems, and the demonstrated reliability of the approach evaluated by this study, indicate that the methodology may have application in broadening the scope of biodegradability models. Given adequate data for biodegradability of chemicals under environmental conditions, this may allow for the development of future models that include such things as surface interface impacts on biodegradability for example.

  19. Critical evaluation of biodegradable polymers used in nanodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Marin,1–3 Maria Isabel Briceño,2 Catherina Caballero-George11Unit of Pharmacology, Center of Biodiversity and Drug Discovery, Institute of Scientific Research and High Technology Services, 2Nano Dispersions Technology, Panama, Republic of Panama; 3Department of Biotechnology, Archaria Nagarjuna University, Guntur, IndiaAbstract: Use of biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications has increased in recent decades due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, flexibility, and minimal side effects. Applications of these materials include creation of skin, blood vessels, cartilage scaffolds, and nanosystems for drug delivery. These biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles enhance properties such as bioavailability and stability, and provide controlled release of bioactive compounds. This review evaluates the classification, synthesis, degradation mechanisms, and biological applications of the biodegradable polymers currently being studied as drug delivery carriers. In addition, the use of nanosystems to solve current drug delivery problems are reviewed.Keywords: biodegradable polymers, nanoparticles, drug delivery, cellular uptake, biomedical applications

  20. Porous Biodegradable Metals for Hard Tissue Scaffolds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Yusop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds have been utilized in tissue regeneration to facilitate the formation and maturation of new tissues or organs where a balance between temporary mechanical support and mass transport (degradation and cell growth is ideally achieved. Polymers have been widely chosen as tissue scaffolding material having a good combination of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and porous structure. Metals that can degrade in physiological environment, namely, biodegradable metals, are proposed as potential materials for hard tissue scaffolding where biodegradable polymers are often considered as having poor mechanical properties. Biodegradable metal scaffolds have showed interesting mechanical property that was close to that of human bone with tailored degradation behaviour. The current promising fabrication technique for making scaffolds, such as computation-aided solid free-form method, can be easily applied to metals. With further optimization in topologically ordered porosity design exploiting material property and fabrication technique, porous biodegradable metals could be the potential materials for making hard tissue scaffolds.

  1. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  2. Optimization of low ring polycylic aromatic biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, N.; Abdul-Talib, S.; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrance and persistence that finally turn into problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered to be the primary mechanism of PAHs removal from the environment due to its organic criteria. This study is carried out to optimize degradation process of low ring PAHs. Bacteria used in this study was isolated from sludge collected from Kolej Mawar, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor. Working condition namely, substrate concentration, bacteria concentration, pH and temperature were optimized. PAHs in the liquid sample was extracted by using solid phase microextractio equipped with a 7 µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibr. Removal of PAHs were assessed by measuring PAHs concentration using GC-FID. Results from the optimization study of biodegradation indicated that maximum rate of PAHs removal occurred at 100 mgL-1 of PAHs, 10% bacteria concentration, pH 7.0 and 30°C. These working condition had proved the effectiveness of using bacteria in biodegradation process of PAHs.

  3. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  4. Endothelial Cellular Responses to Biodegradable Metal Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    Biodegradable zinc (Zn) metals, a new generation of biomaterials, have attracted much attention due to their excellent biodegradability, bioabsorbability, and adaptability to tissue regeneration. Compared with magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe), Zn exhibits better corrosion and mechanical behaviors in orthopedic and stent applications. After implantation, Zn containing material will slowly degrade, and Zn ions (Zn(2+)) will be released to the surrounding tissue. For stent applications, the local Zn(2+)concentration near endothelial tissue/cells could be high. However, it is unclear how endothelia will respond to such high concentrations of Zn(2+), which is pivotal to vascular remodeling and regeneration. Here, we evaluated the short-term cellular behaviors of primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCECs) exposed to a concentration gradient (0-140 μM) of extracellular Zn(2+). Zn(2+) had an interesting biphasic effect on cell viability, proliferation, spreading, and migration. Generally, low concentrations of Zn(2+) promoted viability, proliferation, adhesion, and migration, while high concentrations of Zn(2+) had opposite effects. For gene expression profiles, the most affected functional genes were related to cell adhesion, cell injury, cell growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, vessel tone, and coagulation. These results provide helpful information and guidance for Zn-based alloy design as well as the controlled release of Zn(2+)in stent and other related medical applications.

  5. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  6. Tailoring the biodegradability of porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K; Shaposhnik, Zory; Diebold, Eric D; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Jalali, Bahram

    2012-12-01

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) are attractive carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine. For in vivo applications, the biodegradation property of PSiNPs provides a pathway for their safe clearance from the body. Particles sizes of 80-120 nm are of particular interest as they are important for cellular applications, such as drug delivery for cancer therapy, because these nanoparticles can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect to deliver drug preferentially to tumors with leaky vasculature, yet large enough to avoid renal clearance. However, the biodegradability rate of such particles is often too fast, which limits particle half-life and potentially reduces their in vivo delivery efficiency. In this work, we focus on the degradation of nanoscale particles and study the effect of both thermal oxidation and silica coating on the stability of PSiNPs in phosphate buffered saline solution (a close mimic of a basic biological fluid). Using thermal oxidation, the half-life of PSiNPs can be varied from 10 min up to 3 h. Using silica coating, the half-life can be extended further to 8 h. The particles produced using both these techniques can be functionalized using standard silica surface chemistries developed for applications in drug delivery.

  7. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  8. Modification of Biodegradable Polyesters Using Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suhartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat P4HB, Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate PBSA and Poly(-caprolactone PCL were electron beam (EB-irradiated. Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat was irradiated without any polyfunctional monomers (PFM. While PBSA and PCL were irradiated in the presence of polyfunctional monomers such as Trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC, Polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (2G, 4G, Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPT and Tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate (A-TMMT at ambient temperature. Aim of the study is to improve the properties of biodegradable polyester. It was pointed out that crosslinking yield of P4HB (6.39% gel was formed at dose of 90 kGy irradiated in vacuum conditions. Radiation degradation promoted, when P4HB was irradiated in air. The optimum crosslinking yield of PCL and PBSA respectively, were formed in the presence of 1% TMAIC at dose of 50 kGy. The biodegradability of the crosslinked PBSA evaluated by soil burial test is slightly retarded by increasing crosslinking yields.

  9. Biodegradable polymer optical fiber (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenji; Kalaba, Surge; Shan, Dingying; Xu, Kaitian; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiwen

    2016-10-01

    Biocompatible and even biodegradable polymers have unique advantages in various biomedical applications. Recent years, photonic devices fabricated using biocompatible polymers have been widely studied. In this work, we manufactured an optical fiber using biodegradable polymer POC and POMC. This step index optical fiber is flexible and easy to handle. Light was coupled into this polymer fiber by directly using objective. The fiber has a good light guiding property and an approximate loss of 2db/cm. Due to the two layer structure, our fiber is able to support applications inside biological tissue. Apart from remarkable optical performance, our fiber was also found capable of performing imaging. By measuring the impulse response of this multimode polymer fiber and using the linear inversion algorithm, concept proving experiments were completed. Images input into our fiber were able to be retrieved from the intensity distribution of the light at the output end. Experiment result proves the capability of our optical fiber to be used as a fiber endoscopy no needs to remove.

  10. Adjuvant effects of inhaled mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in BALB/cJ mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2007-01-01

    to aerosols of 0.03 or 0.4 mg/m(3) MEHP 5 days/week for 2 weeks and thereafter weekly for 12 weeks together with a low dose of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. Mice exposed to OVA alone or OVA+Al(OH)(3) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Finally, all groups were exposed to a nebulized...... by an IgG1-dependent mechanism. To address implications for humans, a margin-of-exposure was estimated based on the lack of significant effects on IgE production and inflammation after exposures to 0.03 mg/m(3) MEHP observed in the present study and estimated human exposure levels....

  11. Integral physicochemical properties of reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Shubenkova, E. G.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Lutaeva, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The effect the degree of hydration has on optical and electrophysical properties of water/AOT/ n-hexane system is studied. It is found that AOT reverse micelles form aggregates whose dimensions grow along with the degree of hydration and temperature. Aggregation enhances their electrical conductivity and shifts the UV spectrum of AOT reverse emulsions to the red region. Four states of water are found in the structure of AOT reverse micelles.

  12. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2010-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  13. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  14. Molecular Order and Dynamics of Tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Confined in Uni-Directional Nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipnusu, Wycliffe Kiprop [University of Leipzig, Germany; Kossack, Wilhelm [University of Leipzig, Germany; Iacob, Ciprian [University of Leipzig; Jasiurkowska, Malgorzata [University of Leipzig, Germany; Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

    2012-01-01

    Infrared Transition Moment Orientational Analysis (IR-TMOA) and Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) are combined to study molecular order and dynamics of the glass-forming liquid Tris(2-ethylhexy)phosphate (TEHP) confined in uni-directional nanopores with diameters of 4, 8, and 10.4 nm. The former method enables one to determine the molecular order parameter of specific IR transition moments. It is observed that the central P=O moiety of TEHP has a weak orientational effect (molecular order parameter Sz = 0.1 0.04) due the nanoporous confinement, in contrast to the terminal C H groups. BDS traces the dynamic glass transition of the guest molecules in a broad spectral range and at widely varying temperature. An enhancement of the mobility takes place when approaching the glass transition temperature and becomes more pronounced with decreasing pore diameter. This is attributed to a slight reduction of the density of the confined liquid caused by the 2-dimensional geometrical constraint.

  15. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 165 Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water quality... minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by DEHP, will be no less protective of the public...

  16. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcombe, C.R.; Mitchell, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (..beta..-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI (mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate) and metabolite IX (mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate). The addition of these active metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism.

  17. Transplacental transfer of monomethyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a human placenta perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained immediately after elective cesarean section and dually perfused in a recirculation system. mMP or mEHP was added to maternal perfusion medium to obtain concentrations at 10 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The placental transfer was followed...... plasma samples. mMP and possibly other short-chained phthalate monoesters in maternal blood can cross the placenta by slow transfer, whereas the results indicate no placental transfer of mEHP. Further studies are recommended....

  18. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  19. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Nunes, Mateus Dias; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2013-01-01

    Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV) or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W) plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  20. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available Growing concerns regarding the impact of the accumulation of plastic waste over several decades on the environmental have led to the development of biodegradable plastic. These plastics can be degraded by microorganisms and absorbed by the environment and are therefore gaining public support as a possible alternative to petroleum-derived plastics. Among the developed biodegradable plastics, oxo-biodegradable polymers have been used to produce plastic bags. Exposure of this waste plastic to ultraviolet light (UV or heat can lead to breakage of the polymer chains in the plastic, and the resulting compounds are easily degraded by microorganisms. However, few studies have characterized the microbial degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. In this study, we tested the capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade oxo-biodegradable (D2W plastic without prior physical treatment, such as exposure to UV or thermal heating. After 45 d of incubation in substrate-containing plastic bags, the oxo-biodegradable plastic, which is commonly used in supermarkets, developed cracks and small holes in the plastic surface as a result of the formation of hydroxyl groups and carbon-oxygen bonds. These alterations may be due to laccase activity. Furthermore, we observed the degradation of the dye found in these bags as well as mushroom formation. Thus, P. ostreatus degrades oxo-biodegradable plastics and produces mushrooms using this plastic as substrate.

  1. Les Nymphes dans les rites du mariage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Le champ du mariage (où l’on rencontre à la fois les Nymphes puissances surnaturelles et les numphai humaines) peut se révéler intéressant pour croiser des données littéraires, archéologiques et épigraphiques sur le culte des Nymphes. Lors des préliminaires, ces puissances peuvent être l’objet des protéléia (sacrifices prénuptiaux) ou être associées avec la loutrophorie et le bain prénuptial. Les Nymphes n’interviennent guère pendant la journée de célébration du mariage, sauf dans des textes ...

  2. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  3. Sådan forebygger du faldulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Bidrag til serien 'Eksperten skriver'. Her gennemgås en kort vejledning til, hvordan man arbejder systematisk med faldforebyggelse. Ved at arbejde systematisk med dine hverdagsobservationer kan du få øje på og reagere på ændringer hos svækkede ældre borgere og på den måde forebygge faldet, før de...

  4. Autour du paradigme d’écotourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Transler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’écotourisme ouvre un cadre conceptuel original qui permet d’envisager des démarches renouvelées de développement à partir des revenus issus de consommations touristiques mieux réfléchies et organisées, susceptibles de soutenir des initiatives de développement local s’inscrivant dans un projet global de développement durable. Variante douce du tourisme, loin du tourisme de masse, le champ de l’écotourisme s’étend aux confins du tourisme de nature, du tourisme culturel et des pratiques scientifiques et sportives de plein air. Une définition de l’écotourisme peut être proposée à partir des six points suivants : 1/ nature et culture, 2/ le bien-être des sociétés hôtes, 3/ des touristes responsables, 4/ la participation des sociétés hôtes, 5/ la durabilité, 6/ l’art de la rencontre.Ecotourism provides an original conceptual framework that enables approaches to development that are better able to provide a more equitable distribution of income, as well as better organized and thought through initiatives which are more likely to promote a holistic sustainable local development. With somewhat less negative impact than normal tourism, considerably less that mass tourism, ecotourism can encompass nature tourism, cultural tourism, scientific exploration, and even outdoor sports... A definition of ecotourism should take into account the following six points: 1/ nature and culture, 2/ the welfare of the host community, tourists acting responsibly, 3/ participation by the local community, 5 / sustainability , 6/ promotion of cultural exchanges

  5. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  6. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  7. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  8. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests.

  9. Pertinence du dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus au sein d'un établissement de santé

    OpenAIRE

    Chignier, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Le dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus est un enjeu de Santé Publique. Le plan cancer 2014-2019 souligne l'importance de réduire les inégalités face au dépistage et de couvrir 80% de la population cible. L'objectif principal de l'étude était d'évaluer la conformité des pratiques cliniques des professionnels de santé aux recommandations de la HAS. L'objectif secondaire était d'évaluer la qualité du dépistage du cancer du col selon le type de suivi : gynécologique versus obstétrical. Il s'ag...

  10. Fully biodegradable coronary stents : progress to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharitar, Steve; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-01-01

    The limitations of currently available metallic drug-eluting stents have renewed interest in biodegradable stents (BDS). Apart from removing the (offending) foreign material that may potentiate a thrombotic event, BDS have the advantage of avoiding 'full metal jackets,' and thus can preclude subsequent coronary surgery. In addition, they do not interfere with the diagnostic evaluation of non-invasive imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance and CT. There are now several BDS in development or in clinical trials that incorporate a variety of biodegradable polymer technologies. Two broad categories of materials are generally used: those made from organic biopolymers and those made from corrodible metals. However, to date, none of the materials/stents tested have been able to establish a perfect balance between biocompatibility, the kinetics of degradation needed to maintain mechanical strength to limit recoil, and inflammation. However, studies, such as the ABSORB trial with the everolimus eluting poly-L-lactide stent, which demonstrated comparable restenotic rates with bare metallic stents and a low incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months of 3.3%, with only one patient having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and no target lesion revascularization, suggest that there has been significant progress with respect to the earlier prototypes. The acute recoil observed could potentially be addressed with the polytyrosine REVA stent currently being evaluated in the RESORB trial, which incorporates a novel locking mechanism within its design. Alternative BDS designs include the combination of an antiproliferative drug with endothelial progenitor cell capturing antibodies to facilitate epithelialization and/or dual eluting having, in addition to the antiproliferative drug, polymeric salicyclic acid to limit inflammation. Compared with biodegradable polymers, there are fewer metals used in the manufacture of BDS. The only metal BDS in trials is the

  11. Rapport d'Activite du Service Medical - 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2003-01-01

    Le rapport annuel de l’année 2002 fait état de l’activité du service médical et de ses conclusions en matière de santé au travail ou de conditions de travail pour les membres du personnel du CERN, c’est à dire!: les titulaires, boursiers, étudiants, utilisateurs, attachés, etc…

  12. Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail (TAOIT)

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Organization. Geneva

    Le Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail connaît des requêtes formées par les fonctionnaires ou les anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du Travail et des quelque trente organisations qui ont reconnu sa compétence. The ILO Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT) hears complaints from serving and former officials of the International Labour Office or one of the thirty-odd intergovernmental organizations that recognise its jurisdiction.

  13. Quelques observations sur les Bryopsis du Golfe de Naples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1941-01-01

    Evidemment la flore algologique du Golfe de Naples a été étudiée, d’assez près, tant du point de vue floristique que du point de vue écologique. Surtout FALKENBERG (1879), BERTHOLD (1882) et FUNK (1927) se sont occupés des investigations de cette nature. Il reste cependant un certain nombre de genre

  14. Biofilm formation and partial biodegradation of polystyrene by the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber: biodegradation of polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Roi; Sivan, Alex

    2008-11-01

    Polystyrene, which is one of the most utilized thermoplastics, is highly durable and is considered to be non-biodegradable. Hence, polystyrene waste accumulates in the environment posing an increasing ecological threat. In a previous study we have isolated a biofilm-producing strain (C208) of the actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber that degraded polyethylene films. Formation of biofilm, by C208, improved the biodegradation of polyethylene. Consequently, the present study aimed at monitoring the kinetics of biofilm formation by C208 on polystyrene, determining the physiological activity of the biofilm and analyzing its capacity to degrade polystyrene. Quantification of the biofilm biomass was performed using a modified crystal violet (CV) staining or by monitoring the protein content in the biofilm. When cultured on polystyrene flakes, most of the bacterial cells adhered to the polystyrene surface within few hours, forming a biofilm. The growth of the on polystyrene showed a pattern similar to that of a planktonic culture. Furthermore, the respiration rate, of the biofilm, exhibited a pattern similar to that of the biofilm growth. In contrast, the respiration activity of the planktonic population showed a constant decline with time. Addition of mineral oil (0.005% w/v), but not non-ionic surfactants, increased the biofilm biomass. Extended incubation of the biofilm for up to 8 weeks resulted in a small reduction in the polystyrene weight (0.8% of gravimetric weight loss). This study demonstrates the high affinity of C208 to polystyrene which lead to biofilm formation and, presumably, induced partial biodegradation.

  15. Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Fatemeh; Samiei, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-03-01

    Since so many years ago, tissue damages that are caused owing to various reasons attract scientists' attention to find a practical way to treat. In this regard, many studies were conducted. Nano scientists also suggested some ways and the newest one is called tissue engineering. They use biodegradable polymers in order to replace damaged structures in tissues to make it practical. Biodegradable polymers are dominant scaffolding materials in tissue engineering field. In this review, we explained about biodegradable polymers and their application as scaffolds.

  16. Christophe Brissonneau, Olivier Aubel, Fabien Ohl, L'épreuve du dopage. Sociologie du cyclisme professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Martinache, Igor

    2011-01-01

    L'épreuve du dopage se lit comme un roman policier. A la manière d'une intrigue, la trame du livre invite à chaque fin de page à tourner la suivante pour découvrir si le cycliste va basculer dans la pratique du dopage. De fait, il ne bascule jamais. Et c'est bien là l'intérêt de l'ouvrage qui, à l'encontre de la plupart des discours sur le sujet, montre que le dopage est une pratique processuelle qui rend rigoureusement impossible toute distinction binaire entre deux états : dopé ou non. Une ...

  17. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    OpenAIRE

    R BELOUETTAR; Klepaczko, J.R.; Abadlia, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau). En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé...

  18. Le corps du saint dans l'hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Amri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail tente de réfléchir sur la place accordée par l’hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval au corps dans l'expérience de sainteté et dans le processus de “sanctification” d’un homme ou d’une femme, ainsi que dans la reconnaissance ou la “consécration” de cette sainteté. Il vise à repérer les infléchissements perceptibles dans les critères de sainteté et la valeur accordée par l'hagiographie à telle ou telle voie de sanctification. Il se propose également d’examiner la représentation par les contemporains du corps du saint vivant et les bénéfices qu’ils en attendent.

  19. La diffusion du football de haut niveau en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc RAVENEL

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available La pratique du football de haut niveau s'est diffusée sur le territoire français selon deux modèles complémentaires: une diffusion hiérarchique privilégiant les plus grandes villes du pays; une diffusion de proximité soucieuse d'imitation et indispensable à la création des compétitions. Les dirigeants du football ont valorisé le processus par l'intégration de nouvelles aires géographiques, évitant ainsi la saturation du système.

  20. Partial Discharge Degradation of Several Biodegradable Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Norikazu; Fujita, Shinjiro; Hirai, Naoshi; Tanaka, Toshikatsu; Kozako, Masahiro; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    Partial discharge (PD) resistance was examined by applying a constant voltage for four kinds of biodegradable polymers, i.e. poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), polyethylene terephthalate succinate (PETS), poly ε-caprolactone butylene succinate (PCL-BS), and polybutylene succinate (PBS), and the results were compared with those of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked low density polyethylene (XLPE). The PD resistance is determined by the erosion depth and the surface roughness caused by PDs, and is ranked as LDPE ≅ XLPE > PLLA ≅ PETS > PBS > PCL-BS. This means that the sample with a lower permittivity has better PD resistance. Furthermore, observations of the sample surface by a polarization microscope and a laser confocal one reveal that crystalline regions with spherulites are more resistant to PDs than amorphous regions. Therefore, good PD resistance can be achieved by the sample with a high crystallinity and a low permittivity.

  1. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil are 60 %, 36 % and 55 %, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity which was assessed by TTC technique, correlated significantly positive with the numbers of microorganisms. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients(r in contaminated soils with gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively.

  2. Biodegradable polymeric fiber structures in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye; Reis, Rui L

    2009-03-01

    Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to create biological alternatives to repair or restore function of damaged or diseased tissues. To obtain three-dimensional tissue constructs, stem or progenitor cells must be combined with a highly porous three-dimensional scaffold, but many of the structures purposed for tissue engineering cannot meet all the criteria required by an adequate scaffold because of lack of mechanical strength and interconnectivity, as well as poor surface characteristics. Fiber-based structures represent a wide range of morphological and geometric possibilities that can be tailored for each specific tissue-engineering application. The present article overviews the research data on tissue-engineering therapies based on the use of biodegradable fiber architectures as a scaffold.

  3. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima

    2011-03-23

    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  5. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.K.Parshetti; S.G.Parshetti; A.A.Telke; D.C.Kalyani; R.A.Doong; S.P.Govindwar

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter MTCC 8161 completely decolorized the Crystal Violet with 8 hr (10 mg/L) at static anoxic conditions.The decreased decolorization capability by A.radiobacter was observed,when the Crystal Violet concentration was increased from 10 to 100 mg/L.Semi-synthetic medium containing 1% yeast extract and 0.1% NH4Cl has shown 100% decolorization of Crystal Violet within 5 hr.A complete degradation of Crystal Violet by A.radiobacter was observed up to 7 cycles of repeated addition (10 mg/L).When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Crystal Violet (100 rag/L) was studied,maximum decolorization was observed with 15% inoculum concentration.A significant increase in the activities of laccase (184%) and aminopyrine N-demethylase (300%) in cells obtained after decolorization indicated the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process.The intermediates formed during the degradation of Crystal Violet were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS).It was detected the presence of N,N,N′,N"-tetramethylpararosaniline,[N,N-dimethylaminophenyl][N-methylaminophenyl] benzophenone,N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde,4-methyl amino phenol and phenol.We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A.radiobacter.Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A.radiobacter,P.aurugenosa and A.vinelandii) contributing to soil fertility and for four kinds of plants (Sorghum bicolor,Vigna radiata,Lens culinaris and Triticum aestivum) which are most sensitive,fast growing and commonly used in Indian agriculture.

  6. Optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte par une analyse dynamique temporelle

    OpenAIRE

    VIVIER, Aurélie; Charles, Pascal; DAVI, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Cet article présente un exemple d'application de l'analyse temporelle dynamique à un cas concret : l'optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte. Le diagnostic a permis de converger vers une solution de renforcement avec amortisseurs. Cette étude a été l'occasion de mettre en oeuvre des méthodes d'analyse temporelle, seules rigoureusement compatibles avec l'emploi d'amortisseurs et la complexité de l'ouvrage. Des outils de prédimensionnement des caractéristiques des disposi...

  7. Construire les défis du génie civil du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dans les années 80, le CERN a vécu la formidable aventure de la construction du tunnel de 27 kilomètres de circonférence. Ces dernières années, les équipes du génie civil se sont lancées dans l’excavation d’immenses cavernes souterraines et de kilomètres de galeries pour le LHC. Ces travaux ont exigé de véritables prouesses techniques.

  8. Automatisation partielle du traitement de la littérature grise dans le service d'information scientifique du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deroche, C

    1998-01-01

    L'automatisation partielle du traitement de la litterature grise est un projet ineluctable dans un service d'information scientifique aussi important que celui du CERN. Ce rapport presente l'automatis ation du rapport annuel par la detection et l'importation automatique d'informations de publication pour les articles ecrits par les physiciens travaillant au CERN et par d'autres utilisant les outils du CERN. La recherche de ces articles est effectuee dans la base de donnees scientifiques INSPEC.

  9. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, T.; Roullin, V. G.; Cadiou, C.; Delavoie, F.; Molinari, M.; Andry, M. C.; Gafa, V.; Chuburu, F.

    2010-04-01

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  10. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Andry, M C [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Reims, CNRS UMR 6229, UFR Pharmacie Reims, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, F-51100 Reims (France); Cadiou, C; Chuburu, F [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Reims, CNRS UMR 6229, UFR des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18-Europol' Agro, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Delavoie, F [Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, INSERM UMRS 926, 21 rue Clement Ader, F-51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Molinari, M [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etudes des Nanostructures, UFR des Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, F-51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Gafa, V, E-mail: gaelle.roullin@univ-reims.fr, E-mail: francoise.chuburu@univ-reims.fr [EA4303 ' Inflammation et Immunite de l' Epithelium Respiratoire' , IFR53, UFR de Pharmacie, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, F-51100 Reims (France)

    2010-04-23

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  11. Fade to Green: A Biodegradable Stack of Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Jonathan; Chambers, Lily D; Rossiter, Jonathan; Stinchcombe, Andrew; Walter, X Alexis; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-08-24

    The focus of this study is the development of biodegradable microbial fuel cells (MFCs) able to produce useful power. Reactors with an 8 mL chamber volume were designed using all biodegradable products: polylactic acid for the frames, natural rubber as the cation-exchange membrane and egg-based, open-to-air cathodes coated with a lanolin gas diffusion layer. Forty MFCs were operated in various configurations. When fed with urine, the biodegradable stack was able to power appliances and was still operational after six months. One useful application for this truly sustainable MFC technology includes onboard power supplies for biodegradable robotic systems. After operation in remote ecological locations, these could degrade harmlessly into the surroundings to leave no trace when the mission is complete.

  12. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Cadiou, C; Delavoie, F; Molinari, M; Andry, M C; Gafa, V; Chuburu, F

    2010-04-23

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  13. Analyse quantitative du réseau hydrographique du bassin versant du Slănic (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Grecu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude porte sur le bassin versant du Slănic, un affluent du Buzău. Ce bassin de taille relativement réduite (433 km2 est situé dans la région des Carpates et des Subcarpates de la Courbure, région très active sur le plan sismique. Du point de vue lithologique, le bassin du Slănic correspond à des flyschs paléogènes et à des molasses mio-pliocènes. Ces roches peu résistantes ont facilité une forte érosion du relief. Actuellement, les précipitations présentent souvent une forte intensité, et elles se produisent fréquemment après des périodes de sécheresse. Elles sont ainsi très agressives et déclenchent une érosion intense. L'analyse de quelques paramètres morphométriques [grand nombre de segments de cours d'eau d'ordres 1 (5230 et 2 (944 ; densité élevée des segments par rapport à la superficie du bassin (environ 15 segments / km2 ; longueur moyenne réduite des segments d'ordre 1 (260 m par rapport à ceux d'ordre 2 (530 m] s'accorde avec des temps de concentration des eaux courts et une forte énergie des écoulements. La vitesse de réaction aux précipitations des segments d'ordres inférieurs est en outre favorisée par la répartition spatiale des pluies et par les conditions lithologiques.The study is focused on the Slănic basin which has a small size (433 km2. The hydrographical basin of Slănic, situated in the Carpathian and Subcarpathian Curvature, a very active from neotectonical viewpoint area, is a part of the Buzău basin. From a petrographic point of view, the Slănic hydrographic basin belongs to the paleogen flysch deposits (within the Carpathian sector and to the mio-pliocen molasse (within the Subcarpathian area latter formed by predominantely friable rocks which have encouraged deep fragmentation of the relief. Actual rainfalls are often very intensive, and they frequently occur after dry seasons. The analysis of morphometric parameters shows many elementary segments of first

  14. Biodegradable kinetics of plastics under controlled composting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leejarkpai, Thanawadee; Suwanmanee, Unchalee; Rudeekit, Yosita; Mungcharoen, Thumrongrut

    2011-06-01

    This study models and evaluates the kinetics of C-CO(2) evolution during biodegradation of plastic materials including Polyethylene (PE), PE/starch blend (PE/starch), microcrystalline cellulose (MCE), and Polylactic acid (PLA). The aerobic biodegradation under controlled composting conditions was monitorated according to ISO 14855-1, 2004. The kinetics model was based on first order reaction in series with a flat lag phase. A non-linear regression technique was used to analyze the experimental data. SEM studies of the morphology of the samples before and after biodegradation testing were used to confirm the biodegradability of plastics and the accuracy of the model. The work showed that MCE and PLA produced the high amounts of C-CO(2) evolution, which gave readily hydrolysable carbon values of 55.49% and 40.17%, respectively with readily hydrolysis rates of 0.338 day(-1) and 0.025 day(-1), respectively. Whereas, a lower amount of C-CO(2) evolution was found in PE/starch, which had a high concentration of moderately hydrolysable carbon of 97.74% and a moderate hydrolysis rate of 0.00098 day(-1). The mineralization rate of PLA was 0.500 day(-1) as a lag phase was observed at the beginning of the biodegradability test. No lag phase was observed in the biodegradability testing of the PE/starch and MCE. The mineralization rates of the PE/starch and MCE were found to be 1.000 day(-1), and 1.234 day(-1), respectively. No C-CO(2) evolution was observed during biodegradability testing of PE, which was used for reference as a non-biodegradable plastics sample.

  15. Electro-Fenton pretreatment for the improvement of tylosin biodegradability

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrag-Siagh, Fatiha; Fourcade, Florence; Soutrel, Isabelle; Aït-Amar, Hamid; Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdelatif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The feasibility of an electro-Fenton process to treat tylosin (TYL), a non-biodegradable antibiotic, was examined in a discontinuous electrochemical cell with divided cathodic and anodic compartments. Only 15 min electrolysis was needed for total tylosin degradation using a carbon felt cathode and a platinum anode; while 6 h electrolysis was needed to achieve high oxidation and mineralization yields, 96 and 88 % respectively. Biodegradability improvement was shown sinc...

  16. Improvement of Landfill Leachate Biodegradability with Ultrasonic Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mahvi Amirhossein; Roodbari Aliakbar; Nabizadeh Nodehi Ramin; Naseri Simin; Dehghani Mohammadhadii; Alimohammadi Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Leachate from mature landfills is typically characterized by high ammonium (NH4+) content, low biodegradability (low BOD5/COD ratio) and high fraction of refractory and large organic molecules such as humic and fulvic acids. Mature leachate effluents are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as...

  17. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  18. Monitoring aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by functional marker genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyyssoenen, Mari [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], E-mail: mari.nyyssonen@vtt.fi; Piskonen, Reetta; Itaevaara, Merja [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2008-07-15

    The development of biological treatment technologies for contaminated environments requires tools for obtaining direct information about the biodegradation of specific contaminants. The potential of functional gene array analysis to monitor changes in the amount of functional marker genes as indicators of contaminant biodegradation was investigated. A prototype functional gene array was developed for targeting key functions in the biodegradation of naphthalene, toluene and xylenes. Internal standard probe based normalization was introduced to facilitate comparison across multiple samples. Coupled with one-colour hybridization, the signal normalization improved the consistency among replicate hybridizations resulting in better discrimination for the differences in the amount of target DNA. During the naphthalene biodegradation in a PAH-contaminated soil slurry microcosm, the normalized hybridization signals in naphthalene catabolic gene probes were in good agreement with the amount of naphthalene-degradation genes and the production of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Gene arrays provide efficient means for monitoring of contaminant biodegradation in the environment. - Functional gene array analysis coupled with one-colour hybridization and internal standard based signal normalization provides efficient tool for monitoring contaminant biodegradation processes.

  19. Saponification of fatty slaughterhouse wastes for enhancing anaerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battimelli, Audrey; Carrère, Hélène; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The thermochemical pretreatment by saponification of two kinds of fatty slaughterhouse waste--aeroflotation fats and flesh fats from animal carcasses--was studied in order to improve the waste's anaerobic degradation. The effect of an easily biodegradable compound, ethanol, on raw waste biodegradation was also examined. The aims of the study were to enhance the methanisation of fatty waste and also to show a link between biodegradability and bio-availability. The anaerobic digestion of raw waste, saponified waste and waste with a co-substrate was carried out in batch mode under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The results showed little increase in the total volume of biogas, indicating a good biodegradability of the raw wastes. Mean biogas volume reached 1200 mL/g VS which represented more than 90% of the maximal theoretical biogas potential. Raw fatty wastes were slowly biodegraded whereas pretreated wastes showed improved initial reaction kinetics, indicating a better initial bio-availability, particularly for mesophilic runs. The effects observed for raw wastes with ethanol as co-substrate depended on the process temperature: in mesophilic conditions, an initial improvement was observed whereas in thermophilic conditions a significant decrease in biodegradability was observed.

  20. Biodegradation of creosote compounds: Comparison of experiments at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the results of biodegradation experiments with creosote compounds performed at different scales. The experiments include field observations, field experiments, large-scale intact laboratory column experiments, model fracture experiments, and batch experiments. Most of the expe......This paper compares the results of biodegradation experiments with creosote compounds performed at different scales. The experiments include field observations, field experiments, large-scale intact laboratory column experiments, model fracture experiments, and batch experiments. Most...... of the experiments were conducted with till or ground water from the field site at Ringe on the island of Funen. Although the experiments were conducted on different scales, they revealed that some phenomena-e.g., an extensive biodegradation potential of several of the creosote compounds, the inhibitory influence...... of the pyrroles on the biodegradation of benzene, and the biodegradation of benzothiophene occurs only in the presence of a primary substrate. The experiments show that some biodegradation processes of organic compounds may be common to different microorganisms....

  1. Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. D.; Winfield, J.; Ieropoulos, I.; Rossiter, J.

    2014-03-01

    The expense and use of non-recyclable materials often requires the retrieval and recovery of exploratory robots. Therefore, conventional materials such as plastics and metals in robotics can be limiting. For applications such as environmental monitoring, a fully biodegradable or edible robot may provide the optimum solution. Materials that provide power and actuation as well as biodegradability provide a compelling dimension to future robotic systems. To highlight the potential of novel biodegradable and edible materials as artificial muscles, the actuation of a biodegradable hydrogel was investigated. The fabricated gelatine based polymer gel was inexpensive, easy to handle, biodegradable and edible. The electro-mechanical performance was assessed using two contactless, parallel stainless steel electrodes immersed in 0.1M NaOH solution and fixed 40 mm apart with the strip actuator pinned directly between the electrodes. The actuation displacement in response to a bias voltage was measured over hydration/de-hydration cycles. Long term (11 days) and short term (1 hour) investigations demonstrated the bending behaviour of the swollen material in response to an electric field. Actuation voltage was low (biodegradable and edible artificial muscles could help to drive the development of environmentally friendly robotics.

  2. Calcium orthophosphate coatings on magnesium and its biodegradable alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable metals have been suggested as revolutionary biomaterials for bone-grafting therapies. Of these metals, magnesium (Mg) and its biodegradable alloys appear to be particularly attractive candidates due to their non-toxicity and as their mechanical properties match those of bones better than other metals do. Being light, biocompatible and biodegradable, Mg-based metallic implants have several advantages over other implantable metals currently in use, such as eliminating both the effects of stress shielding and the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Unfortunately, the fast degradation rates of Mg and its biodegradable alloys in the aggressive physiological environment impose limitations on their clinical applications. This necessitates development of implants with controlled degradation rates to match the kinetics of bone healing. Application of protective but biocompatible and biodegradable coatings able to delay the onset of Mg corrosion appears to be a reasonable solution. Since calcium orthophosphates are well tolerated by living organisms, they appear to be the excellent candidates for such coatings. Nevertheless, both the high chemical reactivity and the low melting point of Mg require specific parameters for successful deposition of calcium orthophosphate coatings. This review provides an overview of current coating techniques used for deposition of calcium orthophosphates on Mg and its biodegradable alloys. The literature analysis revealed that in all cases the calcium orthophosphate protective coatings both increased the corrosion resistance of Mg-based metallic biomaterials and improved their surface biocompatibility.

  3. Plastic promise; La promesse du plastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnars, O.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic photovoltaic cells are under development at the laboratory of functional organic compounds (LCOF) of CEA/Saclay. Their main advantage with respect to the classical silicon-based solar cells is their lower manufacturing cost and their bio-degradative properties. Their manufacturing requires only a serigraphy process. However, their better conversion performances reach today only 3.5%, with respect to 14-17% for silicon cells. The goal of the CSPVP research program is to obtain polymer materials allowing a 5% conversion efficiency with a 5000 h service life. Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Un Genevois coopte a la tete du Front islamique du salut

    CERN Document Server

    Merckling, N

    2002-01-01

    "Le Front islamique du salut (FIS), a nomme a la tete de ce parti fondamentaliste un resident genevois, Mourad Dhani, chois parmi trois candidats. Ce physicien algerien est arrive a Geneve il y a 14 ans pour travailler au CERN (1 page).

  5. LE MARCHE MONDIAL DU VIN ET LES NOUVELLES ORIENTATIONS DU MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epuran Gheorghe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le marché mondial du vin est caractérisé par un développement sans précédent en ce qui concerne la production, mais aussi l’aire géographique qu’il comprend. La surproduction qui a tendance ŕ dégénérer en une crise est due premičrement ŕ l’apparition de nouveaux acteurs sur ce marché, c’est-ŕ-dire les pays du nouveau monde du vin: les Etats-Unis, le Chili, l’Afrique de Sud, l’Australie. Dans ce contexte, les grands producteurs traditionnels de l’Europe sont soumis ŕ une forte pression concurrentielle aussi bien sur leurs marchés qu’ŕ l’extérieur. Męme si en matičre d’image et de notoriété les vins de ces pays sont restés encore trčs connus, les pays du nouveau monde des vins ont réussi, par un marketing «ŕ l’américain», ŕ pénétrer en force sur plusieurs marchés, inclusivement sur les pays qui étaient pas traditionnellement consommateurs de vins (la Russie, la Chine, etc..

  6. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  7. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  8. An adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Hu; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ren, Rui-Peng; Lv, Yong-Kang

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and Alcaligenes faecalis strain WY-01. In the system, up to 6000mg/L phenol could be completely degraded by WY-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/L. This is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wastewater containing such high concentrations of phenol. Moreover, the resin was regenerated during the biodegradation process without any additional manipulations, indicating the system was reusable. Furthermore, enzyme assay, gene expression patterns, HPLC-MS and gas chromatography analysis confirmed that phenol biodegradation accompanied with aerobic nitrifier denitrification process. Results imply that the reusable system provides a novel strategy for more efficient biodegradation of phenol and ammonium contained in some particular industrial wastewater.

  9. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  10. Role of Du Channel in Treating Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The author believes that senile dementia is very closely related to not only deficiency of the liver and kidney, but also Eight Extra Channels, Du Channel in particular. Nourishing the liver and kidney and clearing Du Channel in the treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  11. Cyber Dhaba: un kiosque internet en Inde du Nord

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Il y a deux ans, l'association Orient Yourself installait un PC connecté sous un banyan sacré, dans un village agricole du Rajasthan (Inde du Nord). Claire Dixsaut dirige ELSE, elle est membre fondateur de l'association Orient Yourself.

  12. Le pari du numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Durand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En lançant ce premier numéro du Ceriscope, le Centre de recherches et d’études internationales (CERI et l’Atelier de cartographie de Sciences Po ont conscience de relever un défi. Engagés dans l’analyse scientifique des sociétés du monde, le CERI, en tant que centre de recherche, et l’Atelier de cartographie, en sa qualité de concepteurs de cartes, entendent faire accéder un grand nombre de lecteurs à leurs productions en utilisant la gratuité d’Internet. L’avantage d’une publication en ligne par rapport au livre papier ne se résume évidemment pas à la gratuité. Elle permet en effet un usage plus souple de la lecture en autorisant, grâce à l’indexation par mots clés, une recherche à l’intérieur des textes. Elle offre ensuite une rapidité de mise à jour des connaissances qui, compte tenu de l’évolution de l’économie et des sociétés, sont vite touchées par l’obsolescence. Les contributions mises en ligne seront ainsi actualisées et de nouvelles publications pourront les développer et les enrichir au fil du temps. La publication en ligne permet enfin les réactions des lecteurs qui deviennent ainsi des « acteurs » de la publication.

  13. Le devenir actif du corps affectif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Séverac

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de saisir ce que signifie, pour le corps, être actif. À partir de la proposition 49 de la partie IV de l’Éthique, on propose de distinguer deux manières d’appréhender le corps – soit comme corps organique, soit comme corps affectif -, et l’on montre que la question éthique du devenir actif s’adresse à la dimension affective du corps. Il faut penser le devenir actif du corps affectif comme augmentation de son aptitude non seulement à affecter, mais aussi à être affecté. En effet, être affecté pour le corps n’est pas identique à pâtir : au contraire, plus est grande l’ouverture sensible d’un corps aux autres corps, plus est grande son activité éthique.The aim of this paper is to understand how the body can be active. With the proposition 49 of the fourth part of Ethics, two ways of conceiving of the body are distinguished : like an organic body or like an affective body. The ethics question of becoming active is about the affective body. This becoming active must be understood as increasing of the ability to affect, as well as to be affected. To be affected is different from to be passive. On the contrary, the more the body is able to be affected, the more he becomes active.

  14. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  15. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Gerstmann, U.; Schimmack, W.; Szymczak, W.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting

  16. Perception de la gestion du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex landscape management instruments based on a dynamic, innovative land-conservation paradigm and spatial zoning to provide for graded intensity of protection and human use are being implemented in the newer generation of biosphere reserves and biosphere parks. The multifunctionality of these exemplary landscapes with sustainable development is a great challenge; it also offers considerable potential for conflict. This paper intends to demonstrate the extent to which multifunctionality has been realised in the alpine Großes Walsertal Biosphere Park, and how the local population perceive the quality of their park five years after it was created. Landscape management efforts in the Großes Walsertal were monitored by accompanying regional-economic and perceptional studies, resulting in a discussion of required future actions.Des instruments complexes de gestion du paysage, fondés sur un paradigme dynamique et innovant de conservation ainsi que sur un zonage de l’espace visant à réguler la protection du territoire et son utilisation par l’homme, ont été mis en œuvre dans la dernière génération de réserves de biosphère et de parcs. La multifonctionnalité de ces paysages exemplaires du développement durable constitue un défi majeur, mais représente également une importante source de conflits. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer dans quelle mesure la notion de multifonctionnalité a été appliquée à la réserve de biosphère alpine de Grosse Walsertal et d’évaluer comment la population locale perçoit la qualité de son parc, cinq ans après sa création. Les efforts de gestion du paysage dans la réserve de Grosse Walsertal ont été évalués par des études économiques régionales et par des enquêtes de perception, à l’origine d’un débat sur les actions futures à mettre en place.

  17. QUELQUES RESULTATS SUR LA COMMANDE DU CHEMOSTAT

    OpenAIRE

    ROBLEDO VELOSO, GONZALO

    2006-01-01

    L'Introduction est essentiellement consacrée á dresser un aperçu de la modélisation de quelques processus biologiques dans le chemostat, á introduire les notions de base de la théorie de la comniande (commandabilité, stabilisation asymptotique, ensemble atteignable) et á montrer á quoi elles correspondent dans le cas spécifique du chemostat. Pour cela nous avons partagé l'introduction en deux parties: la premiére partie décrit le modéle de compétition dans le chemostat (section 1.1) ...

  18. Modos de ver. Du Bois y Fanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mezzadra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sovereignty of glance and the primacy of sight represent the Western modern culture far beyond its artistic expression, organizing its philosophical and political conceptuality. They deeply influence the way in which subjects are conceived and constructed in Western modernity. This is the point of departure of the long-distance dialogue between W. E. B. Du Bois and Frantz Fanon staged in the article. Their political thought and militancy developed against the background of experiences – such as slavery and colonialism – characterized by process of construction of subjectivities which appear as “anomalous” with regard to the “standards” set by Modernity.

  19. Luminescence de transfert de charge dans les composés oxyfluorés du molybdène, du tungstène, du niobum et du tantale

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong Jie

    1993-01-01

    Non disponible; Les caractéristique de la luminescence de transfert de charge de composés oxifluorés du niobium, du tantale, du molybdène et du tungstène ont été déterminées. L'influence de la coordinence de l'élément de transition et du mode d'assemblage des polyèdres de coordination a été examinée. Contrairement aux oxydes homologués, les phases comportant des ions alcalins peuvent présenter un rendement de luminescence élevé à 300 K lorsque les groupements oxifluorés sont isolés (ex. K3NbO...

  20. Festival du rire de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Connaissez-vous le Festival du rire de Genève ? La deuxième édition aura lieu du 25 au 28 mars 2015 au Casino-Théâtre à Carouge. Côté programmation, Marc Donnet-Monay ouvre les festivités avant trois autres soirées de folie et d’humour que nous vous laissons le soin de découvrir dans le programme : http://www.rire-geneve.ch/#programme. Réduction de 30% sur l’achat de places pour les membres du personnel du CERN. Pour cela, il suffit de se rendre sur la billetterie en ligne de notre site : www.rire-geneve.ch et d’utiliser le code promotionnel. Contacter le secrétariat de l’Association du personnel (Staff.Association@cern.ch) pour connaitre ce code promotionnel.