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Sample records for biodegradable pha copolymers

  1. PLA/PHA-Biodegradable Blends for Pneumothermic Fabrication of Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuman Krzysztofa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of research concerning fabrication of nonwovens from biodegradable polymer blends using the melt-blown method. The experiments performed within the framework of the research confirmed the possibility of obtaining polymer composites based on polylactide (PLA with poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHA and another aliphatic-aromatic copolyester. The obtained products were subjected to the analyses of chemical structure using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR Attenuated Total Reflectance(ATR method. The physical and mechanical properties of the fabricated nonwoven layers were also tested, which confirmed a wide spectrum of their applicability, depending on the polymer composition used in production.

  2. Up-cycling of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to the biodegradable plastic PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Shane T; Runic, Jasmina Nikodinovic; Kaminsky, Walter; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Keely, Chris M; Blau, Werner; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-10-15

    The conversion of the petrochemical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to a biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyal-kanoate (PHA) is described here. PET was pyrolised at 450 degrees C resulting in the production of a solid, liquid, and gaseous fraction. The liquid and gaseous fractions were burnt for energy recovery, whereas the solid fraction terephthalic acid (TA) was used as the feedstock for bacterial production of PHA. Strains previously reported to grow on TA were unable to accumulate PHA. We therefore isolated bacteria from soil exposed to PET granules at a PET bottle processing plant From the 32 strains isolated, three strains capable of accumulation of medium chain length PHA (mclPHA) from TA as a sole source of carbon and energy were selected for further study. These isolates were identified using 16S rDNA techniques as P. putida (GO16), P. putida (GO19), and P. frederiksbergensis (GO23). P. putida GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA composed predominantly of a 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer while P. frederiksbergensis GO23 accumulates 3-hydroxydecanoic acid as the predominant monomer with increased amounts of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid compared to the other two strains. PHA was detected in all three strains when nitrogen depleted below detectable levels in the growth medium. Strains GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA at a maximal rate of approximately 8.4 mg PHA/l/h for 12 h before the rate of PHA accumulation decreased dramatically. Strain GO23 accumulates PHA at a lower maximal rate of 4.4 mg PHA/l/h but there was no slow down in the rate of PHA accumulation over time. Each of the PHA polymers is a thermoplastic with the onset of thermal degradation occurring around 308 degrees C with the complete degradation occurring by 370 degrees C. The molecular weight ranged from 74 to 123 kDa. X-ray diffraction indicated crystallinity of the order of 18-31%. Thermal analysis shows a low glass transition (-53 degrees C) with a broad melting

  3. Novel polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers produced in Pseudomonas putida by metagenomic polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterially produced biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with versatile properties can be achieved using different PHA synthases (PhaCs). This work aims to expand the diversity of known PhaCs via functional metagenomics and demonstrates the use of these novel enzymes in PHA production. Complementation of a PHA synthesis-deficient Pseudomonas putida strain with a soil metagenomic cosmid library retrieved 27 clones expressing either class I, class II, or unclassified PHA synthases, and many did not have close sequence matches to known PhaCs. The composition of PHA produced by these clones was dependent on both the supplied growth substrates and the nature of the PHA synthase, with various combinations of short-chain-length (SCL) and medium-chain-length (MCL) PHA. These data demonstrate the ability to isolate diverse genes for PHA synthesis by functional metagenomics and their use for the production of a variety of PHA polymer and copolymer mixtures.

  4. Biodegradable and Biocompatible Polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHA: Auspicious Microbial Macromolecules for Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are bio-based microbial biopolyesters; their stiffness, elasticity, crystallinity and degradability are tunable by the monomeric composition, selection of microbial production strain, substrates, process parameters during production, and post-synthetic processing; they display biological alternatives for diverse technomers of petrochemical origin. This, together with the fact that their monomeric and oligomeric in vivo degradation products do not exert any toxic or elsewhere negative effect to living cells or tissue of humans or animals, makes them highly stimulating for various applications in the medical field. This article provides an overview of PHA application in the therapeutic, surgical and tissue engineering area, and reviews strategies to produce PHA at purity levels high enough to be used in vivo. Tested applications of differently composed PHA and advanced follow-up products as carrier materials for controlled in vivo release of anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics, as scaffolds for tissue engineering, as guidance conduits for nerve repair or as enhanced sutures, implants or meshes are discussed from both a biotechnological and a material-scientific perspective. The article also describes the use of traditional processing techniques for production of PHA-based medical devices, such as melt-spinning, melt extrusion, or solvent evaporation, and emerging processing techniques like 3D-printing, computer-aided wet-spinning, laser perforation, and electrospinning.

  5. Design of functionalized biodegradable PHA-based electrospun scaffolds meant for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Daniel; Ramier, Julien; Versace, Davy Louis; Renard, Estelle; Langlois, Valérie

    2017-07-25

    Modification of electrospun nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-based mats was implemented through two routes to obtain biomimetic scaffolds meant for tissue engineering applications. The first strategy relied on a physical functionalization of scaffolds thanks to an original route which combined both electrospinning and electrospraying, while the second approach implied the chemical modification of fiber surface via the introduction of reactive functional groups to further conjugate bioactive molecules. The degree of glycidyl methacrylate grafting on PHA reached 20% after 300s under photoactivation. Epoxy groups were modified via the attachment of a peptide sequence, such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), to obtain biofunctionalized scaffolds. SEM and TEM analysis of mats showed uniform and well-oriented beadless fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying tandem process afforded highly porous scaffolds characterized by a porosity ratio up to 83% and fibers with a surface largely covered by the electrosprayed bioceramic, i.e. hydroxyapatite. Gelatin was added to the latter PHA-based scaffolds to improve the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds (water contact angle about 0°) as well as their biological properties, in particular cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation after 5days of human mesenchymal stromal culture. Human mesenchymal stromal cells exhibited a better adhesion and proliferation on the biofunctionalized scaffolds than that on non-functionalized PHA mats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodegradation of polystyrene-graft-starch copolymers in three different types of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Vladimir; Velickovic, Sava; Popovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Materials based on polystyrene and starch copolymers are used in food packaging, water pollution treatment, and textile industry, and their biodegradability is a desired characteristic. In order to examine the degradation patterns of modified, biodegradable derivates of polystyrene, which may keep its excellent technical features but be more environmentally friendly at the same time, polystyrene-graft-starch biomaterials obtained by emulsion polymerization in the presence of new type of initiator/activator pair (potassium persulfate/different amines) were subjected to 6-month biodegradation by burial method in three different types of commercially available soils: soil rich in humus and soil for cactus and orchid growing. Biodegradation was monitored by mass decrease, and the highest degradation rate was achieved in soil for cactus growing (81.30%). Statistical analysis proved that microorganisms in different soil samples have different ability of biodegradation, and there is a significant negative correlation between the share of polystyrene in copolymer and degree of biodegradation. Grafting of polystyrene on starch on one hand prevents complete degradation of starch that is present (with maximal percentage of degraded starch ranging from 55 to 93%), while on the other hand there is an upper limit of share of polystyrene in the copolymer (ranging from 37 to 77%) that is preventing biodegradation of degradable part of copolymers.

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  8. Comparison of four phaC genes from Haloferax mediterranei and their function in different PHBV copolymer biosyntheses in Haloarcula hispanica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Jing; Li, Ming; Hou, Jing

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei is able to accumulate large amounts of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) with high molar fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) from unrelated carbon sources. A Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase composed of two subunits......, PhaCHme and PhaEHme, has been identified in this strain, and shown to account for the PHBV biosynthesis. RESULTS: With the aid of the genome sequence of Hfx. mediterranei CGMCC 1.2087, three additional phaC genes (designated phaC1, phaC2, and phaC3) were identified, which encoded putative PhaCs. Like...

  9. Pickering emulsions stabilized by biodegradable block copolymer micelles for controlled topical drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Chevalier, Yves

    2017-10-05

    Surfactant-free biocompatible and biodegradable Pickering emulsions were investigated as vehicles for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. O/w emulsions of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil droplets loaded with all-trans retinol as a model hydrophobic drug were stabilized by block copolymer nanoparticles: either poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) or poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG). Those innovative emulsions were prepared using two different processes allowing drug loading either inside oil droplets or inside both oil droplets and non-adsorbed block copolymer nanoparticles. Skin absorption of retinol was investigated in vitro on pig skin biopsies using the Franz cell method. Supplementary experiments by confocal fluorescence microscopy allowed the visualization of skin absorption of the Nile Red dye on histological sections. Retinol and Nile Red absorption experiments showed the large accumulation of hydrophobic drugs in the stratum corneum for the Pickering emulsions compared to the surfactant-based emulsion and an oil solution. Loading drug inside both oil droplets and block copolymer nanoparticles enhanced again skin absorption of drugs, which was ascribed to the supplementary contribution of free block copolymer nanoparticles loaded with drug. Such effect allowed tuning drug delivery to skin over a wide range by means of a suitable selection of either the formulation or the drug loading process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Xintao; Wei, Min; Probeni, Francis; Bullions, Todd A.; Shin, I. Daniel; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2002-03-01

    A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25 C. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was examined by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXD and was found to be much more homogeneosly organized, with much less segregation and crystallinity of the PCL and PLLA microphases. The morpholgy, crystallization kinetics, thermal behavior, and biodegradability of the coalesced PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was studied by comparison to similar observations made on as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA, PCL and PLLA homopolymers, and their solution-cast blend. The PCL and PLLA blocks are found to be more intimately mixed, with less phase segregation, in the coalesced diblock copolymer, and this leads to homogeneous bulk crystallization, which is not observed for the as-synthesized diblock copolymer. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was also found to be more quickly biodegraded (lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus)than the as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA or the physical blend of PCL and PLLA homopolymers. Overall, the coalescence of the inherently phase segregated diblock copolymer PCL-b-PLLA results in a small amount of compact, chain-extended PCL and PLLA crystals embedded in an amorphous phase, largely consisting of well-mixed PCL and PLLA blocks. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to control the morpholgy of a biodegradable diblock copolymer, thereby significantly modifying it's properties, by coalescence from it's CD-IC crystals.

  11. Tailored protein release from biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone-PEG)- b-poly(ε-caprolactone) multiblock-copolymer implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stankovic, Milica; Tomar, Jasmine; Hiemstra, Christine; Steendam, Rob; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    In this study, the in vitro release of proteins from novel, biodegradable phase-separated poly(ε-caprolactone-PEG)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone), [PCL-PEG]-b-[PCL]) multiblock copolymers with different block ratios and with a low melting temperature (49-55 °C) was studied. The effect of block ratio and

  12. UV-irradiated biodegradability of ethylene--propylene copolymers, LDPE, and I-PP in composting and culture environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J K; Singh, R P

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradability of UV-irradiated films of ethylene--propylene copolymers (E--P copolymer), isotactic polypropylene (i-PP), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), was measured in composting and culture environments by monitoring the variations in intrinsic viscosity [eta], weight loss per surface area, surface changes by SEM, colonization of fungus, chain scission, and evolution of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups by FT-IR spectroscopy. Photooxidation was used as a pretreatment for biodegradation of polymers. A systematic decrease in intrinsic viscosity [eta] and increase in carbonyl/hydroxyl regions in FT-IR spectra was found from 0 to 100-h irradiated samples. The degradation rate was strongly dependent on the composition of copolymers and markedly increased with decrease in ethylene content. Important surface erosion was detected after composting by SEM for longer UV-irradiated samples. It was estimated that chain-scission was directly related to photoirradiation.

  13. Tailored biodegradable triblock copolymer coatings obtained by MAPLE: a parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajnicov, S.; Neacsu, P.; Moldovan, A.; Marascu, V.; Bonciu, A.; Ion, R.; Dinca, V.; Cimpean, A.; Dinescu, M.

    2017-11-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable coatings with controllable and tailored chemical and physical characteristics (i.e. morphology and roughness) are of great interest in bone related research applications. Within this research direction, in this work, a series of novel biodegradable coatings based on triblock copolymers poly(lactide- co-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene-glycol)-block-poly(lactide- co-caprolactone) (PLCL-PEG-PLCL) were obtained by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and their morphological characteristics and roughness were modulated by varying target composition and laser fluence. The coatings were used for preliminary in vitro testing with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. It was found that for a specific range of fluences, the main functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited thin films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are similar to the molecular structures of the initial material. Depending on the deposition parameters, significant changes in morphologies, i.e. material accumulation in the form of droplets, wrinkles, or carpet-like structures were revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy. The optimized coating characteristics were further correlated to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts response. The ability to control the morphology and to maintain unaltered the chemistry of the deposited material through MAPLE is an important step in creating functional bio-interfaces in the field of biomedical research and tissue engineering.

  14. Increased recovery and improved purity of PHA from recombinant Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Iqbal, Nurhezreen Md; Kumar, Sudesh; Al-Ashraf, Amirul

    2013-01-01

    A simple procedure for recovering biodegradable polymer from bacterial cells has been developed using economical and environmentally friendly solvent or chemicals. Recombinant bacterium, Cupriavidus necator harboring pBBR1MCS-C2 plasmid polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene was used for the production of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HHx) from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). NaOH was chosen in this study as it could give high purity and recovery yield. Increase of NaOH concentration had resulted in an increase of the PHA purity, but the recovery yield had decreased. The greater improvement of PHA purity and recovery were achieved by incubating the freeze-dried cells (10-30 g/L) in NaOH (0.1 M) for 1-3 h at 30°C and polishing using 20% (v/v) of ethanol. The treatment caused negligible degradation of the molecular weight of PHA recovered from the bacterial cells. The present review also highlights other extraction methods to provide greater insights into economical and sustainable recovery of PHA from bacterial cells.

  15. Synthesis of biodegradable amphiphilic Y-shaped block co-polymers via ring-opening polymerization for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Yan, Lifeng; Li, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel Y-shaped biodegradable block co-polymers of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) (PCL-(PEEP)2) were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of EEP with bis-hydroxy-functional ROP initiator (init-PCL-(OH)2). The init-PCL-(OH)2 was synthesized by ROP of CL using 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (HBA) as initiator and L-tartaric acid as catalyst in bulk, and subsequently the resulting vinyl-terminated PCL was end-capped by acetyl chloride, followed by Michael addition using excess diethanolamine. The Y-shaped co-polymers and their intermediates were characterized by (1)H-, (13)C-, (31)P-NMR, FT-IR and gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the Y-shaped co-polymers increased with the increasing of the molar ratios of EEP to init-PCL-(OH)2 in the feed, while the PCL chain length was kept constant. The amphiphilic block co-polymers could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution, which was demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, (1)H-NMR and atomic force microscopy. A study of controlled release of indomethacin indicated that the amphiphilic block co-polymers could potentially provide novel vehicles for drug delivery.

  16. Biodegradable hyperbranched amphiphilic polyurethane multiblock copolymers consisting of poly(propylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol), and polycaprolactone as in situ thermogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zibiao; Zhang, Zhongxing; Liu, Kerh Li; Ni, Xiping; Li, Jun

    2012-12-10

    synergetic hydrogen bonding effect. The thermogelling behavior of HBPEC block copolymers was further evidenced by the 1H NMR molecular dynamic study and rheological study, which further support the above hypothesis. The hydrolytic degradation study showed that the HBPEC copolymer hydrogels are biodegradable under physiological conditions. Together with the good cell biocompatibility demonstrated by the cytotoxicity study, the new thermogelling copolymers reported in this paper could potentially be used as in situ-forming hydrogels for biomedical applications.

  17. Effects of amphiphilic PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer addition on 5-fluorouracil release from biodegradable PCL films for stent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Lei, Lei; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Jing-Wen; Chen, Wei-Luan; Li, Yang-Gong; Guo, Sheng-Rong

    2011-10-31

    Biodegradable film-based stents emerged as a promising medical platform for drug delivery to resolve stenosis encountered in physiological conduits (e.g. blood vessels, biliary and urethral tracts). Drug release kinetics significantly affects the pharmacological effects of a stent, thus it is desirable for a stent to possess highly adjustable drug release kinetics. In this study, a series of amphiphilic poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymers were used as additives to adjust 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) release from PCL films. The effects of the copolymer addition on drug release behavior, drug permeability, crystalline states, and surface and internal morphologies of the films were investigated. It was found that, the addition of PCL-PEG-PCL could accelerate 5-FU release. The release rate of 5-FU increased with increasing content of PCL-PEG-PCL in the film, but it decreased with the ratio of PCL blocks in the PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. The diffusion test results showed that 5-FU diffused through the film containing PCL-PEG-PCL faster than it permeated through the pure PCL film, indicating that the addition of PCL-PEG-PCL can improve the permeability of 5-FU in PCL film. The addition of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer showed high drug-release-regulating ability in the 5-FU-loaded PCL films. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    exclusive of energy used in fermentation and melt processing) represents no net generation of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PHA polymers are...Instruments respirometers were used to measure carbon dioxide evolution (mineralization) as a function of time. Glucose , a known biodegradable...thermoplastics such as polystyrene and polyolefins.1 Since the starting raw material (sugar) is photosynthesized from carbon dioxide and water, the polymer

  19. New PHA products using unrelated carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Matias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are natural polyesters stored by a wide range of bacteria as carbon source reserve. Due to its chemical characteristics and biodegradability PHA can be used in chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industry for many human purposes. Over the past years, few Burkholderia species have become known for production of PHA. Aside from that, these bacteria seem to be interesting for discovering new PHA compositions which is important to different industrial applications. In this paper, we introduce two new strains which belong either to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc or genomovar-type, Burkholderia cepacia SA3J and Burkholderia contaminans I29B, both PHA producers from unrelated carbon sources. The classification was based on 16S rDNA and recA partial sequence genes and cell wall fatty acids composition. These two strains were capable to produce different types of PHA monomers or precursors. Unrelated carbon sources were used for growth and PHA accumulation. The amount of carbon source evaluated, or mixtures of them, was increased with every new experiment until it reaches eighteen carbon sources. As first bioprospection experiments staining methods were used with colony fluorescent dye Nile Red and the cell fluorescent dye Nile Blue A. Gas chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the PHA composition on each strain cultivated on different carbon sources. The synthesized polymers were composed by short chain length-PHA (scl-PHA, especially polyhydroxybutyrate, and medium chain length-PHA (mcl-PHA depending on the carbon source used.

  20. Polyethyleneimine-poly(ethylene glycol)-star-copolymers as efficient and biodegradable vectors for mammalian cell transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Gray, Peter; Max Lu, G Q

    2014-07-01

    High molecular weight (MW) polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been successfully used for the transfection of a broad variety of cell lines. In contrast to low MW PEI, which exhibits low transfection efficiencies but also low cytotoxicity, high MW PEI-mediated transfection achieves much higher efficiencies but at the cost of cell viability; therefore its use in commercial scale transfection and clinical application is limited. In this work we address this problem by constructing biodegradable high MW PEI mimics built from low MW PEI building blocks. The end-groups of small 5-arm star polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymers were decorated with linear oligo-ethyleneimine (OEI)/PEI arms of various MW via azomethine linkages. The resultant PEI-PEG-star-copolymers were investigated for their ability to complex plasmid DNA. Polymer/DNA complexes were characterized using techniques such as dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Having established their cytotoxicity limits, they were tested as gene delivery vehicles for the transfection of suspension adapted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-S) cells under serum-free conditions and adherent human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) in serum containing medium. Our PEI-PEG-star-copolymers showed a reduced cytotoxicity compared to high MW PEI while maintaining the ability to complex plasmid DNA and transfect mammalian cells, with significant transfection efficiencies. The effects of the optimum parameters on the transfection of mammalian cells using such novel polymers are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Microbial production of polyhydroxy alkanotes (PHA) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Plastics have resistance to biological breakdown that result in its accumulation in the environment. This emphasizes the need to search for biodegradable polymer, which is easily disposable and degradable. Bacteria synthesize and accumulate polyhydroxy alkanote (PHA) as carbon source under.

  2. PHA Production in Aerobic Mixed Microbial Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, K.

    2010-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a common intracellular energy and carbon storage material in bacteria, which is considered as a bioplastic due to its plastic like properties. PHAs are versatile materials which are biodegradable and made from renewable resources. Commercial production of PHAs is

  3. Effect of Magnetic Field on the Type and Amount of Monomers in Polyhydroxyalkanoate Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzie Fatehi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted on production of biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs in overcoming the environmental problems due to the accumulation of synthetic plastics as waste materials and excessive activated sludge produced in municipal waste water treatment plants. In this study; the effect of magnetic field intensity of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 milliTesla (mT was investigated on the type and amount of monomers produced in the copolymer and PHA production in activated sludge and the results were compared simultaneously with the results of PHA production without the magnetic field (0 mT. The experimental procedure included the transfer of the activated sludge into the batch reactor, addition of sodium acetate, magnetic field generation by magnets, aeration for 30 h, sampling at definite timing, measurement of PHA by gas chromatography. In summary, this research indicated that, the maximum PHA content was produced at 20 mT which was equal to 0.75 g/L, whereas the lowest PHA content was observed at 50 mT (0.55 g/L. In addition, the magnetic field was influenced by the type and amount of monomer produced in PHA. The highest amount of valerate was observed at 50 mT, while this magnetic field decreased the amount of PHA (8.33% compared to the control sample. Also, the maximum amount of butyrate monomer in the copolymer was observed at 5 and 20 mT, which were equal to 81% and 74 %. According to the results obtained, the mass percentage of valerate in the control sample and those exposed to magnetic field with negative effects was more than the mass percentage of butyrate; an indication of better copolymers on the basis of their mechanical properties.

  4. Antibiotics-free stable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from carbon dioxide by recombinant cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hideo; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Takuo; Kanai, Shozo; Hirano, Masahiko; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2011-12-01

    A practical antibiotics-free plasmid expression system in cyanobacteria was developed by using the complementation of cyanobacterial recA null mutation with the EscherichiacolirecA gene on the plasmid. This system was applied to the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a biodegradable plastic, and the transgenic cyanobacteria stably maintained the pha genes for PHA production in the antibiotics-free medium, and accumulated up to 52% cell dry weight of PHA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of novel biodegradable cross-linked co-polymers based on poly(propylene oxide) diglycidylether and polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunsheng; Wang, Jing; Wong, Cynthia S; Halley, Peter J; Guo, Qipeng

    2011-01-01

    Novel biodegradable cross-linked co-polymers were prepared from poly(propylene glycol) diglycidylether (PPGDGE) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI). PPGDGE and PEI were mixed at ambient temperature with varying PEI concentrations of 10, 15, 18.5, 25, 30, 40 and 50 wt%; the homogenous PPGDGE/PEI mixtures obtained were cured at elevated temperatures, resulting in formation of PPG-PEI cross-linked co-polymers via ring-opening reaction of PPGDGE with PEI. The physicochemical and biological properties of these co-polymers were dependent on the PEI content and the extent of curing reaction. The glass transition temperature of PPG-PEI cross-linked co-polymers varied in the range from -14 to +42°C, while the co-polymers displayed composition-dependent mechanical behavior, from brittle to ductile with increasing PEI content from 18.5 wt% to 40 wt%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured on the PPG-PEI co-polymers; the MTT assay was used to measure cell viability and determine the cytotoxicity. The cell viability rate, relative to tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS), increased from 49% to 125% with increasing PEI content from 18.5 wt% to 40 wt%. Although epoxy monomers usually exhibit cytotoxicity, the epoxy groups were exhausted via curing reaction in the fully cross-linked co-polymers. The PEI-cured PPG epoxy resin, i.e., PPG-PEI cross-linked co-polymers obtained in this study, showed excellent biocompatibility.

  6. MANUFACTURING BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYETHYLENE AND FUNCTIONALIZED BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Shabarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The continuous growth of production and consumption of plastic packaging creates a serious problem of disposal of package. This problem has ecological character, because the contents of the landfills decompose for decades, emit toxic com¬pounds and pollute the environment. The work is devoted to obtaining and investigation mechanical and rheological properties of biodegradable composite materials based on polyethylene and starch. Materials and Methods. In this work the author used polyethylene grade HDPE 273- 83 (GOST 16338-85, Sevilen brand 12206-007 (TU 6-05-1636-97 and potato starch (GOST 53876-2010 as a filler. Functionalization of sevilen was carried in the 30 % ethanol solution KOH at a temperature 80 °C during 3 hours. Compounding components was carried out at the laboratory of the two rotary mixer HAAKE PolyLab Rheomix 600 OS with rotors Banbury. Formation of plates for elastic strength and rheological studies were carried out on a hydraulic press Gibitre. Elastic and strength tests were carried out on the tensile machine the UAI-7000 M. Rheology tests were carried out on the rheometer Haake MARS III. The humidity filler (starch authors determined by the thermogravimetric method on the analyzer of moisture “Evlas-2M”. Results. It is shown, that the filler should not contain more than 7% moisture. Functionalization of ethylene with vinyl acetate copolymer (sevilen has performed by the method of alkaline alcoholysis. By the method of IC – spectroscopy the authors confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the polymer. Using as a compatibilizer functionalized by the method of alcoholises has greatly ( significantly improved physical, mechanical and rheological properties of composite materials. Optimal content of sevilen (F in the compound according to the results of experiments amount 10 %. Discussion and Conclusions. Using of functionalized by the method of alcoholysis ethy-lene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a

  7. Selective adsorption of Pb (II) ions by amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid): A bio-degradable graft copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Dinabandhu; Maity, Jayanta; Kolya, Haradhan; Tripathy, Tridib

    2017-04-01

    Amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [AP-g-poly (AM-co-AA)] was synthesised in water medium by using potassium perdisulphate as an initiator. The graft copolymer was characterized by molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies, thermal analysis, measurement of neutralisation equivalent and biodegradation studies. The graft copolymer was used for Pb (II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The Pb (II) ion removal capacity of the graft copolymer was also compared with another laboratory developed graft copolymer Amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide) (AP-g-PAM). Both the graft copolymers were also used for the competitive metal ions removal with Pb (II)/Cd (II), Pb (II)/Zn (II), Pb (II)/Ni (II), Pb (II)/Cu (II) pairs separately under similar conditions. AP-g-poly (AM-co-AA) showed better Pb (II) ion adsorbing power over AP-g-PAM and also much selective towards Pb (II) ions. The adsorption follows a second order rate equation and Langmuir isotherm model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly(CL/DLLA-b-CL multiblock copolymers as biodegradable thermoplastic elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid and ∑-caprolactone based polymers and their derivates are widely used in biomedical applications. Different properties are introduced by modifying the composition. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone/D,L-lactide-b-poly(ε-caprolactone multiblock copolymers were synthesized as poly(ester-urethanes (PEUs by polymerizing in two steps involving ring-opening polymerization of precursors and by diisocyanate linking of precursors to produce thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs. The precursors and products were characterized by SEC, 1H-NMR and DSC, and dynamic mechanical study (by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA as well as morphological characterization (by transmission electron microscopy, TEM of the product TPEs was carried out. Tensile and creep recovery properties of them were also studied. According to the characterizations, all the polymerizations were successful, and the prepared TPEs showed clear elastic behavior. In the DMA scans, rubbery plateau in the storage modulus curves between Tg and terminal flow region was clearly detectable indicating elasticity. The TEM images demonstrated phase separation of amorphous and crystalline blocks when the degree of crystallinity of the hard blocks was high enough. The elongations of TPEs varied between 800–1800%, while the modulus was 7–66 MPa. Two different types of recovery tests indicated the creep properties of TPEs to be highly dependent on the degree of crystallinity.

  9. Biodegradable gadolinium-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers for gene transfection and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Gangmin; Shi, Ting; Shao, Zhihong; Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu; Ren, Jie; Lin, Chao; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nano-polyplexes containing gene and imaging agents hold a great promise for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we develop a group of new gadolinium (Gd)-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide)s for gene delivery and T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cationic poly(urethane amide)s (denoted as CPUAs) having multiple disulfide bonds, urethane and amide linkages were synthesized by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and a mixture of di(4-nitrophenyl)-2, 2′-dithiodiethanocarbonate (DTDE-PNC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride at varied molar ratios. Then, Gd-chelated CPUAs (denoted as GdCPUAs) were produced by chelating Gd(III) ions with DTPA residues of CPUAs. These GdCPUAs could condense gene into nanosized and positively-charged polyplexes in a physiological condition and, however, liberated gene in an intracellular reductive environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the GdCPUA at a DTDE-PNC/DTPA residue molar ratio of 85/15 induced the highest transfection efficiency in different cancer cells. This efficiency was higher than that yielded with 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine as a positive control. GdCPUAs and their polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity when an optimal transfection activity was detected. Moreover, GdCPUAs may serve as contrast agents for T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The results of this work indicate that biodegradable Gd-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers have high potential for tumor theranostics. - Highlights: • Novel cationic gadolinium-chelated poly(urethane amide)s (GdCPUAs) are prepared. • GdCPUAs can induce a high transfection efficacy in different cancer cells. • GdCPUAs reveal good cyto-compatibility against cancer cells. • GdCPUAs may be applied as T 1 -contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. • GdCPUAs hold high potential for cancer theranostics.

  10. Development and optimization of a tumor targeting system based on microbial synthesized PHA biopolymers and PhaP mediated functional modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Wang, Leilei; Ouyang, Zhenlin; Wen, Yurong; Lu, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a class of microbial synthesized biodegradable and biocompatible aliphatic polymer which has been developed into nanoparticles (NPs) for sustained release of hydrophobic compounds. Taking advantage of the natural PHA binding protein PhaP which could be steadily adsorbed onto PHA NPs through hydrophobic interaction, a tumor targeting system was developed in this study by presenting an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide (ETP) on the surface of PHA NPs, via PhaP mediated adsorption. To reveal the effects of residual emulsifiers on PhaP mediated ETP modification and optimize the tumor targeting capacity of the system, a novel emulsifier-free PHA NPs (EF-NPs) was fabricated together with other two kinds of conventional emulsifier-required PHA NPs (PVA-NPs and P68-NPs, which were prepared with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Pluronic F68 as emulsifiers, respectively). By analyzing the surface hydrophobicity, the amount of adsorbed fusion protein, and the cellular uptake of all kinds of PHA NPs, our results demonstrated that EF-NPs with stronger surface hydrophobicity were the most proper formulation for further PhaP mediated ETP functionalization. The residual PVA and Pluronic F68 affected the modification efficiency and secondary structure of ETP-PhaP fusion protein, and finally obstructed the targeting effect of ETP-PhaP modified PVA-NPs and P68-NPs to EGFR over-expressed tumor cells. The animal experiment further confirmed the effectiveness and feasibility of in vivo application of ETP-PhaP functionalized EF-NPs, indicating that it could be served as a promising tumor targeting system with satisfactory EGFR targeting ability. This PhaP mediated bio-modification process also opens a wide way for developing various PHA-based targeting systems by presenting different tumor or other tissue-specific targeting peptides.

  11. Biodegradable gadolinium-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers for gene transfection and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiaolong [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065 (China); Wang, Gangmin [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Shi, Ting [The Institute for Translational Nanomedicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nanoscience, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Zhihong [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065 (China); Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu [The Institute for Translational Nanomedicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nanoscience, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ren, Jie [Institute of Nano and Biopolymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Lin, Chao, E-mail: chaolin@tongji.edu.cn [The Institute for Translational Nanomedicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nanoscience, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Peijun, E-mail: tjpjwang@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Theranostic nano-polyplexes containing gene and imaging agents hold a great promise for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we develop a group of new gadolinium (Gd)-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide)s for gene delivery and T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cationic poly(urethane amide)s (denoted as CPUAs) having multiple disulfide bonds, urethane and amide linkages were synthesized by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and a mixture of di(4-nitrophenyl)-2, 2′-dithiodiethanocarbonate (DTDE-PNC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride at varied molar ratios. Then, Gd-chelated CPUAs (denoted as GdCPUAs) were produced by chelating Gd(III) ions with DTPA residues of CPUAs. These GdCPUAs could condense gene into nanosized and positively-charged polyplexes in a physiological condition and, however, liberated gene in an intracellular reductive environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the GdCPUA at a DTDE-PNC/DTPA residue molar ratio of 85/15 induced the highest transfection efficiency in different cancer cells. This efficiency was higher than that yielded with 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine as a positive control. GdCPUAs and their polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity when an optimal transfection activity was detected. Moreover, GdCPUAs may serve as contrast agents for T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The results of this work indicate that biodegradable Gd-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers have high potential for tumor theranostics. - Highlights: • Novel cationic gadolinium-chelated poly(urethane amide)s (GdCPUAs) are prepared. • GdCPUAs can induce a high transfection efficacy in different cancer cells. • GdCPUAs reveal good cyto-compatibility against cancer cells. • GdCPUAs may be applied as T{sub 1}-contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. • GdCPUAs hold high potential for cancer theranostics.

  12. Miscibility, crystallization and mechanical properties of biodegradable blends of poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) multiblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Ling; Huang, Cai-Li; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The blend of PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility. ► The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated by blending with PBES. ► The crystal structures of PLLA and PBES did not change. - Abstract: Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is regarded as one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers. However, its application was restricted due to the brittle nature. In the present study, PLLA was blended with a novel biodegradable flexible multiblock copolymer, poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) (PBES) to produce new biodegradable materials. PLLA/PBES blends with different composition were prepared by solution blending and casting method with chloroform as a mutual solvent. Miscibility, crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and tensile tests. The results indicated that PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility in the amorphous phase. The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated with the increase of PBES in the blends while the crystallization mechanism did not change. The results of tensile tests suggest that the blends showed longer elongation at break than neat PLLA. The elongation at break of PLLA was obtained to be 10%, and those of PLLA/PBES 80/20, 60/40, 40/60 and 20/80 were 29, 110, 442, and 455%, respectively.

  13. Carbon-rich wastes as feedstocks for biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production using bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh; Werker, Alan; O Connor, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Research into the production of biodegradable polymers has been driven by vision for the most part from changes in policy, in Europe and America. These policies have their origins in the Brundtland Report of 1987, which provides a platform for a more sustainable society. Biodegradable polymers are part of the emerging portfolio of renewable raw materials seeking to deliver environmental, social, and economic benefits. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally-occurring biodegradable-polyesters accumulated by bacteria usually in response to inorganic nutrient limitation in the presence of excess carbon. Most of the early research into PHA accumulation and technology development for industrial-scale production was undertaken using virgin starting materials. For example, polyhydroxybutyrate and copolymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate are produced today at industrial scale from corn-derived glucose. However, in recent years, research has been undertaken to convert domestic and industrial wastes to PHA. These wastes in today's context are residuals seen by a growing body of stakeholders as platform resources for a biobased society. In the present review, we consider residuals from food, plastic, forest and lignocellulosic, and biodiesel manufacturing (glycerol). Thus, this review seeks to gain perspective of opportunities from literature reporting the production of PHA from carbon-rich residuals as feedstocks. A discussion on approaches and context for PHA production with reference to pure- and mixed-culture technologies is provided. Literature reports advocate results of the promise of waste conversion to PHA. However, the vast majority of studies on waste to PHA is at laboratory scale. The questions of surmounting the technical and political hurdles to industrialization are generally left unanswered. There are a limited number of studies that have progressed into fermentors and a dearth of pilot-scale demonstration. A number of fermentation studies show

  14. Acute toxicity evaluation of in situ gel-forming controlled drug delivery system based on biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Fang; Gong Changyang; Dong Pengwei; Fu Shaozhi; Gu Yingchun; Guo Gang; Zhao Xia; Wei Yuquan; Qian Zhiyong, E-mail: anderson-qian@163.co, E-mail: zhiyongqian@scu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymer was synthesized, and was characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and GPC. The PCL-PEG-PCL/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution displayed in situ gelling behavior when subcutaneously injected into the body. Toxicity tests and a histopathological study were performed in BALB/c mice. We focused mainly on acute organ toxicity of BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of subcutaneous injection was 5 g/kg body weight (b.w.), and the mice were observed continuously for 14 days. For the histopathological study, samples including heart, lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach and intestine were histochemically prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. No mortality or significant signs of toxicity were observed during the whole observation period, and there is no significant lesion to be shown in histopathological study of major organs in the mice. Therefore, the maximal tolerance dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by subcutaneous injection was calculated to be higher than 5 g/kg b.w. Therefore, the PCL-PEG-PCL/DMSO system was thought to be non-toxic after subcutaneous injection, and it might be a candidate for an in situ gelling controlled drug delivery system.

  15. Evaluating PHA productivity of bioengineered Rhodosprillum rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Jin

    Full Text Available This study explored the potential of using Rhodosprillum rubrum as the biological vehicle to convert chemically simple carbon precursors to a value-added bio-based product, the biopolymer PHA. R. rubrum strains were bioengineered to overexpress individually or in various combinations, six PHA biosynthetic genes (phaC1, phaA, phaB, phaC2, phaC3, and phaJ, and the resulting nine over-expressing strains were evaluated to assess the effect on PHA content, and the effect on growth. These experiments were designed to genetically evaluate: 1 the role of each apparently redundant PHA polymerase in determining PHA productivity; 2 identify the key gene(s within the pha biosynthetic operon that determines PHA productivity; and 3 the role of phaJ to support PHA productivity. The result of overexpressing each PHA polymerase-encoding gene indicates that phaC1 and phaC2 are significant contributors to PHA productivity, whereas phaC3 has little effect. Similarly, over-expressing individually or in combination the three PHA biosynthesis genes located in the pha operon indicates that phaB is the key determinant of PHA productivity. Finally, analogous experiments indicate that phaJ does not contribute significantly to PHA productivity. These bioengineering strains achieved PHA productivity of up to 30% of dry biomass, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the non-engineered control strain, indicating the feasibility of using this approach to produce value added bio-based products.

  16. Biodegradable blends of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) / polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) copolymer and its effects on rheological, thermal and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nitin K.

    Poly (Lactic acid) is the most important plastic derived from the renewable resources. PLA based products have extensively been used in the medical industry. However, PLA has a few disadvantages such as inherent brittleness and low toughness despite a high modulus. A focus of this experiment was to study the improvement in toughness of PLA and to study the changes in thermal and rheological properties by blending PLA with a PHB copolymer. Where, PLA and PHB copolymer were melt blended using a twin screw Brabender extruder in the ratios of 100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 0/100. Further, the blends were injection molded into tensile bar and impact bars for mechanical testing. Rheological properties were studied using a Galaxy capillary rheometer for melt viscosities and temperature dependence indicated a shear-thinning behavior along with power law model and consistency index. Blends were characterized to study the phase model using a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), showed two separate phases. Mechanical properties were analyzed using a Tensile and Izod impact test indicating decrease in elastic modulus with increase in toughness and elongation as the PHB copolymer content was increased in the blend.

  17. Characterization of a Bio-Based, Biodegradable Class of Copolymers, Poly[(R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-(R)-3- Hydroxyhexanoate], and Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Brian

    As modern society begins to focus on sustainability and renewable resources there is a growing need for the polymer industry to develop more environmentally friendly materials and practices. Part of this movement can be seen in the use of recycled materials in new products and in the development of bio-based, biodegradable polymers. Bio-based, biodegradable polymers are produced from renewable carbon sources, such as vegetable oils, typically polymerized using fermentation reactions via bacteria, and are able to be consumed by bacteria in landfills to completely convert the polymers to water and CO2. One class of such polymers are poly(hydroxyalkanoate)'s (PHAs), which are chiral, aliphatic polyesters. Within this class of polyesters are poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and the copolymer poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate- co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHx), which have received extensive study due to their material properties as thermoplastics. Although the properties of PHB have been widely explored, much still remains to be understood about these promising biodegradable polymers. Specifically, PHB and its copolymers exhibit physical gelation in most solvents, yet the origin and mechanism of gelation and the properties of the resulting gel state are unknown. This research effort was primarily focused on investigating the physical gel state of PHBHx. Five goals were laid out and completed: determining the origin of gelation, the mechanism of gelation, the structure of the gel state, the properties of the gel state, and the effects of gelation on electrospun fibers of PHBHx. These goals were achieved through material characterization of the gel state utilizing infrared spectroscopy/two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and many other analysis methods. Crystallization of the polymer in solution was found to cause gelation in PHBHx solutions, where the polymer crystals act as tie points forming

  18. How Stress Treatments Influence the Performance of Biodegradable Poly(Butylene Succinate-Based Copolymers with Thioether Linkages for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Siracusa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate (PBS-based random copolymers containing thioether linkages (P(BSxTDGSy of various compositions have been investigated and characterized from the gas barrier, thermal, and mechanical point of view, after food contact simulants or thermal and photoaging processes. Each stress treatment was performed on thin films and the results obtained have been compared to the same untreated film, used as a standard. Barrier properties with different gases (O2 and CO2 were evaluated, showing that the polymer chemical composition strongly influenced the permeability behavior. The relationships between the diffusion coefficients (D and solubility (S with polymer composition were also investigated. The results highlighted a correlation between polymer chemical structure and treatment. Gas transmission rate (GTR mainly depending on the performed treatment, as GTR increased with the increase of TDGS co-unit amount. Thermal and mechanical tests allowed for the recording of variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the tensile properties. An increase in the crystallinity degree was recorded after contact with simulant liquids and aging treatments, together with a molecular weight decrease, a slight enhancement of the elastic modulus and a decrement of the elongation at break, proportional to the TDGS co-unit content.

  19. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  20. Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saranya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05-75.5% was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%. Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli.

  1. Novel Amphiphilic, Biodegradable, Biocompatible, Thermo-Responsive ABA Triblock Copolymers Based on PCL and PEG Analogues via a Combination of ROP and RAFT: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sustained Drug Release from Self-Assembled Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined novel, linear, biodegradable, amphiphilic thermo-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers, poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol methacrylate]-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol methacrylate] [P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA-b-PCL-b-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA] (tBPs, were synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP of ε-caprolactone (εCL and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT of MEO2MA and OEGMA comonomers. The chemical structures and compositions of these copolymers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The molecular weights of the copolymers were obtained using gel permeation chromatography (GPC measurements. Thermo-responsive micelles were obtained by self-assembly of copolymers in aqueous medium. The temperature sensitivity and micelllization behavior of amphiphilic triblock copolymers solutions were studied by transmittance, fluorescence probe, surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A hydrophobic drug, anethole, was encapsulated in micelles by using the dialysis method. The average particle sizes of drug-loaded micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering measurement. In vitro, the sustained release of the anethole was performed in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at different temperatures. Results showed that the triblock copolymer’s micelles were quite effective in the encapsulation and controlled release of anethole. The vial inversion test demonstrated that the triblock copolymers could trigger the sol-gel transition which also depended on the temperature, and its sol-gel transition temperature gradually decreased with increasing concentration. The hydrogel system could also be used as a carrier of hydrophobic drugs in medicine.

  2. The Bistable Behaviour of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 during PHA Depolymerization under Carbon Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Karmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are bacterial polyesters offering a biodegradable alternative to petrochemical plastics. The intracellular formation and degradation of PHAs is a dynamic process that strongly depends on the availability of carbon and other nutrients. Carbon excess and nitrogen limitation are considered to favor PHA accumulation, whereas carbon limitation triggers PHA depolymerization when all other essential nutrients are present in excess. We studied the population dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 at the single cell level during different physiological conditions, favoring first PHA polymerization during growth on octanoic acid, and then PHA depolymerization during carbon limitation. PHAs accumulate intracellularly in granules, and were proposed to separate preferentially together with nucleic acids, leading to two daughter cells containing approximately equal amounts of PHA. However, we could show that such P. putida KT2440 cells show bistable behavior when exposed to carbon limitation, and separate into two subpopulations: one with high and one with low PHA. This suggests an asymmetric PHA distribution during cell division under carbon limitation, which has a significant influence on our understanding of PHA mobilization.

  3. Evaluation of cationic nanoparticles of biodegradable copolymers as siRNA delivery system for hepatitis B treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Feng, Si-Shen; Wang, Shu; Chen, Zhi-Ying

    2010-11-15

    Cationic nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactide) (PLA) have been shown to be promising carrier systems for DNA and siRNA delivery. However, the parameters which influence the transfection efficiency have not been investigated in details. In this work, four groups of cationic PLA-based nanoparticles were synthesized by the nanoprecipitation method and solvent evaporation method with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and chitosan as two types of surface coating materials. Cationic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-PEI, PLGA-chitosan and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide) (mPEG)-PLA/PEI, mPEG-PLA-chitosan nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size and size distribution by laser scattering, surface charge by zeta potential measurement, and surface chemistry by X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). The four type pg nanoparticles were compared for their interaction with siRNA and nanoparticles mediated siRNA transfection efficiency with a hepatitis B model, where the inhibition effects of the double strand RNA (dsRNA) mediated by the four types of nanoparticles were evaluated by measuring the HBsAg expression level. The highest inhibition effect of HBsAg (the surface antigen of the hepatitis B Virus (HBV), which indicates current hepatitis B infection) expression was achieved by the mPEG-PLA-PEI nanoparticles mediated siRNA transfection. The results demonstrated that the siRNA delivery follows a size and surface charge dependant manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acidogenic spent wash valorization through polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis coupled with fermentative biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2014-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus tequilensis biocatalyst using spent wash effluents as substrate was evaluated to increase the versatility of the existing PHA production process and reduce production cost. In this study, spent wash was used as a substrate for biohydrogen (H2) production and the resulting acidogenic effluents were subsequently employed as substrate for PHA production. Maximum H2 production of 39.8L and maximum PHA accumulation of 40% dry cell weight was attained. Good substrate removal associated with decrement in acidification (53% to 15%) indicates that the VFA generated were effectively utilized for PHA production. The PHA composition showed presence of copolymer [P (3HB-co-3HV)] with varying contents of hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate. The results obtained suggest that the use of spent wash effluents as substrate can considerably reduce the production cost of PHA with simultaneous waste valorization. PHA synthesis with B. tequilensis and spent wash effluents is reported for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PhaC Synthases and PHA Depolymerases: The Enzymes that Produce and Degrade Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro A. Amara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PHAs are a group of intracellular biodegradable polymer produced by (most bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. A series of enzymes are involved in different PHAs synthesis, however PhaC synthases are responsible for the polymerization step. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reduces equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by another pathways and enzymes for the degradation process. PHAs depolymerases are the responsible enzymes. This review is designed to give the non-specialists a condense background about PHAs especially for researcher and students in medicinal and pharmaceutical filled. ABSTRAK: PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoate merupakan sekumpulan polimer terbiodegradasikan intrasel yang dihasilkan oleh (kebanyakan bakteria di bawah keadaan tumbesaran tak seimbang. Satu rangkaian enzim terlibat dalam sistesis PHAs yang berbeza, namun sintesis PhaC bertanggungjawab dalam peringkat pempolimeran. PHAs dikumpulkan dalam sel bakteria dari bentuk larut dan tak larut sebagai bahan simpan di dalam jasad terangkum semasa nutrisi tak seimbang atau untuk menyelamatkan organisma daripada pengurangan tak keseimbangan. PHAs ditukarkan sekali lagi kepada komponen larut dengan cara lain dan enzim lain untuk proses degradasi. PHAs depoly-merases (enzim yang memangkin penguraian makro molekul kepada molekul yang lebih mudah merupakan enzim yang bertanggunjawab. Kajian semula ini direka untuk memberi mereka yang bukan pakar, satu ringkasan tentang PHAs terutamanya penyelidik dan penuntut dalam bidang peubatan dan farmaseutikal.

  6. Biodegradable glycopolymer-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) block copolymer micelles: Versatile construction, tailored lactose functionality, and hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Glycopolymer-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (GP-PCL) block copolymer micelles (‘glycomicelles’) with tailored lactose functionalities were developed and investigated for hepatoma-targeted doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Amphiphilic GP-PCL copolymers were readily prepared with controlled lactobionic acid (LBA)

  7. Mixed Culture PHA Production With Alternating Feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, C.S.S.; Duque, A.F.; Carvalho, Gilda

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics that can be obtained from industrial wastes/by-products using mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is commonly carried out in a 3-stage process consisting of an acidogenic stage, a PHA producing cultu...

  8. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi Yan; Dong, Cui Ling; Wang, Shen Yu; Ye, Hai Mu; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis genes phaPCJ(Ac) cloned from Aeromonas caviae were transformed into Pseudomonas putida KTOY06ΔC, a mutant of P. putida KT2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant P. putida KTOY06ΔC (phaPCJ(A.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length PHA block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp) as another block. The novel block polymer was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance, and rheology measurements. DSC studies showed the polymer to possess two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), one melting temperature (T(m)) and one cool crystallization temperature (T(c)). Rheology studies clearly indicated a polymer chain re-arrangement in the copolymer; these studies confirmed the polymer to be a block copolymer, with over 70 mol% homopolymer (PHB) of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) as one block and around 30 mol% random copolymers of 3HV and 3HHp as the second block. The block copolymer was shown to have the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus compared with a random copolymer with similar ratio and a blend of homopolymers PHB and PHVHHp with similar ratio. Compared with other commercially available PHA including PHB, PHBV, PHBHHx, and P3HB4HB, the short-chain- and medium-chain-length block copolymer PHB-b-PHVHHp showed differences in terms of mechanical properties and should draw more attentions from the PHA research community. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  9. Biodegradable polymers in Quebec; Les polymeres biodegradables au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Poly-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA) are natural polymers made from renewable resources and are easily recyclable, hydrolyzable and biodegradable. Thanks to genetic technologies, PHA can be synthesized from plants or bacteria and can be used in various domains ranging from the manufacturing of packing materials to medical applications. Moreover, their properties make them good substitutes of equivalent petroleum-derived compounds. This report makes a status of Quebec's research work on PHAs and presents the three main research centers in which such studies are carried out: the biotechnology research institute, the Mc Gill university and the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  10. Engineering bacteria for enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Ran

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw) and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth...

  11. Specific character of bacterial biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates with different chemical structure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikova, S V; Vinogradova, O N; Trusova, M Y

    2017-03-01

    The study addresses the influence of the physicochemical properties of the reserve cellular macromolecules (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) with different chemical composition on their biodegradation in the agro-transformed field soil of the Siberian region (Krasnoyarsk Territory, Russia). It was shown that the degradation of the PHA samples depends on the degree of polymer crystallinity (C x ). For the first time, it was shown that the range of PHA-degrading microorganisms differs for each of PHA types. The study defines the primary degraders specific to each PHA type and common to all types of examined polymers.

  12. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine(PLA-PEG-PLL as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine (PLA-PEG-PLL copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ε-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%. These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

  13. Synthesis, characterizations and biocompatibility of novel biodegradable star block copolymers based on poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2010-01-01

    Star block copolymers based on poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), termed SPHBCL, were successfully synthesized with structural variation on arm numbers and lengths via coupling reactions and ring opening polymerizations. Arm numbers 3, 4 and 6 of SPHBCL were s...

  14. Mixed Culture PHA Production With Alternating Feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, C.S.S.; Duque, A.F.; Carvalho, Gilda

    selection stage, and a PHA production phase. This work investigated the performance robustness and microbial population dynamics of a PHA producing MMC when subjected to a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario, from cheese whey to sugar cane molasses. Research was focused...

  15. Engineering bacteria for enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth of microorganisms as well as difficulty of downstream separation. Future engineering on PHA producing microorganisms should be focused on contamination resistant bacteria especially extremophiles, developments of engineering approaches for the extremophiles, increase on carbon substrates to PHA conversion and controlling Mw of PHA. The concept proof studies could still be conducted on E. coli or Pseudomonas spp. that are easily used for molecular manipulations. In this review, we will use E. coli and halophiles as examples to show how to engineer bacteria for enhanced PHA biosynthesis and for increasing PHA competitiveness.

  16. Engineering bacteria for enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Ran

    2017-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw) and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth of microorganisms as well as difficulty of downstream separation. Future engineering on PHA producing microorganisms should be focused on contamination resistant bacteria especially extremophiles, developments of engineering approaches for the extremophiles, increase on carbon substrates to PHA conversion and controlling Mw of PHA. The concept proof studies could still be conducted on E. coli or Pseudomonas spp. that are easily used for molecular manipulations. In this review, we will use E. coli and halophiles as examples to show how to engineer bacteria for enhanced PHA biosynthesis and for increasing PHA competitiveness.

  17. Influence of growth stage on activities of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA polymerase and PHA depolymerase in Pseudomonas putida U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinn Manfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium chain length (mcl- polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are synthesized by many bacteria in the cytoplasm as storage compounds for energy and carbon. The key enzymes for PHA metabolism are PHA polymerase (PhaC and depolymerase (PhaZ. Little is known of how mcl-PHA accumulation and degradation are controlled. It has been suggested that overall PHA metabolism is regulated by the β-oxidation pathway of which the flux is governed by intracellular ratios of [NADH]/[NAD] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA]. Another level of control could relate to modulation of the activities of PhaC and PhaZ. In order to investigate the latter, assays for in vitro activity measurements of PhaC and PhaZ in crude cell extracts are necessary. Results Two in vitro assays were developed which allow the measurement of PhaC and PhaZ activities in crude cell extracts of Pseudomonas putida U. Using the assays, it was demonstrated that the activity of PhaC decreased 5-fold upon exponential growth on nitrogen limited medium and octanoate. In contrast, the activity of PhaZ increased only 1.5-fold during growth. One reason for the changes in the enzymatic activity of PhaC and PhaZ could relate to a change in interaction with the phasin surface proteins on the PHA granule. SDS-PAGE analysis of isolated PHA granules demonstrated that during growth, the ratio of [phasins]/[PHA] decreased. In addition, it was found that after eliminating phasins (PhaF and PhaI from the granules PhaC activity decreased further. Conclusion Using the assays developed in this study, we followed the enzymatic activities of PhaC and PhaZ during growth and correlated them to the amount of phasins on the PHA granules. It was found that in P. putida PhaC and PhaZ are concomitantly active, resulting in parallel synthesis and degradation of PHA. Moreover PhaC activity was found to be decreased, whereas PhaZ activity increased during growth. Availability of phasins on PHA granules affected the activity of

  18. Functional Stability Of A Mixed Microbial Consortia Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), naturally-occurring biological polyesters that are microbially synthesized from a myriad of carbon sources, can be utilized as biodegradable substitutes for petroleum-derived thermoplastics. However, current PHA commercialization schemes are limited by high feedstock costs, the requirement for aseptic reactors, and high separation and purification costs. Bacteria indigenous to municipal waste streams can accumulate large quantities of PHA under environmentally controlled conditions; hence, a potentially more environmentally-effective method of production would utilize these consortia to produce PHAs from inexpensive waste carbon sources. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum, in cultures grown on real wastewaters. PHA production averaged 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. The PHA-producing microbial consortia were examined to explore the microbial community changes that occurred during reactor operations, employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts. Distinctly different communities were observed both between and within wastewaters following enrichment. More importantly, stable functions were maintained despite the differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  19. In silico design of PHA synthase and its validation by PHAs producing bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susrita Sahoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are important alternatives to the petroleum-based plastics due to environment friendly manufacturing processes, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore use of novel biopolymers such as polylactide, polysaccharides, aliphatic polyesters and polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHAs is of interest. PHAs are biodegradable polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HA produced from renewable resources by using microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds.  Even though PHAs are promising candidate for biodegradable polymers, however, the production cost limits their application on an industrial scale. Therefore an attempt was made to model different PHAs synthases which are the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates as the structural information of this enzyme is in dark veil.Then molecular docking  of class I  PHA  Synthase from Ralstonia Eutrophia was done to study the PHA synthase activity. As there are lots of strain which needs to explore for the production of PHA. This investigation leads to find out the most industrial applicable microbes. Few bacterial isolates from soil sample were screened for production of PHA followed by the validation of the enzymatic activity and its product characterization to understand its structural properties.

  20. Properties of PHA bi-, ter-, and quarter-polymers containing 4-hydroxybutyrate monomer units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhila, Natalia; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers containing 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) synthesized in Cupriavidus eutrophus B10646 culture. In poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB/4HB)] bipolymers, 4HB varied between 10.4 and 75.0 mol%; in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyvalerate/4-hydroxybutyrate) terpolymers, 4HB constituted 28.7-55.6 mol%; and in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyvalerate/4-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyhexanoate) quaterpolymers, 4HB varied between 9.3 and 13.3 mol%. The degree of crystallinity of P(3HB/4HB) copolymers decreased consistently with an increase in 4HB content, reaching 38%. The incorporation of 3-hydroxyvalerate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate into copolymers enhanced that effect. The effect of 4HB monomer units on temperature properties of copolymers was exhibited as lowering of the melting temperature and crystallization temperature, which improved the processing-related properties of the copolymers. All copolymers containing 4HB showed enhanced elongation at break compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Polymer films prepared from PHAs with different chemical composition had similar microstructure and porosity and had no toxic effect on mouse fibroblast NIH 3 T3 cells, proving their high biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 24 CFR 982.355 - Portability: Administration by receiving PHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as reexaminations of family income and composition. At any time, either the initial PHA or the... Family Can Live and Move § 982.355 Portability: Administration by receiving PHA. (a) When a family moves..., another PHA (the “receiving PHA”) must administer assistance for the family if a PHA with a tenant-based...

  2. Self-assembled biodegradable amphiphilic PEG-PCL-lPEI triblock copolymers at the borderline between micelles and nanoparticles designed for drug and gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Thomas K; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Samsonova, Olga; Renette, Thomas; Kissel, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Amphiphilic PEG-PCL-PEI triblock copolymers self-assemble into nano-scaled, positively charged, multifunctional carriers, suitable for drug and gene delivery. A set of block copolymers with varying hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio (systematically altered at the borderline of micelle and particle forming polymers) was synthesized, characterized and assembled into carriers. A detailed structural characterization in the liquid state of these assemblies was carried out: carrier size was determined using dynamic light scattering, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses elucidated carrier's core-shell structure. ζ-potential and thickness of the hydrophilic outer polymer shell were determined by laser Doppler anemometry. Subsequently the impact of carrier's structure on its features (stability and toxicity) was investigated. Polymers hydrophilic in nature formed small (polymers aggregated to larger particle-like assemblies (>100 nm). Monitoring carrier size as a function of initial polymer concentration clarified different assembly mechanisms. Shell thickness, colloidal stability and toxicity were found to depend on the length of the hydrophilic polymer block. Due to controllable size, charge, stability and toxicity, this class of novel carriers is a promising candidate for prospective co-delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PHA annual report 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    The Public Health Agency Annual report 2009–2010 report provides background information about the PHA, highlights the achievements during the2009–2010 financial year and provides an overview of work undertaken in priority areas for each directorate within the organisation. The summary financial accounts are presented in the operating and financial review section of the report and members of the PHA board are detailed within the report also.

  4. PHA annual report 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    The Public Health Agency Annual report 2009��-2010 report provides background information about the PHA, highlights the achievements during the�2009-2010 financial year and provides an overview of work undertaken in priority areas for each directorate within the organisation.The summary financial accounts are presented in the operating and financial review section of the report and members of the PHA board are detailed within the report also.�

  5. Environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Linping; Hou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) copolymers produced by haloarchaea are excellent candidate biomaterials. However, there is no report hitherto focusing on the biodegradation of PHBHV synthesized by haloarchaea. In this study, an environmental biodegradation of haloarchae...

  6. BIOPROSPECCION DE BACTERIAS PRODUCTORAS DE POLIHIDROXIALCANOATOS (PHA's EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE NARIÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN DARIO OTERO-RAMÍREZ

    Full Text Available Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHA's, gránulos intracelulares acumulados por bacterias en ambientes con desbalance Carbono/Nitrógeno, Carbono/Fósforo tienen propiedades físico-químicas similares a plásticos convencionales, pero son biodegradables. Sin embargo, los elevados costos de producción de los PHA's conllevan a la búsqueda de estrategias con la menor inversión posible; por ello, en esta investigación se exploraron diferentes ambientes del departamento de Nariño en búsqueda de bacterias productoras de PHA's y se seleccionaron aquellas con potencial industrial. La detección presuntiva de bacterias PHA's a partir de muestras de suelo y agua, se realizó utilizando Rojo Nilo, los aislamientos seleccionados se sometieron a una fermentación Batch y el polímero obtenido se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas. Aquellos aislamientos con mayor acumulación de polímero se caracterizaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y la secuencia parcial del gen rRNA 16S.Finalmente, se evaluó la producción de PHA's utilizando como sustrato aguas residuales domésticas. Se obtuvo 189 aislamientos bacterianos que produjeron desde 0,01gL-1 hasta 5,24gL-1 del homopolimero Poli-3-hidroxibutirato o el copolímero Poli-3-hidroxibutirato-co-3-hidroxivalerato. Así mismo, se recuperó 0,111gL-1 de Poli-3-hidroxibutirato a partir de las aguas residuales. Desde esta perspectiva las bacterias silvestres productoras de PHA's del departamento de Nariño tienen potencial en procesos ambientales e industriales.

  7. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Laycock, Bronwyn; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated. PMID:28952499

  8. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  9. Production of (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) copolymer from coffee waste oil using engineered Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Kim, Jung-Ho; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Junyoung; Hong, Ju Won; Hong, Yoon Gi; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Polyhydroxyalkonate (PHA) is a type of polymer that has the potential to replace petro-based plastics. To make PHA production more economically feasible, there is a need to find a new carbon source and engineer microbes to produce a commercially valuable polymer. Coffee waste is an inexpensive raw material that contains fatty acids. It can act as a sustainable carbon source and seems quite promising with PHA production in Ralstonia eutropha, which is a well-known microbe for PHA accumulation, and has the potential to utilize fatty acids. In this study, to make poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (P(HB-co-HHx)), which has superior properties in terms of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and mechanical strength, engineered strain Ralstonia eutropha Re2133 overexpressing (R)-specific enoyl coenzyme-A hydratase (phaJ) and PHA synthetase (phaC2) with deletion of acetoacetyl Co-A reductases (phaB1, phaB2, and phaB3) was used to produce PHA from coffee waste oil. At a coffee oil concentration of 1.5%, and C/N ratio of 20, the R. eutropha Re2133 fermentation process results in 69% w/w of DCW PHA accumulation and consists of HB (78 mol%) and HHx (22 mol%). This shows the feasibility of using coffee waste oil for P(HB-co-HHx) production, as it is a low-cost fatty acid enriched waste material.

  10. Synthesis of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Homopolymers, Random Copolymers, and Block Copolymers by an Engineered Strain of Pseudomonas entomophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Ahleum; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs), widely used in medical area, are commonly synthesized by Pseudomonas spp. This study tries to use β-oxidation pathways engineered P. entomophila to achieve single source of a series of mcl-monomers for microbial production of PHA homopolymers. The effort is proven successful for the first time to obtain a wide range of mcl-PHA homopolymers from engineered P. entomophila LAC23 grown on various fatty acids, respectively, ranging from poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate) to poly(3-hydroxytetradecanoate). Effects of a PHA monomer chain length on thermal and crystallization properties including the changes of T m , T g , and T d5% are investigated. Additionally, strain LAC23 is used to synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (3HO) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) or 3-hydroxytetradecanoates, their compositions could be controlled by adjusting the ratios of two related fatty acids. Meanwhile, block copolymer P(3HO)-b-P(3HDD) is synthesized by the same strain. It is found for the first time that even- and odd number mcl-PHA homopolymers have different physical properties. When the gene of the PHA synthase in the engineered P. entomophila is replaced by phaC from Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-30 mol%-3-hydroxyhexanoate) is synthesized. Therefore, P. entomophila can be used to synthesize the whole range of PHA (C7-C14) homopolymers, random- and block copolymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biodegradable polymeric prodrugs of naltrexone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennet, D.B.; Li, X.; Adams, N.W.; Kim, S.W.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The development of a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the narcotic antagonist naltrexone may improve patient compliance in the treatment of opiate addiction. Random copolymers consisting of the ¿-amino acids N5-(3-hydroxypropyl--glutamine and -leucine were synthesized with equimolar

  12. Strategies for Automated Control of the Bioproduction of Mcl-PHA Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hrnčiřík

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs are polyesters synthesized by numerous bacteria as storage material. Despite being promising candidates for biodegradable materials of industrial interest and environmental value, their usage is still rather limited because of high production costs. One of the areas with considerable potential for further improvements is control of the production process. This paper deals with the experimental work related to the design of control strategies for mcl-PHA biopolymer production process (Pseudomonas putida KT2442 fed-batch cultivations. For this bioprocess, a set of five control strategies (two main and three auxiliary strategies have been proposed, together with the proper sequence of their switching during the fed-batch part of the production process. The application of these strategies with octanoic acid as a sole carbon source resulted in intracellular PHA content (max. mass fraction 65 % of mcl-PHA in cell dry mass (g g–1 and PHA productivity (max. 0.89 g L–1 h–1 comparable to the best results reported in the literature for this type of strain and carbon substrate.

  13. A microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) based bio- and materials industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    Biopolyesters polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) produced by many bacteria have been investigated by microbiologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, chemical engineers, chemists, polymer experts and medical researchers. PHA applications as bioplastics, fine chemicals, implant biomaterials, medicines and biofuels have been developed and are covered in this critical review. Companies have been established or involved in PHA related R&D as well as large scale production. Recently, bacterial PHA synthesis has been found to be useful for improving robustness of industrial microorganisms and regulating bacterial metabolism, leading to yield improvement on some fermentation products. In addition, amphiphilic proteins related to PHA synthesis including PhaP, PhaZ or PhaC have been found to be useful for achieving protein purification and even specific drug targeting. It has become clear that PHA and its related technologies are forming an industrial value chain ranging from fermentation, materials, energy to medical fields (142 references).

  14. Research on a Nonwoven Fabric Made from Multi-Block Biodegradable Copolymer Based on l-Lactide, Glycolide, and Trimethylene Carbonate with Shape Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Joanna; Chrzanowski, Michał; Krucińska, Izabella

    2017-08-10

    The presented paper concerns scientific research on processing a poly(lactide- co -glycolide- co -trimethylene carbonate) copolymer (PLLAGLTMC) with thermally induced shape memory and a transition temperature around human body temperature. The material in the literature called terpolymer was used to produce smart, nonwoven fabric with the melt blowing technique. Bioresorbable and biocompatible terpolymers with shape memory have been investigated for its medical applications, such as cardiovascular stents. There are several research studies on shape memory in polymers, but this phenomenon has not been widely studied in textile products made from shape memory polymers (SMPs). The current research aims to explore the characteristics of the PLLAGLTMC nonwoven fabric in detail and the mechanism of its shape memory behavior. In this study, the nonwoven fabric was subjected to thermo-mechanical, morphological, and shape memory analysis. The thermo-mechanical and structural properties were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination, and mercury porosimetry measurements. Eventually, the gathered results confirmed that the nonwoven fabric possessed characteristics that classified it as a smart material with potential applications in medicine.

  15. Research on a Nonwoven Fabric Made from Multi-Block Biodegradable Copolymer Based on l-Lactide, Glycolide, and Trimethylene Carbonate with Shape Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Walczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper concerns scientific research on processing a poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate copolymer (PLLAGLTMC with thermally induced shape memory and a transition temperature around human body temperature. The material in the literature called terpolymer was used to produce smart, nonwoven fabric with the melt blowing technique. Bioresorbable and biocompatible terpolymers with shape memory have been investigated for its medical applications, such as cardiovascular stents. There are several research studies on shape memory in polymers, but this phenomenon has not been widely studied in textile products made from shape memory polymers (SMPs. The current research aims to explore the characteristics of the PLLAGLTMC nonwoven fabric in detail and the mechanism of its shape memory behavior. In this study, the nonwoven fabric was subjected to thermo-mechanical, morphological, and shape memory analysis. The thermo-mechanical and structural properties were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination, and mercury porosimetry measurements. Eventually, the gathered results confirmed that the nonwoven fabric possessed characteristics that classified it as a smart material with potential applications in medicine.

  16. Biodegradation of waste PET based copolyesters in thermophilic anaerobic sludge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, S.; Šmejkalová, P.; Merna, J.; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, Jan (2015), s. 176-184 ISSN 0141-3910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : poly(ethylene terephthalate) * copolymers * sludge * biodegradation * hydrolysis * waste Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2015

  17. 24 CFR 983.252 - PHA information for accepted family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHA information for accepted family... family. (a) Oral briefing. When a family accepts an offer of PBV assistance, the PHA must give the family... of how the program works; and (2) Family and owner responsibilities. (b) Information packet. The PHA...

  18. Carbon recovery from wastewater through bioconversion into biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Francesco; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Campanari, Sabrina; Villano, Marianna; Werker, Alan; Majone, Mauro

    2017-07-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polyesters that can be produced in bioprocesses from renewable resources in contrast to fossil-based bio-recalcitrant polymers. Research efforts have been directed towards establishing technical feasibility in the use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) for PHA production using residuals as feedstock, mainly consisting of industrial process effluent waters and wastewaters. In this context, PHA production can be integrated with waste and wastewater biological treatment, with concurrent benefits of resource recovery and sludge minimization. Over the past 15 years, much of the research on MMC PHA production has been performed at laboratory scale in three process elements as follows: (1) acidogenic fermentation to obtain a volatile fatty acid (VFA)-rich stream, (2) a dedicated biomass production yielding MMCs enriched with PHA-storing potential, and (3) a PHA accumulation step where (1) and (2) outputs are combined in a final biopolymer production bioprocess. This paper reviews the recent developments on MMC PHA production from synthetic and real wastewaters. The goals of the critical review are: a) to highlight the progress of the three-steps in MMC PHA production, and as well to recommend room for improvements, and b) to explore the ideas and developments of integration of PHA production within existing infrastructure of municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment. There has been much technical advancement of ideas and results in the MMC PHA rich biomass production. However, clear demonstration of production and recovery of the polymers within a context of product quality over an extended period of time, within an up-scalable commercially viable context of regional material supply, and with well-defined quality demands for specific intent of material use, is a hill that still needs to be climbed in order to truly spur on innovations for this field of research and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Start a Research on Biopolymer Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giin-Yu Amy Tan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the impending fossil fuel crisis, the search for and development of alternative chemical/material substitutes is pivotal in reducing mankind’s dependency on fossil resources. One of the potential substitute candidates is polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA. PHA is a carbon-neutral and valuable polymer that could be produced from many renewable carbon sources by microorganisms, making it a sustainable and environmental-friendly material. At present, PHA is not cost competitive compared to fossil-derived products. Encouraging and intensifying research work on PHA is anticipated to enhance its economic viability in the future. The development of various biomolecular and chemical techniques for PHA analysis has led to the identification of many PHA-producing microbial strains, some of which are deposited in culture collections. Research work on PHA could be rapidly initiated with these ready-to-use techniques and microbial strains. This review aims to facilitate the start-up of PHA research by providing a summary of commercially available PHA-accumulating microbial cultures, PHA biosynthetic pathways, and methods for PHA detection, extraction and analysis.

  20. Exploration of Global Trend on Biomedical Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): A Patent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiah, Paulraj; Vnoothenei, Nagiah; Chandramohan, Muruganandham; Thevarkattil, Mohamed Javad Pazhayakath

    2018-01-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are bio-based, biodegradable naturally occurring polymers produced by a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to higher mammals. The properties and biocompatibility of PHA make it possible for a wide spectrum of applications. In this context, we analyze the potential applications of PHA in biomedical science by exploring the global trend through the patent survey. The survey suggests that PHA is an attractive candidate in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. In our present study, we explored patents associated with various biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Patent databases of European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization were mined. We developed an intensive exploration approach to eliminate overlapping patents and sort out significant patents. We demarcated the keywords and search criterions and established search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents within the recent 6 years, 2010 to 2016 and sort out the collected data stepwise to gather the most appropriate documents in patent families for further scrutiny. By this approach, we retrieved 23,368 patent documents from all the three databases and the patent titles were further analyzed for the relevance of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biomedical applications. This ensued in the documentation of approximately 226 significant patents associated with biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the information was classified into six major groups. Polyhydroxyalkanoates has been patented in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. There are many avenues through which PHA & PHB could be

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation potential and PHA-accumulating microbial communities in various activated sludge processes of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K; Miyake, S; Iwama, K; Inoue, D; Soda, S; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation potential and the PHA-accumulating microbial community structure in activated sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to identify their influential factors. Nine activated sludge samples were collected from municipal WWTPs employing various biological treatment processes. In acetate-fed 24-h batch experiments under aerobic and nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited conditions, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) content of activated sludge increased from 0-1·3 wt% to 7·9-24 wt%, with PHB yields of 0·22-0·50 C-mol 3-hydroxybutyrate (C-mol acetate)(-1). Microbial community analyses found that activated sludge samples that accumulated >20 wt% of PHB after 24-h PHA accumulation experiments had >5·0 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-mixed liquor-suspended solid of phaC genes. Results indicated that (i) activated sludge in municipal WWTPs can accumulate up to approx. 20 wt% of PHA without enrichment processes, (ii) PHA accumulation potential of activated sludge varied depending on the operational conditions (treatment processes) of WWTPs, and (iii) phaC gene number can provide a simple indication of PHA accumulation potential. This is the first study to compare the PHA accumulation potential and PHA-accumulating microbial communities in activated sludge of various treatment processes. Our findings may be useful for enhancing the resource recovery potential of wastewater treatment systems. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. DNA repair in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1984-01-01

    Damage an repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks were measured by alkaline lysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. PHA stimulated human lymphocytes show that the rejoining process is complete within the first 50 min., afterwords secondary DNA damage and chromatid aberration. DNA repair, in synchronized culture, allows to evaluate individual repair capacity and this in turn can contribute to the discovery of individual who, although they do not demonstrate apparent clinical signs, are carriers of DNA repair deficiency. Being evident that a correlation exists between DNA repair capacity and carcinogenesis, the possibility of evaluating the existent relationship between DNA repair and survival in tumor cells comes therefore into discussion

  3. Biodegradable polymersomes for targeted ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Hennink, W.E.; Feijen, J.; Meng, Fenghua; Sam, T; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polymersomes with a sub-micron size were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol)–polylactide (PEG–PDLLA) block-copolymers in aqueous media. Air-encapsulated polymersomes could be obtained by a lyophilization/rehydration procedure. Preliminary results showed that these polymersomes were

  4. New Insights into PhaM-PhaC-Mediated Localization of Polyhydroxybutyrate Granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-06-15

    The formation and localization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in Ralstonia eutropha are controlled by PhaM, which interacts both with the PHB synthase (PhaC) and with the bacterial nucleoid. Here, we studied the importance of proline and lysine residues of two C-terminal PAKKA motifs in PhaM for their importance in attaching PHB granules to DNA by in vitro and in vivo methods. Substitution of the lysine residues but not of the proline residues resulted in detachment of formed PHB granules from the nucleoid. Instead, formation of PHB granule clusters at polar regions of the rod-shaped cells and an unequal distribution of PHB granules to daughter cells were observed. The formation of PHB granules was studied by the expression of chromosomally anchored gene fusions of fluorescent proteins with PhaM and PhaC in different backgrounds. PhaM and PhaC fusions showed a distinct colocalization at formed PHB granules in the nucleoid region of the wild type. In a ΔphaC background, PhaM and the catalytically inactive PhaC C319A protein were not able to form fluorescent foci, indicating that correct positioning requires the formation of PHB. Furthermore, time-lapse experiments revealed that PhaC and PhaM proteins detach from formed PHB granules at later stages, resulting in a nonhomogeneous population of PHB granules. This could explain why growth of individual PHB granules stops under PHB-permissive conditions at a certain size. IMPORTANCE PHB granules are storage compounds for carbon and energy in many prokaryotes. Equal distribution of accumulated PHB granules during cell division is therefore important for optimal fitness of the daughter cells. In R. eutropha , PhaM is responsible for maximal activity of PHB synthase, for initiation of PHB granule formation at discrete regions in the cells, and for association of formed PHB granules with the nucleoid. Here we found that four lysine residues of C-terminal PhaM sequence motifs are essential for association of PHB

  5. Metabolic modeling of mixed substrate uptake for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Hebly, M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Muyzer, G.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by mixed microbial communities can be established in a two-stage process, consisting of a microbial enrichment step and a PHA accumulation step. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed for evaluating the influence of the carbon substrate composition

  6. 24 CFR 968.335 - HUD review of PHA performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., accounting, management, and evaluation functions, to determine the cause for a PHA not meeting the standards... designation as a mod troubled PHA. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2577... annual statement or five-year action plan designed to address management deficiencies. (b) Notice of...

  7. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  8. 24 CFR 880.507 - Default by PHA and/or owner (private-owner/PHA projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... projects). (a) Rights of Owner if PHA defaults under Agreement or Contract. The ACC, the Agreement and the... obligations to enter into the Contract. (b) Rights of HUD if PHA defaults under ACC. The ACC will provide that..., HUD will continue to pay annual contributions in accordance with the terms of the ACC and the Contract...

  9. Producing microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters in a sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin; Maršálek, Lukáš; de Sousa Dias, Miguel Miranda; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2017-07-25

    Sustainable production of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters on a larger scale has to consider the "four magic e": economic, ethical, environmental, and engineering aspects. Moreover, sustainability of PHA production can be quantified by modern tools of Life Cycle Assessment. Economic issues are to a large extent affected by the applied production mode, downstream processing, and, most of all, by the selection of carbon-rich raw materials as feedstocks for PHA production by safe and naturally occurring wild type microorganisms. In order to comply with ethics, such raw materials should be used which do not interfere with human nutrition and animal feed supply chains, and shall be convertible towards accessible carbon feedstocks by simple methods of upstream processing. Examples were identified in carbon-rich waste materials from various industrial braches closely connected to food production. Therefore, the article shines a light on hetero-, mixo-, and autotrophic PHA production based on various industrial residues from different branches. Emphasis is devoted to the integration of PHA-production based on selected raw materials into the holistic patterns of sustainability; this encompasses the choice of new, powerful microbial production strains, non-hazardous, environmentally benign methods for PHA recovery, and reutilization of waste streams from the PHA production process itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of co-polymers of polyhydroxyalkanoates by regulating the hydrolysis of biowastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasun; Ray, Subhasree; Kalia, Vipin C

    2016-01-01

    Production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) co-polymers by Bacillus spp. was studied by feeding defined volatile fatty acids (VFAs) obtained through controlled hydrolysis of various wastes. Eleven mixed hydrolytic cultures (MHCs) each containing 6 strains could generate VFA from slurries of (2% total solids): pea-shells (PS), potato peels (PP), apple pomace (AP) and onion peels (OP). PS hydrolysates (obtained with MHC2 and MHC5) inoculated with Bacillus cereus EGU43 and Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 produced co-polymers of PHA at the rate of 15-60mg/L with a 3HV content of 1%w/w. An enhancement in PHA yield of 3.66-fold, i.e. 205-550mg/L with 3HV content up to 7.5%(w/w) was observed upon addition of OP hydrolysate and 1% glucose (w/v) to PS hydrolysates. This is the first demonstration, where PHA co-polymer composition, under non-axenic conditions, could be controlled by customizing VFA profile of the hydrolysate by the addition of different biowastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a biodegradable graft substitute in rabbit bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoBo Yang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the novel biodegradable copolymers can repair large areas of cancellous bone defects. With its controllable degradation rate, it suggests that CS/PAA may be a series of useful therapeutic substitute for bone defects.

  12. PhaR, a Negative Regulator of PhaP, Modulates the Colonization of a Burkholderia Gut Symbiont in the Midgut of the Host Insect, Riptortus pedestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Han; Jang, Ho Am; Lee, Junbeom; Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Seung Ah; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Byung Hyun; Jo, Yong Hun; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-06-01

    Five genes encoding PhaP family proteins and one phaR gene have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia symbiont strain RPE75. PhaP proteins function as the surface proteins of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules, and the PhaR protein acts as a negative regulator of PhaP biosynthesis. Recently, we characterized one phaP gene to understand the molecular cross talk between Riptortus insects and Burkholderia gut symbionts. In this study, we constructed four other phaP gene-depleted mutants (Δ phaP1 , Δ phaP2 , Δ phaP3 , and Δ phaP4 mutants), one phaR gene-depleted mutant, and a phaR -complemented mutant (Δ phaR/phaR mutant). To address the biological roles of four phaP family genes and the phaR gene during insect-gut symbiont interaction, these Burkholderia mutants were fed to the second-instar nymphs, and colonization ability and fitness parameters were examined. In vitro , the Δ phaP3 and Δ phaR mutants cannot make a PHA granule normally in a stressful environment. Furthermore, the Δ phaR mutation decreased the colonization ability in the host midgut and negatively affected the host insect's fitness compared with wild-type Burkholderia -infected insects. However, other phaP family gene-depleted mutants colonized well in the midgut of the fifth-instar nymph insects. However, in the case of females, the colonization rate of the Δ phaP3 mutant was decreased and the host's fitness parameters were decreased compared with the wild-type-infected host, suggesting that the environment of the female midgut may be more hostile than that of the male midgut. These results demonstrate that PhaR plays an important role in the biosynthesis of PHA granules and that it is significantly related to the colonization of the Burkholderia gut symbiont in the host insects' midgut. IMPORTANCE Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis is a complex process requiring several enzymes. The biological roles of PHA granule synthesis enzymes and the surface proteins of PHA

  13. Synthesis of Diblock copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate -block-poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHB-b-PHHx] by a β-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KT2442

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Chen, Jinchun

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Block polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) were reported to be resistant against polymer aging that negatively affects polymer properties. Recently, more and more attempts have been directed to make PHA block copolymers. Diblock copolymers PHB-b-PHHx consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB...... structural related mechanical properties.......) block covalently bonded with poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHHx) block were for the first time produced successfully by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2442 with its β-oxidation cycle deleted to its maximum. RESULTS: The chloroform extracted polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...

  14. Safety analysis of tritium processing system based on PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Safety analysis on primary confinement of tritium processing system for TBM was carried out with Preliminary Hazard Analysis. Firstly, the basic PHA process was given. Then the function and safe measures with multiple confinements about tritium system were described and analyzed briefly, dividing the two kinds of boundaries of tritium transferring through, that are multiple confinement systems division and fluid loops division. Analysis on tritium releasing is the key of PHA. Besides, PHA table about tritium releasing was put forward, the causes and harmful results being analyzed, and the safety measures were put forward also. On the basis of PHA, several kinds of typical accidents were supposed to be further analyzed. And 8 factors influencing the tritium safety were analyzed, laying the foundation of evaluating quantitatively the safety grade of various nuclear facilities. (authors)

  15. PHA Annual report and accounts 2014-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Agency Annual report 2014 2015 provides background information about the PHA, highlights the achievements during the�2014-2015 financial year and provides an overview of work undertaken in priority areas�within each directorate�of�the organisation.The�full financial accounts are included in this report as is�information on members of the PHA board.Click here for the PDF.

  16. PHA Annual report and accounts 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2013-01-01

    The Public Health Agency Annual report 2012-2013 provides background information about the PHA, highlights the achievements during the�2012-2013 financial year and provides an overview of work undertaken in priority areas�within each directorate�of�the organisation.The�full financial accounts are included in this report as is�information on members of the PHA board.Click here for the PDF

  17. Engineered biosynthesis of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, Pooja; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-08-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in the rapid development of biobased plastics and the major drivers for this expansion are rising environmental concerns of plastic pollution and the depletion of fossil-fuels. This paper presents a broad view on the recent developments of three promising biobased plastics, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS), well known for their biodegradability. The article discusses the natural and recombinant host organisms used for fermentative production of monomers, alternative carbon feedstocks that have been used to lower production cost, different metabolic engineering strategies used to improve product titers, various fermentation technologies employed to increase productivities and finally, the different downstream processes used for recovery and purification of the monomers and polymers.

  18. Sequence analysis and structure prediction of type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4–55 PHA synthase and an insight into its catalytic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khairudin Nurul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, are biodegradable polyesters derived from many microorganisms such as the pseudomonads. These polyesters are in great demand especially in the packaging industries, the medical line as well as the paint industries. The enzyme responsible in catalyzing the formation of PHA is PHA synthase. Due to the limited structural information, its functional properties including catalysis are lacking. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural properties as well as its catalytic mechanism by predicting the three-dimensional (3D model of the Type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4–55 PHA synthase 1 (PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55. Results Sequence analysis demonstrated that PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 lacked similarity with all known structures in databases. PSI-BLAST and HMM Superfamily analyses demonstrated that this enzyme belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. Threading approach revealed that the most suitable template to use was the human gastric lipase (PDB ID: 1HLG. The superimposition of the predicted PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 model with 1HLG covering 86.2% of the backbone atoms showed an RMSD of 1.15 Å. The catalytic residues comprising of Cys296, Asp451 and His479 were found to be conserved and located adjacent to each other. In addition to this, an extension to the catalytic mechanism was also proposed whereby two tetrahedral intermediates were believed to form during the PHA biosynthesis. These transition state intermediates were further postulated to be stabilized by the formation of oxyanion holes. Based on the sequence analysis and the deduced model, Ser297 was postulated to contribute to the formation of the oxyanion hole. Conclusion The 3D model of the core region of PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 from residue 267 to residue 484 was developed using computational techniques and the locations of the catalytic residues were identified. Results from this study for the first time highlighted Ser297 potentially

  19. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A NEW PLLA PCL COPOLYMER FOR NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENDUNNEN, WFA; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; ZONDERVAN, GJ; PENNINGS, AJ; VANDERLEI, B; ROBINSON, PH

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional and cell biological applicability of a two-ply nerve guide constructed of a PLLA/PCL (i.e. poly-L-lactide and poly-epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer. To do so, we performed a cytotoxicity test, a subcutaneous biodegradation test and an in situ

  1. Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    presence of poloxamer 188. Drug Deliv. 2006; 13:61–67. [PubMed: 16401595] 37. Chandaroy P, Sen A, Alexandridis P, Hui SW. Utilizing temperature-sensitive...55. Ahn CH, Chae SY, Bae YH , Kim SW. Synthesis of biodegradable multi-block copolymers of poly(L-lysine) and poly(ethylene glycol) as a non-viral

  2. A two step chemo-biotechnological conversion of polystyrene to a biodegradable thermoplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick G; Goff, Miriam; Donner, Matthias; Kaminsky, Walter; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2006-04-01

    A novel approach to the recycling of polystyrene is reported here; polystyrene is converted to a biodegradable plastic, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). This unique combinatorial approach involves the pyrolysis of polystyrene to styrene oil, followed by the bacterial conversion of the styrene oil to PHA by Pseudomonas putida CA-3 (NCIMB 41162). The pyrolysis (520 degrees C) of polystyrene in a fluidized bed reactor (Quartz sand (0.3-0.5 mm)) resulted in the generation of an oil composed of styrene (82.8% w/w) and low levels of other aromatic compounds. This styrene oil, when supplied as the sole source of carbon and energy allowed for the growth of P. putida CA-3 and PHA accumulation in shake flask experiments. Styrene oil (1 g) was converted to 62.5 mg of PHA and 250 mg of bacterial biomass in shake flasks. A 1.6-fold improvement in the yield of PHA from styrene oil was achieved by growing P. putida CA-3 in a 7.5 liter stirred tank reactor. The medium chain length PHA accumulated was comprised of monomers 6, 8, and 10 carbons in length in a molar ratio of 0.046:0.436:1.126, respectively. A single pyrolysis run and four fermentation runs resulted in the conversion of 64 g of polystyrene to 6.4 g of PHA.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: Review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are gaining increasing attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability in different environments, not just in composting plants, and processing versatility. Indeed among biopolymers, these biogenic polyesters represent a potential sustainable replacement for fossil fuel-based thermoplastics. Most commercially available PHAs are obtained with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable feedstocks (i.e. glucose under sterile conditions but recent research studies focus on the use of wastes as growth media. PHA can be extracted from the bacteria cell and then formulated and processed by extrusion for production of rigid and flexible plastic suitable not just for the most assessed medical applications but also considered for applications including packaging, moulded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, adhesives, films and performance additives. The present paper reviews the different classes of PHAs, their main properties, processing aspects, commercially available ones, as well as limitations and related improvements being researched, with specific focus on potential applications of PHAs in packaging.

  4. Triblock copolymers based on ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J.A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were

  5. Triblock copolymers based on ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J A; Grijpma, Dirk W

    BACKGROUND: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were

  6. Triblock copolymers based on epsilon-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Background: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and epsilon-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were

  7. Backup expression of the PhaP2 phasin compensates for phaP1 deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, maintaining fitness and PHB accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Silveira Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phasins are important proteins controlling PHB granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈ 50 % in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was 6-fold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  8. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  9. Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion

  10. Synthesis of Diblock copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate -block-poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHB-b-PHHx] by a β-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KT2442.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-04-05

    Block polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) were reported to be resistant against polymer aging that negatively affects polymer properties. Recently, more and more attempts have been directed to make PHA block copolymers. Diblock copolymers PHB-b-PHHx consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) block covalently bonded with poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHHx) block were for the first time produced successfully by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2442 with its β-oxidation cycle deleted to its maximum. The chloroform extracted polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermo- and mechanical analysis. NMR confirmed the existence of diblock copolymers consisting of 58 mol% PHB as the short chain length block with 42 mol% PHHx as the medium chain length block. The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 2.7°C and -16.4°C, one melting temperature (Tm) at 172.1°C and one cool crystallization temperature (Tc) at 69.1°C as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. This is the first microbial short-chain-length (scl) and medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA block copolymer reported. It is possible to produce PHA block copolymers of various kinds using the recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2442 with its β-oxidation cycle deleted to its maximum. In comparison to a random copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate (P(HB-co-HHx)) and a blend sample of PHB and PHHx, the PHB-b-PHHx showed improved structural related mechanical properties.

  11. Process optimization for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from waste via microbial enrichment cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkakaki, E.

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are compounds naturally produced by microorganisms, with many industrial applications, either as bioplastics or as precursors for production of chemicals. Until now, industrial PHA production was conducted with pure strains of bacteria fed with well-defined feedstocks,

  12. Radiation effects on biodegradable polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Mitomo; Darmawan Darwis; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] are microbial biodegradable polyesters produced by many types of bacteria. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(E-caprolactone) (PCL) are also biodegradable synthetic polyesters which have been commercialized. These thermoplastics are expected for wide usage in environmental protection and blocompatible applications. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto many polymers, e.g., polyethylene and polypropylene has been studied mainly for biomedical applications. In the present study, radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto PHB and P(3HB-co-3HV) was carried out and improvement of their properties was studied. Changes in the properties and biodegradability were compared with the degree of grafting. Radiation-induced crosslinking of PBS and PCL which relatively show thermal and irradiation stability was also carried out to improve their thermal stability or processability. Irradiation to PBS and PCL mainly resulted in crosslinking and characterization of these crosslinked polyesters was investigated

  13. Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Ruonan; Ge, Juan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-30

    It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young's modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.

  14. 24 CFR 983.351 - PHA payment to owner for occupied unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.351 PHA payment to owner for occupied unit. (a) When payments are made. (1) During the term of the HAP contract, the PHA shall... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHA payment to owner for occupied...

  15. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  16. Olefin–Styrene Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Galdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review are reported some of the most relevant achievements in the chemistry of the ethylene–styrene copolymerization and in the characterization of the copolymer materials. Focus is put on the relationship between the structure of the catalyst and that of the obtained copolymer. On the other hand, the wide variety of copolymer architecture is related to the properties of the material and to the potential utility.

  17. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  18. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers with Different Monomer Compositions by Recombinant Pseudomonas putida LS46 Expressing a Novel PHA SYNTHASE (PhaC116 Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen K. Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant of Pseudomonas putida LS461 (deletion of the phaC1phaZphaC2 genes was constructed by introducing cosmid JC123 carrying a novel phaC116 gene from a metagenomic clone. The resulting strain, P. putida LS46123, was able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA polymers with novel monomer compositions when cultured on glucose or free fatty acids, and accumulated PHAs from 9.24% to 27.09% of cell dry weight. The PHAs synthesized by P. putida LS46123 contained up to 50 mol % short chain length subunits (3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate, with the remaining monomers consisting of various medium chain length subunits. The PhaC116 protein expressed by P. putida LS46123 had an amino acid sequence similarity of 45% with the PhaC1 protein of the parent strain, P. putida LS46. Predicted 3D structures of the PhaC116 proteins from P. putida LS46123 and P. putida LS46 revealed several differences in the numbers and locations of protein secondary structures. The physical and thermal properties of the novel polymers synthesized by P. putida LS46123 cultured with glucose or free fatty acids differed significantly from those produced by P. putida LS46 grown on the same substrates. PHA polymers with different subunit compositions, and hence different physical and thermal properties, can be tailor-made using novel PHA synthase for specific applications.

  19. Impact of non-storing biomass on PHA production: an enrichment culture on acetate and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marang, Leonie; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-11-01

    The use of enrichment cultures for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from substrate mixtures such as wastewater inevitably results in the establishment of a non-PHA-storing population besides the PHA-producing bacteria. This reduces the maximum PHA content that can be established, and increases downstream-processing costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of non-storing biomass on the PHA production process. A microbial culture was enriched in a sequencing batch reactor fed with acetate and methanol. Methanol served as model substrate for compounds unsuitable for PHA production. The enrichment was dominated by Plasticicumulans acidivorans, a known PHA producer, and Methylobacillus flagellatus, an obligate methylotroph that cannot store PHA. As expected, the presence of the non-storing population lowered the maximum PHA content of the culture, from more than 80 to 66wt.%. To mimic a nitrogen-rich waste stream, additional accumulation experiments were performed with continuous supply of carbon and ammonium. In these experiments P. acidivorans still accumulated large amounts of PHA, but unrestricted growth of the non-storing, methylotrophic population reduced the maximum overall PHA content to 52wt.%. Besides ammonium limitation, other strategies to restrict the fraction of non-storing biomass should be developed. The mixture of acetate and methanol is a useful model substrate for the development of such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High barrier multilayer packaging by the coextrusion method: The effect of nanocomposites and biodegradable polymers on flexible film properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellen, Christopher T.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the use of nanocomposite and multilayer co-extrusion technologies for the development of high gas barrier packaging that is more environmentally friendly than many current packaging system. Co-extruded bio-based and biodegradable polymers that could be composted in a municipal landfill were one direction that this research was aimed. Down-gauging of high performance barrier films using nanocomposite technology and co-extrusion was also investigated in order to reduce the amount of solid waste being generated by the packaging. Although the research is focused on military ration packaging, the technologies could easily be introduced into the commercial flexible packaging market. Multilayer packaging consisting of poly(m-xylylene adipamide) nanocomposite layers along with adhesive and tie layers was co-extruded using both laboratory and pilot-scale film extrusion equipment. Co-extrusion of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) along with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and tie layers was also accomplished using similar co-extrusion technology. All multilayer films were characterized for gas barrier, mechanical, and thermal properties. The biodegradability of the PVOH and PHA materials in a marine environment was also investigated. The research has shown that co-extrusion of these materials is possible at a research and pilot level. The use of nanocomposite poly(m-xylylene adipamide) was effective in down-gauging the un-filled barrier film to thinner structures. Bio-based PHA/PVOH films required the use of a malefic anhydride grafted PHA tie layer to improve layer to layer adhesion in the structure to avoid delamination. The PHA polymer demonstrated a high rate of biodegradability/mineralization in the marine environment while the rate of biodegradation of the PVOH polymer was slower.

  1. The adsorption of Pb(sup2+) and Cu(sup2+) onto gum ghatti-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) biodegradable hydrogel: isotherms and kinetic models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable hydrogel polymer of gum ghatti (Gg) with a copolymer mixture of acrylamide (AAm) and acrylonitrile (AN) was synthesized using the free-radical graft copolymerization technique. The effect of graft copolymerization on the surface area...

  2. Biodegradable polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Amy; Wright, Zachary C; Frank, Curtis W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to the development of biorenewable polymers with the ambition to utilize them at an industrial scale. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are semicrystalline, biorenewable polymers that have been identified as the most promising alternatives to conventional plastics. However, both are inherently susceptible to brittleness and degradation during thermal processing; we discuss several approaches to overcome these problems to create a balance between durability and biodegradability. For example, copolymers and blends can increase ductility and the thermal-processing window. Furthermore, chain modifications (e.g., branching/crosslinking), processing techniques (fiber drawing/annealing), or additives (plasticizers/nucleating agents) can improve mechanical properties and prevent thermal degradation during processing. Finally, we examine the impacts of morphology on end-of-life degradation to complete the picture for the most common renewable polymers.

  3. Encrustation and strength retention properties of the self-expandable, biodegradable, self-reinforced L-lactide-glycolic acid co-polymer 80:20 spiral urethral stent in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksovirta, Susanna; Välimaa, Tero; Isotalo, Taina; Törmälä, Pertti; Talja, Martti; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2003-08-01

    Encrustation of urological stents is a clinical problem. The chemical composition and surface properties of the devices have a marked effect on its incidence. The ability of the stent to prevent duct collapse depends on its compression strength, which decreases as degradation progresses. We have developed a new self-reinforced, L-lactide-glycolic acid co-polymer with a molar ratio of 80:20 (SR-PLGA 80/20), that is the SpiroFlow (Bionx Implants, Ltd., Tampere, Finland) stent. We compared the resistance to encrustation of the new stent material to that of 2 temporary metallic stents, Prostakath (Doctors and Engineers, Inc., Copenhagen, Denmark) and Memokath 028 (Engineers and Doctors A/S, Ltd., Kvistgård, Denmark). In addition, mechanical compression properties during degradation were investigated. For encrustation studies 7 mm segments of the test material of the SR-PLGA 80/20, Prostakath and Memokath stents were incubated in vitro in sterile artificial urine for 4 and 8 weeks, and the SR-PLGA 80/20 also for 12 weeks. After incubation the specimens were fixed in glutaraldehyde, critical point dried and coated with gold in sputter for scanning electron microscope analysis. Analysis was done at 100x magnification in 5 randomly selected areas per sample. Results are presented as a median percent of the whole analyzed area covered by encrustation in each tested material. For compression strength studies 20 mm pieces of manufactured SR-PLGA 80/20 spiral stent wire were similarly incubated in sterile artificial urine for 12 weeks. Measurements were made by compressing the specimens between 2 parallel planes at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. All analyses were made in triplicate. The areas covered by encrustation at 4 weeks were 8.01% for the Memokath, 1.49% for the Prostakath and 0% for the SR-PLGA 80/20. At 8 weeks the percent was 28.4%, 4.1% and 0.12%, respectively, remaining steady at 0.12% in the SR-PLGA 80/20 at 12 weeks. Compression strength of the SR-PLGA stent remained

  4. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  5. Graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate onto tamarind kernel powder, and evaluation of its biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alicia; Wallander, Daniela; Maciel, Alfredo; Cedillo, Gerardo; Loza, Herminia

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, tamarind kernel powder and ethyl acrylate were reacted by free radical polymerization to synthesize a grafted copolymer soluble in water. The grafted copolymer was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); FTIR showed a shift of the vibration of R-CO-OR' from 1258 cm(-1) to 1253 cm(-1). This shift appeared because of the grafting copolymerization. Films were prepared to study the mechanical properties and the biodegradation of this material. The mechanical properties of the grafted copolymer were found to lie between those of the parent polymers, suitable for disposable products. The new grafted copolymer manifested a steady process of biodegradation under incubation with the bacterial strain Alicycliphilus sp. BQ1; this was proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and Biodegradation of Poly(l-lactide-co-β-propiolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuushou Nakayama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the copolymerizations of l-lactide (LA with seven- or six-membered ring lactones have been extensively studied, the copolymerizations of LA with four-membered ring lactones have scarcely been reported. In this work, we studied the copolymerization of LA with β-propiolactone (PL and the properties of the obtained copolymers. The copolymerization of LA with PL was carried out using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid as a catalyst and methanol as an initiator to produce poly(LA-co-PL with Mn of ~50,000 and PL-content of 6–67 mol %. The Tg values of the copolymers were rapidly lowered with increasing PL-contents. The Tm and ΔHm of the copolymers gradually decreased with increasing PL-contents, indicating their decreased crystallinity. Biodegradation test of the copolymers in compost demonstrated their improved biodegradability in comparison with the homopolymer of LA.

  7. Optoelectronics using block copolymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-05-01

    Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

  8. Bismaleimide Copolymer Matrix Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John A.; Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Graphite composites, prepared from 1:1 copolymer of two new bismaleimides based on N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have mechanical properties superior to those prepared from other bismaleimide-type resins. New heat-resistant composites replace metal in some structural applications. Monomers used to form copolymers with superior mechanical properties prepared by reaction of MMAB with maleic or citraconic anhydride.

  9. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  10. Biodegradable polyesters based on succinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two series of aliphatic polyesters based on succinic acid were synthesized by copolymerization with adipic acid for the first series of saturated polyesters, and with fumaric acid for the second series. Polyesters were prepared starting from the corresponding dimethyl esters and 1,4-butanediol by melt transesterification in the presence of a highly effective catalyst tetra-n-butyl-titanate, Ti(0Bu4. The molecular structure and composition of the copolyesters was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effect of copolymer composition on the physical and thermal properties of these random polyesters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of crystallinity was determined by DSC and wide angle X-ray. The degrees of crystallinity of the saturated and unsaturated copolyesters were generally reduced with respect to poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The melting temperatures of the saturated polyesters were lower, while the melting temperatures of the unsaturated copolyesters were higher than the melting temperature of PBS. The biodegradability of the polyesters was investigated by enzymatic degradation tests. The enzymatic degradation tests were performed in a buffer solution with Candida cylindracea lipase and for the unsaturated polyesters with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. The extent of biodegradation was quantified as the weight loss of polyester films. Also the surface of the polyester films after degradation was observed using optical microscopy. It could be concluded that the biodegradability depended strongly on the degree of crystallinity, but also on the flexibility of the chain backbone. The highest biodegradation was observed for copolyesters containing 50 mol.% of adipic acid units, and in the series of unsaturated polyesters for copolyesters containing 5 and 10 mol.% of fumarate units. Although the degree of crystallinity of the unsaturated polyesters decreased slightly with increasing unsaturation, the biodegradation

  11. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  12. A new biological recovery approach for PHA using mealworm, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Paramasivam; Han, Lizhu; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2016-12-10

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Homologous functional expression of cryptic phaG from Pseudomonas oleovorans establishes the transacylase-mediated polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, N; Steinbüchel, A; Rehm, B H

    2000-11-01

    Various pseudomonads are capable of the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), composed of medium chain length (MCL) 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C6-C14), when grown on simple carbon sources such as, for example, gluconate or acetate. In Pseudomonas putida, the fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis are linked by the transacylase PhaG. Southern hybridization experiments with digoxigenin-labeled phaG(Pp) from P. putida and genomic DNA from various pseudomonads indicate that phaG homologues are present in various other pseudomonads. Although P. oleovorans does not accumulate PHA(MCL) from non-related carbon sources, its genomic DNA reveals a strong hybridization signal. We employed PCR to amplify this phaG homologue. The respective PCR product comprising the coding region of phaG(Po) was cloned into pBBR1MCS-2, resulting in plasmid pBHR84. DNA sequencing revealed that putative PhaG(Po) from P. oleovorans exhibited about 95% amino acid sequence identity to PhaG(Pp) from P. putida. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis demonstrated that phaG(Po) was not transcribed even tinder inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of gluconate as carbon source, whereas induction of phaG(Pp) transcription was obtained in P. putida. When octanoate was used as sole carbon source, only low levels of phaG mRNA were detected in P. putida. Plasmid pBHR84 complemented the phaG-negative mutant PhaG(N)-21 from P. putida. Interestingly, reintroduction of phaG(Po) under lac promoter control into the natural host P. oleovorans established PHA(MCL) synthesis from non-related carbon sources in this bacterium. These data indicated that phaG(Po) in P. oleovorans is not functionally expressed and does not exert its original function.

  14. Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Maria AM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of

  15. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. [Biodegradable catheters and urinary stents. When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, F; Morcillo, E; López de Alda, A; Pastor, T; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-10-01

    One of the main wishes in the field of urinary catheters and stents is to arm them with biodegradable characteristics because we consider a failure of these devices the need for retrieval, the forgotten catheter syndrome as well as the adverse effects permanent devices cause after fulfilling their aim. The efforts focused in new designs, coatings and biomaterials aim to increase the biocompatibility of theses internal devices. Lately, there have been correct advances to answer the main challenges regarding biodegradable ureteral devices. Thus, modulation of the rate of degradation has been achieved thanks to new biomaterials and the use of copolymers that enable to choose the time of permanence as it is programmed with conventional double J catheters. Biocompatibility has improved with the use of new polymers that adapt better to the urine. Finally, one of the main problems is elimination of degraded fragments and experimentally it has be demonstrated that new designs elicit controlled degradation, from distal to proximal; using stranding and combination of copolymers degradation may be caused by dilution, reducing fragmentation to the last stages of life of the prosthesis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that biodegradable catheters potentially may cause less urinary tract infection, less encrustation and predictably they will diminish catheter morbidity, since their degradation process reduces adverse effects. Regarding the development of biodegradable urethral stents, it is necessary to find biomaterials that enable maintaining their biomechanical properties in the long term, keeping open the urethral lumen both in patients with BPH and urethral stenosis. Modulation of the time of degradation of the prosthesis has been achieved, but the appearance of urothelial hyperplasia is still a constant in the initial phases after implantation. The development of drug eluting stents, anti-proliferative or anti-inflammatory, as well as biodegradable stents biocoated is a

  17. 24 CFR 943.142 - In what types of operating organizations may a PHA participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.142 In what types of operating organizations may a PHA participate? (a) A PHA may create and operate a wholly owned or controlled subsidiary or other affiliate; may enter into joint ventures, partnerships, or other business arrangements with...

  18. Modification and Potential Application of Short-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate (SCL-PHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the only kind of naturally-occurring biopolyester synthesized by various microorganisms, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA shows a great market potential in packaging, fiber, biomedical, and other fields due to its biodegradablity, biocompatibility, and renewability. However, the inherent defects of scl-PHA with low 3HV or 4HB content, such as high stereoregularity, slow crystallization rate, and particularly the phenomena of formation of large-size spherulites and secondary crystallization, restrict the processing and stability of scl-PHA, as well as the application of its products. Many efforts have focused on the modification of scl-PHA to improve the mechanical properties and the applicability of obtained scl-PHA products. The modification of structure and property together with the potential applications of scl-PHA are covered in this review to give a comprehensive knowledge on the modification and processing of scl-PHA, including the effects of physical blending, chemical structure design, and processing conditions on the crystallization behaviors, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of scl-PHA.

  19. Potential for mcl-PHA production from nonanoic and azelaic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James; Ko, Kenton; Ramsay, Juliana A; Ramsay, Bruce A

    2018-01-01

    Greater than 65% of canola and high-oleic soy oil fatty acids is oleic acid, which is readily converted to nonanoic (NA) and azelaic (AzA) acids by ozonolysis. NA is an excellent substrate for medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production but AzA has few uses. Pseudomonas citronellolis DSM 50332 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400, both able to produce mcl-PHA from fatty acids and to grow on AzA as the sole source of carbon and energy, were assessed for the accumulation of mcl-PHA from AzA and NA. In N-limited shake flasks using NA, P. citronellolis produced 32% of its dry biomass as mcl-PHA containing 78% 3-hydroxynonanoate with 22% 3-hydroxyheptanoate. Pseudomonas fluorescens produced only 2% PHA. N-limited P. citronellolis on AzA produced 20% dry weight PHA containing 75% 3-hydroxydecanoate and 25% 3-hydroxyoctanoate, indicative of de novo synthesis. Although selective pressure, including β-oxidation inhibition, under well-controlled (chemostat) conditions was applied to P. citronellolis, no side-chain carboxyl groups were detected. It was concluded that one or more of FabG and PhaJ or the PHA synthase cannot catalyze reactions involving ω-carboxy substrates. However, a process based on oleic acid could be established if Pseudomonas putida was engineered to grow on AzA.

  20. PHA-induced cytotoxicity of human lymphocytes against adherent hela-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huges-Law, G.; de Gast, G. C.; The, T. Hauw

    The conditions for a phytohaemagglutinin(PHA)-induced cytotoxicity test of human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. [3H]thymidine prelabelled HeLa cells were used as target cells. Stimulation with 10 μl PHA/ml during 24 h gave the best measure of lymphocyte cytotoxic capacity.

  1. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  2. Bioprocess optimization of PHB homopolymer and copolymer P3 (HB-co-HV) by Acinetobacter junii BP25 utilizing rice mill effluent as sustainable substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, Poorna Chandrika; Devaraj, Sabarinathan; Parthiban, Anburajan; Kathirvel, Preethi

    2017-06-01

    The potential use of parboiled rice mill effluent as a cheap substrate for the production of homopolymer and copolymer of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Acinetobacter junii BP 25 was investigated for the first time. Process optimization by one factor at a time led to homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production of 2.64 ± 0.18 g/l with 94.28% PHB content using a two-stage batch cultivation mode. BP 25 furthermore produced polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P3 (HB-co-HV)), with the addition of valeric acid as an additive to the substrate, yielding (2.56 ± 0.12 g/l dry biomass, 2.20 ± 0.15 g/l PHA) a copolymer content of 85.93%. Thus, rice mill effluent can be an effective and relatively low-cost alternative for the production of PHA, replacing the pure substrates.

  3. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  4. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  5. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  6. Water absorption and biodegradation kinetics of highly filled EOC-FS biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Platov, Yu. T.; Bobojonova, G. A.; Ramos, C. Chaverri; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes the water absorption and biodegradation kinetics in highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) and oil flax straw (FS). It is shown that adding the filler to EOC increases the water absorption from 0 to 22%. The tendency can be explained both by the low interfacial adhesion of EOC to FS and by the hydrophilic nature of the filler. According to biodegradation tests (10 months), the mass of pure EOC remains unchanged, suggesting that it fails to biodegrade in the environment. Increasing the filler content increases the weight loss of the composites and the degree of microbiological contamination (fungi filaments, bacteria) as evidenced by optical microscopy.

  7. Novel extracellular PHB depolymerase from Streptomyces ascomycinicus: PHB copolymers degradation in acidic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Hidalgo

    Full Text Available The ascomycin-producer strain Streptomyces ascomycinicus has been proven to be an extracellular poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB degrader. The fkbU gene, encoding a PHB depolymerase (PhaZ Sa , has been cloned in E. coli and Rhodococcus sp. T104 strains for gene expression. Gram-positive host Rhodococcus sp. T104 was able to produce and secrete to the extracellular medium an active protein form. PhaZ Sa was purified by two hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps, and afterwards was biochemically as well as structurally characterized. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 48.4 kDa, and displayed highest activity at 45°C and pH 6, thus being the first PHB depolymerase from a gram-positive bacterium presenting an acidic pH optimum. The PHB depolymerase activity of PhaZ Sa was increased in the presence of divalent cations due to non-essential activation, and also in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and PEG 3350. Protein structure was analyzed, revealing a globular shape with an alpha-beta hydrolase fold. The amino acids comprising the catalytic triad, Ser(131-Asp(209-His(269, were identified by multiple sequence alignment, chemical modification of amino acids and site-directed mutagenesis. These structural results supported the proposal of a three-dimensional model for this depolymerase. PhaZ Sa was able to degrade PHB, but also demonstrated its ability to degrade films made of PHB, PHBV copolymers and a blend of PHB and starch (7∶3 proportion wt/wt. The features shown by PhaZ Sa make it an interesting candidate for industrial applications involving PHB degradation.

  8. Synthesis and flocculation properties of gum ghatti andpoly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) based biodegradable hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the development of biodegradable flocculants based on graft co-polymers of gum ghatti (Gg) and a mixture of acrylamide and acrylonitrile co-monomers (AAm-co-AN). The hydrogel polymer exhibited an excellent swelling capacity...

  9. FRET Imaging Trackable Long Circulating Biodegradable Nanomedicines for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    treatment of rheumatoid arthritis . This research was stimulated by the demonstration of profound arthrotropism of HPMA copolymers in the adjuvant-induced...pressure and relieves physical constraints on smallmolecule perfusion, xic therapies permanently remodel the tumormicroenvironment to favor thedelivery...Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0160 TITLE: FRET Imaging Trackable Long-Circulating Biodegradable Nanomedicines for Ovarian Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL

  10. Biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts : Electromyographic and video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of bridging a gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat with either a biodegradable copolymer of (DL)-lactide and epsilon -caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon -CL)] nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the gastrocnemius

  11. Reversible aggregation of lysozyme in a biodegradable amphiphilic multiblock copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weert, Marco; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Bezemer, Jeroen M; Hennink, Wim E; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2002-07-01

    Lysozyme-loaded poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) films were prepared using a water-in-oil emulsification solvent evaporation method. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the dried films indicated the presence of non-covalent lysozyme aggregates in the polymer matrix. The use of methanol to enhance the drying rate of the films increased the relative amount of aggregates. Surprisingly, quantitative in-vitro release of fully active, non-aggregated lysozyme was observed, indicating that lysozyme forms reversible aggregates during encapsulation in PEGT/PBT films.

  12. Block coordination copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  13. Block coordination copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  14. Block coordination copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  15. Enrichment of Plasticicumulans acidivorans at pilot-scale for PHA production on industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisa, Jelmer; Lužkov, Kätlin; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-12-20

    A PHA producing microbial culture dominated by Plasticicumulans acidivorans was enriched in a pilot plant using fermented wastewater from the Mars candy bar factory. The pilot plant comprised (1) anaerobic fermentation, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community and (3) accumulation for maximization of the cellular PHA content. After anaerobic fermentation, the wastewater contained mainly VFAs (0.64 ± 0.15 gCOD/gCOD) and ethanol (0.22 ± 0.13 gCOD/gCOD). In the enrichment reactor (cycle 12 h, SRT 24 h) a feast-famine pattern was established with a feast phase of around 35 ± 5 min. The culture was able to accumulate 0.70 ± 0.05 gPHA/gVSS. The difference with previous lab-scale results from P. acidivorans, in which a PHA content of 0.90 gPHA/gVSS was achieved, could be attributed to the presence of solids in the influent, the growth of a side population and the accumulation of non-PHA storage compounds that appeared to be related to ethanol consumption.

  16. Biodegradable plastics from Sinorhizobium meliloti as plastics compatible with the environment and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi Beidokhti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are natural polyesters and biodegradable plastics that are stored as intracellular inclusion bodies by a great variety of bacteria. The aim of this study was to extract polyhydroxyalkanoate from native Sinorhizobium meliloti in Iran. Materials and methods: Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates were collected from roots of alfalfa plants and were identified by Gram staining, biochemical experiments and amplification of 1500 bp fragment of 16Sr DNA gene. PHA granules were detected by microscopic examination. PHA production was evaluated in nutrient deficient medium and its amount was determined by conversion of PHA into crotonic acid by sulphuric acid treatment. The effect of various temperatures, agitation rate and carbon source (sucrose, mannitol, and maltose were evaluated on dry cell weight and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production. Results: The maximum amount of polymer production (43.10% was seen in basal mineral medium at 29°C, pH~7 and 215 revolutions per minute (rpm. The results of this research showed that the S5 isolate was capable to produce maximum poly3- hydroxybutyrate. The produced polymer was analyzed for its purity by GC- mass (gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy and confirmed to be PHB compared with the standard polymer. Discussion and conclusion: Native strains of Sinorhizobium can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics and the results of present study showed that S. meliloti S5 was capable to produce maximum PHB at 29°C, agitation rate of 215 rpm, and pH~7. 

  17. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility...... polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing....

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer of Dextran and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane Sulphonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Azmeera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biodegradable graft copolymer of dextran (Dx and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS was synthesized by grafting poly-AMPS chains onto dextran backbone by free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as an initiator. Different amounts of AMPS were used to synthesize four different grades of graft copolymers with different side chain lengths. These grafted polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, rheological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. They exhibited efficient flocculation performance in kaolin suspension.

  19. Scale-Up Aspects of PHA Production by Microbial Enrichment Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial storage polymers accumulated by many different prokaryotes as an intracellular carbon and energy reserve. The polymer properties make PHA interesting as bioplastic. Moreover, the monomers could serve as chiral building blocks or be used as a

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production from phenol in an acclimated consortium: Batch study and impacts of operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wusiman, Apiredan; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2018-02-10

    Microbial intracellular biopolymer PHA was synthesized from toxic pollutant phenol by an acclimated consortium. Various operational conditions were experimented for their effects on biomass growth and PHA accumulation. Carbon to nitrogen ratios from 5 to 40 (w/w) showed little impact, as did the levels of Fe, Ca and Mg in a short term. Acidic pH inhibited both growth and PHA synthesis, and an optimal dissolved oxygen level of 1-4 mg L -1 was identified. Low temperature (7 °C) significantly slowed but did not totally repress microbial activities. A 2% NaCl shock retarded reactions and 4% NaCl caused irreversible damage. Various initial phenol (S0) and biomass concentrations (X0) were combined to study the effect of food to microbe (F/M) ratio. High S0 and F/M exerted toxicity, reducing reaction rates but generating higher ultimate PHA wt% in biomass. Increasing X0 alleviated phenol inhibition and improved productivity and carbon conversion from phenol. A pseudo-optimized F/M ratio of 0.2-0.4 and a maximum PHA% rate of 1.15% min -1 were identified under medium S0/high X0. This study is the first to systematically investigate the feasibility of toxic industrial waste as the carbon source for PHA production, and likely the only one indicating potential for scaling-up and industrialization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Block copolymer investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  2. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Burniol-Figols, Anna; Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Reis, Maria A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Designing efficient and economic bioprocesses, combined with the respective social and environmental benefits, has brought together scientists from different backgrounds highlighting the multidisciplinary character of such a venture. In the current review, challenges and opportunities regarding polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing. PMID:28952534

  3. Recent Advances and Challenges towards Sustainable Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmentza, Constantina; Plácido, Jersson; Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Burniol-Figols, Anna; Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-06-11

    Sustainable biofuels, biomaterials, and fine chemicals production is a critical matter that research teams around the globe are focusing on nowadays. Polyhydroxyalkanoates represent one of the biomaterials of the future due to their physicochemical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Designing efficient and economic bioprocesses, combined with the respective social and environmental benefits, has brought together scientists from different backgrounds highlighting the multidisciplinary character of such a venture. In the current review, challenges and opportunities regarding polyhydroxyalkanoate production are presented and discussed, covering key steps of their overall production process by applying pure and mixed culture biotechnology, from raw bioprocess development to downstream processing.

  4. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  5. METHOD FOR PROVIDING SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES OF (CO) POLYMERS OF 1,3-TRIMETHYLENE CARBONATE (TMC), SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES, AND THE USE OF THESE STRUCTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpma, D.W.; Pêgo, A.P.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for providing shaped biodegradable and elastomeric structures of (co)polymers of 1,3­trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with improved (mechanical) properties which can be used for tissue or tissue component support, generation or regeneration. Such shaped

  6. Immediate implant placement using a biodegradable barrier, polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910. An experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biodegradable membrane of polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymer reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers, as an occlusive barrier over implants placed into fresh extraction sockets. Ten dogs had the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars...

  7. Indirect rapid prototyping of antibacterial acid anhydride copolymer microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Ryan D; Miller, Philip R; Singh, Ritika; Narayan, Roger J; Shah, Akash; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Microneedles are needle-like projections with microscale features that may be used for transdermal delivery of a variety of pharmacologic agents, including antibacterial agents. In the study described in this paper, an indirect rapid prototyping approach involving a combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography and micromolding was used to prepare microneedle arrays out of a biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer, Gantrez® AN 169 BF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and nanoindentation studies were performed to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the Gantrez® AN 169 BF material. Agar plating studies were used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial performance of these arrays against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Large zones of growth inhibition were noted for Escherichia coli, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and B. subtilis. The performance of Gantrez® AN 169 BF against several bacteria suggests that biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedle arrays prepared using visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography micromolding may be useful for treating a variety of skin infections. (communication)

  8. [Isolation of a PHA producing strain with butyric acid as the carbon source and its shaking-flask fermentation character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-qiang; Li, Yun-bei; Wen, Qin-xue

    2010-03-01

    A bacterial strain,WD-3,with high polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) yield was isolated from activated sludge. Its fermentation characters including the effects of C:N ratio, pH,fermentation time on the PHA production were also primary studied. The results showed that the optimal C/N ratio and pH were 35 and 7.0, respectively. PHA accumulation increased rapidly during the stable growth stage. The maximum PHA yield was 3.01 g x L(-), the strain accumulated PHA up to 45.4% of its cellular dry weight, and the proportion of PHV occupied one-third of the PHA production. Analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence showed that strain WD-3 belongs to Enterobacter.

  9. Biodegradable modified Phba systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniscenko, L.; Dzenis, M.; Erkske, D.; Tupureina, V.; Savenkova, L.; Muizniece - Braslava, S.

    2004-01-01

    Compositions as well as production technology of ecologically sound biodegradable multicomponent polymer systems were developed. Our objective was to design some bio plastic based composites with required mechanical properties and biodegradability intended for use as biodegradable packaging. Significant characteristics required for food packaging such as barrier properties (water and oxygen permeability) and influence of γ-radiation on the structure and changes of main characteristics of some modified PHB matrices was evaluated. It was found that barrier properties were plasticizers chemical nature and sterilization with γ-radiation dependent and were comparable with corresponding values of typical polymeric packaging films. Low γ-radiation levels (25 kGy) can be recommended as an effective sterilization method of PHB based packaging materials. Purposely designed bio plastic packaging may provide an alternative to traditional synthetic packaging materials without reducing the comfort of the end-user due to specific qualities of PHB - biodegradability, Biocompatibility and hydrophobic nature

  10. Functionalized and graft copolymers of chitosan and its pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Chintan; Momin, Munira; Gharat, Sankalp; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide. It belongs a family of polycationic polymers comprised of repetitive units of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Its biodegradability, nontoxicity, non-immunogenicity and biocompatibility along with properties like mucoadhesion, fungistatic and bacteriogenic have made chitosan an appreciated polymer with numerous applications in the pharmaceutical, comestics and food industry. However, the limited solubility of chitosan at alkaline and neutral pH limits its widespread commercial use. This can be circumvented by fabrication of chitosan by graft copolymerization with acyl, alkyl, monomeric and polymeric moieties. Areas covered: Modifications like quarterization, thiolation, acylation and grafting result in copolymers with higher mucoadhesion strength, increased hydrophobic interactions (advantageous in hydrophobic drug entrapment), and increased solubility in alkaline pH, the ability for adsorption of metal ions, protein and peptide delivery and nutrient delivery. Insights on methods of polymerization, including atomic transfer radical polymerization and click chemistry are discussed. Applications of such modified chitosan copolymers in medical and surgical, and drug delivery, including nasal, oral and buccal delivery have also been covered. Expert opinion: Despite a number of successful investigations, commercialization of chitosan copolymers still remains a challenge. Further advancements in polymerization techniques may address the unmet needs of the healthcare industry.

  11. Agro-industrial residues and starch for growth and co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer and α-amylase by Bacillus sp. CFR-67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamala, T R; Vijayendra, S V N; Joshi, G J

    2012-07-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and α-amylase (α-1,4 glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1) were co-produced by Bacillus sp. CFR-67 using unhydrolysed corn starch as a substrate. Bacterial growth and polymer production were enhanced with the supplementation of hydrolysates of wheat bran (WBH) or rice bran (RBH) individually or in combination (5-20 g L(-1), based on weight of soluble substrates-SS). In batch cultivation, a mixture of WBH and RBH (1:1, 10 g L(-1) of SS) along with ammonium acetate (1.75 g L(-1)) and corn starch (30 g L(-1)) produced maximum quantity of biomass (10 g L(-1)) and PHA (5.9 g L(-1)). The polymer thus produced was a copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate of 95:5 to 90:10 mol%. Presence of WBH and corn starch (10-50 g L(-1)) in the medium enhanced fermentative yield of α-amylase (2-40 U mL(-1) min(-1)). The enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-9) and temperature (40-60°C). This is the first report on simultaneous production of copolymer of bacterial PHA and α-amylase from unhydrolysed corn starch and agro-industrial residues as substrates.

  12. Agro-industrial residues and starch for growth and co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer and α-amylase by Bacillus sp. CFR-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Shamala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA and α-amylase (α-1,4 glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1 were co-produced by Bacillus sp. CFR-67 using unhydrolysed corn starch as a substrate. Bacterial growth and polymer production were enhanced with the supplementation of hydrolysates of wheat bran (WBH or rice bran (RBH individually or in combination (5-20 g L-1, based on weight of soluble substrates-SS. In batch cultivation, a mixture of WBH and RBH (1:1, 10 g L-1 of SS along with ammonium acetate (1.75 g L-1 and corn starch (30 g L-1 produced maximum quantity of biomass (10 g L-1 and PHA (5.9 g L-1. The polymer thus produced was a copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate of 95:5 to 90:10 mol%. Presence of WBH and corn starch (10-50 g L-1 in the medium enhanced fermentative yield of α-amylase (2-40 U mL-1 min-1. The enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-9 and temperature (40-60ºC. This is the first report on simultaneous production of copolymer of bacterial PHA and α-amylase from unhydrolysed corn starch and agro-industrial residues as substrates.

  13. Methacrylated monosaccharides as the modifiers for carbochain polymers: Synthesis, mechanical/thermal properties and biodegradability of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, P.; Bershtein, V.; Bukowska-Śluz, I.; Sobiesiak, M.; Gawdzik, B.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylated derivatives of glucose (MGLU) and galactose (MGAL) were synthesized by the procedure described by Vogel, and their copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and MMA/N-vinyl pyrrolidone (MMA/NVP) (1:1) mixture were obtained with the aim to modify some properties of carbochain polymers, in particular to generate their biodegradability. These hybrids of synthetic and natural products, with 10, 20 or 30 wt. % modifiers, were characterized by DMA and TGA methods and in the biodegradation tests. Increasing Tg values by 20-30°C was registered in all cases whereas thermal stability was improved only for PMMA due to modification. On the contrary, only for hybrids based on hygroscopic MMA/NVP copolymer the essential biodegradability could be generated.

  14. Synthesis of biodegradable thermoplastic elastomers (BTPE based on ε-caprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to mimic blood vessels, biodegradable thermoplastic elastomer (BTPE is designed to be elastic, flexible and tough. A series of biodegradable triblock copolymers and poly(ester-urethanes (PEU based on ε-caprolactone have been synthesized and studied. The crystallinity of the poly(ε-caprolactone used as soft segment has been disrupted by incorporating either L-lactide (L-LA units or trimethylene carbonate (TMC units. Our studies suggest that soft segment composition does affect the mechanical properties significantly.

  15. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, M., E-mail: mariacristina.gagliardi@iit.it [Center for Micro Bio-Robotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Italy); Bertero, A. [Department of Biology, Unit of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Pisa, S.S.12 Abetone e Brennero 4, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy); Bardi, G. [Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies @UniLe, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano (Italy); Bifone, A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  16. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, M.; Bertero, A.; Bardi, G.; Bifone, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  17. T and B cells and PHA response of peripheral lymphocytes among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dock, D.S.; Hamilton, H.B.; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Little is known about immune compretence in atomic bomb survivors. The following results were observed from this study. T and B cells showed no change in proportion by age or exposure dose. The percentage of T cells was slightly lower in malignant tumor patients than in the control group. However, it was significantly higher in the group with chromosomal aberrations than in the control group. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) response of peripheral lymphocytes decreased significantly with age in the 0 rad control group and the 200+ rad exposure group, particularly so in the latter. The malignant tumor group also showed lower PHA response than the control group. The PHA response of the chromosomal aberration group was significantly depressed compared with that of the control group. (author)

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis by Spirulina subsalsa from Gujarat coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Mishra, Sandhya

    2010-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have many unexploited potential for natural products with a huge variability in structure and biological activity. Their products are species specific and substrate+growth condition specific. Under stress conditions they are reported to produce biopolymers like EPS and PHA, which can be produced extracellularly and intracellularly, respectively. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers of biological origin, they are also capable of being completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide by microorganisms found in a wide range of environments, such as soil, water, and sewage. We have studied marine cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa from Veraval coast, Gujarat, India, producing PHA under increased sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (5% enhancement to the ASNIII medium), The biopolymer was chemically characterized through FTIR, NMR, TGA, and DSC. The present study shows increased PHA accumulation in S. subsalsa by twofold increased NaCl concentration in the growth media. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/inorganic phase composites for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Superb K; Valappil, Sabeel P; Roy, Ipsita; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2006-08-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are emerging as a class of biodegradable polymers for applications in tissue engineering. Members of the polyhydroxyalkanoates family encompass a wide variety of materials, from hard and brittle materials to soft and elastomeric. Over the years, efforts have been made to extend the group of polyhydroxyalkanoates and to investigate their use in numerous biomedical applications, such as sutures, cardiovascular patches, wound dressings, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Along with the development of polyhydroxyalkanoates, researchers have looked into the possibility of designing composites in combination with inorganic phases to further improve the mechanical properties, rate of degradation, and also impart bioactivity. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) are some of the polymers which have been studied extensively to fabricate composites in combination with hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass, and glass-ceramic fillers or coatings. This paper reviews international research carried out toward development of polyhydroxyalkanoates/inorganic phase composites in terms of systems investigated, microstructures, properties achieved, and applications, with special focus on tissue engineering scaffolds. A comparison between different composite systems developed in the past few years is presented. The paper also addresses the prospect of potential further development of polyhydroxyalkanoates/inorganic phase composites with optimized microstructure and properties for improved tissue engineering scaffolds.

  20. Preparation of degradable porous structures based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate and D,L-lactide (co)polymers for heart tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pego, AP; Siebum, B; Van Luyn, MJA; Van Seijen, XJGY; Poot, AA; Grijpma, DW; Feijen, J

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds for heart tissue engineering were prepared from amorphous elastomeric (co)polymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and D,L-lactide (DLLA). Leaching of salt from compression-molded polymer-salt composites allowed the preparation of highly porous structures in a

  1. Isolation of Bacillus sp Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA from Isfahan Refinery Wastewater and Qualification of Production in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Keshavarz Azam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present study was isolation of polyhydroxybutyrate producing Bacillus species from oil refinery waste water, Isfahan, Iran and primarily optimization of production condition. Petroleum wastes are rich of carbon sources and have low amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus sources. AS the most important factor in production of intracellular inclusions is increasing the C/N ratio, it seemed that polyhydroxybutyrate producing microorganisms will be found in these wastes. Materials and methods: Bacillus species were isolated and purified from oil refinery wastewater. The polymer was verified using different staining procedures. Polymer was extracted by digestion method and the optimum production conditions were investigated in minimal salt medium with the organic carbon source by submerged fermentation. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate was studied using dry weight and optical density measurement. Results: Between various isolated Bacillus strains, two of them (B1 and B2 were polyhydroxybutyrate producers. Maximum PHA production based on dry weight and concentration were obtained for strain B1 after 72 hours incubation, at 31°C, in the presence of glucose as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen source, pH=7, and aeration in 120 rpm; and for strain B2 in the same condition, except optimal temperature which was 32°C. The most production amounts were 367 mg.ml-1 for B1 and 473 mg.ml-1 for B2 isolates. Also the most polymer percentage was 52/16 and 58.43 for B1 and B2 isolates respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that the production of polyhydroxybutyrate was increased by optimization of the conditions in both isolates. Using petroleum wastes as well as production of biodegradable plastics, leads to decontamination of theses wastes.

  2. Biodegradation of aromatic-aliphatic copolyesters and polyesteramides by esterase activity-producing microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Erbanová, Pavla; Sezimová, H.; Malachová, K.; Rybková, Z.; Malinová, L.; Prokopová, I.; Brožek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2015), s. 25-30 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901; GA ČR GA106/09/1378; GA MŠk 7E13013; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0100; GA MŠk LO1208 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biodegradation * bacteria * copolymer Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.429, year: 2015

  3. Regeneration of Surgically Excised Segments of Dog Esophagus using Biodegradable PLA Hollow Organ Grafts,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    7 AG 396 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC FIG 6/5 REGENERATION OF SURGICALLY EXCISED SEGMENTS OF DOG ESOPHAGUS US-ETC(W) U15 G’OE UN8 N F...which will yield effective long-term functional results. The current therapy for repair and replacement of the diseased or avulsed esophagus is by the...C biodegradable polymeric implant constructed from the polymers and copolymers of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) to replace an

  4. Engineering Halomonas spp. as A Low-Cost Production Host for Production of Bio-surfactant Protein PhaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lu-Hong; Zhao, Han; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Halomonas spp. have been studied as a low cost production host for producing bulk materials such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) bioplastics, since they are able to grow at high pH and high NaCl concentration under unsterile and continuous conditions without microbial contamination. In this paper, Halomonas strain TD is used as a host to produce a protein named PHA phasin or PhaP which has a potential to be developed into a bio-surfactant. Four Halomonas TD expression strains are constructed based on a strong T7-family expression system. Of these, the strain with phaC deletion and chromosomal expression system resulted in the highest production of PhaP in soluble form, reaching 19% of total cellular soluble proteins and with a yield of 1.86 g/L in an open fed-batch fermentation process. A simple "heat lysis and salt precipitation" method is applied to allow rapid PhaP purification from a mixture of cellular proteins with a PhaP recovery rate of 63%. It clearly demonstrated that Halomonas TD could be used for high yield expression of a bio-surfactant protein PhaP for industrial application in an economical way. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Editorial: Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schaschke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Biodegradable Materials” features research and review papers concerning recent advances on the development, synthesis, testing and characterisation of biomaterials. These biomaterials, derived from natural and renewable sources, offer a potential alternative to existing non-biodegradable materials with application to the food and biomedical industries amongst many others. In this Special Issue, the work is expanded to include the combined use of fillers that can enhance the properties of biomaterials prepared as films. The future application of these biomaterials could have an impact not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of the environment.

  6. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte; Poulsen, Morten; Schroder, Malene; Kvist, Peter H.; Taylor, Mark; Gatehouse, Angharad; Shu, Qingyao; Knudsen, Ib

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats were fed control rice, transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab protein or PHA-E lectin, or transgenic rice spiked with the purified recombinant protein. Total immunoglobulin levels, mitogen-induced cell proliferation, T-dependent antibody response to sheep red blood cells and the antigen-specific antibody response in serum were examined at the end of the studies. A dose-dependent increase in mesenteric lymph node weight and total immunoglobulin A was seen when feeding PHA-E transgenic rice alone or spiked with 0.1% purified PHA-E lectin for 90 days indicating a local effect of PHA-E in the intestine. No adverse effects of Cry1Ab protein were found. An anti-PHA-E and anti-Cry1Ab antibody response was induced both after inhalation (control groups) and after inhalation/ingestion (groups fed recombinant protein alone or together with transgenic rice). In conclusion, only PHA-E lectin was found to have an immunomodulating effect when feeding rats for 90 days with approximately 70 mg PHA-E/kg bodyweight per day. As both PHA-E lectin and Cry1Ab protein were capable of inducing an antigen-specific antibody response it is important to make careful considerations when designing future animal studies to avoid intake of proteins from the other groups by inhalation as well as to examine the sensitization and elicitation potential of 'foreign' proteins before introduction to the world market

  7. 24 CFR 943.150 - What procurement standards apply to a PHA's joint venture partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), an “identity-of-interest party” means a party that is wholly owned or controlled by, or that is... Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.150 What procurement standards apply to a PHA... administration. (b) Exception. If the joint venture partner is a subsidiary, affiliate, or identity of interest...

  8. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  9. Isolation and Characterization of PHA-Producing Bacteria from Propylene Oxide Saponification Wastewater Residual Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Gu, Pengfei; Fan, Xiangyu; Shen, Junyu; Wu, Yulian; Huang, Lixuan; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-21

    A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing strain was isolated from propylene oxide (PO) saponification wastewater activated sludge and was identified as Brevundimonas vesicularis UJN1 through 16S rDNA sequencing and Biolog microbiological identification. Single-factor and response surface methodology experiments were used to optimize the culture medium and conditions. The optimal C/N ratio was 100/1.04, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose (10 g/L) and NH 4 Cl (0.104 g/L) respectively. The optimal culture conditions consisted of initial pH of 6.7 and an incubation temperature of 33.4 °C for 48 h, with 15% inoculum and 100 mL medium at an agitation rate of 180 rpm. The PHA concentration reached 34.1% of the cell dry weight and increased three times compared with that before optimization. The only report of PHA-producing bacteria by Brevundimonas vesicularis showed that the conversion rate of PHAs using glucose as the optimal carbon source was 1.67%. In our research, the conversion rate of PHAs with sucrose as the optimal carbon source was 3.05%, and PHA production using sucrose as the carbon source was much cheaper than that using glucose as the carbon source.

  10. 24 CFR 965.205 - Qualified PHA-owned insurance entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a PHA could purchase insurance coverage without regard to competitive selection procedures when it... selection procedures. Procurement of insurance from other entities is subject to competitive selection... as an insurance company. (i) The entity has competent underwriting staff (hired directly or engaged...

  11. 75 FR 32494 - Energy Conservation for PHA-Owned or Leased Project-Audits, Utility Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Energy Conservation for PHA-Owned or Leased Project-Audits, Utility Allowances AGENCY... subject proposal. In support of national energy conservation goals, Public Housing Agencies (PHAs... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses...

  12. Biodegradable Sonobuoy Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    agent. Samples were also analyzed for heavy metals which found concentrations below the toxicity threshold, ruling out metals contamination during...unlimited” 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In response to environmental concerns regarding nylon decelerators from sonobuoys polluting the oceans...readiness point for technology transition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodegrade, decelerator, sonobuoy, polyvinyl alcohol, polyhydroxyalkanoate, marine

  13. Biodegradable Materials for Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for nonwovens is increasing globally, particularly in the disposable products area. As the consumption of nonwoven products with short life increases, the burden on waste disposal also rises. In this context, biodegradable nonwovens become more important today and for the future. Several new ...

  14. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  15. Optimization of the expression of phaC2 encoding poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC1310 in Fad B deleted Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Abedi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We obtained functional expression of the phaC2 gene and investigated various conditions that could influence the expression of protein to optimize production of PHA synthase enzymes. This would allow us to study PHA production in large quantities.

  16. Combining the enrichment and accumulation step in non-axenic PHA production: Cultivation of Plasticicumulans acidivorans at high volume exchange ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marang, L.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2016-01-01

    The process for non-axenic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from organic waste generally comprises three steps: acidogenic fermentation of the waste stream, enrichment of a PHA-producing culture, and production of the PHA. This study assesses the feasibility of combining the enrichment and

  17. Agrowaste-based Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA production using hydrolytic potential of Bacillus thuringiensis IAM 12077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi Gowda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the innate enzymatic potential (amylase of the PHB producing strain B.thuringiensis IAM 12077 and explored the same for cost-effective production of PHB using agrowastes, eliminating the need for pretreatment (acid hydrolysis and/or commercial enzyme. Comparative polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA production by B. thuringiensis IAM 12077 in biphasic growth conditions using glucose and starch showed appreciable levels of growth (5.7 and 6.8 g/L and PHA production (58.5 and 41.5% with a PHA yield of 3.3 and 2.8 g/L, respectively. Nitrogen deficiency supported maximum PHA yield (2.46 g/L and accumulation (53.3%. Maximum growth (3.6 g/L, PHB yield (2.6 g/L and PHA accumulation (72.8% was obtained with C:N ratio of 8:1 using starch as the carbon source (10 g/L. Nine substrates (agro and food wastes viz. rice husk, wheat bran, ragi husk, jowar husk, jackfruit seed powder, mango peel, potato peel, bagasse and straw were subjected to two treatments- acid hydrolysis and hydrolysis by innate enzymes, and the reducing sugars released thereby were utilized for polymer production. All the substrates tested supported comparable PHB production with acid hydrolysis (0.96 g/L-8.03 g/L and enzyme hydrolysis (0.96 g/L -5.16 g/L. Mango peel yielded the highest PHB (4.03 g/L; 51.3%, followed by jackfruit seed powder (3.93 g/L; 29.32%. Varied levels of amylase activity (0.25U-10U in all the substrates suggested the enzymatic hydrolysis of agrowastes.

  18. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block leng...

  19. Biodegradable polymersomes as carriers and release systems for paclitaxel using Oregon Green® 488 labeled paclitaxel as a model compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jung Seok; Feijen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oregon Green® 488 labeled paclitaxel (Flutax) loaded biodegradable polymersomes (Flutax-Ps) based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) (mPEG-PDLLA), methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) or a mixture of the block copolymers (50:50, w/w) were prepared

  20. Benzene containing polyhydroxyalkanoates homo- and copolymers synthesized by genome edited Pseudomonas entomophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Rui; Cai, Longwei; Meng, Dechuan

    2014-01-01

    that the polymers were homopolymer of P(3HPhV) and random copolymers of 3HPhV and 3HDD. Their mechanical and thermal properties varied dramatically depending on the monomer ratios. Our results demonstrated the possibility to produce tailor-made, novel functional PHA using the chromosome edited P. entomophila.......Microbial synthesis of functional polymers has become increasingly important for industrial biotechnology. For the first time, it became possible to synthesize controllable composition of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (P3HA) consisting of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and phenyl group on the side......-chain when chromosome of Pseudomonas entomophila was edited to weaken its β-oxidation. Cultured in the presence of 5-phenylvaleric acid (PVA), the edited P. entomophila produced only homopolymer poly(3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) or P(3HPhV). While copolyesters P(3HPhV-co-3HDD) of 3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate (3...

  1. PHA Productivity and Yield of Ralstonia eutropha When Intermittently or Continuously Fed a Mixture of Short Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchali Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this present study was part of a larger effort focused on developing a dual substrate, dual fermentation process to produce Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA. The focus of this study was developing and optimizing a strategy for feeding a mixture of SCFAs (simulated ARF and maximizing PHA production in a cost-effective way. Three different feeding strategies were examined in this study. The substrate evaluated in this study for the growth phase of R. eutropha was condensed corn solubles, a low-value byproduct of the dry-mill, corn ethanol industry. The culture was grown to high cell densities in nitrogen-supplemented condensed corn solubles media in 5 L bioreactors. The overall growth rate of R. eutropha was 0.2 h−1. The 20 mL ARF feeding every 3 h from 48 to 109 h strategy gave the best results in terms of PHA production. PHA productivity (0.0697 g L−1 h−1, PHA concentration (8.37 g L−1, and PHA content (39.52% were the highest when ARF was fed every 3 h for 61 h. This study proved that condensed corn solubles can be potentially used as a growth medium to boost PHA production by R. eutropha thus reducing the overall cost of biopolymer production.

  2. PHA Productivity and Yield of Ralstonia eutropha When Intermittently or Continuously Fed a Mixture of Short Chain Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Panchali; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this present study was part of a larger effort focused on developing a dual substrate, dual fermentation process to produce Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). The focus of this study was developing and optimizing a strategy for feeding a mixture of SCFAs (simulated ARF) and maximizing PHA production in a cost-effective way. Three different feeding strategies were examined in this study. The substrate evaluated in this study for the growth phase of R. eutropha was condensed corn solubles, a low-value byproduct of the dry-mill, corn ethanol industry. The culture was grown to high cell densities in nitrogen-supplemented condensed corn solubles media in 5 L bioreactors. The overall growth rate of R. eutropha was 0.2 h−1. The 20 mL ARF feeding every 3 h from 48 to 109 h strategy gave the best results in terms of PHA production. PHA productivity (0.0697 g L−1 h−1), PHA concentration (8.37 g L−1), and PHA content (39.52%) were the highest when ARF was fed every 3 h for 61 h. This study proved that condensed corn solubles can be potentially used as a growth medium to boost PHA production by R. eutropha thus reducing the overall cost of biopolymer production. PMID:23118512

  3. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats...... response in serum were examined at the end of the studies. A dose-dependent increase in mesenteric lymph node weight and total immunoglobulin A was seen when feeding PHA-E transgenic rice alone or spiked with 0.1% purified PHA-E lectin for 90 days indicating a local effect of PHA-E in the intestine...... an immunomodulating effect when feeding rats for 90 days with approximately 70 mg PHA-E/kg bodyweight per day. As both PHA-E lectin and Cry1Ab protein were capable of inducing an antigen-specific antibody response it is important to make careful considerations when designing future animal studies to avoid intake...

  4. Bioconversion of styrene to poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) by the new bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida NBUS12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Chen, Chia-Lung; Ge, Liya; Li, Ling; Tan, Swee Ngin; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Styrene is a toxic pollutant commonly found in waste effluents from plastic processing industries. We herein identified and characterized microorganisms for bioconversion of the organic eco-pollutant styrene into a valuable biopolymer medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA). Twelve newly-isolated styrene-degrading Pseudomonads were obtained and partial phaC genes were detected by PCR in these isolates. These isolates assimilated styrene to produce mcl-PHA, forming PHA contents between 0.05±0.00 and 23.10±3.25% cell dry mass (% CDM). The best-performing isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida NBUS12. A genetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phaZ genes revealed P. putida NBUS12 as a genetically-distinct strain from existing phenotypically-similar bacterial strains. This bacterium achieved a final biomass of 1.28±0.10 g L(-1) and PHA content of 32.49±2.40% CDM. The extracted polymer was mainly comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (C14 ) monomers at a ratio of 2:42:1257:17:1. These results collectively suggested that P. putida NBUS12 is a promising candidate for the biotechnological conversion of styrene into mcl-PHA.

  5. Development and characterization of biodegradable polymer blends - PHBV/PCL irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, F.; Casarin, S.A.; Agnelli, J.A.M.; Souza Junior, O.F. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop PHBV biodegradable polymer blends, in a major concentration with PCL, irradiate the pure polymers and blends in two doses of gamma radiation and to analyze the changes in chemical and mechanical properties. The blends used in this study were from natural biodegradable copolymer poly (hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV) and synthetic biodegradable polymer poly (caprolactone) (PCL 2201) with low molar mass (2,000 g/mol). Several samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and afterwards, the tensile specimens were injected for the irradiation treatment with 50 kGy to 100 kGy doses and for the mechanical tests. The characterization of the samples before and after the irradiation treatments was performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical tensile tests. (author)

  6. Preparation of biodegradable PLA/PLGA membranes with PGA mesh and their application for periodontal guided tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Yoon, Suk Joon; Yeo, Guw-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min

    2009-01-01

    A biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA)/poly(glycolide-co-lactide) copolymer (PLGA) membrane with polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was prepared to aid the effective regeneration of defective periodontal tissues. The microporous membrane used in this study consists of biodegradable polymers, and seems to have a structure to provide appropriate properties for periodontal tissue regeneration. Based on the albumin permeation test, it is known that the biodegradable membrane exhibits the suitable permeability of nutrients. The membrane maintained its physical integrity for 6-8 weeks, which could be sufficient to retain space in the periodontal pocket. Cell attachment and cytotoxicity tests were performed with respect to the evaluation of biocompatibility of the membrane. As a result, the membrane did not show any cytotoxicity. The safety and therapeutic efficacies of the biodegradable membranes were confirmed in animal tests.

  7. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of active suppressor cells against IFN-gamma production in PHA-stimulated cord blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, H.; Taga, K.; Matsuda, A.; Uwadana, N.; Hasui, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-11-15

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were defective in their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or recombinant interleukin 2, whereas cord MNC could induce comparable amounts of IFN-gamma with adult controls on stimulation with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. Moreover, irradiation of cord MNC with 1500 rad before PHA stimulation could restore the IFN-gamma production. Kinetic studies indicated that such augmentation of IFN-gamma production by irradiation was evident when cord MNC were irradiated before or by 12 hr of PHA-stimulated culture. But irradiation after 18 hr or more of PHA stimulation did not exert any significant augmentation on IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. It seemed most likely that the ability of IFN-gamma production is already mature at birth, but radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production are activated within cord MNC at an early stage of PHA stimulation, resulting in poor IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by OKT3+, OKT4+, and OKT8- cord cells were markedly enhanced by irradiation with 1,500 rad before the culture. Coculture experiments disclosed that cord OKT4+ cells, but not OKT4- cells, when prestimulated with PHA for 24 hr, exerted active suppression on PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by adult MNC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production were induced within the OKT4+ T cell subset of cord MNC on PHA stimulation.

  8. Photoautotrophic Polyhydroxybutyrate Granule Formation Is Regulated by Cyanobacterial Phasin PhaP in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Waldemar; Watzer, Björn; Roos, Nora; Klotz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic microorganisms which fix atmospheric carbon dioxide via the Calvin-Benson cycle to produce carbon backbones for primary metabolism. Fixed carbon can also be stored as intracellular glycogen, and in some cyanobacterial species like Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulates when major nutrients like phosphorus or nitrogen are absent. So far only three enzymes which participate in PHB metabolism have been identified in this organism, namely, PhaA, PhaB, and the heterodimeric PHB synthase PhaEC. In this work, we describe the cyanobacterial PHA surface-coating protein (phasin), which we term PhaP, encoded by ssl2501. Translational fusion of Ssl2501 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) showed a clear colocalization to PHB granules. A deletion of ssl2501 reduced the number of PHB granules per cell, whereas the mean PHB granule size increased as expected for a typical phasin. Although deletion of ssl2501 had almost no effect on the amount of PHB, the biosynthetic activity of PHB synthase was negatively affected. Secondary-structure prediction and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of PhaP revealed that the protein consists of two α-helices, both of them associating with PHB granules. Purified PhaP forms oligomeric structures in solution, and both α-helices of PhaP contribute to oligomerization. Together, these results support the idea that Ssl2501 encodes a cyanobacterial phasin, PhaP, which regulates the surface-to-volume ratio of PHB granules. PMID:25911471

  9. Polyethylene-Based Tadpole Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha

    2017-02-15

    Novel well-defined polyethylene-based tadpole copolymers ((c-PE)-b-PS, PE: polyethylene, PS: polystyrene) with ring PE head and linear PS tail are synthesized by combining polyhomologation, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and Glaser coupling reaction. The -OH groups of the 3-miktoarm star copolymers (PE-OH)-b-PS, synthesized by polyhomologation and ATRP, are transformed to alkyne groups by esterification with propiolic acid, followed by Glaser cyclization and removal of the unreacted linear with Merrifield\\'s resin-azide. The characterization results of intermediates and final products by high-temperature size exclusion chromatography, H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry confirm the tadpole topology.

  10. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  11. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  12. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  13. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  14. Modeling Biodegradation of Nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Kauser; Ordonez, Raul; Ramachandran, Ravi; Balzer, Shira; Stern, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Nonylphenol is the primary breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylates, a certain class of nonionic surfactants. Nonylphenol has been found to be toxic to aquatic organisms and has been suspected of being harmful to humans due to its xenoestrogenic properties. Although there are known releases of nonylphenol to the environment, there is a lack of data describing the extent of biodegradation. This study thus focuses on much needed information on the biodegradation kinetics of nonylphenol. Oxygen uptake, cell growth and nonylphenol removal data were collected using batch reactors in an electrolytic respirometer. Nonylphenol removal, cell growth and substrate removal rates were modeled by the Monod, Haldane, Aiba, Webb, and Yano equations. The differential equations were solved by numerical integration to simulate cell growth, substrate removal, and oxygen uptake as a function of time. All models provided similar results with the Haldane model providing the best fit. The values of the kinetic parameters and the activation energy for nonylphenol were determined. These values can be used for predicting fate and transport of nonylphenol in the environment. The validity of applying each model to the biodegradation of nonylphenol was analyzed by computing the R 2 values of each equation

  15. Biodegradable packaging materials : case: PLA

    OpenAIRE

    Jama, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate the possibility of biodegradable packaging materials. Plastics and other non-degradable packaging materials have been used for many years and they have a negative impact on the environment since they do not degrade. Different research methods are used to get authentic results, which simplifies using biodegradable packaging materials. There were two biodegradability testing methods, which has been applied to this task:-, testing biode...

  16. (MAA:EA) copolymer films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... C are the regions of major weight loss, which are due to the extensive degradation of the polymer backbone. According to Zain et al [14], the decomposition at 210. ◦. C is attributed to the elimination of evaporated molecules in the side groups of MAA:EA copolymer and the decomposition above 400.

  17. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  18. Origin and mediation of secretion induced by oral phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baintner, K; Kiss, P; Pikli, A; Peumans, W; Bardocz, Susan; Pusztai, A

    2004-01-01

    After oral administration several gut-binding lectins induce accumulation of liquor and amylase in the proximal small intestine. Orally administered Phaseolus vulgaris phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was used to study the mediation of these effects in rats. The regulation of amylase secretion clearly differed from that of the liquor. The amylase activity was of pancreatic origin, in agreement with the known cholecystokinin-releasing effect of PHA. It appears that CCK exerts its effect both directly and by facilitating neural stimulatory pathways. Intestinal secretion was identified as the source of the liquor, without a contribution by other secretions. It was mediated by a local cholinergic reflex with the involvement of both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is speculated that the observed enteric reflex may enable the gut to transport secreted antibacterial peptides or secretory antibodies from the crypts to adherent bacteria on adjacent villi.

  19. Efficient poly(3-hydroxypropionate) production from glycerol using Lactobacillus reuteri and recombinant Escherichia coli harboring L. reuteri propionaldehyde dehydrogenase and Chromobacterium sp. PHA synthase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Sabet-Azad, Ramin; Pessina, Laura; Sardari, Roya R R; Ibrahim, Mohammad H A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate), P(3HP), is a polymer combining good biodegradability with favorable material properties. In the present study, a production system for P(3HP) was designed, comprising conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3HPA) as equilibrium mixture with 3HPA-hydrate and -dimer in aqueous system (reuterin) using resting cells of native Lactobacillus reuteri in a first stage followed by transformation of the 3HPA to P(3HP) using recombinant Escherichia coli strain co-expressing highly active coenzyme A-acylating propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP) from L. reuteri and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaCcs) from Chromobacterium sp. P(3HP) content of up to 40% (w/w) cell dry weight was reached, and the yield with respect to the reuterin consumed by the cells was 78%. Short biotransformation period (4.5h), lack of additives or expensive cofactors, and use of a cheap medium for cultivation of the recombinant strain, provides a new efficient and potentially economical system for P(3HP) production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diverse protein regulations on PHA formation in Ralstonia eutropha on short chain organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Li, Qing X.; Yu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Organic acids are considered as potential substrates for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkaonates. The acids may also be the metabolic inhibitors at moderate concentration levels. In this study, Ralstonia eutropha was used to elucidate the protein regulations when the bacterial cells pre-cultivated on glucose were exposed to three representative short chain organic acids, acetic, propionic and levulinic acids. The research compared and examined the proteins that might participate in PHA metabolism, primary metabolism, and cell's defense systems. A number of proteins were found to be induced in R. eutropha by using 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography tandem MS/MS. With the proteins being up-regulated, a dramatic change occurred in the induction of PHA metabolism, including fatty acid biosynthesis for acetate, β-oxidation for propionate and both for levulinic acid. Acetate kinase was induced in response to the presence of acetate or levulinic acid. The organic acids induced several proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and cofactor biosynthesis in R. eutropha, but the regulations had a great variation. R. eutropha might employ different regulation mechanisms to maintain cell growth and PHA formation when the cells are exposed to the organic acids as sole source of carbon and energy. PMID:19270755

  1. Kinetics of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 synthesis and suppression of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, W; Hillier, K; Jones, D

    1986-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin E2 on peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes stimulated with PHA in vitro, and the relationship of this to the time-course of their synthesis in culture, were investigated using prostaglandin E2, a thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor (UK37248), a thromboxane A2 mimic (U46619) and a thromboxane A2 receptor blocker (EP045). The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on PHA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocyte proliferation diminishes if the addition of PGE2 is delayed. If added 4 hr after a maximum concentration of PHA (5 micrograms/ml), the effect of PGE2 was reduced by 60%. If a submaximal concentration of PHA (1 microgram/ml) was used, the effect of PGE2 was not reduced if added 4 hr later but fell by about 60% after 16 hr. UK37248 moderately inhibited PHA-induced activation while substantially inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthesis and simultaneously enhancing PGE2 synthesis. The enhanced accumulation of PGE2 occurs while sensitivity to PGE2 is dropping. U46619, exogenously applied as a thromboxane A2 mimic, inhibited PHA-induced activation at concentrations that did not significantly alter PGE2 synthesis. EP045, which may modulate the effects of endogenous thromboxane A2 by blocking receptors, did not alter PHA-induced activation. We conclude that thromboxane A2 may have a role in inhibiting PHA-induced activation on the basis of the effect of U46619. However, this study highlights difficulties in utilizing prostaglandin and thromboxane receptor and synthesis inhibitors to examine their endogenous role in the modulation of mitogen-induced activation in vitro. If sensitivity to the purported endogenous substance is limited to the early stages of culture and if only low levels are synthesized at this early stage, then blocking drugs would have little effect.

  2. A model for simultaneous crystallisation and biodegradation of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Jingzhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper completes the model of biodegradation for biodegradable polymers that was previously developed by Wang et al. (Wang Y, Pan J, Han X, Sinka, Ding L. A phenomenological model for the degradation of biodegradable polymers. Biomaterials 2008;29:3393-401). Crystallisation during biodegradation was not considered in the previous work which is the topic of the current paper. For many commonly used biodegradable polymers, there is a strong interplay between crystallisation and hydrolysis reaction during biodegradation - the chain cleavage caused by the hydrolysis reaction provides an extra mobility for the polymer chains to crystallise and the resulting crystalline phase becomes more resistant to further hydrolysis reaction. This paper presents a complete theory to describe this interplay. The fundamental equations in the Avrami's theory for crystallisation are modified and coupled to the diffusion-reaction equations that were developed in our previous work. The mathematical equations are then applied to three biodegradable polymers for which long term degradation data are available in the literature. It is shown that the model can capture the behavior of the major biodegradable polymers very well.

  3. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) using sludge from different wastewater treatment processes and the potential for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai; Wang, Yujie; Chan, Pui Ling; Chan, Shun Wan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Chua, Hong; Yu, Peter Hoi Fu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, seven strains of bacteria with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)-producing ability (i.e. Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomona huttiensis, Yersinia frederiksenii, Aeromonas ichthiosmia, and Sphingopyxis terrae) were isolated from various waste treatment plants in Hong Kong. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and PHA accumulation were successfully achieved in the bioreactors using isolated bacteria from different sludges. At the organic loading less than 13,000 ppm, more than 95% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed by the isolated strains before the decrease of PHA accumulation. In addition, more than 95% of nitrogen removal was achieved by all isolated strains. In the bioreactors inoculated with single strains, the highest yields of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV) were obtained in A. ichthiosmia (84 mg PHB/g) and B. cereus (69 mg/g), respectively. For the mixed culture, the highest yields of PHB and PHV were increased by 55% and 45% in the system inoculated with B. pumilus and A. ichthiosmia. The biologically synthesized PHA also showed the potential applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PHA-nanoparticles loaded with pyrene were successfully prepared by recombinant Escherichia coli. The results of in vitro drug release and biocompatibility tests revealed that nanoparticles could be used as safer dray carriers with high loading capacity and efficiency. After 20 days, the cells successfully grew on 90% of the PHA-aortic valve.

  4. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  5. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abdusalam

    Keywords: Starch, Acetylation, Biodegradation, Poly(vinyl alcohol), Polymer blend. INTRODUCTION. Non-biodegradable polymers, such as polyethene, polypropane, poly(vinylchloride) etc have excellent mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile strain, bursting strength and tear strength (Hay and. Sharma.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodegradation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Stacey D.; Broadbelt, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms provide a wealth of biodegradative potential in the reduction and elimination of xenobiotic compounds in the environment. One useful metric to evaluate potential biodegradation pathways is thermodynamic feasibility. However, experimental data for the thermodynamic properties of xenobiotics is scarce. The present work uses a group contribution method to study the thermodynamic properties of the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database. The Gibbs free energies of formation and reaction are estimated for 914 compounds (81%) and 902 reactions (75%), respectively, in the database. The reactions are classified based on the minimum and maximum Gibbs free energy values, which accounts for uncertainty in the free energy estimates and a feasible concentration range relevant to biodegradation. Using the free energy estimates, the cumulative free energy change of 89 biodegradation pathways (51%) in the database could be estimated. A comparison of the likelihood of the biotransformation rules in the Pathway Prediction System and their thermodynamic feasibility was then carried out. This analysis revealed that when evaluating the feasibility of biodegradation pathways, it is important to consider the thermodynamic topology of the reactions in the context of the complete pathway. Group contribution is shown to be a viable tool for estimating, a priori, the thermodynamic feasibility and the relative likelihood of alternative biodegradation reactions. This work offers a useful tool to a broad range of researchers interested in estimating the feasibility of the reactions in existing or novel biodegradation pathways. PMID:19288443

  7. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86

  8. JTEC monograph on biodegradable polymers and plastics in Japan: Research, development, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    A fact-finding team of American scientists and engineers visited Japan to assess the status of research and development and applications in biodegradable polymers. The visit was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and industry. In Japan, the team met with representatives of 31 universities, government ministries and institutes, companies, and associations. Japan's national program on biodegradable polymers and plastics evaluates new technologies, testing methods, and potential markets for biodegradables. The program is coordinated by the Biodegradable Plastics Society of Japan, which seeks to achieve world leadership in biodegradable polymer technology and identify commercial opportunities for exploiting this technology. The team saw no major new technology breakthroughs. Japanese scientists and engineers are focusing on natural polymers from renewable resources, synthetic polymers, and bacterially-produced polymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(amino acids), and polysaccharides. The major polymers receiving attention are the Zeneca PHBV copolymers, Biopol(registered trademark), poly(lactic acid) from several sources, polycaprolactone, and the new synthetic polyester, Bionolle(registered trademark), from Showa High Polymer. In their present state of development, these polymers all have major deficiencies that inhibit their acceptance for large-scale applications.

  9. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and its copolymers: A review of recent advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Anbreen; Zuber, Mohammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Tabasum, Shazia

    2016-08-01

    Traditional mineral oil based plastics are important commodity to enhance the comfort and quality of life but the accumulation of these plastics in the environment has become a major universal problem due to their low biodegradation. Solution to the plastic waste management includes incineration, recycling and landfill disposal methods. These processes are very time consuming and expensive. Biopolymers are important alternatives to the petroleum-based plastics due to environment friendly manufacturing processes, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore use of novel biopolymers, such as polylactide, polysaccharides, aliphatic polyesters and polyhydroxyalkanoates is of interest. PHAs are biodegradable polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HA) produced from renewable resources by using microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds. Even though PHAs are promising candidate for biodegradable polymers, however, the production cost limit their application on an industrial scale. This article provides an overview of various substrates, microorganisms for the economical production of PHAs and its copolymers. Recent advances in PHAs to reduce the cost and to improve the performance of PHAs have also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-739358 (Danusertib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Fei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias (Ph-positive ALL with clinically approved inhibitors of the Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase frequently results in the emergence of a leukemic clone carrying the T315I mutation in Bcr/Abl, which confers resistance to these drugs. PHA-739358, an Aurora kinase inhibitor, was reported to inhibit the Bcr/Abl T315I mutant in CML cells but no preclinical studies have examined this in detail in human ALL. Results We compared the sensitivity of human Bcr/Abl T315I, Bcr/Abl wild type and non-Bcr/Abl ALL cells to this drug. PHA-739358 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis independently of Bcr/Abl, the T315I mutation, or presence of the tumor suppressor p53, but the degree of effectiveness varied between different ALL samples. Since short-term treatment with a single dose of drug only transiently inhibited proliferation, we tested combination treatments of PHA-739358 with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor Lonafarnib, with vincristine and with dasatinib. All combinations reduced viability and cell numbers compared to treatment with a single drug. Clonogenic assays showed that 25 nM PHA-739358 significantly reduced the colony growth potential of Ph-positive ALL cells, and combined treatment with a second drug abrogated colony growth in this assay. PHA-739358 further effectively blocked Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase activity and Aurora kinase B in vivo, and mice transplanted with human Bcr/Abl T315I ALL cells treated with a 3x 7-day cycle of PHA-739358 as mono-treatment had significantly longer survival. Conclusions PHA-739358 represents an alternative drug for the treatment of both Ph-positive and negative ALL, although combined treatment with a second drug may be needed to eradicate the leukemic cells.

  11. Biodegradation of Polypropylene Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Brandi Nechelle

    The primary aim of the current research is to document the biodegradation of polypropylene nonwovens and filament under composting environments. To accelerate the biodegradat ion, pre-treatments and additives were incorporated into polypropylene filaments and nonwovens. The initial phase (Chapter 2) of the project studied the biodegradation of untreated polypropylene with/without pro-oxidants in two types of composting systems. Normal composting, which involved incubation of samples in food waste, had little effect on the mechanical properties of additive-free spunbond nonwovens in to comparison prooxidant containing spunbond nonwovens which were affected significantly. Modified composting which includes the burial of samples with food and compressed air, the polypropylene spunbond nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants displayed an extreme loss in mechanical properties and cracking on the surface cracking. Because the untreated spunbond nonwovens did not completely decompose, the next phase of the project examined the pre-treatment of gamma-irradiation or thermal aging prior to composting. After exposure to gamma-irradiation and thermal aging, polypropylene is subjected to oxidative degradation in the presence of air and during storage after irradiat ion. Similar to photo-oxidation, the mechanism of gamma radiation and thermal oxidative degradation is fundamentally free radical in nature. In Chapter 3, the compostability of thermal aged spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidant additives. The FTIR spectrum confirmed oxidat ion of the polypropylene nonwovens with/without additives. Cracking on both the pro-oxidant and control spunbond nonwovens was showed by SEM imaging. Spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were also preirradiated by gamma rays followed by composting. Nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were severely degraded by gamma-irradiation after up to 20 kGy exposure as explained in Chapter 4. Furthermore (Chapter 5), gamma

  12. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PhaSE) or "Making Jello in Space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Doherty, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE) is a highly successful experiment that flew aboard two shuttle missions to study the transitions involved in the formation of jellolike colloidal crystals in a microgravity environment. A colloidal suspension, or colloid, consists of fine particles, often having complex interactions, suspended in a liquid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. In low Earth orbit, the effective force of gravity is thousands of times less than at the Earth's surface. This provides researchers a way to conduct experiments that cannot be adequately performed in an Earth-gravity environment. In microgravity, colloidal particles freely interact without the complications of settling that occur in normal gravity on Earth. If the particle interactions within these colloidal suspensions could be predicted and accurately modeled, they could provide the key to understanding fundamental problems in condensed matter physics and could help make possible the development of wonderful new "designer" materials. Industries that make semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. Atomic interactions determine the physical properties (e.g., weight, color, and hardness) of ordinary matter. PHaSE uses colloidal suspensions of microscopic solid plastic spheres to model the behavior of atomic interactions. When uniformly sized hard spheres suspended in a fluid reach a certain concentration (volume fraction), the particle-fluid mixture changes from a disordered fluid state, in which the spheres are randomly organized, to an ordered "crystalline" state, in which they are structured periodically. The thermal energy of the spheres causes them to form ordered arrays, analogous to crystals. Seven of the eight PHaSE samples ranged in volume fraction from 0.483 to 0.624 to cover the range of interest, while one sample, having a concentration of 0.019, was included for

  13. Biodegradable nanocomposite hydrogel structures with enhanced mechanical properties prepared by photo-crosslinking solutions of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) macromonomers and nanoclay particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Blanquer, Sebastien; van Kooten, T.G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Soft hydrogels with elasticity modulus values lower than 100 kPa that are tough and biodegradable are of great interest in medicine and in tissue engineering applications. We have developed a series of soft hydrogel structures from different methacrylate-functionalized triblock copolymers of

  14. Long-term evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a thin-walled biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, using walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the long-term functional nerve recovery after reconstruction of a IO-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, with a thin-walled nerve guide, composed of a biodegradable copolymer of DL-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon-CL)]. To evaluate both motor

  15. Functional Stability of a Mixed Microbial Consortium Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent an environmentally-effective alternative to synthetic thermoplastics; however, current production practices are not sustainable. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing real wastewaters and mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum. Polymer production reached 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. Employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts, distinctly different communities were observed between and within wastewaters following enrichment. Most importantly, functional stability was maintained despite differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  16. Effect of three porcelain etchants type (HF-APF-PHA on porcelain- composite shear bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermanshah H.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Porcelain restorations are susceptible to fracture and a common method for repairing is the use of silane and composite on etched porcelain. Although HF is very effective in porcelain etching but has detrimental effects on tissues. Purpose: In this study, the effect of APF and PHA was compared with HF in porcelain etching. Also the role of silane, unfilled resin and dentin bonding in bond strength of composite- porcelain was evaluated. Methods and Materials: In this experimental in-vitro study, one-hundred twenty porcelain square blocks (552 mm were prepared and bonding surfaces of each sandblasted. Samples were divided into three groups. The first group (n=40 were etched with buffered HF 9.5% (Ultradent for 1 min., the second group (n=40 were etched with Iranian APF 1.23% (Kimia for 10 minutes and the third group (n=40 were etched with Iranian PHA 37% (Kimia for 1 min. Ultradent silane was applied on the surfaces of half of cases in each group. On the surfaces of half of silane-treated samples unfilled resin was applied and dentin bonding was used on the surfaces of the remaining. Samples without silane were treated in a similar manner. Composite cylinder with 4mm diameter and 2 mm height was bonded to porcelain. Specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and subjected to 500 cycles. Shear bond strength was measured with an Instron machine and type of fracture was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results were analyzed using 3 way ANOVA, Kaplan- Maier and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Findings showed that PHA and APF roughened the porcelain surface without creating retentive micro undercuts but HF etches porcelain and creates retentive microundercuts. Ultradent silane had no significant effect on bond strength of porcelain- composite. Unfilled resin with Ultradent silane compared with dentin bonding with the same silane is more effective in bond strength of composite- porcelain. Conclusion: Based on

  17. Integrated analysis of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in PHA-producing Pseudomonas putida grown on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Veronique; Poblete-Castro, Ignacio; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-05-03

    Given its high surplus and low cost, glycerol has emerged as interesting carbon substrate for the synthesis of value-added chemicals. The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 can use glycerol to synthesize medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA), a class of biopolymers of industrial interest. Here, glycerol metabolism in P. putida KT2440 was studied on the level of gene expression (transcriptome) and metabolic fluxes (fluxome), using precisely adjusted chemostat cultures, growth kinetics and stoichiometry, to gain a systematic understanding of the underlying metabolic and regulatory network. Glycerol-grown P. putida KT2440 has a maintenance energy requirement [0.039 (mmolglycerol (gCDW h)(-1))] that is about sixteen times lower than that of other bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, which provides a great advantage to use this substrate commercially. The shift from carbon (glycerol) to nitrogen (ammonium) limitation drives the modulation of specific genes involved in glycerol metabolism, transport electron chain, sensors to assess the energy level of the cell, and PHA synthesis, as well as changes in flux distribution to increase the precursor availability for PHA synthesis (Entner-Doudoroff pathway and pyruvate metabolism) and to reduce respiration (glyoxylate shunt). Under PHA-producing conditions (N-limitation), a higher PHA yield was achieved at low dilution rate (29.7 wt% of CDW) as compared to a high rate (12.8 wt% of CDW). By-product formation (succinate, malate) was specifically modulated under these regimes. On top of experimental data, elementary flux mode analysis revealed the metabolic potential of P. putida KT2440 to synthesize PHA and identified metabolic engineering targets towards improved production performance on glycerol. This study revealed the complex interplay of gene expression levels and metabolic fluxes under PHA- and non-PHA producing conditions using the attractive raw material glycerol as carbon substrate. This

  18. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing seven mitogens with PHA-M for improved lymphocyte stimulation in dicentric chromosome analysis for bio-dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinke, C.; Port, M.; Lamkowski, A.; Abend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric chromosome analysis (DCA) is the gold standard for individual radiation dose estimation. Two limiting factors of DCA are the time-consuming lymphocyte stimulation and proliferation using the lectin PHA-M and the upper dose limit of individual dose assessment of ∼4 Gy. By measuring the mitotic index (MI), the authors investigated systematically whether the stimulation of lymphocytes can be improved after administration of alternative (and combined) mitogens. The authors compared the lymphocyte stimulation effectiveness of the traditionally used PHA-M (from Phaseolus vulgaris) with seven cited mitogens by determination of MIs: five lectins namely CNA (concanavalin A), PW (pokeweed), LMA (Maackia amurensis), LTV (T. vulgaris), PHA-L (P. vulgaris) as well as LPS (lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli) and SLO (strepto-lysine O, Streptococcus pyogenes) were applied. The conventional protocol using PHA-M for lymphocyte stimulation proved to be superior over lower/higher PHA-M concentrations as well as seven other mitogens administered either alone or combined with SLO or LPS. (authors)

  20. Preparation of amphiphilic block copolymer containing triazene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    −7. M). Experiments of fluorescence quenching with various metal cations (UO2+. 2 , Fe2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+) suggested that such a block copolymer could ..... from the intersection of straight-line segments, drawn through the points on ... copolymer displays a strong emission around 400 nm, which is ...

  1. Copolymers at the solid - liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copolymers consisting of both adsorbing and nonadsorbing segments can show an adsorption behaviour which is very different from that of homopolymers. We have mainly investigated the adsorption of AB diblock copolymers, which have one adsorbing block (anchor) and one nonadsorbing block

  2. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  3. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2470 Polyoxymethylene copolymer. Polyoxymethylene copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended for.... Standard Sieve No. 6 and that are retained on a U.S.A. Standard Sieve No. 10, shall yield total extractives...

  5. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  6. Biodegradation of gallotannins and ellagitannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshu; Kai, Yao; Qiang, He; Dongying, Jia

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, many researches have been made on gallotannin biodegradation and have gained great success in further utilization. Some of industrial applications of these findings are in the production of tannase, the biotransformation of tannic acid to gallic acid or pyrogallol and detannification of food and fodder. Although ellagitannins have the typical C-C bound which is more difficult to be degraded than gallotannins, concerted efforts are still in progress to improve ellagitannin degradation and utilization. Currently, more attention is mainly focused on intestinal microflora biodegradation of tannins especially ellagitannins which can contribute to the definition of their bioavailability for both human beings and ruminants. Also there have been endeavours to utilize the tannin-degrading activity of different fungi for ellagitannin-rich biomass, which will facilitate application of tannin-degrading enzymes in strategies for improving industrial and livestock production. Due to the complicated structures of complex tannins and condensed tannins, the biodegradation of them is much more difficult and there are fewer researches on them. Therefore, the researches on the mechanisms of gallotannin and ellagitannin biodegradation can result in the overall understanding to the biodegradation of complex tannins and condensed tannins. Biodegradation of tannins is in an incipient stage and further studies have to be carried out to exploit the potential of various tannins for largescale applications in food, fodder, medicine and tannery effluent treatment. ((c) 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  7. Poly(trimethylene carbonate)-based polymers engineered for biodegradable functional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, K

    2016-01-01

    Aliphatic polycarbonates have drawn attention as biodegradable polymers that can be applied to a broad range of resorbable medical devices. In particular, poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), its copolymers, and its derivatives are currently studied due to their unique degradation characteristics that are different from those of aliphatic polyesters. Furthermore, their flexible and hydrophobic nature has driven the application of PTMC-based polymers to soft tissue regeneration and drug delivery. This review presents the diverse applications and functionalization strategies of PTMC-based materials in relation to recent advances in medical technologies and their subsequent needs in clinical settings.

  8. Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (Bioplastic and its Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Lemoignei and Aspergillus Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumaravel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and its copolymer polyhydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHB-co-HV was studied. Bacterial as well as fungal isolates were isolated from the local industrial ecosystem. All these isolates were tested for the degradation of the above polymers in assay agar medium as well in liquid cultures. The culture biomass and the clear zone around the colonies were measured to evaluate the activity of these isolates. In all, the fungal isolates were found to degrade these polymers more rapidly when compared to bacteria, due to their versatile depolymerase activities.

  9. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  10. PHA production by mixed cultures: a way to valorize wastes from pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Diogo; Rossetti, Simona; Serafim, Luísa S

    2014-04-01

    In this work, hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HSSL), a complex feedstock originating from the pulp industry, was tested for the first time as a substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by a mixed microbial culture (MMC) under aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with HSSL was operated for 67days and the selected MMC reached a maximum PHA content of 67.6%. The MMC demonstrated a differential utilization of the carbon sources present in HSSL. Acetic acid was fully consumed, while xylose and lignosulphonates were partially consumed (30% and 14%, respectively). The selected culture was characterized by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). Bacteria belonging to the three main classes were identified: Alpha- (72.7±4.0%), Beta- (11.1±0.37%) and Gammaproteobacteria (10.3±0.3%). Within Alphaproteobacteria, a small amount of Paracoccus (4.2±0.51%) and Defluvicoccus related to Tetrad Forming Organisms (9.0±0.28%) were detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  12. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachertowska Alicja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. meliloti forms indeterminate nodules on the roots of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa. Bacteroids of indeterminate nodules are terminally differentiated and, unlike their non-terminally differentiated counterparts in determinate nodules, do not accumulate large quantities of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB during symbiosis. PhaZ is in intracellular PHB depolymerase; it represents the first enzyme in the degradative arm of the PHB cycle in S. meliloti and is the only enzyme in this half of the PHB cycle that remains uncharacterized. Results The S. meliloti phaZ gene was identified by in silico analysis, the ORF was cloned, and a S. meliloti phaZ mutant was constructed. This mutant exhibited increased PHB accumulation during free-living growth, even when grown under non-PHB-inducing conditions. The phaZ mutant demonstrated no reduction in symbiotic capacity; interestingly, analysis of the bacteroids showed that this mutant also accumulated PHB during symbiosis. This mutant also exhibited a decreased capacity to tolerate long-term carbon starvation, comparable to that of other PHB cycle mutants. In contrast to other PHB cycle mutants, the S. meliloti phaZ mutant did not exhibit any decrease in rhizosphere competitiveness; however, this mutant did exhibit a significant increase in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Conclusions S. meliloti bacteroids retain the capacity to synthesize PHB during symbiosis; interestingly, accumulation does not occur at the expense of symbiotic performance. phaZ mutants are not compromised in their capacity to compete for nodulation in the rhizosphere, perhaps due to increased succinoglycan production resulting from upregulation of the succinoglycan biosynthetic pathway. The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions.

  13. Poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate random copolymers reinforced with SWCNTs for multifunctional conductive biopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fortunati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a versatile strategy for preparing multifunctional composite films with tunable properties. Novel conductive composites based on the combination of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and biodegradable poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate random copolymers (P(BCEmBDGn are here presented. In particular, synthesized PBCE homopolymer and two copolymers containing different amounts of ether–oxygen containing co-units, P(BCE90BDG10 and P(BCE70BDG30, have been considered as matrices of SWCNTs based composites. The effect of incorporation of different amounts of SWCNTs (0.1–0.5–0.75–1 wt% on morphological, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was deeply investigated. The morphology of the fracture surfaces is affected by the SWCNT presence, while the increase in the SWCNT content does not provide significant microstructure modifications. The thermal properties underlined that nanotubes can act as nucleating agents, favouring the polymer crystallization process. The mechanical behavior demonstrated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes both in the case of PBCE homopolymer and in random copolymers based formulations exerted a reinforcing effect. All composites exhibit high electrical conductivity in comparison to the neat polymers. This work demonstrates that this combinatorial approach can be used to develop materials with tunable and advanced functional properties.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of new indomethacin-eluting biodegradable urethral stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsar, Andres; Nieminen, Riina; Isotalo, Taina; Mikkonen, Joonas; Uurto, Ilkka; Kellomäki, Minna; Talja, Martti; Moilanen, Eeva; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of an indomethacin-eluting biodegradable urethral stent on the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and the degradation and biocompatibility of the new stent in vivo. The effects of an indomethacin and indomethacin-eluting biodegradable stent on monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and transforming growth factor-ß were measured in THP-1 cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Stents (copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide acid) that were coated with 50L/50D polylactic acid and two different concentrations of indomethacin were inserted into the rabbit urethra. Stents without the drug were used as controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the degradation of the stents. Biocompatibility was evaluated using histologic analyses of the urethral specimen. The measurements were performed at 3 weeks and 3 months. Indomethacin and indomethacin-releasing stent material inhibited MCP-1 and RANTES production in activated THP-1 macrophages. SEM analysis revealed that indomethacin coating had no effect on the degradation process of the stents and less epithelial polyposis had developed in the indomethacin stent group. In histologic analyses at 3 weeks, indomethacin-eluting stents caused more calcification but no significant differences in other tissue reactions. At 3 months, the indomethacin-eluting stents caused less inflammatory reaction and calcification compared with the control stents. Indomethacin-eluting property can be safely added to biodegradable stents without major influence on the degradation time. The development of epithelial polyposis in the urethra can be potentially reduced by the new indomethacin-eluting urethral stents.

  15. Triblock copolymers based on ε-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J A; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2017-05-09

    Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were prepared. These block copolymers combine the low glass transition temperature of amorphous PTMC (approximately -20°C) and the semi-crystallinity of PCL (glass transition approximately -60°C and melting temperature approximately 60°C). PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring opening polymerization (ROP) of TMC and ε-CL. From these materials, films were prepared by solvent casting and porous structures were prepared by extrusion-based 3D printing. Films prepared from a polymer with a relatively high molecular weight of 62 kg/mol had a melting temperature of 58°C and showed tough and resilient behavior, with values of the elastic modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break of approximately 120 MPa, 16 MPa and 620%, respectively. Porous structures were prepared by 3D printing. Ethylene carbonate was used as a crystalizable and water-extractable solvent to prepare structures with microporous strands. Solutions, containing 25 wt% of the triblock copolymer, were extruded at 50°C then cooled at different temperatures. Slow cooling at room temperature resulted in pores with widths of 18 ± 6 μm and lengths of 221 ± 77 μm, rapid cooling with dry ice resulted in pores with widths of 13 ± 3 μm and lengths of 58 ± 12 μm. These PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers processed into porous structures at relatively low temperatures may find wide application as designed degradable tissue engineering scaffolds. In this preliminary study we prepared biodegradable triblock copolymers based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate and ε-caprolactone and assessed their physical characteristics. Furthermore, we evaluated their potential as melt-processable thermoplastic

  16. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals (BMs are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompatibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  17. Treatment of biodegradable material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannell, S.D.; Greenshields, R.N.

    1981-05-13

    Biodegradable effluents, e.g. containing carbohydrates and/or proteins, were treated by passing up a tower fermenter tapered at the top and with an aspect ratio of greater than or equal to 3:1. A flocculant microorganism aerobically digested the effluent in the tower and the mixture of treated medium, gas, and surplus microorganism was discharged through an inverted-U-shaped outlet at the top. After separation of the biomass, which could be used as an animal feed, the purified effluent could be discharged. A milk-processing effluent (2.5 g solids/l, of which 65% was sucrose and 35% milk solids) was treated in a fermentation tower (aspect ratio 10:1). Aspergillus niger in the tower readily digested sucrose and at least some lactose as air and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ were added. At least 90% of the casein was trapped by the microorganisms and discharged with them from the tower. The microrganisms were separated with a vibrating sieve giving a final discharged liquid containing 0.2 g solids/l.

  18. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  19. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new family of intrinsically disordered proteins: structural characterization of the major phasin PhaF from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maestro

    Full Text Available Phasins are intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoat4e (PHA-associated proteins involved in the stabilization of these bacterial carbon storage granules. Despite its importance in PHA metabolism and regulation, only few reports have focused so far on the structure of these proteins. In this work we have investigated the structure and stability of the PhaF phasin from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a protein that is involved in PHA granule stabilization and distribution to daughter cells upon cell division. A structural, three-dimensional model of the protein was built from homology modeling procedures and consensus secondary structure predictions. The model predicts that PhaF is an elongated protein, with a long, amphipathic N-terminal helix with PHA binding capacity, followed by a short leucine zipper involved in protein oligomerization and a superhelical C-terminal domain wrapped around the chromosomal DNA. Hydrodynamic, spectroscopical and thermodynamic experiments validated the model and confirmed both that free PhaF is a tetramer in solution and that most part of the protein is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its ligands. The results lay a molecular basis for the explanation of the biological role of PhaF and, along with an exhaustive analysis of phasin sequence databases, suggest that intrinsic disorder and oligomerization through coiled-coils may be a widespread mechanism among these proteins.

  1. 24 CFR 903.2 - With respect to admissions, what must a PHA do to deconcentrate poverty in its developments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must a PHA do to deconcentrate poverty in its developments and comply with fair housing requirements... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY PLANS Deconcentration of Poverty and Fair Housing in Program Admissions § 903.2 With respect to admissions, what must a PHA do to deconcentrate poverty in its...

  2. 24 CFR 943.144 - What financial impact do operations of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA? 943.144 Section 943.144 Housing and Urban... CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Subsidiaries, Affiliates, Joint Ventures in Public Housing § 943.144 What financial impact do operations of a subsidiary, affiliate, or joint venture have on a PHA? Income generated...

  3. [Progress and prospect of synthetic biodegradable polymers for bone repair and reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zenghui; Jiang, Dianming

    2010-03-01

    To review the latest researches of synthetic biodegradable polymers for bone repair and reconstruction, to predict the progress of bone substitute materials and bone tissue engineering scaffolds in future. The literature concerning synthetic biodegradable polymers as bone substitute materials or bone tissue engineering scaffolds was collected and discussed. Aliphatic polyester, polyanhydride, polyurethane and poly (amino acids) were the most extensively studied synthetic biodegradable polymers as bone substitutes and the scaffolds. Each polymer was of good biological safety and biocompatibility, and the degradation products were nontoxic to human body. The mechanical properties and degradation rate of the polymers could be adjusted by the type or number of the monomers and different synthetic methods. Therefore, the polymers with suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate could be produced according to the different requirements for bone grafting. Preliminary studies in vivo showed their favorable capacity for bone repair. The synthetic biodegradable polymers, especially the copolymers, composite materials and those carrying bone growth factors are expected to be the most promising and ideal biomaterials for bone repair and reconstruction.

  4. Preparation of core-crosslinked linear-dendritic copolymer micelles with enhanced stability and their application for drug solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyuan; Forbes, Robert T; D'Emanuele, Antony

    2017-05-15

    In this study we explore the preparation of core-crosslinked micelles of linear-dendritic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-co-poly(ester-sulfide) (PES) polymers to improve the stability of such polymeric micelle systems against premature disintegration and drug release. A series of MPEG-PES copolymers were synthesised via stepwise reactions of acetylation and thiol-ene photoreaction. Surface tension measurement showed that the copolymers with ethenyl surface groups could self-associate in dilute aqueous solutions to form micelles. Crosslinking within the micelle cores in the presence of dithioerythritol (DTT) linker was initiated under UV radiation. The formation of core-crosslinked micelles was confirmed by HPLC in combination with charged aerosol detection (CAD). The copolymers were found to readily hydrolyse under acidic conditions due to the ester-containing dendrons. Drug solubilisation capacities of the micellar solutions were determined using griseofulvin as a poorly water-soluble model drug. The solubility of griseofulvin showed a 10-fold enhancement in 1% w/v micelle solution and increased with the concentration of the copolymers. Drug release studies indicated that a more sustained release of griseofulvin was achieved for the core-crosslinked micelles compared to the non-crosslinked micelles, attributable to greater stability of the crosslinked core structure. The findings of this study present a new pathway towards developing biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Block Copolymers of Macrolactones/Small Lactones by a “Catalyst-Switch” Organocatalytic Strategy. Thermal Properties and Phase Behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Ladelta, Viko

    2018-03-16

    Poly(macrolactones) (PMLs) can be considered as biodegradable alternatives of polyethylene; however, controlling the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of macrolactone (ML) monomers remains a challenge due to their low ring strain. To overcome this problem, phosphazene (t-BuP4), a strong superbase, has to be used as catalyst. Unfortunately, the one-pot sequential block copolymerization of MLs with small lactones (SLs) is impossible since the high basicity of t-BuP4 promotes both intra- and intermolecular transesterification reactions, thus leading to random copolymers. By using ROP and the “catalyst-switch” strategy [benzyl alcohol, t-BuP4/neutralization with diphenyl phosphate/(t-BuP2)], we were able to synthesize different well-defined PML-b-PSL block copolymers (MLs: dodecalactone, ω-pentadecalactone, and ω-hexadecalactone; SLs: δ-valerolactone and ε-caprolactone). The thermal properties and the phase behavior of these block copolymers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This study shows that the thermal properties and phase behavior of PMLs-b-PSLs are largely influenced by the PMLs block if PMLs components constitute the majority of the block copolymers.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on random copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) for packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, M.; Macerata, E.; Consolati, G.; Quasso, F.; Genovese, L.; Soccio, M.; Giola, M.; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.; Mariani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of new bioplastic materials, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and four novel poly(butylene/thiodiethylene succinate) random copolymers (PBS-PTDGS), in sheets as well as in films, were exposed to gamma radiation, in air and in water, and their behavior along with the effect on their biodegradability was investigated. The molecular weight data obtained from gel permeation chromatography indicate that the sensibility to radiation increases with the amount of sulfur-containing co-unit (TDGS). At 200 kGy the average molecular weight of PBS film halves, while for P(BS60TDGS40) the residual molecular weight is about 20%. The calculated intermolecular crosslink Gx and scissioning Gs yields confirmed that degradation is predominant over crosslink for all the aliphatic systems. As shown by thermal analyses, gamma radiation affects the thermal properties, leading to an increased crystallinity of the systems, remarkable for PBS, and lower decomposition temperatures. Variations of crystallinity with the increasing absorbed dose were confirmed also by PALS analyses. Water contact angle measurements revealed post-irradiation wettability alterations that could positively affect polymer biodegradability. In particular, when irradiated in water at 100 kGy PBS film exhibits a water contact angle decrease of about 17%, indicating an enhanced wettability. After degradation in compost, changes in the surface morphology were observed by means of SEM and sample weight losses were determined, at different extent, according to the irradiation environment. Interestingly, after 52 days in compost PBS films, both pristine and irradiated in air at 25 kGy, showed a residual weight of about 60%, while the ones irradiated in water at 25 kGy of about 44%. Experimental data confirmed that gamma irradiation could represent a viable treatment to enhance biodegradation in compost of PBS and PBS-based copolymers.

  7. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  8. 76 FR 20698 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Agency (PHA) 5-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... comprehensive guide to PHA policies, programs, operations, and strategies for meeting local housing needs and... low, very low-income, and extremely low-income families and its strategy for addressing those needs.... Members of the Affected Public: Local, Regional and State Body Corporate Politic Public Housing Agencies...

  9. 24 CFR 884.105 - Maximum total ACC commitment and project account (private-owner/PHA projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum total ACC commitment and..., Scope and Basic Policies § 884.105 Maximum total ACC commitment and project account (private-owner/PHA projects). (a) Maximum total ACC commitment. The maximum total annual contribution that may be contracted...

  10. 24 CFR 982.631 - Homeownership option: Home inspections, contract of sale, and PHA disapproval of seller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Homeownership Option § 982.631 Homeownership... PHA may not commence monthly homeownership assistance payments or provide a downpayment assistance... may not commence monthly homeownership assistance payments, or provide a downpayment assistance grant...

  11. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Søren Michael

    2018-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing...

  12. Suppressed PHA activation of T lymphocytes in simulated microgravity is restored by direct activation of protein kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing clinostatic rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity, we found phytohemagglutinin (PHA) responsiveness to be almost completely diminished. Activation marker expression was significantly reduced in RWV cultures. Furthermore, cytokine secretion profiles suggested that monocytes are not as adversely affected by simulated microgravity as T cells. Reduced cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions may play a role in the loss of PHA responsiveness because placing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) within small collagen beads did partially restore PHA responsiveness. However, activation of purified T cells with cross-linked CD2/CD28 and CD3/CD28 antibody pairs was completely suppressed in the RWV, suggesting a defect in signal transduction. Activation of purified T cells with PMA and ionomycin was unaffected by RWV culture. Furthermore, sub-mitogenic doses of PMA alone but not ionomycin alone restored PHA responsiveness of PBMC in RWV culture. Thus our data indicate that during polyclonal activation the signaling pathways upstream of PKC activation are sensitive to simulated microgravity.

  13. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schrøder, Malene; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The 90-day animal study is the core study for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods in the SAFOTEST project. The model compound tested in the 90-day study was a rice variety expressing the kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris lectin agglutinin E-form (PHA-E lectin). Female Wistar rats were...... safety testing of genetically modified foods....

  14. Double Crystalline Multiblock Copolymers with Controlling Microstructure for High Shape Memory Fixity and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miaoming; Zheng, Liuchun; Wang, Lili; Dong, Xia; Gao, Xia; Li, Chuncheng; Wang, Dujin

    2017-09-06

    The shape memory performance of double crystalline poly(butylene succinate)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PBS-co-PCL) multiblock copolymers with controlling microstructure was studied, and the corresponding microstructure origin was further quantitatively analyzed by wide and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) experiments. It was found that the multiblock copolymer with higher PCL content, proper deformation strain, and inhibited crystallization of PBS (lower crystallinity and smaller crystal size, which could be realized by quenching from the melt) would exhibit better shape memory fixity and recovery performance. WAXS and SAXS results revealed that the shape fixity ratio (R f ) was closely related with the relative crystallinity of the PCL component, while the shape recovery ratio (R r ) strongly relied on the deformation and recovery behavior of the PBS and PCL components that changed along with compositions and deformation strains. For the copolymer with higher PCL content (BS 30 CL 70 ), at the lower deformation strain (0% ∼ 90%), both the PBS and PCL components after recovery had no orientation (labeled as stage I), resulting in almost complete recovery; with the deformation strain increasing (90% ∼ 200%), it was the irreversible deformation of the PCL component that largely took responsibility for the decreased R r (stage II). On the contrary, when the PCL content decreased to 50 wt % (BS 50 CL 50 ), stage I (0% ∼ 50%) and stage II (50% ∼ 100%) appeared in much lower strains; with the deformation strain increasing (100% ∼ 200%), the irreversible deformation of both PBS and PCL components was mainly responsible for the further reduction of R r (stage III). It could exhibit excellent shape memory performance for biodegradable double crystalline multiblock copolymers by controlling the composition, deformation strain, and crystallization, which might have wide application prospects in biomedical areas.

  15. Gyroid Membranes made from Nanoporous Blck Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Plzemystaw; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Ndoni, Sokol

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous materials are interesting and exciting materials in view of their many potential applications, especially as ultrafiltration membranes. One way of preparing nanoporous polymeric materials is to use block copolymers. Block copolymers have the great advantage that they organize them......-selves into different morphologies on the nano scale. Block copolymer synthesis controls the molecular weight and volume fraction of blocks, which determine the resulting nano-structures. From a membrane application point of view one very suitable morphology is the bicontinuous gyroid. Mechanical stability...... of the membrane and its nanoporosity is e.g. obtained by cross-linking the majority blocks and selectively etching the minority blocks. Here we report on ultrafiltration membranes prepared from a 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymer with gyroid structure. Different experimental methods...

  16. Block copolymer structures in nano-pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Marco; Guo, Xiaohu; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present results of coarse-grained computer modelling of block copolymer systems in cylindrical and spherical nanopores on Cell Dynamics Simulation. We study both cylindrical and spherical pores and systematically investigate structures formed by lamellar, cylinders and spherical block copolymer systems for various pore radii and affinity of block copolymer blocks to the pore walls. The obtained structures include: standing lamellae and cylinders, ``onions,'' cylinder ``knitting balls,'' ``golf-ball,'' layered spherical, ``virus''-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects [1]. Kinetics of the structure formation and the differences with planar films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nano-containers can be formed by confining block copolymers in pores of different geometries [1,2]. [4pt] [1] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, Polymer 49, 2797 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 214902 (2009).

  17. Electrostatic control of block copolymer morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Energy storage is at present one of the foremost issues society faces. However, material challenges now serve as bottlenecks in technological progress. Lithium-ion batteries are the current gold standard to meet energy storage needs; however, they are limited owing to the inherent instability of liquid electrolytes. Block copolymers can self-assemble into nanostructures that simultaneously facilitate ion transport and provide mechanical stability. The ions themselves have a profound, yet previously unpredictable, effect on how these nanostructures assemble and thus the efficiency of ion transport. Here we demonstrate that varying the charge of a block copolymer is a powerful mechanism to predictably tune nanostructures. In particular, we demonstrate that highly asymmetric charge cohesion effects can induce the formation of nanostructures that are inaccessible to conventional uncharged block copolymers, including percolated phases desired for ion transport. This vastly expands the design space for block copolymer materials and is informative for the versatile design of battery electrolyte materials.

  18. Degradation kinetics of ethylene-octene copolymer/wood flour biocomposites in dependence to filler content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Monakhova, T. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    This article is focused on thermal oxidative degradation and biodegradation in soil of biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC), filled by wood flour (from 30 to 70% wt.), in dependence to the filler content. The study of oxidative degradation of composites was carried out at two temperatures (80 and 130°C respectively). The induction period and the rates of oxidation were determined. It was concluded that as filler content raises, the induction period increases. It can be explained by the higher specific area of composites in comparison with pure EOC. However, high filled composites (60 and 70 % of the filler) are oxidized with a huge induction period because polyphenols in the filler inhibit the oxidation process. Biodegradation test under laboratory conditions was carried out to investigate the biodegradability of the material. Composites with lower filler content have lower weight loss rate. Small particles are capsulated by polymer and are isolated from moisture and microorganisms. On the other hand, at a high filling of the composite small particles stick together and act as large ones. Such filler agglomerates are connected with each other and allow microorganisms to penetrate into the composite. It was concluded as filler content raises the mass loss increases.

  19. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  20. Biodegradable Peptide-Silica Nanodonuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Laura; Travaglini, Leana; Cabrera, Ingrid; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-07

    We report hybrid organosilica toroidal particles containing a short peptide sequence as the organic component of the hybrid systems. Once internalised in cancer cells, the presence of the peptide allows for interaction with peptidase enzymes, which attack the nanocarrier effectively triggering its structural breakdown. Moreover, these biodegradable nanovectors are characterised by high cellular uptake and exocytosis, showing great potential as biodegradable drug carriers. To demonstrate this feature, doxorubicin was employed and its delivery in HeLa cells investigated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Comparison of the pharmacological and biological properties of HPMA copolymer-pirarubicin conjugates: A single-chain copolymer conjugate and its biodegradable tandem-diblock copolymer conjugate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Tsukigawa, K.; Nakamura, H.; Chytil, Petr; Fang, J.; Ulbrich, Karel; Otagiri, M.; Maeda, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, 30 August (2017), s. 10-19 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:AV ČR,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(CZ) JSPS-16-05 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : pirarubicin * PHPMA conjugate * tandem-diblock PHPMA conjugate Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2016

  2. Reactivity Ratios for Organotin Copolymer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Di(tri-n-butyltin itaconate (DTBTI and monoethyl tributyltin fumarate (METBTF were synthesized as organotin monomers. The organotin monomers were copolymerized with styrene (ST and methyl methacrylate (MMA via a free radical polymerization technique. The overall conversion was kept low (£15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymer composition was determined from tin analysis. The synthesized monomers and copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy.

  3. Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    2001-02-27

    The objectives of this work was to: synthesize responsive copolymer systems; characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; measure rheological properties of aqueous fluids in fixed geometry flow profiles; and to tailor final polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated conditions. This report focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli responsive copolymers, the investigation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow and the design of a rheometer capable of measuring very dilute aqueous polymer solutions at low torque.

  4. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  5. Biodegradable congress 2012; Bioschmierstoff-Kongress 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Within the Guelzower expert discussions at 5th and 6th June, 2012 in Oberhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of biodegradable lubricants by means of research and development as well as public relations (Steffen Daebeler); (2) Biodegradable lubricants - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the engaged product groups (Hubertus Murrenhoff); (3) Standardization of biodegradable lubricants - CEN/DIN standard committees - state of the art (Rolf Luther); (4) Market research for the utilization of biodegradable lubricants and means of proof of sustainability (Norbert Schmitz); (5) Fields of application for high performance lubricants and requirements upon the products (Gunther Kraft); (6) Investigations of biodegradable lubricants in rolling bearings and gears (Christoph Hentschke); (7) Biodegradable lubricants in central lubrication systems Development of gears and bearings of offshore wind power installations (Reiner Wagner); (8) Investigations towards environmental compatibility of biodegradable lubricants used in offshore wind power installations (Tolf Schneider); (9) Development of glycerine based lubricants for the industrial metalworking (Harald Draeger); (10) Investigations and utilization of biodegradable oils as electroinsulation oils in transformers (Stefan Tenbohlen); (11) Operational behaviour of lubricant oils in vegetable oil operation and Biodiesel operation (Horst Hamdorf); (12) Lubrication effect of lubricating oil of the third generation (Stefan Heitzig); (13) Actual market development from the view of a producer of biodegradable lubricants (Frank Lewen); (14) Utilization of biodegradable lubricants in forestry harvesters (Guenther Weise); (15) New biodegradable lubricants based on high oleic sunflower oil (Otto Botz); (16) Integrated fluid concept - optimized technology and service package for users of biodegradable lubricants (Juergen Baer); (17) Utilization of a bio oil sensor to control

  6. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  7. Biodegradable poly lactone-family polymer and their applications in medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Bei, J.

    2005-01-01

    Poly lactone-family polymers such as poly lactide, poly glycolide and polycaprolactone are kind aliphatic polyester. Since they can degrade by hydrolysis reaction under all the ph condition and possess biocompatibility, biodegradability and other good properties, especially they included not peptide bond in their molecules, they are non-antigen and non-immunization, as well as have no-toxicity and no-stimulation. So they are interested biomaterials and very useful in medical field. However the properties of all of the homo-poly lactones can not be changed in a large range, the limited properties result in limited applications of these homo-poly lactones. Based on macromolecular design, a series of copolylactones such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(glycolide-co-lactide-co-caprolactone) tri- component copolymer (PGLC), tri- and multi-block poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (TPLE and BPLE), as well as polycaprolactone/poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (PCEL) et al were synthesized by copolymerization among various lactone monomers or lactone monomers with poly(ethylene glycol). These copolylactones have wide range of degradation life from several months to years and different mechanical properties. After plasma treatment the surface property of the copolylactones were improved further and cell affinity of the copolylactones was improved obviously. The applications of these poly lactone-family polymers in medical field for used as drug carrier in drug delivery system, and as cell scaffold in tissue engineering were discussed

  8. Additional Equipment for Soil Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kraus, Michal; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial production, increasing citizens’ living standards, expanding the consumer assortment mean in the production - consumption cycle a constantly increasing occurrence of waste material, which by its very nature must be considered as a source of useful raw materials in all branches of human activity. In addition to strict legislative requirements, a number of circumstances characterize waste management. It is mainly extensive transport associated with the handling and storage of large volumes of substances with a large assortment of materials (substances of all possible physical and chemical properties) and high demands on reliability and time coordination of follow-up processes. Considerable differences in transport distances, a large number of sources, processors and customers, and not least seasonal fluctuations in waste and strong price pressures cannot be overlooked. This highlights the importance of logistics in waste management. Soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products are hazardous industrial waste. Methods of industrial waste disposal are landfilling, biological processes, thermal processes and physical and chemical methods. The paper focuses on the possibilities of degradation of oil pollution, in particular biodegradation by bacteria, which is relatively low-cost among technologies. It is necessary to win the fight with time so that no ground water is contaminated. We have developed two additional devices to help reduce oil accident of smaller ranges. In the case of such an oil accident, it is necessary to carry out the permeability test of contaminated soil in time and, on this basis, to choose the technology appropriate to the accident - either in-sit biodegradation - at the site of the accident, or on-sit - to remove the soil and biodegrade it on the designated deposits. A special injection drill was developed for in-sit biodegradation, tossing and aeration equipment of the extracted soil was developed for

  9. Surface characterization and biodegradation behavior of magnesium implanted poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu, Emel; Ersoy, Fulya; Yalçın, Eyyup; Öztarhan, Ahmet

    2017-11-01

    Biopolymers are great source for medical applications such as drug delivery, wound patch, artificial tissue studies etc., food packaging, cosmetic applications etc. due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Particularly, the biodegradation ability of a biomaterial makes it even advantageous for the applications. The more tunable the biodegradation rate the more desired the biopolymers. There are many ways to tune degradation rate including surface modification. In this study ion implantation method applied to biopolymer surface to determine its effect on biodegradation rate. In this study, surface modification of poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) copolymer film is practiced via Mg-ion-implantation using a MEVVA ion source. Mg ions were implanted at a fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2 and ion energy of 30 keV. Surface characterization of Mg-ion-implanted samples is examined using Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and FT-IR Spectroscopy. These analyses showed that the surface become more hydrophilic and rougher after the ion implantation process which is advantageous for cell attachment on medical studies. The in vitro enzymatic degradation of Mg-implanted samples was investigated in Lipase PS containing enzyme solution. Enzymatic degradation rate was examined by mass loss calculation and it is shown that Mg-implanted samples lost more than 30% of their weight while control samples lost around 20% of their weight at the end of the 16 weeks. The evaluation of the results confirmed that Mg-ion-implantation on poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) films make the surface rougher and more hydrophilic and changes the organic structure on the surface. On the other hand, ion implantation has increased the biodegradation rate.

  10. Polyamide copolymers having 2,5-furan dicarboxamide units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Bret Ja; Samanta, Satyabrata

    2017-09-19

    Polyamide copolymers, and methods of making and using polyamide copolymers, having 2,5-furan dicarboxamide units are disclosed herein. Such polymers can be useful for engineering thermoplastics having advantageous physical and/or chemical properties.

  11. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  12. Biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kaiyan

    In this dissertation, various noncrosslinked and crosslinked biobased and biodegradable polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and characterized. The properties of these polymer nanocomposites, and their relating mechanisms and corresponding applications were studied and discussed in depth. Chapter 1 introduces the research background and objectives of the current research. Chapter 2 presents the development of a novel low cost carbon source for bacterial cellulose (BC) production and fabrication and characterization of biobased polymer nanocomposites using produced BC and soy protein based resins. The carbon source, soy flour extract (SFE), was obtained from defatted soy flour (SF) and BC yield achieved using SFE medium was high. The results of this study showed that SFE consists of five sugars and Acetobacter xylinum metabolized sugars in a specific order. Chapter 3 discusses the fabrication and characterization of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites using BC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). These polymer nanocomposites had excellent tensile and thermal properties. Crosslinking of PVA using glutaraldehyde (GA) not only increased the mechanical and thermal properties but the water-resistance. Chapter 4 describes the development and characterization of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) based biodegradable polymer nanocomposites by blending MFC suspension with PVA. Chemical crosslinking of the polymer nanocomposites was carried out using glyoxal to increase the mechanical and thermal properties as well as to make the PVA partially water-insoluble. Chapter 5 reports the development and characterization of halloysite nanotube (HNT) reinforced biodegradable polymer nanocomposites utilizing HNT dispersion and PVA. Several separation techniques were used to obtain individualized HNT dispersion. The results indicated uniform dispersion of HNTs in both PVA and malonic acid (MA) crosslinked PVA resulted in excellent mechanical and thermal properties of the materials, especially

  13. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  14. Studies in reactive extrusion processing of biodegradable polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sunder

    Various reaction chemistries such as Polymerization, Polymer cross-linking and Reactive grafting were investigated in twin-screw extruders. Poly (1,4-dioxan-2-one) (PPDX) was manufactured in melt by the continuous polymerization of 1,4-dioxan-2-one (PDX) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using Aluminum tri-sec butoxide (ATSB) initiator. Good and accurate control over molecular weight was obtained by controlling the ratio of monomer to initiator. A screw configuration consisting of only conveying elements was used for the polymerization. The polymerization reaction was characterized by a monomer-polymer dynamic equilibrium, above the melting temperature of the polymer, limiting the equilibrium conversion to 78-percent. Near complete (˜100-percent) conversion was obtained on co-polymerizing PDX monomer with a few mol-percent (around 8-percent) Caprolactone (CL) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using ATSB initiator. The co-polymers exhibited improved thermal stability with reduction in glass transition temperature. The extruder was modeled as an Axial Dispersed Plug Flow Reactor for the polymerization of CL monomer using Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analysis. The model provided a good fit to the experimental RTD and conversion data. Aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters, namely Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Poly butylenes (adipate-co-terephthalate) (Ecoflex) were cross-linked in a twin-screw extruder using radical initiator to form micro-gel reinforced biodegradable polyesters. Cross-linked Ecoflex was further extrusion blended with talc to form blends suitable to be blown into films. A screw configuration consisting of conveying and kneading elements was found to be effective in dispersion of the talc particles (5--10 microns) in the polyester matrix. While the rates of crystallization increased for the talc filled polyester blends, overall crystallinity reduced. Mechanical, tear and puncture properties of films made using the talc filled polyester blends

  15. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging...

  16. Effects of irradiation on PHA-induced T-lymphocyte colonies: differential effects according to the timing of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, G.M.; Lowenthal, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A T-lymphocyte colony assay was used to investigate the effect of irradiation on lymphocyte mitosis. Irradiation doses in the range of 0.5 to 4 Gy had the effect of decreasing the lymphocytes' capacity to divide as shown by their reduced T-colony-forming ability. This radiosensitivity, however, was found to vary according to the timing of irradiation in relation to the stage of colony growth. Through survival curve analysis it was shown that the colony-forming cells could withstand higher irradiation doses without losing their replicative ability when they were irradiated prior to or during early stages of PHA stimulation. These results provide evidence that the early events associated with PHA stimulation might lead to an improved ability of T-lymphocytes to withstand higher doses or irradiation before mitotic death is registered

  17. Animal models for studies of chromosome aberration induction in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniecki, J.; Bajerska, A.; Wyszynskaa, K.

    1978-01-01

    To assess the appropriate time for harvesting cultures of rabbit and swine lymphocytes, whole blood of these animals was irradiated with 300 rad γ-rays and microcultures were established using Ham's F-10 medium. Mitotic and tetraploidy indices, dicentrics per cell and the percentage of dicentric or ring-carrying cells, unaccompanied by acentrics, were determined as a function of culture duration. The same procedure was applied to human blood. The percentage of cells in first and second mitosis was determined in rabbit and swine lymphocyte cultures at selected times after stimulation using the FPG technique for differential staining of sister chromatids. The first mitotic waves appear at 30 +- 1, 36 +- 2, and 45 +- 1 h after PHA stimulation for pig, rabbit and man respectively. Correspondingly, in the three species a significant percentage of cells in second mitosis is already present by 36, 44 and 48 to 52 h and is accompanied by a steep reduction in the dicentric yields. These proposed culture times for rabbit and swine lymphocytes are shorter than those at which the majority of relevant studies reported in the literature have been performed. (author)

  18. The National Access to Antiretroviral Program for PHA (NAPHA) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasombat, Sanchai; Lertpiriyasuwat, Cheewanan; Thanprasertsuk, Sombat; Suebsaeng, Laksami; Lo, Ying Ru

    2006-07-01

    To describe the development, components, initial results and lessons learned from Thailand's National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA), a historical review was conducted and program monitoring was analyzed. The national antiretroviral therapy program at different levels of the public health system was implemented with all major program components; ARV protocol development, health care professional training, drug supply chain management, laboratory network formation, monitoring and evaluation, and multi-sector and PHA involvement since 2001, which was based on elements of research, pilot projects, training, national guideline development, experiences and policy making. A national monitoring system was developed to monitor the progress of the program. From February 2001 to December 2004, the monitoring reports received from implementing hospitals showed that 58,133 cases had received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 85% (49,477) of them were continuing to take ARV drugs. In conclusion, the NAPHA was implemented nationwide with comprehensive systems. The reports indicate achievement of expansion of the ART program. Lessons learned from the program initiation and scaling up show local leadership, comprehensive training, adherence, and coordination are essential to program effectiveness and sustainability.

  19. Project PHaEDRA: Preserving Harvard's Early Data and Research in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Daina; Frey, Katie; Henneken, Edwin; McEachern, Maria; McGrath, Alex; Guarracino, Daniel; Koch, Jennifer; Damon, James; Brownell, Eric; Smith-Zrull, Lindsay; Daina Bouquin

    2018-01-01

    Material originally produced during 19th and early 20th century by researchers at the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) was recently re-discovered in the HCO Astronomical Plate Stacks collection. This material helps represent the history of the HCO and acts as an irreplaceable primary source on the evolution of observation methods and astronomy as a science. The material is also relevant to the history of women in science as the collection contains logbooks and notebooks produced by the Harvard Computers, women who have come back into the spotlight due to the recent release of books like "The Glass Universe," "Rise of the Rocket Girls," and movies like "Hidden Figures". To ensure that this remarkable set of items is as accessible and useful as possible Wolbach Library, in collaboration with the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and others, is working to catalog, digitize, and preserve the entire collection. The material is also being transcribed by volunteers through the Smithsonian Transcription Center in DC. The transcription will allow the collection to be full-text searchable in ADS and for the notebooks to eventually be linked to their original source material: 500,000 glass plate photographs representing the first ever picture of the visible universe. The novel workflow of this distributed repository and the significance of the PHaEDRA collection both stand to support the research of future generations.

  20. Synthesis of amphiphilic diblock copolymer for surface modification of Ethylene-Norbornene copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Simon; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Horsewell, Andy

    2014-01-01

    -norbornene copolymer TOPAS. Through matching of the radius of gyration for the model polymer and TOPAS the miscibility was achieved. The poly(ethylene-1-butene) polymer was synthesized from a hydrogenated anionic polymerized polybutadiene polymer. As hydrophilic block poly(ethylene oxide) was subsequently added also...... consisting of a bulk material compatible block and a hydrophilic block. To utilize the possibility of incorporating diblock copolymers into ethylenenorbornene copolymers, we have in this work developed a model poly(ethylene-1-butene) polymer compatible with the commercial available ethylene...

  1. Métodos de obtención de microesferas biodegradables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ramos Picos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La liberación controlada de agentes terapéuticos desde microesferas biodegradables poliméricas ha sido extensamente estudiada. El ácido poliláctico y sus copolímeros con el ácido glicólico se han utilizado en la preparación de microesferas debido a su biodegradabilidad y biocompatibilidad. Estas microesferas han sido preparadas por varios métodos de obtención, los que son revisados en este trabajo. Se plantean las ventajas y desventajas de algunos de los métodos de obtención. En el caso del método de evaporación/extracción del solvente, que es el más usado, se plantean las variables que pueden influir en este y se discuten algunas de ellas.The controlled release of therapeutic agents from polymeric biodegradable microspheres has been widely studied. Polylactic acid and its copolymers with glycolic acid have been used in the preparation of microspheres because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility. These microspheres have been prepared by various methods which are reviewed in this paper. As to their most used solvent evaporation-extraction method. The variables that might affect it are set forth here and some of them are also discussed.

  2. A new biodegradable braided self-expandable PLGA prostatic stent: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsar, Andres; Isotalo, Taina; Mikkonen, Joonas; Juuti, Hanne; Martikainen, Paula M; Talja, Martti; Kellomäki, Minna; Törmälä, Pertti; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2008-05-01

    The biodegradable PLGA (a copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide) urethral stent with a spiral configuration has been used clinically for the prevention of postoperative urinary retention after different types of thermal therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A new braiding pattern for this stent has recently been developed by our group. The aim here was to investigate the in situ degradation and biocompatibility of the new braided stent in the rabbit urethra. PLGA stents with a one-over-one braiding pattern and steel stents served as controls that were inserted into the posterior urethras of 24 male rabbits using a special delivery instrument. The animals were sacrificed after 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, or 4 months, and light microscopy and histologic analyses were performed. The delivery instrument worked well and cystoscopy was not needed in the insertion process. The braided PLGA stents degraded smoothly in 1 to 2 months. The metallic stents induced more epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial changes than the biodegradable stents at all time points analyzed. These differences increased during follow-up. The degradation process was well controlled and the biodegradable stents were more biocompatible than the metallic stents. The new stent can be inserted into the posterior urethra without cystoscopic aid.

  3. Graphene oxide stabilized by PLA-PEG copolymers for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, A; Voulgari, E; Diamanti, E K; Gournis, D; Avgoustakis, K

    2015-06-01

    -loaded composites exhibited cytotoxicity against A549 cancer cells which increased with incubation time, in conjunction with the increasing with time uptake of composites by the cancer cells. Graphene oxide aqueous dispersions were effectively stabilized by water-dispersible, biocompatible and biodegradable PLA-PEG copolymers. The graphene oxide/PLA-PEG composites exhibited satisfactory paclitaxel loading capacity and sustained in vitro drug release. The paclitaxel-loaded composites could enter the A549 cancer cells and exert cytotoxicity. The results justify further investigation of the suitability of PLA-PEG stabilized graphene oxide for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro temperature dependent activation of T-lymphocytes in Common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis in response to PHA stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology attempts to explain the variability of immune response among individuals by invoking costs and trade-offs, which may optimize the immune defence against pathogens. In ectotherms body temperature is correlated to that of the surrounding environment, so that their entire physiology, including immune functions, is influenced by the environmental temperature. We used in vitro phytohaemoagglutinin (PHA stimulation in order to assess the effects of temperature on cell mediated adaptive response in male and female Common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis. Cell cultures were prepared from blood samples, inoculated with PHA and incubated at 22°C, 25°C, 32°C, and 38°C for three days. PHA stimulation caused proliferation of T-lymphocytes, but the effect depended on the incubation temperature. Lymphocyte proliferation was significantly impaired at both 22°C and 38°C compared to 32°C, which represented the highest levels of activation. Furthermore, lymphocyte activation was more variable in males while females were less immune suppressed than males at low temperatures. Differences between sexes suggest a possible influence of steroid hormones.

  5. Complete regression of xenograft tumors using biodegradable mPEG-PLA-SN38 block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zheng, Yan; Weng, Shuqiang; Zhu, Wenwei; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Lee, Robert J; Yu, Bo; Jia, Huliang; Qin, Lunxiu

    2016-06-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-comptothecin (SN38) is an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11) and the clinical application of SN38 is limited by its hydrophobicity and instability. To address these issues, a series of novel amphiphilic mPEG-PLA-SN38-conjugates were synthesized by linking SN38 to mPEG-PLA-SA, and they could form micelles by self-assembly. The effects of mPEG-PLA composition were studied in vitro and in vivo. The mean diameters of mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles and mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles were 10-20nm and 120nm, respectively, and mPEG2K-PLA-SN38 micelles showed greater antitumor efficacy than mPEG4K-PLA-SN38 micelles both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the lengths of mPEG and PLA chains had a major impact on the physicochemical characteristics and antitumor activity of SN38-conjugate micelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of mcl-Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) synthesis by different Pseudomonas putida strains from crude glycerol: citrate accumulates at high titer under PHA-producing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Castro, Ignacio; Binger, Danielle; Oehlert, Rene; Rohde, Manfred

    2014-12-23

    Achieving a sustainable society requires, among other things, the use of renewable feedstocks to replace chemicals obtained from petroleum-derived compounds. Crude glycerol synthesized inexpensively as a byproduct of biodiesel production is currently considered a waste product, which can potentially be converted into value-added compounds by bacterial fermentation. This study aimed at evaluating several characterized P. putida strains to produce medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHA) using raw glycerol as the only carbon/energy source. Among all tested strains, P. putida KT2440 most efficiently synthesized mcl-PHA under nitrogen-limiting conditions, amassing more than 34% of its cell dry weight as PHA. Disruption of the PHA depolymerase gene (phaZ) in P. putida KT2440 enhanced the biopolymer titer up to 47% PHA (%wt/wt). The low biomass and PHA titer found in the mutant strain and the wild-type strain KT2440 seems to be triggered by the high production of the side-product citrate during the fermentation process which shows a high yield of 0.6 g/g. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of choosing an appropriate microbe for the synthesis of mcl-PHA from waste materials, and a close inspection of the cell metabolism in order to identify undesired compounds that diminish the availability of precursors in the synthesis of biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. Future metabolic engineering works should focus on reducing the production of citrate in order to modulate resource allocation in the cell's metabolism of P. putida, and finally increase the biopolymer production.

  7. Morphologies of poly(cyclohexadiene) diblock copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sides, Scott [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Russell, Thomas P [ORNL; Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Tsoukatos, Thodoris [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Beyer, Fredrick [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    2012-01-01

    Concerted experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out to understand the micro-phase separation in diblock copolymer melts containing poly (1,3-cyclohexadiene), PCHD, as one of the constituents. In particular, we have studied diblock copolymer melts containing polystyrene (PS), polybutadiene (PB), and polyisoprene (PI) as the second block. We have systematically varied the ratio of 1,2- /1,4-microstructures of poly (1,3-cyclohexadiene) to tune the conformational asymmetry between the two blocks and characterized the effects of these changes on the morphologies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our experimental investigations reveal that the melts of PCHD-b-PB, PCHD-b-PS and PCHD-b-PI containing nearly equal fractions of each component and high percentage of 1,4-microstructures in the PCHD block form cylindrical rather than lamellar morphologies as expected in symmetric diblock copolymers. In contrast, the morphologies of PCHD-b-PB, PCHD-b-PS and PCHD-b-PI containing PCHD block with higher 1,2-microstructure are found to be disordered at 110 C. The change in the morphological behavior is in good agreement with our numerical calculations using the random phase approximation and self-consistent field theory for conformationally asymmetric diblock copolymer melts. Also, the effects of composition fluctuations are studied by extending the Brazovskii-Leibler-Fredrickson-Helfand (J. Chem. Phys. 87, 697 (1987)) theory to conformationally asymmetric diblock copolymer melts. These results allow the understanding of the underlying self-assembly process that highlights the importance of the conformational asymmetry in tuning the morphologies in block copolymers.

  8. Injectable and biodegradable temperature-responsive mixed polymer systems providing variable gel-forming pH regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuyuki; Kawahara, Keisuke; Mitsumune, Shintaro; Kuzuya, Akinori; Ohya, Yuichi

    Aqueous solutions of biodegradable polymers exhibiting sol-to-gel transitions in response to external stimuli such as temperature and pH are expected to be used as injectable polymers (IPs) for biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared novel biodegradable temperature-responsive IP systems providing variable gel-forming pH regions. We synthesized PCGA-b-PEG-b-PCGA (tri-PCG) and attached carboxylic acid or primary amine groups on both termini, tri-PCG-COOH and tri-PCG-NH 2 , and investigated the temperature-responsive sol-to-gel transition behavior of the mixtures of these two copolymers at various pHs. We found that the gel-forming pH region of the mixed system could be easily controlled by simply changing the mixing ratios of these polymers.

  9. Co-polymer Films for Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Homer, Margie L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor); Kisor, Adam (Inventor); Jewell, April D. (Inventor); Shevade, Abhijit V. (Inventor); Manatt, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Taylor, Charles (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor); Goddard, William A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments include a sensor comprising a co-polymer, the co-polymer comprising a first monomer and a second monomer. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is polystyrene and the second monomer is poly-2-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium benzylamine chloride. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10-19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

  11. Selecting optimal feast-to-famine ratio for a new polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production system fed by valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiujin

    2018-04-01

    The feast-to-famine ratio (F/F) represents the extent of selective pressure during polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) culture selection. This study evaluated the effects of F/F on a new PHA production system by an enriched culture with valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate and selected the optimal F/F. After the original F/F 1/3 was modified to 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/5, F/F did not affect their lengths of feast phase, but affected their biomass growth behaviors during the famine phase and PHA-producing abilities. The optimal F/F was 1/2, and compared with 1/3, it increased the maximal PHA content and the fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) monomers, with higher productivity and better polymer properties. Although F/F 1/2 impaired the advantage of the dominant genus Delftia, it improved the PHA production rate while decreased biomass growth rate, meanwhile enhancing the utilization and conversion of valerate. These findings indicate that in contrast to previous studies using acetate-dominant substrate for PHA production, the new system fed by valerate-dominant substrate can adopt a higher F/F.

  12. Biodegradable inorganic-organic hybrids of methacrylate star polymers for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Justin J; Fujita, Yuki; Li, Siwei; Stevens, Molly M; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Georgiou, Theoni K; Jones, Julian R

    2017-05-01

    Hybrids that are molecular scale co-networks of organic and inorganic components are promising biomaterials, improving the brittleness of bioactive glass and the strength of polymers. Methacrylate polymers have high potential as the organic source for hybrids since they can be produced, through controlled polymerization, with sophisticated polymer architectures that can bond to silicate networks. Previous studies showed the mechanical properties of hybrids can be modified by polymer architecture and molar mass (MM). However, biodegradability is critical if hybrids are to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds, since the templates must be remodelled by host tissue. Degradation by-products have to either completely biodegrade or be excreted by the kidneys. Enzyme, or bio-degradation is preferred to hydrolysis by water uptake as it is expected to give a more controlled degradation rate. Here, branched and star shaped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (poly(MMA-co-TMSPMA)) were synthesized with disulphide based dimethacrylate (DSDMA) as a biodegradable branching agent. Biodegradability was confirmed by exposing the copolymers to glutathione, a tripeptide which is known to cleave disulphide bonds. Cleaved parts of the star polymer from the hybrid system were detected after 2weeks of immersion in glutathione solution, and MM was under threshold of kidney filtration. The presence of the branching agent did not reduce the mechanical properties of the hybrids and bone progenitor cells attached on the hybrids in vitro. Incorporation of the DSDMA branching agent has opened more possibilities to design biodegradable methacrylate polymer based hybrids for regenerative medicine. Bioactive glasses can regenerate bone but are brittle. Hybrids can overcome this problem as intimate interactions between glass and polymer creates synergetic properties. Implants have previously been made with synthetic polymers that degrade by water, however, they

  13. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  14. Water transport and clustering behavior in homopolymer and graft copolymer polylactide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, An; Koo, Donghun; Theryo, Grayce; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Cairncross, Richard A. (Drexel); (UMM)

    2015-02-19

    Polylactide is a bio-based and biodegradable polymer well-known for its renewable origins. Water sorption and clustering behavior in both a homopolymer polylactide and a graft copolymer of polylactide was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance/heat conduction calorimetry (QCM/HCC) technique. The graft copolymer, poly(1,5-cyclooctadiene-co-5-norbornene-2-methanol-graft-D,L-lactide), contained polylactide chains (95 wt.%) grafted onto a hydrophobic rubbery backbone (5 wt.%). Clustering is an important phenomenon in the study of water transport properties in polymers since the presence of water clusters can affect the water diffusivity. The HCC method using the thermal power signals and Van't Hoff's law were both employed to estimate the water sorption enthalpy. Sorption enthalpy of water in both polymers was determined to be approximately -40 kJ/mol for all water activity levels. Zimm-Lundberg analysis showed that water clusters start to form at a water activity of 0.4. The engaged species induced clustering (ENSIC) model was used to curve fit sorption isotherms and showed that the affinity among water molecules is higher than that between water molecules and polymer chains. All the methods used indicate that clustering of water molecules exists in both polymers.

  15. Flexible control of cellular encapsulation, permeability, and release in a droplet-templated bifunctional copolymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushui; Chen, Dong; Wu, Jing; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Designing cell-compatible, bio-degradable, and stimuli-responsive hydrogels is very important for biomedical applications in cellular delivery and micro-scale tissue engineering. Here, we report achieving flexible control of cellular microencapsulation, permeability, and release by rationally designing a diblock copolymer, alginate-conjugated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Alg-co-PNiPAM). We use the microfluidic technique to fabricate the bifunctional copolymers into thousands of mono-disperse droplet-templated hydrogel microparticles for controlled encapsulation and triggered release of mammalian cells. In particular, the grafting PNiPAM groups in the synthetic cell-laden microgels produce lots of nano-aggregates into hydrogel networks at elevated temperature, thereafter enhancing the permeability of microparticle scaffolds. Importantly, the hydrogel scaffolds are readily fabricated via on-chip quick gelation by triggered release of Ca 2+ from the Ca-EDTA complex; it is also quite exciting that very mild release of microencapsulated cells is achieved via controlled degradation of hydrogel scaffolds through a simple strategy of competitive affinity of Ca 2+ from the Ca-Alginate complex. This finding suggests that we are able to control cellular encapsulation and release through ion-induced gelation and degradation of the hydrogel scaffolds. Subsequently, we demonstrate a high viability of microencapsulated cells in the microgel scaffolds.

  16. Comparative in situ biodegradation studies of polyhydroxybutyrate film composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Prasenjit; Raghuwanshi, Shikha; Singh, Jyoti; Suyal, Deep Chandra; Zaidi, M G H; Goel, Reeta

    2017-07-01

    Application of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) to plastic industry has expanded over the last decades due to its attracting features over petro-based plastic, and therefore, its waste accumulation in nature is inevitable. In the present study, a total of four bacterial strains, viz., MK3, PN12, PW1, and Lna3, were formulated into a consortium and subsequently used as biological tool for degradation of biopolymers. The consortium was tested through λ max shifts under in vitro conditions for utilization of PHB as sole carbon source. Talc-based bioformulations of consortium were used for the degradation of PHB film composites under in situ conditions. After 9 months of incubation, the recovered samples were monitored through Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Analytical data, viz., changes in λ max shifts (212-219 nm), FT-IR spectra, and SEM micrographs, revealed the biodegradation potential of developed consortium against PHB film composites, i.e., higher degradation of copolymer films was found over blend films. The used consortium had enhanced the rate of natural degradation and can be further used as a natural tool to maintain and restore global environmental safety.

  17. Urethral in situ biocompatibility of new drug-eluting biodegradable stents: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsar, Andres; Isotalo, Taina; Uurto, Ilkka; Mikkonen, Joonas; Martikainen, Paula; Talja, Martti; Kellomäki, Minna; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2009-04-01

    To assess the effect of drug-eluting properties on the degradation process and the biocompatibility of biodegradable drug-eluting urethral stents. Braided biodegradable 80 L/20D-PLGA (copolymer of polylactide and polyglycolide) stents with drug-eluting properties were used as the test material. The drugs analysed were indomethacin, dexamethasone and ciprofloxacine. 80 L/20D-PLGA stents without a drug coating served as controls. In all, 16 male rabbits were used and divided into four groups. The stents were inserted under general anaesthesia into the posterior urethra. After 1 month, the rabbits were killed and the urethra removed for histological and optic microscopy analyses. Control stents and the dexamethasone-eluting stents degraded totally during the follow-up period. Conversely, in both indomethacin- and ciprofloxacine-eluting stent groups, the degradation process was significantly delayed and they induced an increase in epithelial hyperplasia. Histological analysis showed that all the stents induced eosinophilia, but there were no significant differences in the intensity of acute or chronic inflammatory reactions and fibrosis. A drug-eluting capacity can be added to biodegradable stents. The addition of a drug influences the biodegradation time of PLGA urethral stents. Further studies are needed, to find the proper concentrations and releasing profiles of the drugs to achieve the desired bioactivity and biocompatibility properties.

  18. Biodegradability and biodegradation pathways of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryota; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate are persistent organic pollutants that cause serious environmental problems. Although these compounds are already prohibited in many countries, residues can be detected in soils with a history of endosulfan application. Endosulfan is transformed in the environment into endosulfan sulfate, which is a toxic and persistent metabolite. However, some microorganisms can degrade endosulfan without producing endosulfan sulfate, and some can degrade endosulfan sulfate. Therefore, biodegradation has the potential to clean up soil contaminated with endosulfan. In this review, we provide an overview of aerobic endosulfan degradation by bacteria and fungi, and a summary of recent advances and prospects in this research field.

  19. PhaPl: software to plot and research phase portraits automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cherepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to document PhaPl that’s a teaching software to plot and research phase portraits of autonomous systems of 2 differential equations on a plane. Interactive computer teaching materials allow to demonstrate tasks describing large number of states of investigated systems clearly and involving students into solving. Plotting and research of phase portraits of autonomous system of 2 differential equations is an important task in “Differential equations” course and other courses that use dynamic systems. The software allows to visualize phase portraits and to perform analysis easily. Plotting of phase portraits needs a lot of routine computations. The software allows teacher to focus on analytical research of autonomous systems of 2 differential equations. The software supports linear and nonlinear autonomous systems of 2 differential equations. The software differs is very different compared with previously known programs: it has very easy graphical user interface and it gives clarity because it demonstrates all steps of solution. To get the full solution, it is enough to just enter a system to research. Initial conditions to plot phase trajectories are chosen automatically. Graphical representation of the phase plane is interactive and allows user to draw additional trajectories with specified initial conditions by mouse hovering over the phase plane. The software is based on popular Free Software (Maxima, Qt4, LaTeX and it is Free Software itself, thus it is accessible to wider audience, including online students. The software is portable and works on Windows and Linux operating systems. The article describes advantages, disadvantages and peculiar properties of the software, and some aspects of teaching experience. The software is deployed in Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics, and Informatics (MESI, Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU since 2013, and in Plekhanov Russian University of Economics since 2016

  20. Preparation of amphiphilic block copolymer containing triazene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lower rate constant in film state (film = 1.3 × 10−3 s-1), shows that the higher mobility of polymeric chains in solution allow a more rapid orientation, favourable to the triazene bond cleavage. The capability of block copolymer to form micelles in aqueous environment and implicitly, its critical micelle concentration (CMC) ...

  1. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  2. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  3. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    elt @rice.edu Institution : Rice University Mailing Address : Department of...information from the molecular level to the micro and macrodomain levels. This joint work3 was published in the Journal of the American Chemical...Chirality from Molecule to Phase in Self‐Assembled Chiral Block Copolymers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134 (26), 10974 – 10986, (2012).

  4. Periodic titania nanostructures using block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthamanipeta, Pavan S; Lou, Qin; Shipp, Devon A

    2011-01-25

    The deposition of periodic titania nanostructures, templated by a polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer, is reported. When cast as a thin film (30-50 nm thick), the PS-b-P4VP forms a morphology that consists of P4VP cylinders that are orientated perpendicular to the substrate. The P4VP phase was lightly cross-linked by exposing the film to diiodobutane. When the block copolymer film was exposed to the sol-gel titania precursor, titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactate) dihydroxide (TALH), titania was formed in the P4VP phase. The resulting titania structures were identical in size to the P4VP cylinders and only formed (under the deposition conditions used in this study) when the block copolymer film was present on the substrate, thus providing evidence that the block copolymer indeed acts as a template. The process works for both silicon and indium tin oxide substrates.

  5. 21 CFR 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Divinylbenzene copolymer. 173.65 Section 173.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... with food only of Types I, II, and VI-B (excluding carbonated beverages) described in table 1 of...

  6. Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  7. Microbial synthesis of functional homo-, random, and block polyhydroxyalkanoates by β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shijun; Cai, Longwei; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    -link with other PHA polymer chains. However, it has been very difficult to obtain structurally controllable functional homo-, random, or block PHA. For the first time, a β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila was used to successfully synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and 3-hydroxy-9......Functional polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) allow chemical modifications to widen PHA diversity, promising to increase values of these biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters. Among functional PHAs, unsaturated PHA site chains can be easily grafted to add chemical groups, and to cross...... by feeding DDA as the first precursor to form a P3HDD block followed by adding 9DEO as the second precursor to form a second P3H9D block. It was demonstrated that random copolymers P(3HDD-co-3H9D) could be crossed-linked under UV-radiation due to the presence of the unsaturated bonds. Thermal and mechanical...

  8. Ureteral in situ biocompatibility of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yuchuan; Wang Chunxi; Zhang Baogang; Chen Xuesi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in situ biocompatibility of a new biodegradable ureteral stent made of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 (PLGA 80:20). Methods: 16 dogs served as experimental animals. Ureteral stents of PLGA 80:20 were inserted in situ into the left ureter after transection at the mid level, then the ureters were routinely anastomosed. Ureters surrounding the stent were taken out 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The ureters were dissected to find changes of stents and local ureters. Histological analysis was performed to investigate tissue reactions to the stent and evaluate the biocompatibility. Rods of UROVISION stent served as controls. Results: The PLGA stent was degraded completely within 12 weeks post implantation. In the early stage (2-4 weeks), both stents induced epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell reaction at local ureter (P>0.05). In the later stage (8-12 weeks), the tissue reaction nearly subsided in PLGA stented ureters after degradation of the device. Whereas, the tissue reaction induced by UROVISION stent had lasted throughout the observation period, even deteriorated with time going (P<0.05). Conclusion: The tissue reaction induced by PLGA stent is retrievable. PLGA is regarded highly compatible and can serve as an ideal material for biodegradable ureteral stent. (authors)

  9. Micelles Based on Biodegradable Poly(L-glutamic acid)-b-Polylactide with Paramagnetic Gd Ions Chelated to the Shell Layer as a Potential Nanoscale MRI-Visible Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Xiaoxia; Li, Li; Li, Chun

    2007-01-01

    There is much interest in the development of nanoscale drug delivery system with MRI visibility to optimize the delivery efficiency and therapeutic efficacy under image guidance. Here we report on the successful fabrication of nanoscale micelles based on biodegradable poly(L-glutamic acid)-b-polylactide (PG-b-PLA) block copolymer with paramagnetic Gd3+ ions chelated to their shell. (PG-b-PLA) was synthesized by sequential polymerization reactions: anionic polymerization of L-lactide followed ...

  10. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Nussbaumer, Martin G.; Schwertz, Geoffrey; Schwab, Anatol; Witschel, Matthias C.; Schäfer, Anja; Diederich, François; Rottmann, Matthias; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous solubility, high systemic toxicity, and metabolic instability. Smart nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems provide means of solving these problems at once. Herein, we present such a smart nanoparticle platform based on self-assembled, reduction-responsive amphiphilic graft copolymers, which were successfully synthesized through thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between thiolated hydrophilic block and pyridyl disulfide functionalized hydrophobic block. These amphiphilic graft copolymers self-assembled into nanoparticles with mean diameters of about 30-50 nm and readily incorporated hydrophobic guest molecules. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to study nanoparticle stability and triggered release of a model compound in detail. Long-term colloidal stability and model compound retention within the nanoparticles was found when analyzed in cell media at body temperature. In contrast, rapid, complete reduction-triggered disassembly and model compound release was achieved within a physiological reducing environment. The synthesized copolymers revealed no intrinsic cellular toxicity up to 1 mg mL-1. Drug-loaded reduction-sensitive nanoparticles delivered a hydrophobic model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to cancer cells (HeLa cells) and an experimental, metabolically unstable antimalarial drug (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) inhibitor (+/-)-1) to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), with higher efficacy compared to similar, non-sensitive drug-loaded nanoparticles. These responsive copolymer-based nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as smart nanocarrier platform for various drugs to be applied to different diseases, due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrophobic block, and the protein-repellent hydrophilic block.Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous

  11. Biodegradation kinetics at low concentrations (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in groundwater added sediment fines. At concentrations at or below 1 mu g/L of 2,4-D degradation kinetic was of true first order without significant growth of specific degraders and with half-life for mineralization...... in the order of 200 days. Higher concentrations of 2,4-D resulted in a grossly overestimate of the actual degradation rate for concentrations characteristic for Danish found in groundwater....

  12. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  13. Evaluation of biodegradation and biocompatibility of collagen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing material in tissue engineering applications owing to its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability [2]. How- ever, its fast biodegradation and low mechanical strength are the foremost issues that limit the further uses of this material. Another extensively studied material is chitosan, a linear polysaccharide derived by ...

  14. Enhancing the biodegradation process of cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels have been implicated in serious environmental pollution. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of N.P.K (15:15:15) and microbial inoculants on the biodegradation process of cassava peels. Fresh cassava peels were subjected to biodegradation process for twenty weeks.

  15. Biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas pictorum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of phenol using Pseudomonas pictorum (ATCC 23328) a potential biodegradant of phenol was investigated under different operating conditions. Chitin was chosen as a support material and then partially characterized physically and chemically. The pH of the solution was varied over a range of 7 – 9.

  16. Biodegradation of dodecylbenzene solfonate sodium by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Key words: Branched anionic surfactants, biofilm, biodegradation, silanization. ... polymers, pesticides, oil recovery, textiles and paper ... surfactants are not degraded by microorganisms in the environment. Because of its low biodegradation ability and toxic effects on environment, BAS was forbidden in.

  17. Biodegradation of phenol with immobilized Pseuodomonas putida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of phenol with immobilized Pseuodomonas putida activated carbon packed bio-filter tower. ... Comparative study on adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) of phenol using Pseuodomonas putida (MTCC 1194) in a biofilter tower packed with fresh granular activated carbon (GAC) ...

  18. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively. PMID:8979361

  19. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively.

  20. Biodegradability of electrostatic photocopier toners | Odokuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation was monitored over a 28-day period using changes total organic carbon (TOC), Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio of DOC to TOC (Primary biodegradation) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) measurements. At day 0 the BOD for Fresh Sharp, Reused Sharp, Fresh Minolta and Reused Minolta ...

  1. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (TPA), biodegradation, in vitro drug release using a modified chewing apparatus, and sensory properties. Result: Formulations code MCG-5 and MCG-9 which incorporated glyceryl triacetate and castor oil as plasticizers, respectively, showed a biodegradation score of 2 and 1, respectively, indicating significant.

  2. Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of synthetic melanoidin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an antioxidant, melanoidin removal through purely biodegradation has been inadequate. Consequently, in the current study, simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) was employed in a stirred tank system to remove melanoidin from synthetic wastewater. Mixed microbial consortium was immobilized onto ...

  3. Transcription factors GATA/ELT-2 and forkhead/HNF-3/PHA-4 regulate the tropomyosin gene expression in the pharynx and intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye-Danso, Frederick; Anyanful, Akwasi; Sakube, Yasuji; Kagawa, Hiroaki

    2008-05-30

    Gene regulation during development is an important biological activity that leads to synthesis of biomolecules at specific locations and specific times. The single tropomyosin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, tmy-1/lev-11, produces four isoforms of protein: two from the external promoter and two from the internal promoter. We investigated the internal promoter of tropomyosin to identify sequences that regulate expression of tmy-1 in the pharynx and intestine. By promoter deletion of tmy-1 reporters as well as by database analyses, a 100-bp fragment that contained binding sequences for a GATA factor, for a chicken CdxA homolog, and for a forkhead factor was identified. Both the forkhead and CdxA binding sequences contributed to pharyngeal and intestinal expression. In addition, the GATA site also influenced intestinal expression of tmy-1 reporter. We showed that ELT-2 and PHA-4 proteins interact directly with the GATA and forkhead binding sequences, respectively, in gel mobility shift assays. RNA interference knockdown of elt-2 diminished tmy-1::gfp expression in the intestine. In contrast to RNA interference knockdown of pha-4, expression of tmy-1::gfp in pha-4;smg-1 mutants was slightly weaker than that of the wild type. Ectopic expression of PHA-4 and ELT-2 by heat shock was sufficient to elicit widespread expression of tmy-1::lacZ reporter in embryos. We found no indication of a synergistic relation between ELT-2 and PHA-4. Based on our data, PHA-4 and CdxA function as general transcription factors for pharyngeal and intestinal regulation of tmy-1. We present models by which ELT-2, PHA-4, and CdxA orchestrate expression from the internal promoter of tmy-1.

  4. Biodegradable polymers for electrospinning: towards biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Dan; Liow, Sing Shy; Loh, Xian Jun

    2014-12-01

    Electrospinning has received much attention recently due to the growing interest in nano-technologies and the unique material properties. This review focuses on recent progress in applying electrospinning technique in production of biodegradable nanofibers to the emerging field of biomedical. It first introduces the basic theory and parameters of nanofibers fabrication, with focus on factors affecting the morphology and fiber diameter of biodegradable nanofibers. Next, commonly electrospun biodegradable nanofibers are discussed, and the comparison of the degradation rate of nanoscale materials with macroscale materials are highlighted. The article also assesses the recent advancement of biodegradable nanofibers in different biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensor and immunoassay. Future perspectives of biodegradable nanofibers are discussed in the last section, which emphasizes on the innovation and development in electrospinning of hydrogels nanofibers, pore size control and scale-up productions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of bioplastics in natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadian, S Mehdi; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The extensive production of conventional plastics and their use in different commercial applications poses a significant threat to both the fossil fuels sources and the environment. Alternatives called bioplastics evolved during development of renewable resources. Utilizing renewable resources like agricultural wastes (instead of petroleum sources) and their biodegradability in different environments enabled these polymers to be more easily acceptable than the conventional plastics. The biodegradability of bioplastics is highly affected by their physical and chemical structure. On the other hand, the environment in which they are located, plays a crucial role in their biodegradation. This review highlights the recent findings attributed to the biodegradation of bioplastics in various environments, environmental conditions, degree of biodegradation, including the identified bioplastic-degrading microorganisms from different microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigmentation from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 with antibiofilm capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iszatty; Gurusamy, Tana Poorani; Ramachandran, Hema; Al-Ashraf Amirul, Abdullah

    2017-04-21

    Antibiofilm polymers have the ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, which is known to occur ubiquitously in the environment and pose risks of infection. In this study, production of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigment from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 are enhanced through medium optimization. Before the improvement of yellow pigment production, screening for the best additional supplement was performed resulting in high-yield yellow pigmentation using yeast extract with optimum concentration of 2 g/L. Effects of different concentrations of 1,4-butanediol, ammonium acetate, and yeast extract were studied using central composite design. Under optimal conditions, 53 wt% of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content, 0.35 g/L of pigment concentration, and 5.87 g/L of residual biomass were achieved at 0.56 wt% C of 1,4-butanediol, 1.14 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 2 g/L of yeast extract. Antibiofilm tests revealed that the yellow pigment coated on P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer had significant effect on the inhibition of bacteria proliferation and colonization from 6 hr onward reaching 100% inhibition by 12 hr, hence effectively inhibiting the biofilm formation.

  7. Spectroscopic study on the in vitro degradation of a biodegradable composite periodontal membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, P.; Simoni, R.; Fini, G.

    2001-05-01

    The hydrolithic in vitro degradation of a commercial biodegradable hydroxyapatite (HA)-polymer (poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(oxyethylene)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) block copolymer, PCL-POE-PCL) composite membrane was investigated by Raman and IR spectroscopies in three aqueous media at 37°C; 0.01 M NaOH solution, saline phosphate buffer (SPB) at pH 7.4 and simulated body fluid (SBF) buffered at pH 7.5. The vibrational results showed that the polymeric component undergoes preferential degradation of POE blocks while HA is removed by the degradation media faster than the polymer. Vibrational spectroscopy appeared to be a valid non-destructive method for investigating the degradation mechanism of the composite membrane.

  8. Response of a three-stage process for PHA production by mixed microbial cultures to feedstock shift: impact on polymer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Anouk F; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Carmo, Inês T D; Gouveia, Ana R; Pardelha, Filipa; Ramos, Ana M; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) using a three-stage process. An attractive feature of MMC for PHA production is the ability to use waste/surplus feedstocks. In this study, the effect of a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario and/or as a strategy for controlling polymer composition, on a MMC PHA production process was assessed using cheese whey (CW) and sugar cane molasses (SCM) as model feedstocks. The acidogenic stage responded immediately to the feedstock shift by changing the fermented products profile, with acetate and butyrate being the main acids produced from CW, while for SCM propionate and valerate were the dominant products. The fermentation process was then quite stable during long term operation. The PHA culture selection stage also responded quickly to the fermented feestocks shift, generating a polymer whose composition was linearly dependent on the concentration of HV and HB precursors produced in the acidogenic stage. The selected culture reached a maximum PHA content of 56% and 65% with fermented SCM and CW, respectively. Mixing fermented CW and SCM, in equal volume proportions, demonstrated the possibility of using different fermented feedstocks for tailoring polymer composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of even and odd number fatty acids cofeeding on PHA production and composition in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lihui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Yongming, E-mail: zhym@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA.

  11. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lihui; Zhang, Yongming; Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA

  12. Chitosan-graft-branched polyethylenimine copolymers: influence of degree of grafting on transfection behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pezzoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful non-viral gene delivery currently requires compromises to achieve useful transfection levels while minimizing toxicity. Despite high molecular weight (MW branched polyethylenimine (bPEI is considered the gold standard polymeric transfectant, it suffers from high cytotoxicity. Inversely, its low MW counterpart is less toxic and effective in transfection. Moreover, chitosan is a highly biocompatible and biodegradable polymer but characterized by very low transfection efficiency. In this scenario, a straightforward approach widely exploited to develop effective transfectants relies on the synthesis of chitosan-graft-low MW bPEIs (Chi-g-bPEI(x but, despite the vast amount of work that has been done in developing promising polymeric assemblies, the possible influence of the degree of grafting on the overall behavior of copolymers for gene delivery has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of providing a comprehensive evaluation of the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of copolymeric vectors, we have synthesized seven Chi-g-bPEI(x derivatives with a variable amount of bPEI grafts (minimum: 0.6%; maximum: 8.8%. Along the Chi-g-bPEI(x series, the higher the degree of grafting, the greater the ζ-potential and the cytotoxicity of the resulting polyplexes. Most important, in all cell lines tested the intermediate degree of grafting of 2.7% conferred low cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency compared to other Chi-g-bPEI(x copolymers. We emphasize that, in transfection experiments carried out in primary articular chondrocytes, Chi-g-bPEI(2.7% was as effective as and less cytotoxic than the gold standard 25 kDa bPEI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work underlines for the first time the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of Chi-g-bPEI(x copolymers. Crucially, we have demonstrated

  13. Chitosan-graft-branched polyethylenimine copolymers: influence of degree of grafting on transfection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Olimpieri, Francesca; Malloggi, Chiara; Bertini, Sabrina; Volonterio, Alessandro; Candiani, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Successful non-viral gene delivery currently requires compromises to achieve useful transfection levels while minimizing toxicity. Despite high molecular weight (MW) branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) is considered the gold standard polymeric transfectant, it suffers from high cytotoxicity. Inversely, its low MW counterpart is less toxic and effective in transfection. Moreover, chitosan is a highly biocompatible and biodegradable polymer but characterized by very low transfection efficiency. In this scenario, a straightforward approach widely exploited to develop effective transfectants relies on the synthesis of chitosan-graft-low MW bPEIs (Chi-g-bPEI(x)) but, despite the vast amount of work that has been done in developing promising polymeric assemblies, the possible influence of the degree of grafting on the overall behavior of copolymers for gene delivery has been largely overlooked. With the aim of providing a comprehensive evaluation of the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of copolymeric vectors, we have synthesized seven Chi-g-bPEI(x) derivatives with a variable amount of bPEI grafts (minimum: 0.6%; maximum: 8.8%). Along the Chi-g-bPEI(x) series, the higher the degree of grafting, the greater the ζ-potential and the cytotoxicity of the resulting polyplexes. Most important, in all cell lines tested the intermediate degree of grafting of 2.7% conferred low cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency compared to other Chi-g-bPEI(x) copolymers. We emphasize that, in transfection experiments carried out in primary articular chondrocytes, Chi-g-bPEI(2.7%) was as effective as and less cytotoxic than the gold standard 25 kDa bPEI. This work underlines for the first time the pivotal role of the degree of grafting in modulating the overall transfection effectiveness of Chi-g-bPEI(x) copolymers. Crucially, we have demonstrated that, along the copolymer series, the fine tuning of the degree of grafting

  14. Design of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering testing a tough polylactide-based graft copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorati, R.; Colonna, C.; Tomasi, C.; Genta, I.; Bruni, G.; Conti, B.

    2014-01-01

    as biodegradable biomaterial for TE. • The tough PLA graft copolymer resulted to being suitable for the preparation of 2D film and 3D scaffold. • The tough LMP-3055 polymer resulted to being a suitable substrate for cell seeding and proliferation

  15. Design of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering testing a tough polylactide-based graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, R., E-mail: rossella.dorati@unipv.it [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Colonna, C. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Tomasi, C. [C.S.G.I., Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 16 I, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Genta, I. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruni, G. [C.S.G.I., Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 16 I, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Conti, B. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    as biodegradable biomaterial for TE. • The tough PLA graft copolymer resulted to being suitable for the preparation of 2D film and 3D scaffold. • The tough LMP-3055 polymer resulted to being a suitable substrate for cell seeding and proliferation.

  16. Mass spectrometry for the elucidation of the subtle molecular structure of biodegradable polymers and their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Marek; Adamus, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary reports by Polish authors on the application of mass spectrometric methods for the elucidation of the subtle molecular structure of biodegradable polymers and their degradation products will be presented. Special emphasis will be given to natural aliphatic (co)polyesters (PHA) and their synthetic analogues, formed through anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones. Moreover, the application of MS techniques for the evaluation of the structure of biodegradable polymers obtained in ionic and coordination polymerization of cyclic ethers and esters as well as products of step-growth polymerization, in which bifunctional or multifunctional monomers react to form oligomers and eventually long chain polymers, will be discussed. Furthermore, the application of modern MS techniques for the assessment of polymer degradation products, frequently bearing characteristic end groups that can be revealed and differentiated by MS, will be discussed within the context of specific degradation pathways. Finally, recent Polish accomplishments in the area of mass spectrometry will be outlined. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups

    OpenAIRE

    Branislav Husár; Norbert Moszner; Ivan Lukáč

    2012-01-01

    (±)-10-Methacryloyloxycamphorquinone (MCQ) was synthesized from (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid either by a known seven-step synthetic route or by a novel, shorter five-step synthetic route. MCQ was copolymerized with styrene (S) and the photochemical behavior of the copolymer MCQ/S was compared with that of a formerly studied copolymer of styrene with monomers containing the benzil (BZ) moiety (another 1,2-dicarbonyl). Irradiation (λ > 380 nm) of aerated films of styrene copolymer...

  18. Primary biodegradation and mineralization of hair shampoos in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods, the methylene blue active stain (MBAS) river die away method for monitoring primary biodegradation of surfactants and the ultimate biodegradability method for monitoring mineralization of the total biodegradable organic component in a compound were employed to determine the biodegradability of three ...

  19. Microbial Enzymatic Degradation of Biodegradable Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi; Bano, Kulsoom; Kuddus, Mohammed; Zaheer, Mohammed R; Zia, Qamar; Khan, Mohammed F; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Gupta, Anamika; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The renewable feedstock derived biodegradable plastics are important in various industries such as packaging, agricultural, paper coating, garbage bags and biomedical implants. The increasing water and waste pollution due to the available decomposition methods of plastic degradation have led to the emergence of biodegradable plastics and biological degradation with microbial (bacteria and fungi) extracellular enzymes. The microbes utilize biodegradable polymers as the substrate under starvation and in unavailability of microbial nutrients. Microbial enzymatic degradation is suitable from bioremediation point of view as no waste accumulation occurs. It is important to understand the microbial interaction and mechanism involved in the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastics under the influence of several environmental factors such as applied pH, thermo-stability, substrate molecular weight and/or complexity. To study the surface erosion of polymer film is another approach for hydrolytic degradation characteristion. The degradation of biopolymer is associated with the production of low molecular weight monomer and generation of carbon dioxide, methane and water molecule. This review reported the degradation study of various existing biodegradable plastics along with the potent degrading microbes (bacteria and fungi). Patents available on plastic biodegradation with biotechnological significance is also summarized in this paper. This paper assesses that new disposal technique should be adopted for the degradation of polymers and further research is required for the economical production of biodegradable plastics along with their enzymatic degradation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  1. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Pawel W; Yager, Kevin G

    2016-10-12

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times-hours or days-required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  2. Nanostructured Polysulfone-Based Block Copolymer Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate nanostructured membranes from polysulfone-based block copolymers through self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Block copolymers containing polysulfone are novel materials for this purpose providing better mechanical and thermal stability to membranes than polystyrene-based copolymers, which have been exclusively used now. Firstly, we synthesized a triblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) through polycondensation and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The obtained membrane has a highly porous interconnected skin layer composed of elongated micelles with a flower-like arrangement, on top of the graded finger-like macrovoids. Membrane surface hydrolysis was carried out in a combination with metal complexation to obtain metal-chelated membranes. The copper-containing membrane showed improved antibacterial capability. Secondly, a poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) triblock copolymer obtained by hydrolyzing poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) formed a thin film with cylindrical poly(acrylic acid) microdomains in polysulfone matrix through thermal annealing. A phase inversion membrane was prepared from the same polymer via self-assembly and chelation-assisted non-solvent induced phase separation. The spherical micelles pre-formed in a selective solvent mixture packed into an ordered lattice in aid of metal-poly(acrylic acid) complexation. The space between micelles was filled with poly(acrylic acid)-metal complexes acting as potential water channels. The silver0 nanoparticle-decorated membrane was obtained by surface reduction, having three distinct layers with different particle sizes. Other amphiphilic copolymers containing polysulfone and water-soluble segments such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were also synthesized through coupling reaction and copper0-mediated

  3. Phase-Segregated Dendrigraft Copolymer Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena-Eugenia Sanchez Cadena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendrigraft polymers have a multi-level branched architecture resulting from the covalent assembly of macromolecular building blocks. Most of these materials are obtained in divergent (core-first synthetic procedures whereby the molecule grows outwards in successive grafting reactions or generations. Two main types of dendrigraft polymers can be identified depending on the distribution of reactive sites over the grafting substrate: Arborescent polymers have a large and variable number of more or less uniformly distributed sites, while dendrimer-like star polymers have a lower but well-defined number of grafting sites strictly located at the ends of the substrate chains. An overview of the synthesis and the characterization of dendrigraft copolymers with phase-segregated morphologies is provided in this review for both dendrigraft polymer families. The tethering of side-chains with a different composition onto branched substrates confers unusual physical properties to these copolymers, which are highlighted through selected examples.

  4. Ethylene copolymers analysis by fractionation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, Fernanda F.N.; Silva, Luciana P.; Galland, Griselda B.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of ethylene 1-butene copolymer,produced in laboratory by different processes using Ziegler-Natta catalysts, ethylene-1-hexene and metallocenes catalysts were fractionated according to molecular size by direct extraction by different solvents and at different temperatures. These samples were also fractionated by differences on crystallinity using a DSC calorimeter. The obtained fractions were characterized by 13 C-NMR, FTIR, GPC and DSC. The polyethylene copolymers produced by Ziegler-Natta catalyst were found more heterogeneous when compared with the one produced by metallocenes catalysts. The commercial resin produced by UCC process with Ziegler-Natta catalysts showed a more homogeneous incorporation of comonomer compared with the one obtained by the Spherilene process. The supported metallocenes catalyst gave a more homogeneous product than the homogeneous metallocene one. (author)

  5. A Cationic Smart Copolymer for DNA Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new block copolymer with a temperature-responsive block and a cationic block was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, with good control of its size and composition. The first block is composed by di(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA and oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA, with the ratio DEGMA/OEGMA being used to choose the volume phase transition temperature of the polymer in water, tunable from ca. 25 to above 90 °C. The second block, of trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (TMEC, is positively charged at physiological pH values and is used for DNA binding. The coacervate complexes between the block copolymer and a model single strand DNA are characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new materials offer good prospects for biomedical application, for example in controlled gene delivery.

  6. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  7. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  8. [Preparation of leucine-methyl glutamate-glutamic acid copolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S; Shi, F; Huang, L; Zhou, Q; Lin, Z; Yi, W

    1997-06-01

    The method for preparing leucine-methyl glutamate-glutamic acid copolymer was studied. In the first place benzyl glutamate and methyl glutamate were synthesized respectively. Then N-carboxy anhydrides (NCA) of leucine, benzyl glutamate or methyl glutamate were prepared in a closed container by phosgene-toluene solution method. After copolymerization the copolymers were debenzylated and demethylated by anhydrous hydrogen bromide. The free carboxyl group mole content in side chains of the copolymer was controlled by various standing periods following bubbling HBr. Analysis of infrared spectrogram and ultraviolet asorbance of copolymers indicated that this procedure resulted in the loss of almost all benzyl groups and some methyl groups.

  9. Morphology of diblock copolymers in porous media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maniadis, Panagiotis; Tsimpanogiannis, I. N.; Kober, E.M.; Lookman, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 17 (2014), s. 2297-2309 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : confinement * diblock copolymers * porous media * self-assembly * self-consistent field theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.720, year: 2014

  10. SANS study of coated block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleštil, Josef; Kříž, Jaroslav; Koňák, Čestmír; Pospíšil, Herman; Kadlec, Petr; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Grillo, I.; Cubitt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 12 (2005), s. 1206-1215 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0600; GA AV ČR IAA1050201; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * core-shell polymers * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  11. Biodegradable Metals From Concept to Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2012-01-01

    This book in the emerging research field of biomaterials covers biodegradable metals for biomedical applications. The book contains two main parts where each of them consists of three chapters. The first part introduces the readers to the field of metallic biomaterials, exposes the state of the art of biodegradable metals, and reveals its application for cardiovascular implants. It includes some fundamental aspects to give basic understanding on metals for further review on the degradable ones is covered in chapter one. The second chapter introduces the concept of biodegradable metals, it's st

  12. Rheological Design of Sustainable Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Alexander M.

    Block copolymers are extremely versatile materials that microphase separate to give rise to a rich array of complex behavior, making them the ideal platform for the development of rheologically sophisticated soft matter. In line with growing environmental concerns of conventional plastics from petroleum feedstocks, this work focuses on the rheological design of sustainable block copolymers--those derived from renewable sources and are degradable--based on poly(lactide). Although commercially viable, poly(lactide) has a number of inherent deficiencies that result in a host of challenges that require both creative and practical solutions that are cost-effective and amenable to large-scale production. Specifically, this dissertation looks at applications in which both shear and extensional rheology dictate performance attributes, namely chewing gum, pressure-sensitive adhesives, and polymers for blown film extrusion. Structure-property relationships in the context of block polymer architecture, polymer composition, morphology, and branching are explored in depth. The basic principles and fundamental findings presented in this thesis are applicable to a broader range of substances that incorporate block copolymers for which rheology plays a pivotal role.

  13. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new player in the biorefineries field: phasin PhaP enhances tolerance to solvents and boosts ethanol and 1,3-propanediol synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezzina, Mariela P.; Álvarez, Daniela; Egoburo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The microbial production of biofuels and other added-value chemicals is often limited by the intrinsic toxicity of these compounds. Phasin PhaP from the soil bacterium Azotobacter sp. strain FA8 is a polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein that protects recombinant Escherichia coli against...... as a strategy to increase tolerance to several biotechnologically relevant chemicals. PhaP was observed to enhance bacterial fitness in the presence of biofuels, such as ethanol and butanol, and to other chemicals, such as 1,3-propanediol. The effect of PhaP was also studied in a groELS mutant strain, in which...... increased growth, reflected in a higher final biomass and product titer compared to the control strain. Taken together, these results add a novel application to the already multifaceted phasin protein group, suggesting that expression of these proteins or other chaperones can be used to improve biofuels...

  15. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  16. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) scaffolds coated with PhaP-RGD fusion protein promotes the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Chang, Huimin; Luo, Huanan; Wang, Zhenghui; Zheng, Guoxi; Lu, Xiaoyun; He, Xijing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Ting; Liang, Jianmin; Xu, Min

    2015-03-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have been widely used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) scaffolds coated with polyhydroxyalkanoate binding protein fused with arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (PhaP-RGD) to promote the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs seeded on them. The PhaP-RGD fusion protein was expressed by Escherichia coli. PHBHHx films were coated with PhaP-RGD fusion protein and the physiochemical properties were examined. hUC-MSCs were seeded on PHBHHx films with or without PhaP-RGD precoating and tested for changes in morphology, viability, and chondrogenic differentiation. We found that PhaP-RGD-coated PHBHHx films had similar surface morphology to uncoated PHBHHx. The water contact angle of the coated PHBHHx surface was lower than that of the uncoated surface (10.63° vs. 98.69°). At 7 and 14 days after seeding, the PhaP-RGD-coated PHBHHx group showed greater numbers of viable cells compared to the uncoated PHBHHx group. The expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II were enhanced in the PhaP-RGD-coated PHBHHx group relative to the uncoated PHBHHx group. Histological analysis using toluidine blue staining showed elevated formation of proteoglycan producing chondrocytes in the PhaP-RGD-coated PHBHHx group. Additionally, the synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen was significantly enhanced within the PhaP-RGD constructs. Taken together, PhaP-RGD coating promotes the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs seeded on PHBHHx films. PhaP-RGD-coated PHBHHx may be a useful scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Acceleration of biodegradation by ultraviolet femtosecond laser irradiation to biodegradable polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akimichi; Yada, Shuhei; Kondo, Naonari; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Biodegradability is a key property of biodegradable polymers for tissue scaffold applications. Among the methods to control biodegradability, laser processing is a simple technique, which enables the alteration of biodegradability even after molding. Since ultrafast laser processing realizes precise processing of biodegradable polymer with less heat affected zone, ultrafast laser processing has the potential to fabricate tissue scaffolds and to control its biodegradability. In this study, we investigate the effect of femtosecond laser wavelength on the biodegradability of PLGA. We evaluated the biodegradability of PLGA irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at the wavelength of 800, 400, 266 nm by the measurement of the change in mass of PLGA during water immersion. The results of degradation tests indicate that PLGA irradiated with the shorter wavelength show faster water absorption as well as rapid mass decrease. Since the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate that the chemical bonds of PLGA irradiated with the shorter wavelength are dissociated more significantly, the acceleration of the biodegradation could be attributable to the decrease in molecular weight by chemical bond breaking.

  18. Loss of Ceramide Synthases Elicits a PHA-4/FoxA-, SKN-1-, and Autophagy-Dependent Lifespan Extension in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mai-Britt Mosbech; Færgeman, Nils J.; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2011-01-01

    , these lipid species are recognized as bioactive signalling molecules involved in regulation of cell growth, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis, and thus a delicate equilibrium between the levels of these interconvertible lipid species underlies the balance between cell survival and death. The C....... elegans genome comprises three ceramide synthase genes; hyl-1, hyl-2, and lagr-1. Here we show that functional loss of HYL-1 and LAGR-1 depletes 43:1;3 sphingolipids and extends lifespan in a PHA-4-, SKN-1-, and ATG-12-dependent manner. The transcription factors PHA-4 and SKN-1 as well as ATG-12, which...

  19. PHA665752, a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, inhibits hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration and proliferation of c-Met-positive neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosswell, Hal E; Dasgupta, Anindya; Alvarado, Carlos S; Watt, Tanya; Christensen, James G; De, Pradip; Durden, Donald L; Findley, Harry W

    2009-01-01

    c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and both c-Met and its ligand are expressed in a variety of tissues. C-Met/HGF/SF signaling is essential for normal embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Abnormal c-Met/HGF/SF signaling has been demonstrated in different tumors and linked to aggressive and metastatic tumor phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated inhibition of c-Met/HGF/SF signaling by the small-molecule inhibitor PHA665752. This study investigated c-Met and HGF expression in two neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines and tumor tissue from patients with NBL, as well as the effects of PHA665752 on growth and motility of NBL cell lines. The effect of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN on migration and proliferation of tumor cells treated with PHA665752 was also evaluated. Expression of c-Met and HGF in NBL cell lines SH-EP and SH-SY5Y and primary tumor tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of PHA665752 on c-Met/HGF signaling involved in NBL cell proliferation and migration was evaluated in c-Met-positive cells and c-Met-transfected cells. The transwell chemotaxis assay and the MTT assay were used to measure migration and proliferation/cell-survival of tumor cells, respectively. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone was used to assess the effect of PTEN on PHA665752-induced inhibition of NBL cell proliferation/cell-survival and migration High c-Met expression was detected in SH-EP cells and primary tumors from patients with advanced-stage disease. C-Met/HGF signaling induced both migration and proliferation of SH-EP cells. Migration and proliferation/cell-survival were inhibited by PHA665752 in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that induced overexpression of PTEN following treatment with rosiglitazone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of PHA665752 on NBL-cell migration and proliferation. c-Met is highly expressed in most tumors from

  20. Biodegradation of VX/Water Hydrolysate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeFrank, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    ...-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothioate was neutralization followed by biodegradation. The treatment of VX with an equimolar amount of water results in the slow, but complete hydrolysis of the phosphorus-sulfur bond...

  1. Biodegradable lubricants - ''the solution for future?''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, A.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental impact of lubricants use concern the direct effects from spills but also the indirect effects such as their lifetime and the emissions from thermal engines. The biodegradable performances and the toxicity are the environmental criteria that must be taken into account in the development and application of lubricants together with their technical performances. This paper recalls first the definition of biodegradable properties of hydrocarbons and the standardized tests, in particular the CEC and AFNOR tests. Then, the biodegradable performances of basic oils (mineral, vegetal, synthetic esters, synthetic hydrocarbons etc..), finite lubricants (hydraulic fluids..) and engine oils is analyzed according to these tests. Finally, the definition of future standards would take into account all the environmental characteristics of the lubricant: biodegradable performances, energy balance (CO 2 , NOx and Hx emissions and fuel savings), eco-toxicity and technical performances (wearing and cleanliness). (J.S.)

  2. Biodegradability and treatability of caprolactam waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.D.; Patel, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the biodegradability and treatment of wastewaters from a plant manufacturing caprolactam. Two-stage biological treatment, with preliminary aeration followed by an oxidation channel, gave an effluent of the desired quality.

  3. MOLECULAR BASIS OF BIODEGRADATION OF CHLOROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used in industry and agriculture, and comprise the bulk of environmental pollutants. Although simple aromatic compounds are biodegradable by a variety of degradative pathways, their halogenated counterparts are more resistant to bacter...

  4. Formulation and Characterization of Biodegradable Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEG)-600, tributyl citrate, PEG-200, PEG-300, PEG-400, PEG-4000, triethyl citrate and castor oil. The gum formulations were characterized for the following parameters: texture profile analysis (TPA), biodegradation, in vitro drug release using a ...

  5. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  6. Biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals -PVA nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rohani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals-poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposite films with different filler loading levels (3, 6, 9 and 12% by wt were developed by solvent casting method. The effect of cellulose nanocrystals on the biodegradation behaviors of nanocomposite films was studied. Water absorption and water solubility tests were performed by immersing specimens into distilled water. The characteristic parameter of diffusion coefficient and maximum moisture content were determined from the obtained water absorption curves. The water absorption behavior of the nanocomposites was found to follow a Fickian behavior. The maximum water absorption and diffusion coefficients were decreased by increasing the cellulose nanocrystals contents, however the water solubility decrease. The biodegradability of the films was investigated by immersing specimens into cellulase enzymatic solution as well as by burial in soil. The results showed that adding cellulose nanocrystals increase the weight loss of specimens in enzymatic solution but decrease it in soil media. The limited biodegradability of specimens in soil media attributed to development of strong interactions with solid substrates that inhibit the accessibility of functional groups. Specimens with the low degree of hydrolysis underwent extensive biodegradation in both enzymatic and soil media, whilst specimens with the high degree of hydrolysis showed recalcitrance to biodegradation under those conditions.

  7. Biodegradation of acrylic based resins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ana F; Neves, Cristina B; de Almeida, Marise S; Pinheiro, Lídia M; Oliveira, Sofia Arantes e; Lopes, Luís P; Castro, Matilde F

    2010-05-01

    The development of different types of materials with application in dentistry is an area of intense growth and research, due to its importance in oral health. Among the different materials there are the acrylic based resins that have been extensively used either in restorations or in dentures. The objective of this manuscript was to review the acrylic based resins biodegradation phenomena. Specific attention was given to the causes and consequences of materials degradation under the oral environment. Information from scientific full papers, reviews or abstracts published from 1963 to date were included in the review. Published material was searched in dental literature using general and specialist databases, like the PubMED database. Published studies regarding the description of biodegradation mechanisms, in vitro and in vivo release experiments and cell based studies conducted on acrylic based resins or their components were evaluated. Studies related to the effect of biodegradation on the physical and mechanical properties of the materials were also analyzed. Different factors such as saliva characteristics, chewing or thermal and chemical dietary changes may be responsible for the biodegradation of acrylic based resins. Release of potential toxic compounds from the material and change on their physical and mechanical properties are the major consequences of biodegradation. Increasing concern arises from potential toxic effects of biodegradation products under clinical application thus justifying an intensive research in this area. 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of biodegradable hyper-branched tissue adhesives for the repair of meniscus tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochyńska, A I; Van Tienen, T G; Hannink, G; Buma, P; Grijpma, D W

    2016-03-01

    Meniscus tears are one of the most commonly occurring injuries of the knee joint. Current meniscus repair techniques are challenging and do not bring fully satisfactory results. Tissue adhesives are a promising alternative, since they are easy to apply and cause minimal tissue trauma. In this study, a series of amphiphilic copolymers based on polyethylene glycol, trimethylene carbonate and citric acid were synthesized and subsequently end-functionalized with hexamethylene diisocyanate to form reactive adhesive materials. The shear adhesive strength of the networks to bovine meniscus tissue measured in a lap-shear adhesion test ranged between 20 and 80 kPa, which was better than for fibrin glue (10 kPa). The elastic modulus of the networks depended on composition and was in the same range as that of human meniscus. Cell compatibility was assessed using Alamar Blue staining after incubation of the bovine meniscus cells with different concentrations of the glues for 7 days. Cell viability was not affected after adding up to 3mg of the adhesive/mL of medium. The proposed materials are suitable candidates to be used as resorbable tissue adhesives for meniscus repair. They have excellent mechanical and adhesive properties that can be adjusted by varying the composition of the copolymers. Meniscal tears often occur and current treatment strategies do not bring fully satisfactory results. Use of biodegradable tissue adhesives would be an interesting option, but currently available adhesives are not suited due to toxicity or poor mechanical properties. Here, we describe the development of novel biodegradable, hyper-branched, adhesive copolymers. These adhesives cure upon contact with water forming flexible networks. Their adhesion to bovine meniscus tissue was significantly better than that of clinically used fibrin glue. The tensile properties of the cured networks were in the same range of values of the human meniscus. When physiologically relevant amounts were added to

  9. Polyether based segmented copolymers with uniform aramid units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, M.C.E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Segmented copolymers with short, glassy or crystalline hard segments and long, amorphous soft segments (multi-block copolymers) are thermoplastic elastomers (TPE’s). The hard segments form physical crosslinks for the amorphous (rubbery) soft segments. As a result, this type of materials combines

  10. Blends of Syndiotactic Polystyrene with SBS Triblock Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Francesco; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Blending of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) triblock copolymers with syndiotactic polystyrene (PSsyn) has been performed in a Brabender mixer above the glass transition temperature of the triblock copolymer but below the melting point of PSsyn. The presence of a large excess

  11. Radiation crosslinked block copolymer blends with improved impact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, F.L.; Pelletier, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Polymer blends having high impact resistance after mechanical working are produced by blending together a non-elastomeric monovinylidene aromatic polymer such as polystyrene with an elastomeric copolymer, such as a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, in the form of crosslinked, colloidal size particles

  12. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed

  13. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  14. Tensile properties of segmented block copolymers with monodisperse hard segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The tensile properties of segmented block copolymers with mono-disperse hard segments were studied with respect to the hard segment content (16–44 wt.%) and the temperature (20–110 °C). The copolymers were comprised of poly(tetramethylene oxide) segments with the molecular weights of 650–2,900 Da

  15. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction ...

  16. Micellar structure of amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) diblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, C.M.; Ivanova, R.; Lüdtke, K.

    2007-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers from poly(2-oxazoline)s in aqueous solution can form micelles. By means of small-angle neutron scattering, we have found that poly[(n-nonyl-2-oxazoline)-b-(methyl-2-oxazoline)] {P[(NOx)-b-(MOx)]} diblock copolymers in aqueous solution form micelles of core-shell typ...

  17. Alternation and tunable composition in hydrogen bonded supramolecular copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thorsten; de Greef, Tom F A; Nieuwenhuizen, Marko M L; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2014-03-07

    Sequence control in supramolecular copolymers is limited by the selectivity of the associating monomer end groups. Here we introduce the use of monomers with aminopyrimidinone and aminohydroxynaphthyridine quadruple hydrogen bonding end groups, which both homodimerize, but form even stronger heterodimers. These features allow the formation of supramolecular copolymers with a tunable composition and a preference for alternating sequences.

  18. Functional Block Copolymers via Anionic Polymerization for Electroactive Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Alison

    2013-01-01

           Ion-containing block copolymers blend ionic liquid properties with well-defined polymer architectures. This provides conductive materials with robust mechanical stability, efficient processability, and tunable macromolecular design. Conventional free radical polymerization and anion exchange achieved copolymers containing n-butyl acrylate and phosphonium ionic liquids. These compositions incorporated vinylbenzyl triphenyl phosphonium and vinylbenzyl tricyclohexyl phosphonium cations be...

  19. Influence of copolymer composition on the transport properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of copolymer composition on the transport properties of conducting copolymers: poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine). S S UMARE*, A D BORKAR† and M C GUPTA†. Department of Chemistry, Visvesvaraya Regional College of Engineering, Nagpur 440 011, India. †Department of Chemistry, Nagpur University, Nagpur ...

  20. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Mather, Patrick T; Haddad, Timothy S; Kim, Gyeong-Man

    2006-01-01

    ...: random copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and styryl-based polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), R7(Si8O12)(C6H4CH=CH2), with R = isobutyl (iBu). A series of styrene-styryl POSS random copolymers with 0, 6, 15, 30, 50 wt...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  2. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  3. An interpretation of cell separation mechanism on polyamine graft copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Muramatsu, N; Kataoka, K; Ohshima, H; Kondo, T

    1992-01-01

    Interaction between polyamide microcapsules having different balances of negative and positive charges on their surface, that is, different isoelectric points and copolymers with different numbers of polyamine macromer of a definite chain length grafted on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) backbone was studied by measuring the amount adhered of the microcapsules onto the surface of copolymer-coated glass beads at different pH values. Maximum microcapsule adhesion was observed for a proper combination of microcapsule and copolymer to suggest that separation of a specified cell population from others on the surface of copolymer-coated glass beads can be explained in terms of preferential adhesion through electrostatic interaction of the specified cells with the copolymer.

  4. Block Copolymer Metastability: Scientific Nightmare or Engineering Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Frank S.

    1997-03-01

    Most experimental studies and almost all theories that deal with block copolymers, or mixtures of block copolymers and homopolymers, have been designed from an equilibrium perspective. Yet a myriad of factors conspire to retard approach to equilibrium in these systems, including: subtle features in the free energy surface that are controlled by ordered state symmetry; a coupling between microphase separation and entanglement dynamics; complex molecular architectures such as multiblock, starblock, and miktoarm. Even unentangled low molecular weight diblock copolymers, the simplest and dynamically least encumbered materials, exhibit long-lived metastable states that confound attempts to validate equilibrium theories. However, this apparent dilemma can be exploited through clever processing strategies. This lecture will address two opposing consequences of block copolymer metastability. The first is a potential nightmare: Can we ever establish universal block copolymer phase diagrams? The second is the stuff of dreams: Self-assembled thermoset nanocomposites.

  5. Biodegradability and biodegradation rate of poly(caprolactone)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable polymer under aerobic and anaerobic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Moon, H S; Kim, M; Nam, K; Kim, J Y

    2011-03-01

    The biodegradability and the biodegradation rate of two kinds biodegradable polymers; poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), were investigated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. PCL-starch blend was easily degraded, with 88% biodegradability in 44 days under aerobic conditions, and showed a biodegradation rate of 0.07 day(-1), whereas the biodegradability of PBS was only 31% in 80 days under the same conditions, with a biodegradation rate of 0.01 day(-1). Anaerobic bacteria degraded well PCL-starch blend (i.e., 83% biodegradability for 139 days); however, its biodegradation rate was relatively slow (6.1 mL CH(4)/g-VS day) compared to that of cellulose (13.5 mL CH(4)/g-VS day), which was used as a reference material. The PBS was barely degraded under anaerobic conditions, with only 2% biodegradability in 100 days. These results were consistent with the visual changes and FE-SEM images of the two biodegradable polymers after the landfill burial test, showing that only PCL-starch blend had various sized pinholes on the surface due to attack by microorganisms. This result may be use in deciding suitable final disposal approaches of different types of biodegradable polymers in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In-situ crosslinkable and self-assembling elastin-like polypeptide block copolymers for cartilage tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Woo

    bulk hydrogels, which may be useful for in situ tissue supplementation and repair because they show viscoelastic gel-like behaviors upon raising the temperature, and they are composed of biocompatible and biodegradable elements. These results show that the injectable biomaterials based on the ELP block copolymers and the ELP-g-HAs have potential for cartilage tissue repair and supplementation.

  7. Use Of Biodegradation Ratios In Monitoring Trend Of Biostimulated Biodegradation In Crude Oil Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorondu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with biodegradation experiment on soil contaminated with crude oil. The soil sample sets A BC D E F G were amended with inorganic fertilizer to enhance microbial growth and hydrocarbon degradation moisture content of some of the sets were as well varied. Biodegradation ratios nC17Pr nC18Ph and nC17nC18PrPh were used to monitor biodegradation of soil sets A BC D E F G for a period of 180. The soil samples were each contaminated with the same amount of crude oil and exposed to specific substrate treatment regarding the amount of nutrients and water content over the same period of time. The trend in biodegradation of the different soil sample sets shows that biodegradation ratio nC17nC18PrPh was more reflective of and explains the biodegradation trend in all the sample sets throughout the period of the experiment hence a better parameter ratio for monitoring trend of biostimulated biodegradation. The order of preference of the biodegradation ratios is expressed as nC18Ph nC17Pr nC17nC18 PrPh. This can be a relevant support tool when designing bioremediation plan on field.

  8. Comparison of complex coacervate core micelles from two diblock copolymers or a single diblock copolymer with a polyelectrolyte.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.; Voets, I.K.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    With light scattering titrations, we show that complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) form from a diblock copolymer with a polyelectrolyte block and either an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, a diblock copolymer with an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte or a mixture of the two. The effect of

  9. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  10. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  11. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism of Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Identification and Sequences of Genes and Function of the Encoded Proteins in the Synthesis and Degradation of PHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gjalt W.; Wonink, Eric; Meima, Rob; Kazemier, Bert; Terpstra, Peter; Witholt, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans accumulates poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) after growth on medium chain length hydrocarbons. Large amounts of this polyester are synthesized when cells are grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions. When nitrogen is resupplied in the medium, the accumulated PHA is degraded.

  13. (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP:CoA transacylase of Pseudomonas chlororaphis: gene cloning, characterization and knock-out on PHA and rhamnolipid syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis is a useful microorganism capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymer and rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactants by using carbon- and nitrogen-sources derived from renewable feedstocks as substrates of fermentation. We are interested in increasing the yield of RL pr...

  14. Comparison of silicon drift detectors made by Amptek and PNDetectors in application to the PHA system for W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparison of two silicon drift detectors (SDD, one made by Amptek, USA, and the second one by PNDetector, Germany, which are considered for a soft X-ray diagnostic system for W7-X. The sensitive area of the first one is 7 mm2 × 450 μm and the second one is 10 mm2 × 450 μm. The first detector is cooled by a double-stage Peltier element, while the second detector is cooled by single-stage Peltier element. Each one is equipped with a field-effect transistor (FET. In the detector from Amptek, the FET is mounted separately, while in the detector from PNDetector, the FET is integrated on the chip. The nominal energy resolution given by the producers of the first and the second one is 136 eV@5.9 keV (at -50°C and 132 eV@5.9 keV (at -20°C, respectively. Owing to many advantages, the investigated detectors are good candidates for soft X-ray measurements in magnetic confinement devices. They are suitable for soft X-ray diagnostics, like the pulse height analysis (PHA system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, which has been developed and manufactured at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM, Warsaw, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Greifswald. The diagnostic is important for the measurements of plasma electron temperature, impurities content, and possible suprathermal tails in the spectra. In order to choose the best type of detector, analysis of technical parameters and laboratory tests were done. Detailed studies show that the most suitable detector for the PHA diagnostics is the PNDetector.

  15. Biodegradable braided poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) urethral stent combined with dutasteride in the treatment of acute urinary retention due to benign prostatic enlargement: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsar, Andres; Isotalo, Taina; Juuti, Hanne; Mikkonen, Joonas; Leppiniemi, Jenni; Hänninen, Venla; Kellomäki, Minna; Talja, Martti; Tammela, Teuvo L J

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate, in a pilot study, the efficacy and safety of combining a braided poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, a copolymer of l-lactide and glycolide) urethral stent and dutasteride in the treatment of acute urinary retention (AUR) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Ten men with AUR due to BPE were treated as outpatients. A biodegradable braided PLGA urethral stent was inserted into the prostatic urethra, using a specially designed insertion device under visual control. Dutasteride treatment was started and the patients were followed up for 3 months after insertion of the stents. In all patients the stents were placed successfully with the new insertion device. All men were able to void after inserting the stent. At 1 month five patients voided freely with a low residual urine volume (biodegradable braided prostatic stents. The new braided-pattern stent overcomes the earlier problems of migration and sudden breakage into large particles associated with biodegradable spiral stents. However, the mechanical properties of the new stent need to be improved and tested in a longer follow-up. We consider that this new biodegradable braided-pattern urethral stent could provide a new option in the future treatment of AUR.

  16. Thermal Annealing to Modulate the Shape Memory Behavior of a Biobased and Biocompatible Triblock Copolymer Scaffold in the Human Body Temperature Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlettini, Andrea; Gigli, Matteo; Ramella, Martina; Gualandi, Chiara; Soccio, Michelina; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Munari, Andrea; Lotti, Nadia; Focarete, Maria Letizia

    2017-08-14

    A biodegradable and biocompatible electrospun scaffold with shape memory behavior in the physiological temperature range is here presented. It was obtained starting from a specifically designed, biobased PLLA-based triblock copolymer, where the central block is poly(propylene azelate-co-propylene sebacate) (P(PAz60PSeb40)) random copolymer. Shape memory properties are determined by the contemporary presence of the low melting crystals of the P(PAz60PSeb40) block, acting as switching segment, and of the high melting crystal phase of PLLA blocks, acting as physical network. It is demonstrated that a straightforward annealing process applied to the crystal phase of the switching element gives the possibility to tune the shape recovery temperature from about 25 to 50 °C, without the need of varying the copolymer's chemical structure. The thermal annealing approach here presented can be thus considered a powerful strategy for "ad hoc" programming the same material for applications requiring different recovery temperatures. Fibroblast culture experiments demonstrated scaffold biocompatibility.

  17. Biodegradation of Moringa oleifera's polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Quintão, Cristiane Medina; Novack, Kátia Monteiro; Bernardes-Silva, Ana Cláudia; Silva, Thais D; Moreira, Lucas E S; Braga, Luiza E M

    2017-11-10

    Vegetable oils are used as a base for the synthesis of polymers and monomers with structures similar to that of petroleum, as plasticizers for conventional polymers and biodegrading additives. The Moringa oleifera oil was extracted from seeds and polymerized after being submitted to 16 h of microwave irradiation without catalysers. This polymer was characterized and the efficiency of the oil polymerization was verified by the reduction of double bonds and the increase of molecular weight up to 50,000 g mol -1 . Films produced by a mixture of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(lactic acid) (PBAT/PLA) present low tensile resistance and low biodegradation behaviour. In order to improve those properties, the Moringa polymer (PMO) was mixed with LDPE and PBAT/PLA in specific mass concentrations. The films produced with this mixture were characterized and submitted to biodegradation analysis. The PMO behaves as a compatibilizer by improving thermal properties, reducing the crystalline phase and improving the biodegradation behaviour. The biodegradation improved up to five times in comparison to conventional polymers and it restores the mechanical properties.

  18. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  19. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  20. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  1. Effects of Blockiness on the phase behavior of random copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwoude, Gordon; Shi, An-Chang

    Theoretical study of random block copolymers remains a challenging topic due in part to the sheer enormity of their phase space. In this study we use the self-consistent field theory to investigate the phase behaviour of linear (AB)n-type and (AB)n-C-type multiblock copolymers with randomly distributed A and B blocks. In particular, we examine the effect of ``blockiness'' of the random copolymers on the formation of ordered phases. The blockiness can be quantified by the average length of individual A or B blocks, which can be taken as a measure of the heterogeneity of the random copolymers. We observed that the critical value of the χ parameter, at which the order-disorder transition occurs, decreases with increasing blockiness in the (AB)n copolymers. We also observed that the phase behaviour of the (AB)n-C copolymers depends strongly on the blockiness of the random chain. In particular, the blockiness governs whether or not the A/B blocks can phase separate within the A/B domains, thus dictating whether the (AB)n-C behaves as A/B-C diblock copolymers or as ABC terpolymers. The theoretical phase diagrams will be compared with available experiments.

  2. Bactericidal and Hemocompatible Coating via the Mixed-Charged Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Li; Hu, Mi; Qin, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xia-Chao; Lei, Wen-Xi; Ye, Wan-Ying; Jin, Qiao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2018-03-28

    Cationic antibacterial coating based on quaternary ammonium compounds, with an efficient and broad spectrum bactericidal property, has been widely used in various fields. However, the high density of positive charges tends to induce weak hemocompatibility, which hinders the application of the cationic antibacterial coating in blood-contacting devices and implants. It has been reported that a negatively charged surface can reduce blood coagulation, showing improved hemocompatibility. Here, we describe a strategy to combine the cationic and anionic groups by using mixed-charged copolymers. The copolymers of poly (quaternized vinyl pyridine- co- n-butyl methacrylate- co-methacrylate acid) [P(QVP- co- nBMA- co-MAA)] were synthesized through free radical copolymerization. The cationic group of QVP, the anionic group of MAA, and the hydrophobic group of nBMA were designed to provide bactericidal capability, hemocompatibility, and coating stability, respectively. Our findings show that the hydrophilicity of the copolymer coating increased, and its zeta potential decreased from positive charge to negative charge with the increase of the anionic/cationic ratio. Meanwhile, the bactericidal property of the copolymer coating was kept around a similar level compared with the pure quaternary ammonium copolymer coating. Furthermore, the coagulation time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis tests revealed that the hemocompatibility of the copolymer coating improved with the addition of the anionic group. The mixed-charged copolymer combined both bactericidal property and hemocompatibility and has a promising potential in blood-contacting antibacterial devices and implants.

  3. Electrochemically controlled self-assembly of block copolymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitouni, Hany Basam

    Organometallic block copolymers, wherein one block is composed of alternating ferrocene and dialkylsilane units in the main chain, undergo self-assembly to form microphase-separated ordered structures similarly to typical organic block copolymers. The 1,1'-dimethylsilylferrocenophane monomer was synthesized and polymerized anionically with other monomers to make a variety of different organometallic block copolymers. The phase behavior and thermodynamic interactions of anionically synthesized poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (SF) and poly(isoprene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (IF) copolymers were examined using depolarized light scattering, small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS), and transmission electron microscopy. The temperature-dependence of the Flory-Huggins parameter, chi, and the statistical segment lengths of SF and IF copolymers were determined by SAXS and SANS using the random phase approximation. The thermodynamic interactions in poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane) diblock copolymers were systematically adjusted by oxidizing the ferrocene moieties with silver salts and examined using SAXS and depolarized light scattering. The polymers retained microphase separated ordered structures upon oxidation and showed systematic changes in the location of the order-disorder transition as a function of extent of oxidation. By controlling the redox properties of the ferrocene moiety in the backbone of the polymer, we present a method for controlling the self-assembled microstructure and hence bulk material properties. Using electrochemical techniques, a novel means of controlling the order-disorder transition of block copolymers was discovered. By applying very small electrical potentials to disordered solutions of organometallic block copolymers, oriented ordered grains were formed near one electrode, the result of electrochemical reactions. After reversing the electrical bias on the system, the ordered grains disappeared and new

  4. Synthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer templated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcora, Pinar

    2005-07-01

    Templating ordered assemblies of magnetic oxide nanoparticles within self-assembled diblock copolymers of varying morphologies is an important problem with a wide applicability such as in electromagnetics, optical devices, metal catalysts, medicine and biology. In this thesis, the effects of different polymer structures on particle ordering and resultant magnetic properties have been investigated using various microstructure and magnetic characterization tools. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene and functionalized norbornene monomers has been used to synthesize diblock copolymers of narrow polydispersities using Grubbs' catalyst. These block copolymers can be used as templates to form inorganic nanoparticles. In this research, the structural and physical understanding of the inorganic-copolymer system was studied by small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Synthesis of gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has been achieved within novel block copolymers of (norbornene)-b-(deuterated norbornene dicarboxylic) acid and (norbornene methanol-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid). The polymer morphologies were controlled by varying the volume fractions of the constituent blocks. The pure norbornene based diblock copolymer morphologies were demonstrated by electron microscopy for the first tune. Spherical, cylindrical and lamellar morphologies of these novel diblock copolymers were reported. The block ratios of the synthesized polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography-light scattering, elemental analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Solution phase doping and submersion of thin films in metal salt solutions were employed as metal doping methods and the observed nanoparticle structures were compared to those of the undoped copolymer morphologies. This project reports on the types of templating structures and dispersion of the nanoparticles. The effects of particle, interactions on the microphase

  5. Introduction of environmentally degradable parameters to evaluate the biodegradability of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Tao, Jian; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Geng, Weitao; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Meimei; Wang, Shufang

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally Degradable Parameter ((Ed)K) is of importance in the describing of biodegradability of environmentally biodegradable polymers (BDPs). In this study, a concept (Ed)K was introduced. A test procedure of using the ISO 14852 method and detecting the evolved carbon dioxide as an analytical parameter was developed, and the calculated (Ed)K was used as an indicator for the ultimate biodegradability of materials. Starch and polyethylene used as reference materials were defined as the (Ed)K values of 100 and 0, respectively. Natural soil samples were inoculated into bioreactors, followed by determining the rates of biodegradation of the reference materials and 15 commercial BDPs over a 2-week test period. Finally, a formula was deduced to calculate the value of (Ed)K for each material. The (Ed)K values of the tested materials have a positive correlation to their biodegradation rates in the simulated soil environment, and they indicated the relative biodegradation rate of each material among all the tested materials. Therefore, the (Ed)K was shown to be a reliable indicator for quantitatively evaluating the potential biodegradability of BDPs in the natural environment.

  6. Introduction of Environmentally Degradable Parameters to Evaluate the Biodegradability of Biodegradable Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Geng, Weitao; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Meimei; Wang, Shufang

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally Degradable Parameter (Ed K) is of importance in the describing of biodegradability of environmentally biodegradable polymers (BDPs). In this study, a concept Ed K was introduced. A test procedure of using the ISO 14852 method and detecting the evolved carbon dioxide as an analytical parameter was developed, and the calculated Ed K was used as an indicator for the ultimate biodegradability of materials. Starch and polyethylene used as reference materials were defined as the Ed K values of 100 and 0, respectively. Natural soil samples were inoculated into bioreactors, followed by determining the rates of biodegradation of the reference materials and 15 commercial BDPs over a 2-week test period. Finally, a formula was deduced to calculate the value of Ed K for each material. The Ed K values of the tested materials have a positive correlation to their biodegradation rates in the simulated soil environment, and they indicated the relative biodegradation rate of each material among all the tested materials. Therefore, the Ed K was shown to be a reliable indicator for quantitatively evaluating the potential biodegradability of BDPs in the natural environment. PMID:22675455

  7. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  8. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meijuan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-04-29

    It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  9. Biodegradation of dissolved humic substances by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Oulego, Paula; Suárez-Iglesias, Octavio; Díaz, Mario

    2018-04-01

    Humic and fulvic acids constitute humic substances, a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups, which are not only the principal soil fertility factors but also the main pollutants present in landfill leachates or natural organic matter in water. Due to their low bacterial biodegradability, fungal biodegradation processes are key for their removal. The present study compiles and comments all the available literature on decomposition of aqueous humic substances by fungi or by their extracellular enzymes alone, focusing on the influence of the reaction conditions. The biodegradation extent mainly depends on the characteristics and concentration of the humic compounds, the type of microorganisms selected, the inoculation mode, the C and N sources, the presence of certain chemicals in the medium, the availability of oxygen, the temperature, and the pH.

  10. Biodegradable nanoparticles for gene therapy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; He, Wen-Jie; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi; Hong, Po-Da; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Domb, Abraham J.; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid propagations in materials technology together with biology have initiated great hopes in the possibility of treating many diseases by gene therapy technology. Viral and non-viral gene carriers are currently applied for gene delivery. Non-viral technology is safe and effective for the delivery of genetic materials to cells and tissues. Non-viral systems are based on plasmid expression containing a gene encoding a therapeutic protein and synthetic biodegradable nanoparticles as a safe carrier of gene. Biodegradable nanoparticles have shown great interest in drug and gene delivery systems as they are easy to be synthesized and have no side effect in cells and tissues. This review provides a critical view of applications of biodegradable nanoparticles on gene therapy technology to enhance the localization of in vitro and in vivo and improve the function of administered genes

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Acrylonitrile Copolymers by Emulsion Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Halawany, N.R.; Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; Mokhtar, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) binary copolymers with styrene (St) and maleic acid (MA) of different compositions were prepared by free radical emulsion copolymerization using potassium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as a redox pair initiation system and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an emulsifier. Based on the copolymerization data of the (AN/St) and (AN/MA) in emulsion polymerization process, the reactivity ratios of the prepared copolymers were investigated by different methods. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction were studied to characterize the prepared copolymers. Physicomechanical properties of some copolymeric lattices films were also identified

  12. Characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchette, Renato; Felisberti, Maria Isabel

    2001-01-01

    This work aims the characterization of the grafting copolymer EPDM-SAN. This copolymer presents a fraction of free SAN chains, which was extracted by solubilization in chloroform followed of precipitation of the grafting copolymer EPDM-g-SAN in acetone. The EPDM-SAN and EPDM-g-SAN were characterized by 13 C NMR, DSC, TGA and SEM. EPDM-SAN contain 23 wt% of free SAN and 77 wt% of EPDM-g-SAN. Both materials are heterogeneous and the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation are independent of the composition. (author)

  13. Bicomponent Block Copolymers Derived from One or More Random Copolymers as an Alternative Route to Controllable Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Arman R. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Ryan, Justin J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Satkowski, Michael M. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Lee, Byeongdu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Smith, Steven D. [Corporate Research and Development, The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati OH 45224 USA; Spontak, Richard J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA

    2017-06-29

    Block copolymers have been extensively studied due to their ability to spontaneously self-organize into a wide variety of morphologies that are valuable in energy-, medical- and conservation-related (nano)technologies. While the phase behavior of bicomponent diblock and triblock copolymers is conventionally governed by temperature and individual block masses, we demonstrate that their phase behavior can alternatively be controlled through the use of blocks with random monomer sequencing. Block random copolymers (BRCs), i.e., diblock copolymers wherein one or both blocks is a random copolymer comprised of A and B repeat units, have been synthesized, and their phase behavior, expressed in terms of the order-disorder transition (ODT), has been investigated. Our results establish that, depending on the block composition contrast and molecular weight, BRCs can microphase-separate. We also report that the predicted ODT can be generated at relatively constant molecular weight and temperature with these new soft materials. This sequence-controlled synthetic strategy is extended to thermoplastic elastomeric triblock copolymers differing in chemistry and possessing a random-copolymer midblock.

  14. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-PTFE...... that e-PTFE was well tolerated and encapsulated by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. There was capsule formation around Resolut and Vicryl and around Bio-Gide in the early phase there was a wide inflammatory zone already. e-PTFE and Vicryl were stable materials while Resolut and Bio-Gide fragmented...

  15. Patchy micelles based on coassembly of block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuzhe; Li, Zhan-Wei; Zhao, Hanying

    2015-04-14

    Patchy particles are a type of colloidal particles with one or more well-defined patches on the surfaces. The patchy particles with multiple compositions and functionalities have found wide applications from the fundamental studies to practical uses. In this research patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were prepared based on coassembly of free block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles. Thiol-terminated and cyanoisopropyl-capped polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block copolymers (PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and chemical modifications. Pyridyl disulfide-functionalized silica particles (SiO2-SS-Py) were prepared by four-step surface chemical reactions. PS-b-PNIPAM brushes on silica particles were prepared by thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and SiO2-SS-Py. Surface micelles on silica particles were prepared by coassembly of PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP and block copolymer brushes. Upon cleavage of the surface micelles from silica particles, patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were obtained. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta-potential measurements demonstrate the preparation of patchy micelles. Gold nanoparticles can be anchored onto the patchy micelles through S-Au bonds, and asymmetric hybrid structures are formed. The thiol groups can be oxidized to disulfides, which results in directional assembly of the patchy micelles. The self-assembly behavior of the patchy micelles was studied experimentally and by computer simulation.

  16. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  17. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshetti, G.K.; Parshetti, S.G.; Telke, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Violet (100 mg/L) was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15% inoculum concentration. A significant increase in the activities of laccase (184%) and aminopyrine Af-demethylase (300%) in cells obtained after decolorization indicated the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization process...... and phenol. We proposed the hypothetical metabolic pathway of Crystal Violet biodegradation by A. radiobacter. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity study showed that Crystal Violet biodegradation metabolites were less toxic to bacteria (A. radiobacter, P. aurugenosa and A. vinelandii) contributing to soil...

  18. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of Egyption domestic sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwally, T.A.; Al-Sarawey, A.; El-Sherbiny, M.F.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined in batch experiments. The results showed that the biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The higher biodegradability of the

  20. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch blends. ... Their mechanical properties, biodegradability and surface morphology were estimated and studied. The poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch blends show good ... Keywords: Starch, Acetylation, Biodegradation, Poly(vinyl alcohol), Polymer blend.

  1. Mass transfer analysis for terephthalic acid biodegradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of terephthalic acid (TA) by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas sp. was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. The effect of inlet TA concentration on biodegradation was investigated at 30°C, pH 7 and flow rate of 20 ml/min. The effects of flow rate on mass transfer and biodegradation ...

  2. Synthetic biodegradable functional polymers for tissue engineering: a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    BaoLin, GUO; MA, Peter X.

    2014-01-01

    Scaffolds play a crucial role in tissue engineering. Biodegradable polymers with great processing flexibility are the predominant scaffolding materials. Synthetic biodegradable polymers with well-defined structure and without immunological concerns associated with naturally derived polymers are widely used in tissue engineering. The synthetic biodegradable polymers that are widely used in tissue engineering, including polyesters, polyanhydrides, polyphosphazenes, polyurethane, and poly (glyce...

  3. Mechanical properties of weakly segregated block copolymers : 1. Synergism on tensile properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidisch, R.; Michler, G.H.; Fischer, H.; Arnold, M.; Hofmann, S.; Stamm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, with different lengths of the polystyrene block were investigated. The copolymers display a composition range where the tensile strength of the block copolymers exceeds the values of the corresponding

  4. Synthesis, Thermodynamics and Processing of Block Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bates, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Two sets of model diblock copolymers were synthesized using anionic polymerization and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation: Poly(ethylene)-poly(ethylenepropylene) (PE-PEP) and poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(alkane) (PEO-PA...

  5. Synthesis and interfacial behavior of polystyrene-polysaccharide diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Ágoston, K.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Linear block copolymers of polystyrene and polysaccharide were synthesized using a block synthesis method with amino-terminated polystyrene and sodium cyanoborohydride as reducing agent. Different types of polysaccharides, dextrans, and maltodextrins with various molecular weights were used. IR

  6. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a ...

  7. Synthesis of Amylose-b-P2 VP Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Woortman, Albert J J; Loos, Katja

    2015-12-01

    A new class of rod-coil block copolymers is synthesized by chemoenzymatic polymerization. In the first step, maltoheptaose, which acts as a primer for the synthesis of amylose, is attached to poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2 VP). The enzymatic polymerization of maltoheptaose is carried out by phosphorylase to obtain amylose-b-P2 VP block copolymers. The block copolymer is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. The designed molecules combine the inclusion complexation ability of amylose with the supramolecular complexation ability of P2 VP and therefore this kind of rod-coil block copolymers can be used to generate well-organized novel self-assembled structures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthesis of graft copolymers onto starch and its semiconducting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Çankaya

    Full Text Available Literature review has revealed that, although there are studies about grafting on natural polymers, especially on starch, few of them are about electrical properties of graft polymers. Starch methacrylate (St.met was obtained by esterification of OH groups on natural starch polymer for this purpose. Grafting of synthesized N-cyclohexyl acrylamide (NCA and commercial methyl methacrylate (MMA monomers with St.met was done by free radical polymerization method. The graft copolymers were characterized with FT-IR spectra, thermal and elemental analysis. Thermal stabilities of the graft copolymers were determined by TGA (thermo gravimetric analysis method and thermal stability of the copolymers is decreased via grafting. The electrical conductivity of the polymers was measured as a function of temperature and it has been observed that electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature. The absorbance and transmittance versus wavelength of the polymers have been measured. Keywords: Starch, Graft copolymer, Semiconducting, Thermal stability, Starch methacrylate

  9. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  10. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  11. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  12. Comparative analysis of nanostructured diblock copolymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Buschbaum, P.; Hermsdorf, N.; Roth, S.V.; Wiedersich, J.; Cunis, S.; Gehrke, R.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer films of poly(styrene-block-paramethylstyrene) diblock copolymers P(Sd-b-pMS) on silicon substrates with a native oxide layer are investigated. Resulting from a storage under toluene vapor, a surface structure is installed. The early stages, characterized by the creation of a host structure out of an initially continuous film, are addressed. Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed as a function of exposure time. Results are compared to modelling of the scattering pattern and other experimental techniques, such as grazing incidence small-angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) data. Possibilities and limits of the techniques are discussed

  13. Block and graft copolymers and NanoGel copolymer networks for DNA delivery into cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Vinogradov, S V; Gebhart, C L; Guérin, N; Paradis, G; Nguyen, H K; Ochietti, B; Suzdaltseva, Y G; Bartakova, E V; Bronich, T K; St-Pierre, Y; Alakhov, V Y; Kabanov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Self-assembling complexes from nucleic acids and synthetic polymers are evaluated for plasmid and oligonucleotide (oligo) delivery. Polycations having linear, branched, dendritic. block- or graft copolymer architectures are used in these studies. All these molecules bind to nucleic acids due to formation of cooperative systems of salt bonds between the cationic groups of the polycation and phosphate groups of the DNA. To improve solubility of the DNA/polycation complexes, cationic block and graft copolymers containing segments from polycations and non-ionic soluble polymers, for example, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were developed. Binding of these copolymers with short DNA chains, such as oligos, results in formation of species containing hydrophobic sites from neutralized DNA polycation complex and hydrophilic sites from PEO. These species spontaneously associate into polyion complex micelles with a hydrophobic core from neutralized polyions and a hydrophilic shell from PEO. Such complexes are very small (10-40 nm) and stable in solution despite complete neutralization of charge. They reveal significant activity with oligos in vitro and in vivo. Binding of cationic copolymers to plasmid DNA forms larger (70-200 nm) complexes. which are practically inactive in cell transfection studies. It is likely that PEO prevents binding of these complexes with the cell membranes ("stealth effect"). However attaching specific ligands to the PEO-corona can produce complexes, which are both stable in solution and bind to target cells. The most efficient complexes were obtained when PEO in the cationic copolymer was replaced with membrane-active PEO-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-PEO molecules (Pluronic 123). Such complexes exhibited elevated levels of transgene expression in liver following systemic administration in mice. To increase stability of the complexes, NanoGel carriers were developed that represent small hydrogel particles synthesized by cross-linking of PEI with double end

  14. Immediate implant placement using a biodegradable barrier, polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910. An experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    extracted bilaterally. Each dog had 4 Astra Dental Implants placed directly into the fresh extraction sockets. The top of the fixtures was placed at the same level as the top of the buccal cortical bone. The two implants in the right side were covered with the hydrolyzable polyester material......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biodegradable membrane of polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymer reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers, as an occlusive barrier over implants placed into fresh extraction sockets. Ten dogs had the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars...... (polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers; PHB-HV/PG), and the 2 implants in the left side were controls without occlusive membranes. Soft tissue dehiscences were registered for half of the implants in the test side but were not noted in the control side. The histomorphological...

  15. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  16. Multicompartmental Microcapsules from Star Copolymer Micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ikjun; Malak, Sidney T.; Xu, Weinan; Heller, William T.; Tsitsilianis, Constantinos; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2013-02-26

    We present the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of amphiphilic heteroarm pH-sensitive star-shaped polystyrene-poly(2-pyridine) (PSnP2VPn) block copolymers to fabricate porous and multicompartmental microcapsules. Pyridine-containing star molecules forming a hydrophobic core/hydrophilic corona unimolecular micelle in acidic solution (pH 3) were alternately deposited with oppositely charged linear sulfonated polystyrene (PSS), yielding microcapsules with LbL shells containing hydrophobic micelles. The surface morphology and internal nanopore structure of the hollow microcapsules were comparatively investigated for shells formed from star polymers with a different numbers of arms (9 versus 22) and varied shell thickness (5, 8, and 11 bilayers). The successful integration of star unimers into the LbL shells was demonstrated by probing their buildup, surface segregation behavior, and porosity. The larger arm star copolymer (22 arms) with stretched conformation showed a higher increment in shell thickness due to the effective ionic complexation whereas a compact, uniform grainy morphology was observed regardless of the number of deposition cycles and arm numbers. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed that microcapsules with hydrophobic domains showed different fractal properties depending upon the number of bilayers with a surface fractal morphology observed for the thinnest shells and a mass fractal morphology for the completed shells formed with the larger number of bilayers. Moreover, SANS provides support for the presence of relatively large pores (about 25 nm across) for the thinnest shells as suggested from permeability experiments. The formation of robust microcapsules with nanoporous shells composed of a hydrophilic polyelectrolyte with a densely packed hydrophobic core based on star amphiphiles represents an intriguing and novel case of compartmentalized microcapsules with an ability to simultaneously store different hydrophilic, charged, and hydrophobic

  17. Effects of amphiphilic diblock copolymer on drug nanoparticle formation and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengxi

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically compares the effects of amphiphilic diblock copolymer (di-BCP) on stabilizing hydrophobic drug nanoparticles formed by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP), and provides a guideline on choosing suitable di-BCPs. Four widely used di-BCPs, i.e., polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PS-b-PEG), polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG), polylactide-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-b-PEG), and β-carotene as a model drug were used. The study showed that PLGA-b-PEG was the most suitable one, whose hydrophobic block was biodegradable and noncrystallizable as well as had relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg) and a right solubility parameter (δ). The molecular weight of PLGA block over the range from 5k to 15k showed an insignificant effect on controlling the particle size. Amorphous drug particles with a high drug loading of over 83 wt% can be achieved. Much remarkable evidence supported the nanoparticles with kinetically frozen and nonequilibrium packing structures of polymer chains rather than either the micelles or micellar nanoparticles with two well segregated polymer blocks. The thermodynamic effects of the drug and BCP on the particle stability, size and structures were discussed by using solubility parameters. PMID:24070569

  18. Novel Random PBS-Based Copolymers Containing Aliphatic Side Chains for Sustainable Flexible Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Guidotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of biodegradable and biobased plastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In this framework, the present paper describes the synthesis of novel PBS (poly(butylene succinate-based random copolymers with different composition containing glycol sub-units characterized by alkyl pendant groups of different length. The prepared samples were subjected to molecular, thermal, diffractometric and mechanical characterization. The barrier performances to O2, CO2 and N2 gases were also evaluated, envisioning for these new materials an application in food packaging. The presence of the side alkyl groups did not alter the thermal stability, whereas it significantly reduced the sample crystallinity degree, making these materials more flexible. The barrier properties were found to be worse than PBS; however, some of them were comparable to, or even better than, those of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE, widely employed for flexible food packaging. The entity of variations in the final properties due to copolymerization were more modest in the case of the co-unit with short side methyl groups, which, when included in the PBS crystal lattice, causes a more modest decrement of crystallinity degree.

  19. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalin Inthanon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone-sericin (PLCL-SC copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35–40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS. The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N–H, and C–N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK. On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications.

  20. Moessbauer studies of styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers containing ferric chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, A.S.; Sekhar, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-styrene (AN-St) copolymers of different compositions were prepared, with and without ferric chloride by free radical polymerization. It was found using Moessbauer spectroscopy that reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ took place during the polymerization. The addition of ferric chloride and the reduction of Fe 3+ was found to influence the thermal stability of the copolymers. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the chlorinated polymers is not compromised until a relatively high lactam content in the copolymer is attained. The incorporation of segmental interaction parameters, derived from separate studies involving pol...

  2. Fast & scalable pattern transfer via block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A fully scalable and efficient pattern transfer process based on block copolymer (BCP) self-assembling directly on various substrates is demonstrated. PS-rich and PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are used to give monolayer sphere morphology after spin-casting of s...... on long range lateral order, including fabrication of substrates for catalysis, solar cells, sensors, ultrafiltration membranes and templating of semiconductors or metals....

  3. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N. V.; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affiniti...

  4. Ureido cytosine and cytosine-containing acrylic copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Keren; Chen, Mingtao; Drummey, Kevin J.; Talley, Samantha J.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Moore, Robert B.; Long, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Regioselective Michael addition afforded a novel N1-substituted cytosine acrylate monomer for the synthesis of acrylic random copolymers with cytosine pendant groups. Quantitative post-functionalization converted cytosine to ureido-cytosine (UCy) with an increased self-association strength due to quadruple hydrogen bond formation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed a lower onset temperature of weight loss (∼200 °C) for UCy-containing copolymers, however, they proved to be more thermall...

  5. Biodegradation of norfloxacin by Penicillium frequentans isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One norfloxacin-degrading fungi was isolated from soil contaminated by norfloxacin and preliminary identified as Penicillium frequentans. Indoor simulative degradation experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation kinetics of norfloxacin with or without NFX3 in soil. The results indicate that the ...

  6. Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) is a test for analysing the textural properties of food, in which the samples are ..... Food Technol 1978;. 32: 62-66. 16. Mehta FM, Trivedi P. Formulation and characterization of biodegradable medicated chewing gum delivery system for motion ...

  7. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel and biodegradable cobalt-chitosan as a magnetic heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized and characterized by XPS, FT-IR, EDX and TEM. Catalytic performance of cobalt- chitosan was tested by aerobic oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols. The results show that the catalyst exhibits excellent conversion for ...

  8. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates, a bacterial biodegradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymer to solve the current problem of pollution caused ... horticultural agricultural waste, corn, cassava etc would be of economic interest considering the .... for efficient production of PHAs. (Yu, 2001, Du et al.,. 2001b; Du and Yu, ...

  9. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable Scaffolds for Infected Wounds. Characterised for their physical properties, pore size and release kinetics. Release kinetics of bioactive molecules (antibiotics) in a controlled fashion. Release pattern of the ...

  10. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates, a bacterial biodegradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production has restricted its applications. The possibility of producing this polymer commercially and at comparable cost has been the main focus in this area. Key Words: Polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable polymer, bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), biosynthesis. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 18- ...

  11. Biodegradable polymers derived from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wahid; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Farah, Shady; Kumar, Neeraj; Domb, Abraham J

    2011-12-08

    In the past three decades, the use of polymeric materials has increased dramatically for biomedical applications. Many α-amino acids derived biodegradable polymers have also been intensely developed with the main goal to obtain bio-mimicking functional biomaterials. Polymers derived from α-amino acids may offer many advantages, as these polymers: (a) can be modified further to introduce new functions such as imaging, molecular targeting and drugs can be conjugated chemically to these polymers, (b) can improve on better biological properties like cell migration, adhesion and biodegradability, (c) can improve on mechanical and thermal properties and (d) their degradation products are expected to be non-toxic and readily metabolized/excreted from the body. This manuscript focuses on biodegradable polymers derived from natural amino acids, their synthesis, biocompatibility and biomedical applications. It is observed that polymers derived from α-amino acids constitute a promising family of biodegradable materials. These provide innovative multifunctional polymers possessing amino acid side groups with biological activity and with innumerous potential applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Biodegradable Shape Memory Polymers in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory I; Dobrynin, Andrey V; Becker, Matthew L

    2017-11-01

    Shape memory materials have emerged as an important class of materials in medicine due to their ability to change shape in response to a specific stimulus, enabling the simplification of medical procedures, use of minimally invasive techniques, and access to new treatment modalities. Shape memory polymers, in particular, are well suited for such applications given their excellent shape memory performance, tunable materials properties, minimal toxicity, and potential for biodegradation and resorption. This review provides an overview of biodegradable shape memory polymers that have been used in medical applications. The majority of biodegradable shape memory polymers are based on thermally responsive polyesters or polymers that contain hydrolyzable ester linkages. These materials have been targeted for use in applications pertaining to embolization, drug delivery, stents, tissue engineering, and wound closure. The development of biodegradable shape memory polymers with unique properties or responsiveness to novel stimuli has the potential to facilitate the optimization and development of new medical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluation of biodegradation and biocompatibility of collagen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study was to develop a new variant of membranes based on collagen (COL), chitosan (CHI) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) immobilized and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The biodegradation in the presence of collagenase was investigated. Biocompatibility was ...

  14. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel and biodegradable cobalt-chitosan as a magnetic heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized and characterized by XPS, FT-IR, EDX and TEM. Catalytic performance of cobalt- chitosan was tested by aerobic oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols. The results show that the catalyst exhibits excellent ...

  15. hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    mode (EI) at 70Ev ionisation energy and scanned from 50 to 650 dalton. 3.0 Result and discussion. 3.1 n-alkanes and Isoprenoid Hydrocarbons. The concentrations (mgkg-1) ..... community in the Yellowish geothermal environment. Nature 434, 1000-1014. Cross River System. HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION AND ...

  16. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  17. Evaluation of biodegradation and biocompatibility of collagen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The biodegradation in the presence of collagenase was investigated. Biocompatibility was evaluated by MTT assay using a mouse fibroblast cell culture type NCTC (clone 929). Non-cross-linked samples were biocompatible and membranes cross-linked with low concentrations of GA (0.04, 0.08%) were also iocompatible.

  18. Biodegradability of diesel and biodiesel blends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The biodegradability of pure diesel and biodiesel and blends with different proportions of biodiesel (2%. (commercial); 5% and 20%) was evaluated employing the respirometric method and the redox indicator. 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) test. In the former, experiments simulating the ...

  19. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  20. Diisopropanolamine biodegradation potential at sour gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, L.M.; Greene, E.A.; Coy, D.L.; Fedorak, P.M.

    1998-12-31

    The potential for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of a sour gas treatment chemical, diisopropanolamine (DIPA), was studied using contaminated aquifer materials from three sour gas treatment sites in western Canada. DIPA was found to be readily consumed under aerobic conditions at 8 C and 28 C in shake flask cultures incubated with aquifer material from each of the sites, and this removal was characterized by first-order kinetics. In addition, DIPA biodegradation was found to occur under nitrate-, Mn(IV)-, and Fe(III)-reducing conditions at 28 C, and in some cases at 8 C, in laboratory microcosms. DIPA loss corresponded to consumption of nitrate, and production of Mn(II) and Fe(II) in viable microcosms compared to corresponding sterile controls. A threshold DIPA concentration near 40 mg/L was observed in the anaerobic microcosms. This report provides the first evidence that DIPA is biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, and the data suggest that biodegradation may contribute to DIPA attenuation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in aquifers contaminated with this sour gas treatment chemical.

  1. Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity.

  2. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid) microspheres containing total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  3. Biodegradation of chlorobenzoic acids by ligninolytic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muzikář, Milan; Křesinová, Zdena; Svobodová, Kateřina; Filipová, Alena; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthamlová, Kamila; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, - (2011), s. 386-394 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156; GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorobenzoic acid * Polychlorinated biphenyls * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  4. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable catalyst. 1931. Table 3. Effects of the solvent, temperature and base on oxidation of phenylethyl alcohol using cobalt-chitosan.a. Entry. Solvent. Temperature. Base. Yield (%) b. 1. DMF. 100. K2CO3. 60. 2. DMF. 100. KOH. 60. 3. CH3CN. 80. K2CO3. 65. 4. H2O reflux. KOH. 10. 5.

  5. Biodegradation of synthetic detergents in wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Surfactants constitute a major ingredient of detergent components. Usually surfactants are disposed after use to sewage treatment plants (STPs). Here, biodegradation processes and adsorption on sludge particles remove these chemicals from wastewaters to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the ...

  6. Polyvinyl alcohol biodegradation under denitrifying conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marušincová, H.; Husárová, L.; Růžička, J.; Ingr, M.; Navrátil, Václav; Buňková, L.; Koutný, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, October (2013), s. 21-28 ISSN 0964-8305 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/0200 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : polyvinyl alcohol * biodegradation * denitrification * waste-water treatment * anaerobic * Steroidobacter Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  7. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is a potentially useful and completely biodegradable material for biodegradable plastics because of its nontoxic, low cost and its natural abundance which can be obtained from many crops including corn, wheat, rice, potato and so on (Tester and Karkallas 2002). Therefore, modification of starch, physi- cally and chemically ...

  9. Biodegradation of uranium-contaminated waste oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hary, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant routinely generates quantities of uranium-contaminated waste oil. The current generation rate of waste oil is approximately 2000 gallons per year. The waste is presently biodegraded by landfarming on open field soil plots. However, due to the environmental concerns associated with this treatment process, studies were conducted to determine the optimum biodegradation conditions required for the destruction of this waste. Tests using respirometric flasks were conducted to determine the biodegradation rate for various types of Portsmouth waste oil. These tests were performed at three different loading rates, and on unfertilized and fertilized soil. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of open field landfarming versus treatment at a greenhouse-like enclosure for the purpose of maintaining soil temperatures above ambient conditions. The respirometric tests concluded that the optimum waste oil loading rate is 10% weight of oil-carbon/weight of soil (30,600 gallons of uranium-contaminated waste oil/acre) on soils with adjusted carbon:nitrogen and carbon:phosphorus ratios of 60:1 and 800:1, respectively. Also, calculational results indicated that greenhouse technology does not provide a significant increase in biodegradation efficiency. Based on these study results, a 6300 ft. 2 abandoned anaerobic digester sludge drying bed is being modified into a permanent waste oil biodegradation facility. The advantage of using this area is that uranium contamination will be contained by the bed's existing leachate collection system. This modified facility will be capable of handling approximately 4500 gallons of waste oil per year; accordingly current waste generation quantities will be satisfactorily treated. 15 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

    1993-04-01

    The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates.

  11. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

    1993-04-01

    The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates

  12. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, C.

    2007-12-01

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  13. Genome-wide identification of binding sites defines distinct functions for Caenorhabditis elegans PHA-4/FOXA in development and environmental response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are key components of regulatory networks that control development, as well as the response to environmental stimuli. We have established an experimental pipeline in Caenorhabditis elegans that permits global identification of the binding sites for transcription factors using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. We describe and validate this strategy, and apply it to the transcription factor PHA-4, which plays critical roles in organ development and other cellular processes. We identified thousands of binding sites for PHA-4 during formation of the embryonic pharynx, and also found a role for this factor during the starvation response. Many binding sites were found to shift dramatically between embryos and starved larvae, from developmentally regulated genes to genes involved in metabolism. These results indicate distinct roles for this regulator in two different biological processes and demonstrate the versatility of transcription factors in mediating diverse biological roles.

  14. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2017-08-01

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  15. Backbone-hydrazone-containing biodegradable copolymeric micelles for anticancer drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong, E-mail: pharmsong@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Institute of Pharmacy (China)

    2016-11-15

    Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.

  16. Identification and Classification of Risks and Potential Events by using Preliminary Hazard Analysis Method (PHA in Kermanshah Oil Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Kakaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: humans are always trying to improve the lives and comfort, and in this way with the acquisition of materials, equipment, devices and technology as well as the additional and new risks exposure. Identification of these risks could have a role in reducing complications. PHA method implementation can help to identify and classify the risks and the events. Method: This cross - sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah Oil Refinery. The most important tools used in the study preliminary risk analysis, is risk checklist. In this regard, valuable resources are identified and listed, and then the acceptable risk levels and the scope of the assessment were defined. In the next phase, the system hazards were identification, and levels and numbers of risks were calculated. Results: This study examined 23 refinery units, and a total of 447 risks were identified. The results showed that unacceptable risk levels with 6.4% and the adverse risk levels with 49.22% was lowest and highest risk percent, respectively. The highest number of risk associated with the refining unit with 81 and the lowest was in the Electrical warehouse unit with 2 cases. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that were the most of risks identified in the adverse levels. To reduce risk level and improve safety, the use of appropriate methods and corrective measures to eliminate, reduce or control risks is essential.

  17. Short-chain fatty acid production from different biological phosphorus removal sludges: the influences of PHA and Gram-staining bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Feng, Leiyu

    2013-03-19

    Recently, the reuse of waste activated sludge to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) has attracted much attention. However, the influences of sludge characteristics, especially polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and Gram-staining bacteria, on SCFA production have seldom been investigated. It was found in this study that during sludge anaerobic fermentation not only the fermentation time but also the SCFA production were different between two sludges, which had different PHA contents and Gram-negative bacteria to Gram-positive bacteria (GNB/GPB) ratios and were generated respectively from the anaerobic/oxic (AO) and aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) biological phosphorus removal processes. The optimal fermentation time for the AEI and AO sludges was respectively 4 and 8 d, and the corresponding SCFA production was 304.6 and 231.0 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) in the batch test and 143.4 and 103.9 mg COD/g VSS in the semicontinuous experiment. The mechanism investigation showed that the AEI sludge had greater PHA content and GNB/GPB ratio, and the increased PHA content accelerated cell lysis and soluble substrate hydrolysis while the increased GNB/GPB ratio benefited cell lysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the microbial community in the AEI sludge fermentation reactor was dominated by Clostridium sp., which was reported to be SCFA-producing microbes. Further enzyme analyses indicated that the activities of key hydrolytic and acids-forming enzymes in the AEI sludge fermentation reactor were higher than those in the AO one. Thus, less fermentation time was required, but higher SCFA was produced in the AEI sludge fermentation system.

  18. Lymphocyte counts and responses to PHA and PPD following radiation therapy for breast cancer in patients who develop recurrent disease and those who remain clinically disease-free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, H.; Wasserman, J.; Wallgren, A.; Baral, E.; Petrini, B.; Idestroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and stimulations by PHA and PPD in vitro were examined before and up to four years after local pre- or post-operative radiation therapy of 99 patients with breast cancer. The patient material was divided into those who remained clinically disease-free during a follow up period of 4.5-7 years and those who relapsed. Radiation therapy reduced the lymphocyte counts and PPD response to the same levels in both groups of patients; there were no essential differences in their recoveries, with the exception of a somewhat delayed recovery of the PPD-response in the patients who relapsed. PHA responses of the lymphocytes were not decreased following radiation therapy. The data indicate that these radiation induced changes of the peripheral lymphocyte population were similar both in patients who relapsed and those who remained symptom free. A group of 47 women with breast cancer that was treated by surgery only was examined similarly as a comparison. Patients from this group who developed local recurrences had higher lymphocyte counts than those who remained disease-free; patients who developed distant metastases had somewhat decreased PHA responses

  19. A process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from municipal wastewater treatment with biological carbon and nitrogen removal demonstrated at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Simon; Karlsson, Anton; Alexandersson, Tomas; Quadri, Luca; Hjort, Markus; Johansson, Peter; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Anterrieu, Simon; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica; Karabegovic, Lamija; Magnusson, Per; Werker, Alan

    2017-03-25

    A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates. Robust performance in wastewater treatment and enrichment of PHA-producing biomass was demonstrated under realistic conditions including influent variability during 225days of operation. The IFAS system was found to be advantageous since maintaining nitrification on the biofilm allowed for a relatively low (2days) solids retention time (SRT) for the suspended biomass in the bulk phase. Lower SRT has advantages in higher biomass yield and higher active fraction in the biomass which leads to higher PHA productivity and content. The outcomes show that production of added-value biopolymers may be readily integrated with carbon and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S. T. [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Nagao, Y. [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Hiraishi, A., E-mail: hiraishi@ens.tut.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Strain NA10B{sup T} and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} [dry wt cells] h{sup −1}) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10B{sup T} and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} (dry wt cells) h{sup −1}. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.