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Sample records for biodegradable dissolved organic

  1. Mathematical modeling of wastewater-derived biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) typically constitutes the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) discharged to surface waters from advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When considering the stringent regulations on nitrogen discharge limits in sensitive receiving waters, DON becomes problematic and needs to be reduced. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is biologically degradable by bacteria when the optimum environmental conditions are met. BDON in a two-stage trickling filter WWTP was estimated using artificial intelligence techniques, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, multilayer perceptron, radial basis neural networks (RBNN), and generalized regression neural networks. Nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, TDN, and DON data were used as input neurons. Wastewater samples were collected from four different locations in the plant. Model performances were evaluated using root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination statistics. Modeling results showed that the R(2) values were higher than 0.85 in all four models for all wastewater samples, except only R(2) in the final effluent sample for RBNN modeling was low (0.52). Overall, it was found that all four computing techniques could be employed successfully to predict BDON.

  2. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  3. Application of commercial biochemical oxygen demand inocula for biodegradable dissolved organic carbon determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Sy-Savane, Ousmane; Jittawattanarat, Rungrod

    2005-11-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) measure the amount of biodegradable organics in water samples using mixed culture seeds. The BOD method relies on the dissolved oxygen reduction while the BDOC procedure, which is more novel, is based on the dissolved organic carbon decrease during the incubation. In this study, three commercial BOD seeds, namely BOD Seed, Bi-Chem and Polyseed, were tested as inocula for BDOC measurement. Standard solutions, secondary effluent and raw surface water samples were used. BDOC exertions provided by the commercial seeds were compared with those obtained from two existing BDOC inocula, indigenous and mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) seeds. The commercial and indigenous inocula provided similar exertion trends and BDOC results that were not significantly different for surface water samples while the results for secondary effluent samples were inconclusive. The MLSS inoculum tend to provide slightly higher BDOC values and faster exertion kinetics than the commercial and indigenous inocula. The exertions by all five inocula could be expressed well with first-order kinetics for all cases that enough data were available for kinetics evaluation. The commercial seeds were similar in terms of BDOC determination accuracy and precision, and exertion kinetics. It is possible to use the commercial BOD inocula as seeds for BDOC determination but the results might not be statistically the same as those of the indigenous inoculum for certain types of samples.

  4. Dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradable portion in a water treatment plant with ozone oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Tanush; Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Knutson, Kristofer; Prüβ, Birgit; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-05-01

    Biodegradability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has been studied in wastewater, freshwater and marine water but not in drinking water. Presence of biodegradable DON (BDON) in water prior to and after chlorination may promote formation of nitrogenous disinfectant by-products and growth of microorganisms in the distribution system. In this study, an existing bioassay to determine BDON in wastewater was adapted and optimized, and its application was tested on samples from four treatment stages of a water treatment plant including ozonation and biologically active filtration. The optimized bioassay was able to detect BDON in 50 μg L(-1) as N of glycine and glutamic solutions. BDON in raw (144-275 μg L(-1) as N), softened (59-226 μg L(-1) as N), ozonated (190-254 μg L(-1) as N), and biologically filtered (17-103 μg L(-1) as N) water samples varied over a sampling period of 2 years. The plant on average removed 30% of DON and 68% of BDON. Ozonation played a major role in increasing the amount of BDON (31%) and biologically active filtration removed 71% of BDON in ozonated water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal changes in the chemical quality and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter exported from soils to streams in coastal temperate rainforest watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; Eran Hood; David V. D' Amore; Richard T. Edwards; Dan White

    2009-01-01

    The composition and biodegradability of streamwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) varies with source material and degree of transformation. We combined PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubations to investigate seasonal changes in the lability of DOM along a soil-stream continuum in...

  6. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and aquatic systems: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorien E. Vonk,; Tank, Suzanne E.; Paul J. Mann,; Robert G.M. Spencer,; Treat, Claire C.; Striegl, Robert G.; Benjamin W. Abbott,; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic regions warm and frozen soils thaw, the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost becomes increasingly vulnerable to decomposition or transport. The transfer of newly mobilized carbon to the atmosphere and its potential influence upon climate change will largely depend on the degradability of carbon delivered to aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key regulator of aquatic metabolism, yet knowledge of the mechanistic controls on DOC biodegradability is currently poor due to a scarcity of long-term data sets, limited spatial coverage of available data, and methodological diversity. Here, we performed parallel biodegradable DOC (BDOC) experiments at six Arctic sites (16 experiments) using a standardized incubation protocol to examine the effect of methodological differences commonly used in the literature. We also synthesized results from 14 aquatic and soil leachate BDOC studies from across the circum-arctic permafrost region to examine pan-arctic trends in BDOC.An increasing extent of permafrost across the landscape resulted in higher DOC losses in both soil and aquatic systems. We hypothesize that the unique composition of (yedoma) permafrost-derived DOC combined with limited prior microbial processing due to low soil temperature and relatively short flow path lengths and transport times, contributed to a higher overall terrestrial and freshwater DOC loss. Additionally, we found that the fraction of BDOC decreased moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly biodegradable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also observed a seasonal (January–December) decrease in BDOC in large streams and rivers, but saw no apparent change in smaller streams or soil leachates. We attribute this seasonal change to a combination of factors including shifts in carbon source, changing DOC residence time related to increasing thaw-depth, increasing water temperatures later

  7. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining source areas of biodegradable dissolved organic matter in two peatland catchments with different upland forest types, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Funke, M.; Cotner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota have shown that peatland catchments have distinct landscape areas (peatlands or upland mineral soils), with unique hydrological and biogeochemical processes that affect flows of water and solutes. Nonetheless, little has been known about the relative importance of source areas or forest cover types on the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as waters water move from bogs or uplands to outlet streams. In this study, we measured biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) from multiple sources (upland surface and subsurface runoff, upland-peatland interfaces in laggs, and stream outlets) in two catchments having different upland forest types, deciduous or coniferous. We measured: total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to calculate DOC:TN and DOC:DON; short-term (48-hour) bacterial respiration (BR); long-term (one-year), bottle incubation assays of BDOC; streamflow; and volumes of upland runoff along surface and subsurface flowpaths. We also experimented by mixing various waters to assess priming effects on BDOC concentrations and BR. The BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in upland surface runoff than in subsurface flow, laggs, or outlets, indicating that DOC in the upland surface runoff was most biodegradable. We did not observe priming effects with the mixing of any waters. In terms of catchment hydrology, most streamflow (43 to 87%) was derived from bogs, not uplands. Consequently, bogs were more important sources of biodegradable DOC. Nonetheless, there was some effect of upland cover type: BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in the outlet of the coniferous catchment than the deciduous catchment, which could be due to greater TN relative to carbon in the coniferous than in the deciduous upland catchment (C:N < 100 versus 130-150; respectively). The results show that source areas and compositional differences among catchments

  9. The application of a plug-flow reactor to measure the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vittor, Cinzia; Larato, Chiara; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2009-12-01

    Most of the ambient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is refractory to microbial degradation; bacteria can consume a minor but variable part of the DOC pool over periods of hours and days. It is important to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of the biodegradable fraction of DOC (BDOC) to understand the global carbon budget. Several methods for determining BDOC have been developed; however, the problem of most of them is the time (days/weeks) required for the colonization and/or determination. In this paper, we describe the application to seawater of a plug-flow bioreactor to measure BDOC within 3-4 h. The bioreactor was built following Søndergaard and Worm [Søndergaard, M., Worm, J., 2001. Measurement of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) in lake water with a bioreactor. Water Res. 35, 2505-2513.] protocols for the measurement of BDOC in lake water. We analyzed BDOC on samples collected in the Gulf of Trieste during autumn-winter and summer 2003-2004. BDOC concentrations varied from 8 to 24 microM and represented from 10.3% to 25.5% of the total DOC. To evaluate the effectiveness of this method, we compared bioreactor BDOC measurement with data obtained from batch cultures. The results indicate that BDOC in coastal seawater can be measured rapidly and reliably with this bioreactor.

  10. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of dissolved organic matter derived from forest leaf litter on biodegradation of phenanthrene in aqueous phase

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Dan; Yang, Xiuhong; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from forest leaf litter is potentially effective for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), yet the inherent mechanism remains insufficiently elucidated.[br/] In this study, we investigated the effects of DOM derived from Pinus elliottii and Schima superba leaf litter on the degradation of phenanthrene by the phenanthrene degrading bacterium Sphingobium sp. Phe-1. DOM from different origins and at a large range of concentrations ...

  12. Biodegradation of dissolved humic substances by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Oulego, Paula; Suárez-Iglesias, Octavio; Díaz, Mario

    2018-04-01

    Humic and fulvic acids constitute humic substances, a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups, which are not only the principal soil fertility factors but also the main pollutants present in landfill leachates or natural organic matter in water. Due to their low bacterial biodegradability, fungal biodegradation processes are key for their removal. The present study compiles and comments all the available literature on decomposition of aqueous humic substances by fungi or by their extracellular enzymes alone, focusing on the influence of the reaction conditions. The biodegradation extent mainly depends on the characteristics and concentration of the humic compounds, the type of microorganisms selected, the inoculation mode, the C and N sources, the presence of certain chemicals in the medium, the availability of oxygen, the temperature, and the pH.

  13. Biodegradation and chemical precipitation of dissolved nutrients in anaerobically digested sludge dewatering centrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, G; Eskicioglu, C; Abel-Denee, M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess specific side-stream treatment processes for biodegradation and precipitation of dissolved nutrients in dewatering centrate. In this study, characterization was made of a conventional suspended growth deammonification treatment process for transforming dissolved polyphosphate (poly-P), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in two types of dewatering centrate. The deammonification process was configured as a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), combining partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) in a single tank. The first centrate feed studied was from the full-scale Annacis Island wastewater treatment plant (AIWWTP) located in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The second centrate feed was from a lab-scale anaerobic digester (AD) fed waste sludge from the existing City of Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Facility (KWTF), located in the Okanagan Valley, Canada. In addition, poly aluminum chloride (PACL) dosing was assessed for final polishing of dissolved nutrients. The deammonification SBR (DeSBR) process showed similar treatment characteristics for both the KWTF and AIWWTP centrates with excellent DON removal and poor non-reactive dissolved phosphorus (NRDP) removal. A statistical comparison of the DOP and poly-P through the DeSBR process suggests that DOP has a higher biodegradation potential. Future research focused on understanding the variables associated with degradation of DOP could lead to better NRDP removal through deammonification processes. Utilization of a post-anammox PACL chemical dosing stage can achieve the objective of precipitating any residual DON and NRDP and producing an effluent that has lower dissolved nutrients than the pre-digestion KWTF dewatering centrate scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewaters from animal feedlots and storage lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) transport from animal agriculture to surface waters can lead to eutrophication and dissolved oxygen depletion. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is mineralized by bacteria while bioavailable DON (ABDON) is utilized by bacteria and/or algae. This stu...

  15. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  16. Kinetics of Organic Matter Biodegradation in Leachate from Tobacco Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briški, F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of wastes and leachate evolved in landfills is today an imperative due to rigorous environmental protection legislation. In this work, biodegradation of the organic fraction in tobaccowaste leachate was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at initial concentra tion of activated sludge of 3.03 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of organic matter in leachate, expressed as COD, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 g dm–3 . The working volume of the reactor (Fig. 1 was 7 dm3 within the cylindrical porous liner and it was filled with the suspension of leachate and activated sludge . The liner was designed such that it did not allow activated sludge to pass through. Continuous up-flow aeration was provided by a membrane pump. The temperature during the biodegradation process was 23 ± 2 °C. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature in reactor were monitored continuously by probes connected to a remote meter. Toxicity of leachate was performed by toxicity test using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri before starting with the biodegradation in the batch reactor. The obtained results showed that effective concentration of leachate is EC 50 = 1.6 g dm–3 and toxicity impact index is TII50 = 9.99, meaning that untreated leachate must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the biodegradation process of leachate in batch reactor are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 2. The ratio γXv/γX was almost constant throughout the experiments and ranged from 0.69 do 0.73. This implies that the concentration of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments, and average yield was 5.26 %. The important kinetic and stoichiometric parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely the Y, Ks, Kd, and μmax were calculated from the batch experiments (Table 2. The experimental results of the influence of initial substrate concentrations on substrate degradation rate, and influence of

  17. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies for transdermal sustained delivery of drug and vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong X

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Fei Wu,2,* Zaozhan Wu,2 Lizhu Chen,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, overcoming the shortages and preserving the advantages of hypodermic needle and conventional transdermal drug-delivery systems to some extent. Dissolving and biodegradable microneedle technologies have been used for transdermal sustained deliveries of different drugs and vaccines. This review describes microneedle geometry and the representative dissolving and biodegradable microneedle delivery methods via the skin, followed by the fabricating methods. Finally, this review puts forward some perspectives that require further investigation. Keywords: microneedle, dissolving, biodegradable, sustained release

  18. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  19. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits. (letter)

  20. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxygen

  1. Effects of ozonation and temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and

  2. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331 ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  3. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  4. Advances in Biodegradation of Multiple Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil and groundwater containing multiple contaminants remains a challenge in environmental science and engineering because complete biodegradation of all components is necessary but very difficult to accomplish in practice. This presentation provides a brief overview on advances in biodegradation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including chlorinated ethylenes, benzene, toluene and dichloromethane (DCM). Case studies on aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene and DCM, and integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of 7 contaminants, specifically, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), DCM, benzene and toluene will be provided. Recent findings based on systematic laboratory experiments indicated that aerobic toluene degradation can be enhanced by co-existence of benzene. Propioniferax, not a known benzene, toluene and DCM degrader can be a key microorganism that involves in biodegradation when the three contaminants co-exist. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation is capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentrations less than 30 mg/L. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, can survive aerobic conditions for at least 28 days, and can be activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. This presentation may provide a systematic information about biodegradation of multiple VOCs, and a scientific basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ.

  5. Effect of dissolved oxygen on biological denitrification using biodegradable plastic as the carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xucai; Zhang, Jianmei

    2018-02-01

    Biological denitrification is currently a common approach to remove nitrate from wastewater. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of dissolved oxygen on denitrification in wastewater treatment using biodegradable plastic as carbon source by designing the aerated, anoxic, and low-oxygen experimental treatment groups. The results showed that the removal rates of nitrate in anoxic and low-oxygen groups were 30.6 g NO3 --Nm-3 d-1 and 30.8 g NO3 --N m-3 d-1 at 83 h, respectively, both of which were higher than that of the aerated group. There was no significant difference between the anoxic and low-oxygen treatment groups for the nitrate removal. Additional, the nitrite accumulated during the experiments, and the nitrite concentrations in anoxic and aerated groups were lower than those in low-oxygen group. No nitrite was detected in all groups at the end of the experiments. These findings indicated that dissolved oxygen has important influence on denitrification, and anoxic and low-oxygen conditions can support completely denitrification when using BP as carbon source in nitrate-polluted wastewater treatment.

  6. Effects of iron type in Fenton reaction on mineralization and biodegradability enhancement of hazardous organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Sermsai, Nawarat

    2009-01-30

    The mineralization and biodegradability increase and their combination of two traditional and two relatively new organic contaminants by Fenton reagents with three different types of iron, Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Fe(0) were investigated. The traditional contaminants examined were trichloroethene (TCE) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) while 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) were studied for the relatively new contaminants. The mineralization and biodegradability were represented by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction and the ratio of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and DOC, respectively. For all four contaminants, Fenton reagent using Fe(2+) was more effective in the DOC reduction than Fenton reagents using Fe(3+) and Fe(0) in most cases. The types of Fe that provided maximum biodegradability increase were not the same for all four compounds, Fe(3+) for TCE, Fe(0) for 2,4-DCP, Fe(2+) for 1,4-D, and Fe(3+) for TCP. When the combination of DOC elimination and biodegradability increase (least refractory fraction) was considered, Fe(2+) was the best choice except for 2,4-DCP which was susceptible to Fe(0) catalyzed Fenton reagent the most. The least refractory fractions remaining after 120 min of reaction were 20-25% for TCE, 2,4-DCP, and TCP and 30-40% for 1,4-D. The iron type in Fenton reaction also affected the type of mineralization kinetics of TCE, 2,4-DCP, and TCP as well as the types of degradation by-products of these contaminants. Some of the by-products found, such as isopropanol and propionic aldehyde, which were produced from Fe(0) catalyzed Fenton degradation of TCP, have not been previously reported.

  7. Organic pollutant loading and biodegradability of firefighting foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhong; Bao, Zhi-ming; Hu, Cheng; Li-Shuai, Jing; Chen, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Firefighting foam has been widely used as the high-performance extinguishing agent in extinguishing the liquid poor fire. It was concerned for its environmental impacts due to its massive usage. In this study, the organic loading level and the biodegradability of 18 firefighting foams commonly used in China were evaluated and compared. The COD and TOC of firefighting foam concentrates are extremely high. Furthermore, those of foam solutions are also much higher than regular wastewater. The COD/TOC ratio of synthetic foams are higher than protein foams. The 28-day biodegradation rates of 18 firefighting foams are all over 60%, indicating that they are all ready biodegradable. Protein foams (P, FP and FFFP) have the higher organic loading and lower 28-day biodegradation rates compared to the synthetic foams (Class A foam, AFFF and S). The short and long-term impact of protein foams on the environment are larger than synthetic foams.

  8. Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon Angela L. Straathof June 17, 2015, Wageningen UR ISBN 978-94-6257-327-7 Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture of C compounds which, as

  9. Dissolved organic carbon release by marine macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón, C.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Duarte, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds) were obtained experimentally using in situ benthic chambers. The effect of light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined in two communities both by comparing net DOC release under light and dark, and by examining the response of net DOC release to longer-term (days) experimental shading of the communities. All most 85% of the seagrass communities and almost all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. There was a weak tendency for higher DOC fluxes under light than under dark conditions in seagrass meadow. There is no relationship between net DOC fluxes and gross primary production (GPP) and net community production (NCP), however, this relationship is positive between net DOC fluxes and community respiration. Net DOC fluxes were not affected by shading of a T. testudinum community in Florida for 5 days, however, shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in the Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Based on published and unpublished results we also estimate the global net DOC production by marine macrophytes. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophyte is about 0.197 ± 0.015 Pg C yr-1 or 0.212 ± 0.016 Pg C yr-1 depending if net DOC flux by seagrass meadows was estimated by taking into account the low or high global seagrass area, respectively.

  10. Extractable and dissolved soil organic nitrogen - A quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.; Kessel, van C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extractable Organic N (EON) or Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) pools are often analyzed to predict N mineralisation, N leaching, and to evaluate agricultural (nutrient) management practices. Size and characteristics of both pools, however, are strongly influenced by methodology. Quantifying the

  11. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  12. Cementation of biodegraded radioactive oils and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olga Gorbunova; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Aleksey Safonov; Varvara Tregubova; Konstantin German

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological pre-treatment of the oil-containing organic liquid radioactive waste (LRW) before its solidification into cement matrix (CM) has been investigated and shown to be efficient. Biodegradation of the oil containing LRW is possible by using the microflora, which oxidize the organic components of the oil to carbon dioxide, water and different oxo-organic compounds, sorb radionuclides and cause emulsification of oil in cement slurry due to biogenic surface-active substances, improving the mixing ability of the LRWCM. Here we present the biotechnological parameters of biodegradation and cementation, and the physical-chemical properties of the final LRWCM. (author)

  13. Dialysis Pretreatment for Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Analysis in Freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiang; Hua, Bin; Yang, John; Liu, Fengjing; Zhu, Guocheng; Deng, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), including dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), plays an important role in numerous environmental processes, such as nutrient cycling and lake and estuary eutrophication. The impact of DIN on environmental processes has been extensively studied. However, the understanding on DON in the environment is largely unknown, as there is no direct method for DON measurement. In practice, DON was determined by subtracting DIN from TDN. ...

  14. Biodegradation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Effects on Biodegradability under Co-Existing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs. In order to investigate the potential of biodegrading multiple VOCs, we initially reviewed the biodegradation of individual VOCs. VOCs include chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), and chlorinated methanes (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane). We also summarized essential information on the biodegradation of each kind of VOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with the microorganisms that are involved in VOC-degrading pathways. Interactions among multiple VOCs were then discussed based on concrete examples. Under conditions in which multiple VOCs co-exist, the biodegradation of a VOC may be constrained, enhanced, and/or unaffected by other compounds. Co-metabolism may enhance the degradation of other VOCs. In contrast, constraints are imposed by the toxicity of co-existing VOCs and their by-products, catabolite repression, or competition between VOC-degrading enzymes. This review provides fundamental, but systematic information for designing strategies for the bioremediation of multiple VOCs, as well as information on the role of key microorganisms that degrade VOCs. PMID:28904262

  15. Biodegradation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Effects on Biodegradability under Co-Existing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Miho; Zhang, Ming; Toyota, Koki

    2017-09-27

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants that are found in contaminated sites, particularly in developed countries such as Japan. Various microorganisms that degrade individual VOCs have been reported, and genomic information related to their phylogenetic classification and VOC-degrading enzymes is available. However, the biodegradation of multiple VOCs remains a challenging issue. Practical sites, such as chemical factories, research facilities, and illegal dumping sites, are often contaminated with multiple VOCs. In order to investigate the potential of biodegrading multiple VOCs, we initially reviewed the biodegradation of individual VOCs. VOCs include chlorinated ethenes (tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), and chlorinated methanes (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane). We also summarized essential information on the biodegradation of each kind of VOC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with the microorganisms that are involved in VOC-degrading pathways. Interactions among multiple VOCs were then discussed based on concrete examples. Under conditions in which multiple VOCs co-exist, the biodegradation of a VOC may be constrained, enhanced, and/or unaffected by other compounds. Co-metabolism may enhance the degradation of other VOCs. In contrast, constraints are imposed by the toxicity of co-existing VOCs and their by-products, catabolite repression, or competition between VOC-degrading enzymes. This review provides fundamental, but systematic information for designing strategies for the bioremediation of multiple VOCs, as well as information on the role of key microorganisms that degrade VOCs.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Arctic Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a landscape in flux. Temperatures are shifting upward and plant communities are transitioning from tussock to shrub tundra in some regions. Decomposition processes sensitive to temperature, moisture, and plant inputs are controls on the source/sink dynamics of the Arctic C pool. The response of decomposition to warming will, in part, determine if the Arctic C pool feeds back positively or negatively to climate change. The portion of the C pool immediately available to decomposers is dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this is study is to examine the molecular composition of DOM to determine which components vary seasonally in soil pore water among three vegetation types at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. Vegetation types include wet sedge (Carex aquatilis and Eriophorum angustifolium), moist acidic tussock (E. vaginatum) and shrub tundra (Betula nana and Salix sp.). These sites were sampled during winter/summer transitions in 2010 in order to capture both growing season and winter dynamics. We expected the chemical composition of DOM in pore water to be distinct among plant communities due to differences in root exudates, litter chemistry and microbial community; and vary seasonally due to shifting temperature and water availability and their impacts on decomposition of DOM. Soil pore water was isolated through centrifugation and is being characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in line with a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) as well as with specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA), and excitation emission matrices (EEMs) generated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The DOM concentrations across vegetation types show consistent seasonal patterns, spiking at thaw, and declining through late summer. As soils freeze these patterns diverge-in tussock soils DOM concentration decreases slightly, while in shrub and wet sedge sites it increases. SUVA values (indicator of aromaticity) were consistent among

  17. Interactions of diuron with dissolved organic matter from organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Mathieu; Dousset, Sylvie; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Andreux, Francis

    2009-07-01

    Diuron is frequently detected in some drinking water reservoirs under the Burgundy vineyards, where organic amendments are applied. The environmental effect of these amendments on pesticide transport is ambiguous: on the one hand it could enhance their retention by increasing soil organic carbon content; on the other hand, dissolved organic matter (DOM) could facilitate their transport. Elutions were performed using columns packed with glass beads in order to investigate DOM-diuron interactions, and the possible co-transport of diuron and DOM. Four organic amendments (A, B, C and D) were tested; C and D were sampled at fresh (F) and mature (M) stages. An increase in diuron leaching was observed only for A and D(F) amendments (up to 16% compared to the DOM-free blank samples), suggesting a DOM effect on diuron transport. These results could be explained by the higher DOM leaching for A and D(F) compared to B, C(F), C(M) and D(M) increasing diuron-DOM interactions. These interactions seem to be related to the aromatic and aliphatic content of the DOM, determining formation of hydrogen and non-covalent bonds. The degree of organic matter maturity does not seem to have any effect with amendment C, while a reduction in diuron leaching is observed between D(F) and D(M). After equilibrium dialysis measurement of diuron-DOM complexes, it appeared that less than 3% of the diuron applied corresponded to complexes with a molecular weight >1000 Da. Complexes <1000 Da could also take part in this facilitated transport.

  18. Cementation of biodegraded radioactive oils and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.; Safonov, A.; Tregubova, V.; German, K.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the microbiological pre-treatment of the oil-containing organic liquid radioactive waste (LRW) before solidification in the cement matrix has been studied. It is experimentally proved that the oil containing cement compounds during long-term storage are subject to microbiological degradation due to the reaction of biogenic organic acids with the minerals of the cement matrix. We recommend to biodegrade the LRW components before their solidification, which reduces the volume of LRW and prevent the destruction of the inorganic cement matrix during the long term storage. The biodegradation of the oil containing LRW is possible by using the radioresistant microflora which oxidize the organic components of the oil to carbon dioxide and water. Simultaneously there is the bio-sorption of the radionuclides by bacteria and emulsification of oil in cement slurry due to biogenic surface-active substances of glycolipid nature. It was experimentally established that after 7 days of biodegradation of oil-containing liquid radioactive waste the volume of LRW is reduced by the factor from 2 to 10 due to the biodegradation of the organic phase to the non-radioactive gases (CH 4 , H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 ), which are excluded from the volume of the liquid radioactive waste. At the same time, the microorganisms are able to extract from the LRW up to 80-90% of alpha-radionuclides, up to 50% of 90 Sr, up to 20% of 137 Cs due to sorption processes at the cellular structures. The radioactive biomass is subject to dehydration and solidification in the matrix. The report presents the following experimental data: type of bacterial flora, the parameters of biodegradation, the cementing parameters, the properties of the final cement compound with oil-containing liquid radioactive waste

  19. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organic matter (Benner 2002). This major fraction of DOM has been a subject of characterization by optical methods, e.g., absorption and fluores- cence. The fraction exhibiting strong absorption of short wavelength (ultraviolet to blue) radiation, is termed as chromophoric dissolved organic mat- ter (CDOM) (Coble 2007).

  20. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, Carol; Steen, Andrew; Ziervogel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely...... molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing...

  1. Simulation of biodegradable organic contaminants in groundwater: 1. Numerical formulation in principal directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, K. T. B.; Sudicky, E. A.; Frind, E. O.

    1990-02-01

    Groundwater contamination by organic chemicals is of concern because of the widespread use of these compounds and because even low concentrations may be very harmful. Dissolved organic contaminants are affected by advection, dispersion, sorption, and biological transformations in groundwater systems; however, biological degradation by indigeneous bacterial populations is the only mechanism whereby contaminant mass can be naturally removed from an aquifer. The purpose of this study is to develop a physically and biochemically based numerical solution for the transport of biodegradable organic solutes with emphasis on an efficient numerical approach. A dual-Monod relationship, combined with the advection-dispersion equation, is used to represent the biological and physical processes affecting the organic solute, electron acceptor, and microbial population. The three resulting differential equations are nonlinearly coupled through the Monod decay terms. By employing an iterative principal direction finite-element technique, efficiency is achieved by decoupling each of the two-dimensional transport equations into a series of one-dimensional equations. This decoupling should easily allow for extension of the model to three dimensions. An iterative solution is adopted because a purely sequential technique was observed to greatly underestimate the dissolved mass of an organic plume. Comparison of numerical results with the results of a laboratory column experiment shows that the model equations adequately describe the behavior of toluene, dissolved oxygen, and the bacterial population, without considering solute diffusion through stagnant fluid layers or biofilms. In a two-dimensional shallow aquifer setting an organic plume experiences mass loss, spreading controlled by the availability of dissolved oxygen, and skewing in the direction of groundwater flow. These features would be lost if the interactions between the organic contaminant, electron acceptor, and microbial

  2. Dissolved organic matter uptake by temperate macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by seagrasses often exhibit low inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Given the high productivity in these systems, recycling of nitrogen is expected to be high. We investigated the use of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds by co-occuring primary producers in a temperate

  3. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen data collected using bottle in a world wide distribution from 02 September 1998 to 02 November 2003 (NODC Accession 0002403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 02...

  4. Labile dissolved organic carbon supply limits hyporheic denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay P. Zarnetske; Roy Haggerty; Steven M. Wondzell; Michelle A. Baker

    2012-01-01

    We used an in situ steady state 15N-labeled nitrate and acetate well-to-wells injection experiment to determine how the availability of labile dissolved organic carbon as acetate influences microbial denitrification in the hyporheic zone of an upland (third-order) agricultural stream.

  5. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate stimates of these variables using ...

  6. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) of southwestern Bay of Bengal surface water during southwest monsoon consisted five fluorophores, three humic-like and two protein-like. The humification index (HIX) and humic fluorophores, viz., visible (C), marine (M) and UV (A) humic-likes indicated, better than ...

  7. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shelf waters of western Bay of Bengal. N V H K Chari, P Sudarsana Rao and Nittala S Sarma. ∗. Marine Chemistry Laboratory, School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: nssarma@rediffmail.com. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) of southwestern ...

  8. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coliform bacteria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people in areas surrounding Nairobi use untreated underground waters for their domestic chores. A study was carried out during the wet season (April-June) and the dry season (September-November) of the year 1994 to find out if these untreated underground waters contain dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ...

  9. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    e-mail: ejdsa@ssc.nasa.gov. 2hu@seas.marine.usf.edu. Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll a concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource man- agers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida ...

  10. Measurement and importance of dissolved organic carbon. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Kolka; Peter Weishampel; Mats. Froberg

    2008-01-01

    The flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from an ecosystem can be a significant component of carbon (C) budgets especially in watersheds containing wetlands. Although internal ecosystem cycling of DOC is generally greater than the fluxes to ground or surface waters, it is the transport out of the system that is a main research focus for carbon accounting. In...

  11. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coliform bacteria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    domestic chores. A study was carried out during the wet season (April-June) and the dry season (September-November) of the year 1994 to find out if these untreated underground waters contain dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coliform bracteria. Out of the 40 sites sampled during both the wet and dry seasons, ...

  12. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, J.D.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (chapter 1). However, not much is known about the molecular composition and the origin of DOM. The study described in this thesis was conducted to gain more knowledge on the molecular composition and the origin of

  13. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heemst, J.D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (chapter 1). However, not much is known about the molecular composition and the origin of DOM. The study described in this thesis was conducted to gain more knowledge on the molecular composition and the origin of DOM.

  14. Degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter by seawater bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.J.; Pizay, M-D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The functional response of a seawater bacterial community transplanted into freshwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated together with the response of natural populations of bacteria to size-fractioned natural source water. Seawater bacteria were incubated over a period of 8 d in

  15. The effect of feed water dissolved organic carbon concentration and composition on organic micropollutant removal and microbial diversity in soil columns simulating river bank filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; van der Hoek, J P; Schoutteten, K; Hulpiau, L; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Cabo, A J; Callewaert, C; Boon, N; Löwenberg, J; Singhal, N; Verliefde, A R D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated organic micropollutant (OMP) biodegradation rates in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating river bank filtration (RBF) processes. The dosed OMP mixture consisted of 11 pharmaceuticals, 6 herbicides, 2 insecticides and 1 solvent. Columns were filled with soil from a RBF site and were fed with four different organic carbon fractions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, transphilic and river water organic matter (RWOM)). Additionally, the effect of a short-term OMP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) shock-load (e.g. quadrupling the OMP concentrations and doubling the DOC concentration) on OMP biodegradation rates was investigated to assess the resilience of RBF systems. The results obtained in this study imply that - in contrast to what is observed for managed aquifer recharge systems operating on wastewater effluent - OMP biodegradation rates are not affected by the type of organic carbon fraction fed to the soil column, in case of stable operation. No effect of a short-term DOC shock-load on OMP biodegradation rates between the different organic carbon fractions was observed. This means that the RBF site simulated in this study is resilient towards transient higher DOC concentrations in the river water. However, a temporary OMP shock-load affected OMP biodegradation rates observed for the columns fed with the river water organic matter (RWOM) and the hydrophilic fraction of the river water organic matter. These different biodegradation rates did not correlate with any of the parameters investigated in this study (cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP), DOC removal, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), richness/evenness of the soil microbial population or OMP category (hydrophobicity/charge). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  17. Microbial transformation of dissolved organic matter from different sources and its influence on disinfection byproduct formation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Mi-Hee; Song, Hocheol; Schlatman, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Biodegradation-induced changes in the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent effects on disinfection byproduct formation potentials (DBPFPs) were investigated using six different sources of DOM (algae, leaf litter, reed, compost, paddy water, and treated municipal sewage effluent). Microbial incubation of the DOM samples increased the specific ultraviolet absorbance and humic-like fluorescence but decreased the protein/tannin-like fluorescence and relative distribution of smaller-sized DOM components. Comparison of the original versus biodegraded DOM samples using resin fractionation and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the biodegradation-induced changes were highly dependent on DOM sources and exhibited no consistent trends among the different sources. Changes in DBPFPs also differed with DOM source. Vascular plant-derived DOM (leaf litter and reed) demonstrated an enhancement in specific DBPFP after biodegradation, whereas little change or even a slight decrease was observed for the other DOM sources. Correlations that were significant between specific DBPFPs and the aromatic content or humic-like fluorescence for the original DOM samples were no longer significant after microbial degradation. The relative abundance of hydrophobic to hydrophilic structures in DOM is suggested to be a general indicator for the formation potential of trihalomethanes irrespective of DOM source and the state of biodegradation.

  18. Biodegradation of a Real Dye Wastewater Containing High Concentration of Total Dissolved Inorganic Salts (TDIS) in a Lab-Scale Activated Sludge Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Upendra D.; Ruparelia, Jayesh; Patel, Margi

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradation studies on Dye wastewater (DW) are normally conducted on simulated wastewaters or aqueous dyes solutions supported by growth medium, and often, an easy carbon source such as glucose. This rarely resembles actual DW which is characterized by the presence of complex organic compounds, and a high concentration of Total Dissolved Inorganic Salts (TDIS). Biodegradation of real Direct Dyes Wastewater (DDW), and a mixed-waste stream (MWS) consisting of equal volumes of Direct and Acid dyes wastewaters, was carried out using a lab-scale activated sludge unit. The DDW and MWS had TDIS and COD concentrations of 105 and 4.5 g/L, and 54 and 4.1 g/L, respectively. After acclimatization process of 70 days, 67% COD removal was achieved at influent TDIS and COD concentrations of 79.6 g/L and 4320 mg/L, respectively, for the DDW at HRT of 3 days and MLVSS concentration of 2000 mg/L. Although no sludge wastage was done, initially increased concentration of MLVSS ( 2400 mg/L) decreased to 1700 mg/L with increase in TDIS. Using the biomass acclimatized for DDW for treatment of MWS, consistent COD removal of 70% was achieved at HRT of 4.3 days and an MLVSS concentration of 1600 mg/L. Results suggest that significant COD removal can be achieved in real DW if biomass is gradually acclimatized to increasing TDIS concentrations.

  19. Production of Dissolved Organic Matter During Doliolid Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellane, N. J.; Paffenhofer, G. A.; Stubbins, A.

    2016-02-01

    The biological carbon pump (BCP) draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and buries it at the seafloor. The efficiency of the BCP is determined in part by the sinking rates of particulate organic carbon (POC) from ocean surface waters. Zooplankton can package POC into fecal pellets with higher sinking rates than their food source (e.g. phytoplankton), increasing the efficiency of the BCP. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is also produced as zooplankton ingest and egest food, reducing the efficiency of BCP. The pelagic tunicate Dolioletta gegenbauri (doliolid) is a gelatinous zooplankton found at high concentrations in shelf waters, including our study site: the South Atlantic Bight. Doliolids are efficient grazers capable of stripping large quantities of phytoplankton from the water column. To determine the balance between pellet formation and DOC production during feeding, doliolids (6-7 mm gonozooids) were placed in natural seawater amended with a live phytoplankton food source and incubated on a plankton wheel. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) released directly to the water as well as the water soluble fraction of pellet organic matter were quantified and optically characterized. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorbance and fluorescence spectra revealed that doliolid feeding produces DOM with optical properties that are commonly indicative of newly produced, highly biolabile DOM of microbial origin. Based upon these optical characteristics, doliolid-produced DOM is expected to be highly bio-labile in the environment and therefore rapidly degraded by surface ocean microbes shunting phytoplankton-derived organic carbon out of the BCP and back to dissolved inorganic carbon.

  20. Biodegradability of electrostatic photocopier toners | Odokuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation was monitored over a 28-day period using changes total organic carbon (TOC), Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio of DOC to TOC (Primary biodegradation) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) measurements. At day 0 the BOD for Fresh Sharp, Reused Sharp, Fresh Minolta and Reused Minolta ...

  1. Ozonation effect on natural organic matter adsorption and biodegradation--application to a membrane bioreactor containing activated carbon for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguer, Ronan; Tatin, Romuald; Couvert, Annabelle; Wolbert, Dominique; Tazi-Pain, Annie

    2010-02-01

    More stringent legislation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) urges the drinking water industry to improve in DOM removal, especially when applied to water with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and low turbidity. To improve conventional processes currently used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the performances of a hybrid membrane bioreactor containing fluidized activated carbon were investigated at the DWTP of Rennes. Preliminary results showed that the residual DOC was the major part of the non-biodegradable fraction. In order to increase the global efficiency, an upstream oxidation step was added to the process. Ozone was chosen to break large molecules and increase their biodegradability. The first step consisted of carrying out lab-scale experiments in order to optimise the necessary ozone dose by measuring the process yield, in terms of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Secondly, activated carbon adsorption of the DOC present in ozonated water was quantified. The whole process was tested in a pilot unit under field conditions at the DWTP of Rennes (France). Lab-scale experiments confirmed that ozonation increases the BDOC fraction, reduces the aromaticity of the DOC and produces small size organic compounds. Adsorption tests led to the conclusion that activated carbon unexpectedly removes BDOC first. Finally, the pilot unit results revealed an additional BDOC removal (from 0.10 to 0.15 mg L(-1)) of dissolved organic carbon from the raw water considered. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodegradability relationships among propylene glycol substances in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ready- and seawater biodegradability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert J; Davis, John W; Pottenger, Lynn H; Banton, Marcy I; Graham, Cynthia

    2007-05-01

    Eight propylene glycol substances, ranging from 1,2-propanediol to a poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) having number-average molecular weight (M(n)) of 2,700 (i.e., PPG 2700), were evaluated in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ready- and seawater biodegradability tests. Uniformity in test parameters, such as inoculum source/density and test substance concentrations, combined with frequent measurements of O2 consumption and CO2 evolution, revealed unexpected biodegradability trends across this family of substances. Biodegradability in both tests decreased with increased number of oxy-propylene repeating units (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) of the oligomeric propylene glycols (PGs). However, this trend was reversed for the PPG polymers, and increased biodegradability was observed with increases of average n to seven, 17, and 34 (M(n) = 425, 1,000, and 2,000, respectively). This relationship between molecular weight and biodegradability was reversed again when average n was incremented from 34 (PPG 2000) to 46 (PPG 2700). Six of the tested substances (n = 1, 2, 3, 7, 17, and 34) met the OECD-specified criteria for "ready biodegradability," whereas the tetrapropylene glycol (n = 4) and PPG 2700 substances failed to meet these criteria. Biodegradation half-lives for these eight substances ranged from 3.8 d (PPG 2000) to 33.2 d (PPG 2700) in the ready test, and from 13.6 (PG) to 410 d (PPG 2700) in seawater. Biodegradation half-lives in seawater were significantly correlated with half-lives determined in the ready test. However, half-lives in both tests were correlated poorly with molecular weight, water solubility, and log K(ow). It is speculated that the molecular conformation of these substances, perhaps more so than these other physicochemical properties, has an important role in influencing biodegradability of the propylene glycol substances.

  3. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola; Encina, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM......Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter...... composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance...

  4. Major structural components in freshwater dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Buuan; Baer, Andrew; Alaee, Mehran; Lefebvre, Brent; Moser, Arvin; Williams, Antony; Simpson, André J

    2007-12-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains a complex array of chemical components that are intimately linked to many environmental processes, including the global carbon cycle, and the fate and transport of chemical pollutants. Despite its importance, fundamental aspects, such as the structural components in DOM remain elusive, due in part to the molecular complexity of the material. Here, we utilize multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate the major structural components in Lake Ontario DOM. These include carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), heteropolysaccharides, and aromatic compounds, which are consistent with components recently identified in marine dissolved organic matter. In addition, long-range proton-carbon correlations are obtained for DOM, which support the existence of material derived from linear terpenoids (MDLT). It is tentatively suggested that the bulk of freshwater dissolved organic matter is aliphatic in nature, with CRAM derived from cyclic terpenoids, and MDLT derived from linear terpenoids. This is in agreement with previous reports which indicate terpenoids as major precursors of DOM. At this time it is not clear in Lake Ontario whether these precursors are of terrestrial or aquatic origin or whether transformations proceed via biological and/ or photochemical processes.

  5. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of (emerging) organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Ferdinand; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation. This review provides a comprehensive survey of characteristic anaerobic biotransformation reactions for a variety of well-studied, structurally rather simple contaminants (SMOCs) bearing one or a few different functional groups/structural moieties. Furthermore it summarizes anaerobic degradation studies of more complex contaminants with several functional groups (CMCs), in soil, sediment and wastewater treatment. While strictly anaerobic conditions are able to promote the transformation of several aerobically persistent contaminants, the variety of observed reactions is limited, with reductive dehalogenations and the cleavage of ether bonds being the most prevalent. Thus, it becomes clear that the transferability of degradation mechanisms deduced from culture studies of SMOCs to predict the degradation of CMCs, such as EOCs, in environmental matrices is hampered due the more complex chemical structure bearing different functional groups, different environmental conditions (e.g. matrix, redox, pH), the microbial community (e.g. adaptation, competition) and the low concentrations typical for EOCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the dissolved organic matter leaching from soil under severe temperature and N-deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Vo-Minh; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we conducted growth chamber experiments using three types of soil (wetland, rice paddy, and forest) under the conditions of a severe increase in the temperature and N-deposition in order to investigate how extreme weather influences the characteristics of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from different soil types. This leachate controls the quantity and quality of DOM in surface water systems. After 5 months of incubation, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decreased in the range of 21.1 to 88.9 %, while the specific UV absorption (SUVA) values increased substantially in the range of 19.9 to 319.9 % for all of the samples. Higher increases in the SUVA values were observed at higher temperatures, whereas the opposite trend was observed for samples with N-addition. The parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) results showed that four fluorescence components: terrestrial humic-like (component 1 (C1)), microbial humic-like (component 2 (C2)), protein-like (component 3 (C3)), and anthropogenic humic-like (component 4 (C4)) constituted the fluorescence matrices of soil samples. During the experiment, labile DOM from the soils was consumed and transformed into resistant aromatic carbon structures and less biodegradable components via microbial processes. The principle component analysis (PCA) results indicated that severe temperatures and N-deposition could enhance the contribution of the aromatic carbon compounds and humic-like components in the soil samples.

  8. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  9. Fate and behavior of dissolved organic matter in a submerged anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Luo, Jinxue; Stuckey, David C; Tan, Soon Keat

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the production, composition, and characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in an anoxic-aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates in the MBR aerobic stage were 3.96 ± 0.28 and 8.36 ± 0.89 mg/L, respectively. After membrane filtration, these values decreased to 2.9 ± 0.2 and 2.8 ± 0.2 mg/L, respectively. High performance size exclusion chromatograph (HP-SEC) analysis indicated a bimodal molecular weight (MW) distribution of DOMs, and that the intensities of all the peaks were reduced in the MBR effluent compared to the influent. Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM) indicated that fulvic and humic acid-like substances were the predominant DOMs in biological treatment processes. Precise identification and characterization of low-MW DOMs was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis indicated that the highest peak numbers (170) were found in the anoxic stage, and 54 (32%) compounds were identified with a similarity greater than 80%. Alkanes (28), esters (11), and aromatics (7) were the main compounds detected. DOMs exhibited both biodegradable and recalcitrant characteristics. There were noticeable differences in the low-MW DOMs present down the treatment process train in terms of numbers, concentrations, molecular weight, biodegradability, and recalcitrance.

  10. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  11. Biodegradation of organic compounds in vadose zone and aquifer sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, A.; Turco, R.

    1991-01-01

    The microbial processes that occur in the subsurface under a typical Midwest agricultural soil were studied. A 26-m bore was installed in November of 1988 at a site of the Purdue University Agronomy Research Center. Aseptic collections of soil materials were made at 17 different depths. Physical analysis indicated that the site contained up to 14 different strata. The site materials were primarily glacial tills with a high carbonate content. The N,P, and organic C contents of sediments tended to decrease with depth. Ambient water content was generally less than the water content, which corresponds to a -0.3-bar equivalent. No pesticides were detected in slurry incubations of up to 128 days. The sorption of atrazine and metolachlor was correlated with the clay content of the sediments. Microbial biomass (determined by direct microscopic count, viable count, and phospholipid assay) in the tills was lower than in either the surface materials or the aquifer located at 25 m. The biodegradation of glucose and phenol occurred rapidly and without a lag in samples from the aquifer capillary fringe, saturated zone, and surface soils. In contrast, lag periods and smaller biodegradation rates were found in the till samples. Subsurface sediments are rich in microbial numbers and activity. The most active strata appear to be transmissive layers in the saturated zone. This implies that the availability of water may limit activity in the profile

  12. Why dissolved organic matter (DOM) enhances photodegradation of methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to degrade photochemically, but it remains unclear what roles naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) and complexing organic ligands play in MeHg photodegradation. Here we investigate the rates and mechanisms of MeHg photodegradation using DOM samples with varying oxidation states and origins as well as organic ligands with known molecular structures. All DOM and organic ligands increased MeHg photodegradation under solar irradiation, but the first-order rate constants varied depending on the oxidation state of DOM and the type and concentration of the ligands. Compounds containing both thiols and aromatics (e.g., thiosalicylate and reduced DOM) increased MeHg degradation rates far greater than those containing only aromatic or thiol functional groups (e.g., salicylate or glutathione). Our results suggest that, among other factors, the synergistic effects of thiolate and aromatic moieties in DOM greatly enhance MeHg photodegradation.

  13. Experimental Evidence for Abiotic Sulfurization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika M. Pohlabeln

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS is the largest pool of organic sulfur in the oceans, and as such it is an important component of the global sulfur cycle. DOS in the ocean is resistant against microbial degradation and turns over on a millennium time scale. However, sources and mechanisms behind its stability are largely unknown. Here, we hypothesize that in sulfate-reducing sediments sulfur is abiotically incorporated into dissolved organic matter (DOM and released to the ocean. We exposed natural seawater and the filtrate of a plankton culture to sulfidic conditions. Already after 1-h at 20°C, DOS concentrations had increased 4-fold in these experiments, and 14-fold after 4 weeks at 50°C, indicating that organic matter does not need long residence times in natural sulfidic environments to be affected by sulfurization. Molecular analysis via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry showed that sulfur was covalently and unselectively bound to DOM. Experimentally produced and natural DOS from sediments were highly similar on a molecular and structural level. By combining our data with published benthic DOC fluxes we estimate that 30–200 Tg DOS are annually transported from anaerobic and sulfate reducing sediments to the oceans. Uncertainties in this first speculative assessment are large. However, this first attempt illustrates that benthic DOS flux is potentially one order of magnitude larger than that via rivers indicating that this could balance the estimated global net removal of refractory DOS.

  14. Geochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Spatially Highly Resolved Groundwater Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume Cross-Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorski, Sabine E-M; Gonsior, Michael; Hertkorn, Norbert; Uhl, Jenny; Müller, Hubert; Griebler, Christian; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2016-06-07

    At numerous groundwater sites worldwide, natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) is quantitatively complemented with petroleum hydrocarbons. To date, research has been focused almost exclusively on the contaminants, but detailed insights of the interaction of contaminant biodegradation, dominant redox processes, and interactions with natural DOM are missing. This study linked on-site high resolution spatial sampling of groundwater with high resolution molecular characterization of DOM and its relation to groundwater geochemistry across a petroleum hydrocarbon plume cross-section. Electrospray- and atmospheric pressure photoionization (ESI, APPI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed a strong interaction between DOM and reactive sulfur species linked to microbial sulfate reduction, i.e., the key redox process involved in contaminant biodegradation. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) modeling attributed DOM samples to specific contamination traits. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy evaluated the aromatic compounds and their degradation products in samples influenced by the petroleum contamination and its biodegradation. Our orthogonal high resolution analytical approach enabled a comprehensive molecular level understanding of the DOM with respect to in situ petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation and microbial sulfate reduction. The role of natural DOM as potential cosubstrate and detoxification reactant may improve future bioremediation strategies.

  15. Utilizing Colored Dissolved Organic Matter to Derive Dissolved Black Carbon Export by Arctic Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron eStubbins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires have produced black carbon (BC since land plants emerged. Condensed aromatic compounds, a form of BC, have accumulated to become a major component of the soil carbon pool. Condensed aromatics leach from soils into rivers, where they are termed dissolved black carbon (DBC. The transport of DBC by rivers to the sea is a major term in the global carbon and BC cycles. To estimate Arctic river DBC export, 25 samples collected from the six largest Arctic rivers (Kolyma, Lena, Mackenzie, Ob’, Yenisey and Yukon were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and DBC. A simple, linear regression between DOC and DBC indicated that DBC accounted for 8.9 ± 0.3% DOC exported by Arctic rivers. To improve upon this estimate, an optical proxy for DBC was developed based upon the linear correlation between DBC concentrations and CDOM light absorption coefficients at 254 nm (a254. Relatively easy to measure a254 values were determined for 410 Arctic river samples between 2004 and 2010. Each of these a254 values was converted to a DBC concentration based upon the linear correlation, providing an extended record of DBC concentration. The extended DBC record was coupled with daily discharge data from the six rivers to estimate riverine DBC loads using the LOADEST modeling program. The six rivers studied cover 53% of the pan-Arctic watershed and exported 1.5 ± 0.1 million tons of DBC per year. Scaling up to the full area of the pan-Arctic watershed, we estimate that Arctic rivers carry 2.8 ± 0.3 million tons of DBC from land to the Arctic Ocean each year. This equates to ~8% of Arctic river DOC export, slightly less than indicated by the simpler DBC vs DOC correlation-based estimate. Riverine discharge is predicted to increase in a warmer Arctic. DBC export was positively correlated with river runoff, suggesting that the export of soil BC to the Arctic Ocean is likely to increase as the Arctic warms.

  16. Bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helle; Markager, Svend Stiig; Søndergaard, Morten

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) produced during a phytoplankton bloom. The experiments were conducted with natural plankton communities as batch growth experiments over approximately 30 days with nitrogen limitation. Five to six...... times during the exponential and stationary phases of each experimental bloom the bioavailability of DON was measured over 60 days together with DOC and oxygen consumption. The overall aim was to quantify remineralization of the added nitrate. The results showed that maximum 33 % of the added nitrate...

  17. Radiocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Becerril Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater containing a high concentration of organic substances was exposed to gamma radiolysis in the presence and absence of a catalyst (TiO2; radiolysis and radiocatalysis were performed by means of continuous and discontinuous irradiation. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the parameter used to estimate the concentration of organic compounds without interference by the high mineral content. The data was well fitted to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood. From a [DOC]0 = 140 ± 7 mg/L, the higher DOC degradation (74% and apparent rate constant (Kapp = 0.083 h-1 were found using discontinuous radiocatalysis. This process could be an alternative method of treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater

  18. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen release from Holocene permafrost and seasonally frozen soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.; Waldrop, M. P.; Koch, J. C.; Jorgenson, T.; Striegl, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost (perennially frozen) soils store vast amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) that are vulnerable to mobilization to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) upon thaw. Such releases will affect the biogeochemistry of arctic and boreal regions, yet little is known about active layer (seasonally frozen) and permafrost source variability that determines DOC and TDN mobilization. We quantified DOC and TDN leachate yields from a range of active layer and permafrost soils in Alaska varying in age and C and N content to determine potential release upon thaw. Soil cores from the upper 1 meter were collected in late winter, when soils were frozen, from three locations representing a range in geographic position, landscape setting, permafrost depth, and soil types across interior Alaska. Two 15 cm-thick segments were extracted from each core: a deep active-layer horizon and a shallow permafrost horizon. Soils were thawed and leached for DOC and TDN yields, dissolved organic matter optical properties, and DOC biodegradability; soils were analyzed for C and N content, and radiocarbon content. Soils had wide-ranging C and N content (<1-44% C, <0.1-2.3% N), and varied in radiocarbon age from 450-9200 years before present - thus capturing typical ranges of boreal and arctic soils. Soil DOC and TDN yields increased linearly with soil C and N content, and decreased with increasing radiocarbon age. However, across all sites DOC and TDN yields were significantly greater from permafrost soils (0.387 ± 0.324 mg DOC g-1 soil; 0.271 ± 0.0271 mg N g-1 soil) than from active layer soils (0.210 ± 0.192 mg DOC g-1 soil; 0.00716 ± 0.00569 mg N g-1 soil). DOC biodegradability increased with increasing radiocarbon age, and was statistically similar for active layer and permafrost soils. Our findings suggest that the continuously frozen state of permafrost soils has preserved

  19. Terrestrial dissolved organic matter distribution in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C; Lapworth, Dan J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Kroeger, Silke; Evans, Chris D; Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard J

    2018-02-26

    The flow of terrestrial carbon to rivers and inland waters is a major term in the global carbon cycle. The organic fraction of this flux may be buried, remineralized or ultimately stored in the deep ocean. The latter can only occur if terrestrial organic carbon can pass through the coastal and estuarine filter, a process of unknown efficiency. Here, data are presented on the spatial distribution of terrestrial fluorescent and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (FDOM and CDOM, respectively) throughout the North Sea, which receives organic matter from multiple distinct sources. We use FDOM and CDOM as proxies for terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) to test the hypothesis that tDOM is quantitatively transferred through the North Sea to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) revealed a single terrestrial humic-like class of compounds whose distribution was restricted to the coastal margins and, via an inverse salinity relationship, to major riverine inputs. Two distinct sources of fluorescent humic-like material were observed associated with the combined outflows of the Rhine, Weser and Elbe rivers in the south-eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea outflow to the eastern central North Sea. The flux of tDOM from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean appears insignificant, although tDOM export may occur through Norwegian coastal waters unsampled in our study. Our analysis suggests that the bulk of tDOM exported from the Northwest European and Scandinavian landmasses is buried or remineralized internally, with potential losses to the atmosphere. This interpretation implies that the residence time in estuarine and coastal systems exerts an important control over the fate of tDOM and needs to be considered when evaluating the role of terrestrial carbon losses in the global carbon cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  1. Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-03-19

    Oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the second largest reservoir of organic carbon in the biosphere. About 72% of the global DOC inventory is stored in deep oceanic layers for years to centuries, supporting the current view that it consists of materials resistant to microbial degradation. An alternative hypothesis is that deep-water DOC consists of many different, intrinsically labile compounds at concentrations too low to compensate for the metabolic costs associated to their utilization. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that low concentrations rather than recalcitrance preclude consumption of a substantial fraction of DOC, leading to slow microbial growth in the deep ocean. These findings demonstrate an alternative mechanism for the long-term storage of labile DOC in the deep ocean, which has been hitherto largely ignored. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption of Groundwater Dissolved Organic Carbon onto Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Meredith, K.; Andersen, M. S.; O'Carrol, D. M.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of groundwater organic matter (OM) as a carbon source or sink in the environmental carbon cycle is limited. The dynamics of groundwater OM is mainly governed by biological processing and its sorption to minerals. In saturated groundwaters, dissolved OM (DOM) represents one part of the groundwater organic carbon pool. Without consideration of the DOM sorption, it is not possible to quantify governing groundwater OM processes. This research explores the rate and extent of DOM sorption on different minerals. Groundwater DOM samples, and International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) standard solutions, were analysed. Each was mixed with a range of masses of iron coated quartz, clean quartz, and calcium carbonate, and shaken for 2 hours to reach equilibrium before being filtered through 0.2 μm for total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and composition analysis by size-exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). Sorption isotherms were constructed and groundwater DOM sorption were compared to the sorption of IHSS standards. Initial results suggest that for the IHSS standards, the operationally-defined humic substances fraction had the strongest sorption compared to the other LC-OCD fractions and total DOC. Some samples exhibited a small increase in the low molecular weight neutral (LMW-N) aqueous concentration with increasing humic substances sorption. This gradual increase observed could be the result of humic substances desorbing or their breakdown during the experiment. Further results comparing these IHSS standards with groundwater samples will be presented. In conjunction with complementary studies, these results can help provide more accurate prediction of whether groundwater OM is a carbon source or sink, which will enable the management of the groundwater resources as part of the carbon economy.

  3. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  4. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d −1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d −1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO 2 ) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen. (letter)

  5. Dissolved Organic Matter Transformations: Implications for Catchment-Scale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A.; Hernes, P.; Montanez, I.; Eustis, B.

    2006-12-01

    Particulate and dissolved phase lignin parameters are used to understand sources and dynamics of terrigenous organic matter (OM) in freshwater and marine systems. Impacts of catchment properties, such as soil type and mineralogy, vegetation distribution and hydrologic conditions on terrestrial dissolved and particulate biomarker compositions have not been addressed. Our experimental approach deciphers relative contributions of these parameters on bulk DOM compositions. Carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8) are one means to assess contributions of lignin phenols to bulk organic carbon. Ratios of syringyl (S), vanillyl (V) and cinnamyl (C) lignin phenols distinguish angiosperm and gymnosperm woody and nonwoody tissues. Ratios of acids:aldehydes (ad:ac) within vanillyl groups indicate diagenetic alteration of OM. Interpretation of these ratios relies on the fundamental assumption that each lignin compound behaves similarly, despite differences in solubility and sorption. Fractionation due to leaching impacts C:V, ac:al and (Λ8). C:V ranges from 1/2 to 4 times original plant compositions, increasing proportions of DOM ascribed to nonwoody tissues. Shifts in C:V and S:V due to leaching, suggest that source ratios from plant materials may not be appropriate endmembers for dissolved phases. An ~2-fold increase in ac:al ratios between litters and leachates suggest that dissolved phases are more diagenetically altered than litters, although this is simply due to solubilization. Λ8 values, tracking lignin and bulk carbon solubility differences, indicate greater loss of bulk OM relative to lignin for most plant litters. During sorption of leachates to mineral soils, lignin compositional trends are more variable compared to leaching data. Sorption of angiosperm leachates resulted in significant enrichment of S phenols on soils, which would increase the inferred contribution of angiosperms obtained for mixtures. C:V fractionation during sorption decreased in 3 of 4 plant

  6. Towards a universal microbial inoculum for dissolved organic carbon degradation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ada; Catalán, Núria; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Nagar, Nupur; Casas-Ruiz, Joan P.; Obrador, Biel; von Schiller, Daniel; Sabater, Sergi; Petrovic, Mira; Borrego, Carles M.; Marcé, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest biologically available pool of organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems and its degradation along the land-to-ocean continuum has implications for carbon cycling from local to global scales. DOC biodegradability is usually assessed by incubating filtered water inoculated with native microbial assemblages in the laboratory. However, the use of a native inoculum from several freshwaters, without having a microbial-tailored design, hampers our ability to tease apart the relative contribution of the factors driving DOC degradation from the effects of local microbial communities. The use of a standard microbial inoculum would allow researchers to disentangle the drivers of DOC degradation from the metabolic capabilities of microbial communities operating in situ. With this purpose, we designed a bacterial inoculum to be used in experiments of DOC degradation in freshwater habitats. The inoculum is composed of six bacterial strains that easily grow under laboratory conditions, possess a versatile metabolism and are able to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The mixed inoculum showed higher DOC degradation rates than those from their isolated bacterial components and the consumption of organic substrates was consistently replicated. Moreover, DOC degradation rates obtained using the designed inoculum were responsive across a wide range of natural water types differing in DOC concentration and composition. Overall, our results show the potential of the designed inoculum as a tool to discriminate between the effects of environmental drivers and intrinsic properties of DOC on degradation dynamics.

  7. Biodegradation of organ chlorine pesticides in contaminated soil collected from Yen Tap, Cam Khe, Phu Tho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thuy Binh; Nguyen Van Toan; Pham Thi Thai; Dinh Thi Thu Hang

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation of POPs contaminant in soil collected from Phu Tho province and Nghe An province had carried out. The process comprises treating soil, which contains anaerobic and aerobic microbes capable of transforming lindane and DDT into harmless material and being under anaerobic and aerobic steps. Significant biodegradation of POPs contaminants occurred in there tests. But some of toxic organic compounds remained. (author)

  8. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arnosti

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars. Genomic investigations provide information about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76°S to 79°N to hydrolyze a range of high molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing climate increasingly affects the marine environment, changes in the spectrum of substrates accessible by microbial communities may lead to shifts in the location and rate at which marine DOC is respired. Since the inventory of DOC in the ocean is comparable in magnitude to the atmospheric CO(2 reservoir, such a change could profoundly affect the global carbon cycle.

  9. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named “extractive” species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM. However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. Methods During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (−holothurian only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm and qualitative (spectral slopes optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H and –holothurians (−H. We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four –H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. Results In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325 and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275−295 were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m−1 and 16 µm−1, respectively than in the effluent of the −holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m−1 and 34 µm−1, respectively, the former

  10. Catchment scale molecular composition of hydrologically mobilized dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Oosterwoud, Marieke R.; Bornmann, Katrin; Tittel, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rivers of temperate catchments in Europe and North Amerika impose new technical challenges for drinking water production. The driving factors for this decadal increase in DOM concentration are not conclusive and changes in annual temperatures, precipitation and atmospheric deposition are intensely discussed. It is known that the majority of DOM is released by few but large hydrologic events, mobilizing DOM from riparian wetlands for export by rivers and streams. The mechanisms of this mobilization and the resulting molecular composition of the released DOM may be used to infer long-term changes in the biogeochemistry of the respective catchment. Event-based samples collected over two years from streams in three temperate catchments in the German mid-range mountains were analyzed after solid-phase extraction of DOM for their molecular composition by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Hydrologic conditions, land use and water chemistry parameters were used to complement the molecular analysis. The molecular composition of the riverine DOM was strongly dependent on the magnitude of the hydrologic events, with unsaturated, oxygen-enriched compounds being preferentially mobilized by large events. This pattern is consistent with an increase in dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations. In contrast, the relative proportions of nitrogen and sulfur bearing compounds increased with an increased agricultural land use but were less affected by the mobilization events. Co-precipitation experiments with colloidal aluminum showed that unsaturated and oxygen-rich compounds are preferentially removed from the dissolved phase. The precipitated compounds thus had similar chemical characteristics as compared to the mobilized DOM from heavy rain events. Radiocarbon analyses also indicated that this precipitated fraction of DOM was of comparably young radiocarbon age. DOM radiocarbon from field samples

  11. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  12. Origins and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Chapelle, Francis H.; Strom, Eric W.; Benner, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater influences water quality and fuels microbial metabolism, but its origins, bioavailability and chemical composition are poorly understood. The origins and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bioavailable DOM were monitored during a long-term (2-year) study of groundwater in a fractured-rock aquifer in the Carolina slate belt. Surface precipitation was significantly correlated with groundwater concentrations of DOC, bioavailable DOM and chromophoric DOM, indicating strong hydrological connections between surface and ground waters. The physicochemical and biological processes shaping the concentrations and compositions of DOM during its passage through the soil column to the saturated zone are conceptualized in the regional chromatography model. The model provides a framework for linking hydrology with the processes affecting the transformation, remineralization and microbial production of DOM during passage through the soil column. Lignin-derived phenols were relatively depleted in groundwater DOM indicating substantial removal in the unsaturated zone, and optical properties of chromophoric DOM indicated lower molecular weight DOM in groundwater relative to surface water. The prevalence of glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and d-enantiomers of amino acids indicated the DOM was highly diagenetically altered. Bioassay experiments were used to establish DOC-normalized yields of amino acids as molecular indicators of DOM bioavailability in groundwater. A relatively small fraction (8 ± 4 %) of DOC in groundwater was bioavailable. The relatively high yields of specific d-enantiomers of amino acids indicated a substantial fraction (15–34 %) of groundwater DOC was of bacterial origin.

  13. Photochemical Transformation and Bacterial Utilization of Dissolved Organic Matter and Disinfection Byproduct Precursors from Foliar Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, A. T.; Wong, P.; O'Geen, A. T.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Foliar litter is an important terrestrial source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface water. DOM is a public health concern since it is a precursor of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Chemical characterization of in-situ water samples for their impact on water treatment may be misleading because DOM characteristics can be altered from their original composition during downstream transport to water treatment plants. In this study, we collected leachate from four fresh litters and decomposed duffs from four dominant vegetation components of California oak woodlands: blue oak (Quercus douglassi), live oak (Quercus wislizenii), foothill pine (Pinus sabiniana), and annual grasses to evaluate their DOM degradability and the reactivity of altered DOM towards DBP formation. Samples were filtered through a sterilized membrane (0.2 micron) and exposed to natural sunlight and Escherichia coli K-12 independently for 14 days. Generally speaking, leachate from decomposed duff was relatively resistant towards biodegradation compared to that from fresh litter, but the former was more susceptible to photo-transformation. Photo-bleaching caused a 30% decrease in ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA) but no significant changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. This apparent loss of aromatic carbon in DOM, in terms of specific UVA, did not result in a decrease of specific trihalomethane (THM) formation potential, although aromatic carbon is considered as a major reactive site for THM formation. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) of chloral hydrate after the 14-day exposure, suggesting that the photolytic products could be a precursor of chloral hydrate. In contrast, samples inoculated with E. coli did not show a significant effect on the DOC concentration, UVA or DBP formation, although the colony counts indicated a 2-log cell growth during the 14-day incubation. Results suggest photolysis is a

  14. Bioavailability of wastewater derived dissolved organic nitrogen to green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Chlorella vulgaris with/without presence of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyi; Simsek, Halis

    2017-07-01

    Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is problematic in nutrient sensitive surface waters and needs to be reduced to meet demanding total dissolved nitrogen discharge limits. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae or algae+bacteria, while biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON decomposable by bacteria. ABDON and BDON in a two-stage trickling filter (TF) wastewater treatment plant was evaluated using three different microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris and mixed cultured bacteria. Results showed that up to 80% of DON was bioavailable to algae or algae+bacteria inoculum while up to 60% of DON was biodegradable in all the samples. Results showed that C. reinhardtii and C. vulgaris can be used as a test species the same as S. capricornutum since there were no significant differences among these three algae species based on their ability to remove nitrogen species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Biodegradation characteristics of organic pollutants contained in tannery wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Wei-Guang; Yang, Li; Su, Cheng-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    In the batch experiments inoculated with activated sludge from tannery wastewater treatment plant, biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of three tanning agents, naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin, were studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. And the aerobic/anaerobic biodegradation laws of real tannery wastewater with respect to COD change were also investigated using the same batch experiments. The results showed aerobic degradation was superior to anaerobic degradation for tanning agent removal and mineralization. The removal rates of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium, tannic acid and bayberry tannin by aerobic biodegradation were >90% , >90% and 50% -75% , respectively whereas 10%-40%, >95% and 20% -30%, respectively by anaerobic degradation. In terms of COD removal about tannic acid biodegradation, the removal rates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were >75% and tannin were slightly influenced by initial concentrations while initial concentration had a significant effect on the first-order kinetics rate in the case of naphthalene-2-sulfonic sodium aerobic-biodegradation because naphthalene- 2-sulfonic sodium with initial concentration >or= 70 mg.L-1 was toxic to microorganism leading to a significant decline of kinetic constants. Biodegradation of real tannery wastewater under aerobic and anaerobic conditions represented obvious stage characteristics and the COD concentration had a good linear correlation with reaction time in the phases of fast degradation and slow degradation. The aerobic maximum specific degradation rate wqas 11.6 times higher of anaerobic degradation.

  16. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  17. Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: Elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, H; Alexy, R; Coker, A; Kümmerer, K

    2008-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used as disinfectants, detergents and fabric softeners. Anionic detergents are one of the most widely used chemical substances. QACs and anionic surfactants can form ionic pairs. In the present study we investigated the biodegradability of QACs in the presence of different anionic surfactants. The biodegradability of three QACs, namely benzalkonium chloride (BAC), didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC) and ethacridine lactate (EL), when applied as single substances and in combination with anionic surfactants such as benzene sulfonic acid (BSA), LAS, naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) was studied applying the closed bottle test (CBT) [OECD 301D, 1992. Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Closed bottle test. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris] at a ratio of 1:1 (mol:mol). Biodegradation was monitored by measuring oxygen concentration in the test vessels with an oxygen electrode in accordance with international standard methods [ISO 5414, 1990. Water quality - determination of dissolved oxygen. In: German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Wastewater and Sludge. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, New York, Basel Cambridge]. Primary elimination of the QACs and of LAS was monitored by LC-MS/MS. There was little biodegradability of the QACs as either single compounds or in the presence of organic counter ions. The biodegradability of the organic counter ions was lower in the presence of QACs as compared to the single substances. Primary elimination of the QACs by sorption took place.

  18. Response surface modeling for optimization heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of persistence organic pollution in high total dissolved solid containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Boopathy, R; Maharaja, P; Gupta, V K; Anandan, C

    2014-01-01

    The rice-husk-based mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) used in this study was precarbonized and activated using phosphoric acid. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (29)Si-NMR spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the MAC. The tannery wastewater carrying high total dissolved solids (TDS) discharged from leather industry lacks biodegradability despite the presence of dissolved protein. This paper demonstrates the application of free electron-rich MAC as heterogeneous catalyst along with Fenton reagent for the oxidation of persistence organic compounds in high TDS wastewater. The heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of the pretreated wastewater at optimum pH (3.5), H2O2 (4 mmol/L), FeSO4[Symbol: see text]7H2O (0.2 mmol/L), and time (4 h) removed chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and dissolved protein by 86, 91, 83, and 90%, respectively.

  19. Microbial community structure affects marine dissolved organic matter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Kujawinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine microbes are critical players in the global carbon cycle, affecting both the reduction of inorganic carbon and the remineralization of reduced organic compounds back to carbon dioxide. Members of microbial consortia all depend on marine dissolved organic matter (DOM and in turn, affect the molecules present in this heterogeneous pool. Our understanding of DOM produced by marine microbes is biased towards single species laboratory cultures or simplified field incubations, which exclude large phototrophs and protozoan grazers. Here we explore the interdependence of DOM composition and bacterial diversity in two mixed microbial consortia from coastal seawater: a whole water community and a <1.0-μm community dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. Each consortium was incubated with isotopically-labeled glucose for 9 days. Using stable-isotope probing techniques and electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we show that the presence of organisms larger than 1.0-μm is the dominant factor affecting bacterial diversity and low-molecular-weight (<1000 Da DOM composition over this experiment. In the <1.0-μm community, DOM composition was dominated by compounds with lipid and peptide character at all time points, confirmed by fragmentation spectra with peptide-containing neutral losses. In contrast, DOM composition in the whole water community was nearly identical to that in the initial coastal seawater. These differences in DOM composition persisted throughout the experiment despite shifts in bacterial diversity, underscoring an unappreciated role for larger microorganisms in constraining DOM composition in the marine environment.

  20. Climatic and watershed controls of dissolved organic matter variation in streams across a gradient of agricultural land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Peng; Lu, YueHan; Du, YingXun; Jaffé, Rudolf; Findlay, Robert H; Wynn, Anne

    2018-01-15

    Human land use has led to significant changes in the character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lotic ecosystems. These changes are expected to have important environmental and ecological consequences. However, high spatiotemporal variability has been reported in previous studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain inadequately understood. This study assessed variation in the properties of stream water DOM within watersheds across a gradient of agricultural land use with grazing pasture lands as the dominant agricultural type in the southeastern United States. We collected water samples under baseflow conditions five times over eight months from a regional group of first- to fourth-order streams. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM quality based on absorbance and fluorescence properties, as well as DOM biodegradability. We found that air temperature and antecedent hydrological conditions (indicated by antecedent precipitation index and stream water sodium concentrations) positively influenced stream water DOC concentration, DOM fluorescence index, and the proportion of soil-derived, microbial humic fluorescence. This observation suggests that elevated production and release of microbial DOM in soils facilitated by high temperature, in conjunction with strong soil-stream hydrological connectivity, were important drivers for changes in the concentration and composition of stream water DOM. By comparison, watersheds with a high percentage of agricultural land use showed higher DOC concentration, larger proportion of soil-derived, humic-like DOM compounds, and higher DOC biodegradability. These observations reflect preferential mobilization of humic DOM compounds from shallow organic matter-rich soils in agricultural watersheds, likely due to enhanced soil erosion, organic matter oxidation and relatively shallow soil-to-stream flow paths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Christopher L; Repeta, Daniel J; Rothman, Daniel H; Xu, Li; Santinelli, Chiara

    2014-11-25

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content provides information on the DOC source via δ(13)C and age via Δ(14)C. Bulk isotope measurements suggest a microbially sourced DOC reservoir with two distinct components of differing radiocarbon age. However, such measurements cannot determine internal dynamics and fluxes. Here we analyze serial oxidation experiments to quantify the isotopic diversity of DOC at an oligotrophic site in the central Pacific Ocean. Our results show diversity in both stable and radio isotopes at all depths, confirming DOC cycling hidden within bulk analyses. We confirm the presence of isotopically enriched, modern DOC cocycling with an isotopically depleted older fraction in the upper ocean. However, our results show that up to 30% of the deep DOC reservoir is modern and supported by a 1 Pg/y carbon flux, which is 10 times higher than inferred from bulk isotope measurements. Isotopically depleted material turns over at an apparent time scale of 30,000 y, which is far slower than indicated by bulk isotope measurements. These results are consistent with global DOC measurements and explain both the fluctuations in deep DOC concentration and the anomalous radiocarbon values of DOC in the Southern Ocean. Collectively these results provide an unprecedented view of the ways in which DOC moves through the marine carbon cycle.

  2. Dissolved organic matter reduces algal accumulation of methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengen, Allison C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly decreased accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) by the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana in laboratory experiments. Live diatom cells accumulated two to four times more MeHg than dead cells, indicating that accumulation may be partially an energy-requiring process. Methylmercury enrichment in diatoms relative to ambient water was measured by a volume concentration factor (VCF). Without added DOM, the maximum VCF was 32 x 104, and the average VCF (from 10 to 72 h) over all experiments was 12.6 x 104. At very low (1.5 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped by approximately half. At very high (20 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped 10-fold. Presumably, MeHg was bound to a variety of reduced sulfur sites on the DOM, making it unavailable for uptake. Diatoms accumulated significantly more MeHg when exposed to transphilic DOM extracts than hydrophobic ones. However, algal lysate, a labile type of DOM created by resuspending a marine diatom in freshwater, behaved similarly to a refractory DOM isolate from San Francisco Bay. Addition of 67 μM L-cysteine resulted in the largest drop in VCFs, to 0.28 x 104. Although the DOM composition influenced the availability of MeHg to some extent, total DOM concentration was the most important factor in determining algal bioaccumulation of MeHg.

  3. Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shuo Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2, and disperse existing gels (35°C. We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming-acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected.

  4. Biodegradation behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in a biological aerated filter (BAF) as a pretreatment for ultrafiltration (UF) of river water

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Guocheng

    2011-04-15

    In this study, biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in a biological aerated filter (BAF) as pretreatment of UF treating river water was investigated. Photometric measurement, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) were used to investigate the fate of NOM fractions in the BAF+UF process. Results showed that the BAF process could effectively remove particles and parts of dissolved organic matter, which led to a lower NOM loading in the UF system, but different NOM fractions showed different biodegradation potentials. Further biodegradation batch experiments confirmed this observation and identified that polysaccharides and proteins (quantified using photometric methods) contained a large proportion of readily biodegradable matter while humic substances were mainly composed of inert organic substances. According to EEM measurements, it is evident that protein-like substances were more readily eliminated by microorganisms than humic-like substances. LC-OCD data also supported the phenomena that the polysaccharides and large-size proteins were more degradable than humic substances. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, C.C.; Neff, J.C.; Townsend, A.R.; Hood, E.

    2004-01-01

    Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

  6. Stream dissolved organic matter bioavailability and composition in watersheds underlain with discontinuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L. Balcarczyk; Jeremy B. Jones; Rudolf Jaffe; Nagamitsu Maie

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of permafrost on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), a watershed underlain with discontinuous permafrost, in interior Alaska. The stream draining the high permafrost watershed had higher DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations, higher DOCDON and greater specific...

  7. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1975--30 June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling; regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora; regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling; and fate of detrital dissolved and particulate organic matter. (HLW)

  8. Review of Methods of Wastewater Reuse to Diminish Non-Biodegradable Organic Compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Bitow Meles, Desbele

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater reuse is very important in water resource management for both environmental and economic reasons. Unfortunately, wastewater from textile industries is difficult to treat by convectional wastewater treatment technologies. Now days, polluted water due to color from textile dyeing and finishing industries is burning issue for researchers. Textile or industrial wastewaters contain non-biodegradable organic compounds, which cannot be easily biodegraded because of their complex chemical ...

  9. Characterisation and biodegradation of settleable organic matter for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of settled COD is studied by evaluating the associated OUR profile obtained in an aerated batch reactor. Hydrolysis was selected, as in current modelling, as the rate-limiting step for O2 consumption. Settled COD was found to incorporate a significant fraction of active biomass that needs to be accounted for ...

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of chlorinated organics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... DCM; and 0.232 – 0.588 week-1 for DCA in both water microcosms with higher degradation generally observed in New ... Key words: Bioaugmentation, biodegradation, biostimulation, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, microcosms. ... culture (OD of 1 at λ600) of the consortia was added separately to.

  11. Sulfurization of Dissolved Organic Matter Increases Hg-Sulfide-Dissolved Organic Matter Bioavailability to a Hg-Methylating Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Hajic, Hayley A; Lee, Connie; Msekela, Deborah; Gilmour, Cynthia C

    2017-08-15

    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with aqueous sulfide (termed sulfurization) in anoxic environments can substantially increase DOM's reduced sulfur functional group content. Sulfurization may affect DOM-trace metal interactions, including complexation and metal-containing particle precipitation, aggregation, and dissolution. Using a diverse suite of DOM samples, we found that susceptibility to additional sulfur incorporation via reaction with aqueous sulfide increased with increasing DOM aromatic-, carbonyl-, and carboxyl-C content. The role of DOM sulfurization in enhancing Hg bioavailability for microbial methylation was evaluated under conditions typical of Hg methylation environments (μM sulfide concentrations and low Hg-to-DOM molar ratios). Under the conditions of predicted metacinnabar supersaturation, microbial Hg methylation increased with increasing DOM sulfurization, likely reflecting either effective inhibition of metacinnabar growth and aggregation or the formation of Hg(II)-DOM thiol complexes with high bioavailability. Remarkably, Hg methylation efficiencies with the most sulfurized DOM samples were similar (>85% of total Hg methylated) to that observed in the presence of l-cysteine, a ligand facilitating rapid Hg(II) biouptake and methylation. This suggests that complexes of Hg(II) with DOM thiols have similar bioavailability to Hg(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight thiols. Overall, our results are a demonstration of the importance of DOM sulfurization to trace metal and metalloid (especially mercury) fate in the environment. DOM sulfurization likely represents another link between anthropogenic sulfate enrichment and MeHg production in the environment.

  12. Transport of dissolved organic matter in Boom Clay: Size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durce, D.; Aertsens, M.; Jacques, D.; Maes, N.; Van Gompel, M.

    2018-01-01

    A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5 cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM. These parameters were determined along the MWD by implementing a discretisation of DOM into several MW points and modelling the breakthrough of each point. The pore throat diameter of BC was determined as 6.6-7.6 nm. Below this critical size, transport of DOM is MW dependent and two major types of transport were identified. Below MW of 2 kDa, DOM was neither strongly trapped nor strongly retarded. This fraction had an averaged capacity factor of 1.19 ± 0.24 and an apparent dispersion coefficient ranging from 7.5 × 10- 11 to 1.7 × 10- 11 m2/s with increasing MW. DOM with MW > 2 kDa was affected by both retardation and straining that increased significantly with increasing MW while apparent dispersion coefficients decreased. Values ranging from 1.36 to 19.6 were determined for the capacity factor and 3.2 × 10- 11 to 1.0 × 10- 11 m2/s for the apparent dispersion coefficient for species with 2.2 kDa < MW < 9.3 kDa. Straining resulted in an immobilisation of in average 49 ± 6% of the injected 9.3 kDa species. Our findings show that an accurate description of DOM transport requires the consideration of the size effects.

  13. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A.; Phillips, Jana R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physico-chemical sorption onto soil minerals is one of the major processes of dissolved organic carbon (OC) stabilization in deeper soils. The interaction of DOC on soil solids is related to the reactivity of soil minerals, the chemistry of sorbate functional groups, and the stability of sorbate to microbial degradation. This study was conducted to examine the sorption of diverse OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols). Methodology Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0–100 mg C L−1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1∶60 for 48 hrs on natural soils and on soils sterilized by γ-irradiation. The maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k were calculated by fitting to the Langmuir model. Results Ultisols appeared to sorb more glucose, alanine, and salicylic acid than did Alfisols or Mollisols and the isotherms followed a non-linear pattern (higher k). Sterile experiments revealed that glucose and alanine were both readily degraded and/or incorporated into microbial biomass because the observed Qmax under sterile conditions decreased by 22–46% for glucose and 17–77% for alanine as compared to non-sterile conditions. Mollisols, in contrast, more readily reacted with oxalic acid (Qmax of 886 mg kg−1) and sinapyl alcohol (Qmax of 2031 mg kg−1), and no degradation was observed. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was intermediate to that of Ultisols and Mollisols, and degradation followed similar patterns as for Ultisols. Conclusion This study demonstrated that three common temperate soil orders experienced differential sorption and degradation of simple OC compounds, indicating that sorbate chemistry plays a significant role in the sorptive stabilization of DOC. PMID:23209742

  14. Dissolved organic matter enhances microbial mercury methylation under sulfidic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M.; Aiken, George R.; Gilmour, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is generally thought to lower metal bioavailability in aquatic systems due to the formation of metal–DOM complexes that reduce free metal ion concentrations. However, this model may not be pertinent for metal nanoparticles, which are now understood to be ubiquitous, sometimes dominant, metal species in the environment. The influence of DOM on Hg bioavailability to microorganisms was examined under conditions (0.5–5.0 nM Hg and 2–10 μM sulfide) that favor the formation of β-HgS(s) (metacinnabar) nanoparticles. We used the methylation of stable-isotope enriched 201HgCl2 by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 in short-term washed cell assays as a sensitive, environmentally significant proxy for Hg uptake. Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Williams Lake hydrophobic acid (WLHPoA) substantially enhanced (2- to 38-fold) the bioavailability of Hg to ND132 over a wide range of Hg/DOM ratios (9.4 pmol/mg DOM to 9.4 nmol/mg DOM), including environmentally relevant ratios. Methylmercury (MeHg) production by ND132 increased linearly with either SRHA or WLHPoA concentration, but SRHA, a terrestrially derived DOM, was far more effective at enhancing Hg-methylation than WLHPoA, an aquatic DOM dominated by autochthonous sources. No DOM-dependent enhancement in Hg methylation was observed in Hg–DOM–sulfide solutions amended with sufficient l-cysteine to prevent β-HgS(s) formation. We hypothesize that small HgS particles, stabilized against aggregation by DOM, are bioavailable to Hg-methylating bacteria. Our laboratory experiments provide a mechanism for the positive correlations between DOC and MeHg production observed in many aquatic sediments and wetland soils.

  15. Bioavailability of riverine dissolved organic matter in three Baltic Sea estuaries and the effect of catchment land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, E.; Autio, R.; Kaartokallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    The microbial degradation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, DON) was studied in three Finnish boreal estuaries with contrasting land use patterns (Kiiminkijoki - natural forest and peatland; Kyrönjoki - agricultural; Karjaanjoki - mixed/urban). Bioassays of 12-18 d long durations were...... bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) compared to those of the natural forest and peat dominated Kiiminkijoki catchment. The quality of DOM, indicated by differences in CDOM, fluorescent DOM and molecular weight, varied between estuaries with differing land use and was concluded to be major driver of BGE...... the estuaries, from 7.9 to 10.6% and from 5.5 to 21.9%, respectively. DOM originating from the catchment dominated by natural forests and peatlands (Kiiminkijoki) had the lowest DOC and DON degradation rates, as well as the lowest proportions of biodegradable DOC and DON. A greater proportion of agricultural...

  16. Molecular Determinants of Dissolved Organic Matter Reactivity in Lake Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mostovaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lakes in the boreal region have been recognized as the biogeochemical hotspots, yet many questions regarding the regulators of organic matter processing in these systems remain open. Molecular composition can be an important determinant of dissolved organic matter (DOM fate in freshwater systems, but many aspects of this relationship remain unclear due to the complexity of DOM and its interactions in the natural environment. Here, we combine ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS with kinetic modeling of decay of >1,300 individual DOM molecular formulae identified by mass spectrometry, to evaluate the role of specific molecular characteristics in decomposition of lake water DOM. Our data is derived from a 4 months microbial decomposition experiment, carried out on water from three Swedish lakes, with the set-up including natural lake water, as well as the lake water pretreated with UV light. The relative decay rate of every molecular formula was estimated by fitting a single exponential model to the change in FT-ICR-MS signal intensities over decomposition time. We found a continuous range of exponential decay coefficients (kexp within different groups of compounds and show that for highly unsaturated and phenolic compounds the distribution of kexp was shifted toward the lowest values. Contrary to this general trend, plant-derived polyphenols and polycondensed aromatics were on average more reactive than compounds with an intermediate aromaticity. The decay rate of aromatic compounds increased with increasing nominal oxidation state of carbon, and molecular mass in some cases showed an inverse relationship with kexp in the UV-manipulated treatment. Further, we observe an increase in formulae-specific kexp as a result of the UV pretreatment. General trends in reactivity identified among major compound groups emphasize the importance of the intrinsic controllers of lake water DOM decay. However, we additionally indicate that each

  17. Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, K.E.C.; Thullner, M.; Wick, L.Y.; Harms, H.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase above that attributable to dissolved molecular diffusion alone was tested. In controlled experiments, mass transfer rates of

  18. Transport of Proteins Dissolved in Organic Solvents Across Biomimetic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev E.; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    1995-02-01

    Using lipid-impregnated porous cellulose membranes as biomimetic barriers, we tested the hypothesis that to afford effective transmembrane transfer of proteins and nucleic acids, the vehicle solvent should be able to dissolve both the biopolymers and the lipids. While the majority of solvents dissolve one or the other, ethanol and methanol were found to dissolve both, especially if the protein had been lyophilized from an aqueous solution of a pH remote from the protein's isoelectric point. A number of proteins, as well as RNA and DNA, dissolved in these alcohols readily crossed the lipidized membranes, whereas the same biopolymers placed in nondissolving solvents (e.g., hexane and ethyl acetate) or in those unable to dissolve lipids (e.g., water and dimethyl sulfoxide) exhibited little transmembrane transport. The solubility of biopolymers in ethanol and methanol was further enhanced by complexation with detergents and poly(ethylene glycol); significant protein and nucleic acid transport through the lipidized membranes was observed from these solvents but not from water.

  19. Dissolved organic carbon pools and export from the coastal ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Barrón, Cristina

    2015-10-21

    The distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration across coastal waters was characterized based on the compilation of 3510 individual estimates of DOC in coastal waters worldwide. We estimated the DOC concentration in the coastal waters that directly exchange with open ocean waters in two different ways, as the DOC concentration at the edge of the shelf break and as the DOC concentration in coastal waters with salinity close to the average salinity in the open ocean. Using these estimates of DOC concentration in the coastal waters that directly exchange with open ocean waters, the mean DOC concentration in the open ocean and the estimated volume of water annually exchanged between coastal and open ocean, we estimated a median ± SE (and average ± SE) global DOC export from coastal to open ocean waters ranging from 4.4 ± 1.0 Pg C yr−1 to 27.0 ± 1.8 Pg C yr−1 (7.0 ± 5.8 Pg C yr−1 to 29.0 ± 8.0 Pg C yr−1) depending on the global hydrological exchange. These values correspond to a median and mean median (and average) range between 14.7 ± 3.3 to 90.0 ± 6.0 (23.3 ± 19.3 to 96.7 ± 26.7) Gg C yr−1 per km of shelf break, which is consistent with the range between 1.4 to 66.1 Gg C yr−1 per km of shelf break of available regional estimates of DOC export. The estimated global DOC export from coastal to open ocean waters is also consistent with independent estimates of the net metabolic balance of the coastal ocean. The DOC export from the coastal to the open ocean is likely to be a sizeable flux and is likely to be an important term in the carbon budget of the open ocean, potentially providing an important subsidy to support heterotrophic activity in the open ocean.

  20. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  1. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) export to a temperate estuary: Seasonal variations and implications of land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, C. A.; Markager, S.; Søndergaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    more natural areas the patterns observed were largely driven by seasonal temperature fluctuations. The material exported from agricultural areas was more variable and largely controlled by precipitation events. Positive exponential relationships were found between the nitrogen and phosphorus loading......, and the percentage of catchment area used for agriculture. Colored DOM (CDOM) loading measurements were found to be a good predictor of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading across the different subcatchments, offering a rapid and inexpensive alternative of operationally monitoring DOC export. For all the dissolved...... nutrient inputs to the estuary, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic phosphorus dominated the loadings. Although 81% of the nitrogen annually supplied to the estuary was DIN, 83% of the nitrogen exported from the estuary was dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Results show that increasing...

  2. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  3. Respirometric evaluation of biodegradation characteristics of dairy wastewater for organic carbon removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubay Cokgör, E; Sözen, S; Insel, G; Orhon, D

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates the biodegradation kinetics of an integrated dairy wastewater, with the main purpose of defining the experimental basis for modelling of the activated sludge process. Besides conventional characterization, the experiments involved detailed chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation and assessment of major kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients, by using respirometric methods. A multi-component model based on the endogenous decay concept was used for the kinetic interpretation. The results of conventional analyses and respirometric evaluations together with the assessment of residual components showed that the organic carbon content of the dairy wastewater was mostly soluble and biodegradable. The soluble, slowly biodegradable COD was the major COD fraction, representing around 50% of the total COD. Model calibration of the oxygen uptake rate profiles were consistent and revealed the existence of dual hydrolysis kinetics for soluble and particulate COD components. The hydrolysis rate associated with the main COD component--the soluble, slowly biodegradable COD fraction--was found to be 1.2 d(-1), which is quite low and underlines the role of this COD fraction as the rate-limiting factor for effluent quality. Simulation of process efficiency by the adopted model, calibrated with the experimentally determined parameters, indicated that effective control of the biodegradation of the soluble biodegradable COD components could be done by selection of appropriate values for the sludge age and hydraulic retention time. In this way, the total effluent soluble COD level could be lowered to 30-40 mg L(-1) range, in conformity with effluent limitations.

  4. Bioavailability and radiocarbon age of fluvial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peatland-dominated catchment: effect of land-use change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, C.J.; Kaartokallio, H.; Asmala, E.

    2014-01-01

    The radiocarbon age and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a northern peat-dominated river system was studied and the effects of land-use were compared. Samples were obtained from streams and ditches comprising sub-catchments of the Kiiminki River, Northern Finland. Sample...... sites included areas of natural mire, areas subjected to moderate disturbance (ditching to enhance forestry), and areas subjected to serious land use change (agriculture and peat excavation). The study employed a 55 day bioassay that measured the biodegradation potential of surface-water DOM. We....... Bacterial growth efficiency ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 between areas of different land use, and these relatively low values reflect the humic-rich DOM released from boreal peatland. Despite the range of land-use types studied, including intensive peatland excavation areas, there was no detectable relationship...

  5. Methane hydrate-bearing seeps as a source of aged dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John; Waite, William F.; Bauer, James E.; Osburn, Christopher L.; Chapman, N. Ross

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments contain about 500–10,000 Gt of methane carbon1, 2, 3, primarily in gas hydrate. This reservoir is comparable in size to the amount of organic carbon in land biota, terrestrial soils, the atmosphere and sea water combined1, 4, but it releases relatively little methane to the ocean and atmosphere5. Sedimentary microbes convert most of the dissolved methane to carbon dioxide6, 7. Here we show that a significant additional product associated with microbial methane consumption is methane-derived dissolved organic carbon. We use Δ14C and δ13C measurements and isotopic mass-balance calculations to evaluate the contribution of methane-derived carbon to seawater dissolved organic carbon overlying gas hydrate-bearing seeps in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We show that carbon derived from fossil methane accounts for up to 28% of the dissolved organic carbon. This methane-derived material is much older, and more depleted in 13C, than background dissolved organic carbon. We suggest that fossil methane-derived carbon may contribute significantly to the estimated 4,000–6,000 year age of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean8, and provide reduced organic matter and energy to deep-ocean microbial communities.

  6. Origin of heat-induced structural changes in dissolved organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastík, M.; Novák, František; Kučerík, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2013), s. 789-795 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * humic substances * hydration * hysteresis Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2013

  7. Distinct optical chemistry of dissolved organic matter in urban pond ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McEnroe, N. A.; Williams, C. J.; Xenopoulos, M. A.; Porcal, Petr; Frost, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e80334 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * photodegradation * fluorescence * PARAFAC Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  8. Photobleaching Kinetics of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Derived from Mangrove Leaf Litter and Floating Sargassum Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the photoreactivity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) derived from Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) leaf litter and floating Sargassum colonies as these marine plants can be important contributors to coastal and open ocean CDOM pools, respectively. Mangr...

  9. Northern Gulf of Mexico estuarine coloured dissolved organic matter derived from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is relevant for water quality management and may become an important measure to complement future water quality assessment programmes. An approach to derive CDOM using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed...

  10. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  11. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  12. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  13. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  14. Heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckey, D.; Colberg, P.J.; Baugh, K.; Young, L.Y.; McCarty, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate thermochemical pretreatment as a method for increasing the anaerobic biodegradability of organic materials so that they can be more completely fermented to methane gas, a potential source of fuel. The current study has four specific phases: (1) biological conversion of lignocellulose to methane, (2) biodegradation of lignin and lignin fractions, (3) pretreatment of nitrogenous organics for increasing biodegradability, (4) biodegradation of lignin aromatic compounds, and (5) biochemical methane potential and toxicity testing. Results are reported for phases one, two, and three. No new information is available for phases four and five at this time.

  15. [Sources of dissolved organic carbon and the bioavailability of dissolved carbohydrates in the tributaries of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Kong, Fan-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Yan, De-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Surface water samples of Yincungang and Chendonggang Rivers were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 in Lake Taihu. Water temperature, Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance were analyzed, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, stable carbon isotope of DOC (Δ13C(DOC)), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254 ) and dissolved carbohydrates concentrations. Δ13C(DOC) ranged from -27.03% per thousand ± 0.30% per thousand to -23.38%per thousand ± 0.20% per thousand, indicating a terrestrial source. Both the autochthonous and allochthonous sources contributed to the carbohydrates pool in the tributaries. Significant differences in PCHO (polysaccharides) and MCHO (monosaccharides) concentrations were observed between spring-summer and autumn-winter (P carbohydrates. PCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO (total dissolved carbohydrates) in autumn and winter, which could be explained by the accumulation of undegradable PCHO limited by the low water temperature; MCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO in spring and summer, which might be caused by the transformation from PCHO by microbes at high water temperature.

  16. Facilitated transport of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers by dissolved organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Busser, F.J.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Hermens, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The exchange rate of hydrophobic organic chemicals between the aqueous phase and a sorbent (e.g., soil, organism, passive sampler) is relevant for distribution processes between environmental compartments, including organisms. Dissolved phases such as humic acids, proteins, and surfactants can

  17. Biodegradation of Kupferschiefer black shale organic matter (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland) by indigenous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakowska, Renata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    This study provides the first evidence for the direct biodegradation of persistent organic matter extracted from the organic-rich polymetallic black shale ore Kupferschiefer, one of the most important sources of metals in the world. It was demonstrated that an enriched community of indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from black shale grown under aerobic conditions could utilize shale organic matter as the sole carbon and energy source. Colonization of shale organic matter was observed. The main biodegradation intermediates and products such as phosphonic acid dioctadecyl ester and isoindole-1,3 were detected in the aqueous phase of cultures. The bacterial community showed the ability to PAH biodegradation, assimilation of organic acids and esters as well as lipase activity. The intracellular accumulation of phosphorus by bacteria during growth on organic matter was confirmed. Strains within the genus Pseudomonas were found to dominate the bacterial population at the end of the experiment. The results of this study confirm that indigenous bacteria are likely to play a role in the biotransformation of black shale and can influence the geochemical cycles of ancient organic carbon in the deep terrestrial subsurface. This process may also occur in tailings ponds containing black shale, and cause the mobilization of potentially toxic compounds to the soil and groundwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overstory vegetation influence nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon flux from the atmosphere to the forest floor: Boreal Plain, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Pelster; Randall K. Kolka; Ellie E. Prepas

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate, ammonium, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and flux were measured for one year in bulk deposition and throughfall from three stand types (upland deciduous, upland conifer and wetland conifer) on the Boreal Plain, Canada. Annual (November 2006 to October 2007 water year) flux...

  19. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected wi...

  20. DISTRIBUTION AND COMPOSITION OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY DURING LOW FRESHWATER FLOW CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of organic matter was studied in northern San Francisco Bay monthly through spring and summer 1996 along the salinity gradient from the Sacramento River to Central Bay. Dissolved constituents included monosaccharides (MONO), total carbohydrates (TCHO), dissolved ...

  1. Stabilization of dissolved organic matter by aluminium: A toxic effect or stabilization through precipitation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, T.; Jansen, B.; van Wijk, A.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Kalbitz, K.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon mineralization in acidic forest soils can be retarded by large concentrations of aluminium (Al). However, it is still unclear whether Al reduces C mineralization by direct toxicity to microorganisms or by decreased bioavailability of organic matter (OM) because dissolved organic matter (DOM)

  2. Dynamics of soil dissolved organic carbon pools reveal both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds sustain microbial respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.; Chincarini, R.; Comans, R.N.J.; Hoffland, E.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from soil organic amendments may influence soil microbial activity and the quality of the soil's DOC pools. Measurements of total DOC are often considered in relation to microbial activity levels but here we propose that quantification of DOC

  3. Uptake of allochthonous dissolved organic matter from soil and salmon in coastal temperate rainforest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; Eran Hood; Richard T. Edwards; Jeremy B. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of aquatic food webs. We compare the uptake kinetics for NH4-N and different fractions of DOM during soil and salmon leachate additions by evaluating the uptake of organic forms of carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), and proteinaceous DOM, as measured by parallel factor (PARAFAC) modeling of...

  4. Dissolved organic nutrients and phytoplankton production in the Mandovi estuary and coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    Total organic nitrogen (TON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa, India varied from 0.6 to 47.1 mu g-at N 1-1 and 0.12 to 3.49 mu g-at P l-1 respectively. The chlorophyll content of these waters...

  5. Dispersion of kaolinite by dissolved organic matter from Douglas-fir roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip B. Durgin; Jesse G. Chaney

    1984-01-01

    The organic constituents of water extracts from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) roots that cause kaolinite dispersion were investigated. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated according to molecular size and chemical characteristics into acids, neutrals, and bases of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups.

  6. Nonconservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon across the Laptev and East Siberian seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alling, Vanja; Sanchez-Garcia, Laura; Porcelli, Don; Pugach, Sveta; Vonk, Jorien E.; Van Dongen, Bart; Mörth, Carl Magnus; Anderson, Leif G.; Sokolov, Alexander; Andersson, Per; Humborg, Christoph; Semiletov, Igor P.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a strong effect on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) region, which includes 40% of the Arctic shelves and comprises the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The largest organic carbon pool, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), may change significantly due to

  7. Bioavailability and export of dissolved organic matter from a tropical river during base- and stormflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy N. Wiegner; Randee L. Tubal; Richard A. MacKenzie

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations, bioavailability, and export of dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), and nutrients from the Wailuku River, Hawai'i, U.S.A., were examined under base- and stormflow conditions. During storms, DOM and POM concentrations increased approximately by factors of 2 and 11, respectively, whereas NO3...

  8. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  9. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    ) was used in a batch photo-bioreactor to study the effectiveness of new strain phototrophic bacteria in bioremediation of organic contaminated wastewater. In this work, effects of additions of three individual micronutrients,.

  10. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was used in a batch photo-bioreactor to study the effectiveness of new strain phototrophic bacteria in bioremediation of organic contaminated wastewater. In this work, effects of additions of three individual micronutrients, that is, ferrous, ...

  11. Organic acid dissolving in groundwater in the Mobara gas field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Gento

    2000-12-01

    As a representative of natural marine groundwater, the author selected pumped water from a Quaternary sedimentary aquifer of the Mobara gas-field in Japan and measured the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) and of organic acid anions (formic, acetic, lactic, succinic, humic, fulvic, propionic, valeric and butyric acids). The concentration of TOC ranged from 22±1 to 24±0 mg/L. As organic acid anions, only succinic and fulvic acids were detected and each concentration was given to be from 5.8±0.5 to 8.3±0.3 and from 3.3±0.2 to 3.5±0.2 mg/L, respectively. By consideration of the temperature and the [SO 4 2- ] of the groundwater, it is inferred that the organic acid has been significantly decomposed by activities of microbes, such as the fermentation process, CH 3 COO - + H 2 O=HCO 3 - + CH 4 . (author)

  12. Biodegradable inorganic-organic hybrids of methacrylate star polymers for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Justin J; Fujita, Yuki; Li, Siwei; Stevens, Molly M; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Georgiou, Theoni K; Jones, Julian R

    2017-05-01

    Hybrids that are molecular scale co-networks of organic and inorganic components are promising biomaterials, improving the brittleness of bioactive glass and the strength of polymers. Methacrylate polymers have high potential as the organic source for hybrids since they can be produced, through controlled polymerization, with sophisticated polymer architectures that can bond to silicate networks. Previous studies showed the mechanical properties of hybrids can be modified by polymer architecture and molar mass (MM). However, biodegradability is critical if hybrids are to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds, since the templates must be remodelled by host tissue. Degradation by-products have to either completely biodegrade or be excreted by the kidneys. Enzyme, or bio-degradation is preferred to hydrolysis by water uptake as it is expected to give a more controlled degradation rate. Here, branched and star shaped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (poly(MMA-co-TMSPMA)) were synthesized with disulphide based dimethacrylate (DSDMA) as a biodegradable branching agent. Biodegradability was confirmed by exposing the copolymers to glutathione, a tripeptide which is known to cleave disulphide bonds. Cleaved parts of the star polymer from the hybrid system were detected after 2weeks of immersion in glutathione solution, and MM was under threshold of kidney filtration. The presence of the branching agent did not reduce the mechanical properties of the hybrids and bone progenitor cells attached on the hybrids in vitro. Incorporation of the DSDMA branching agent has opened more possibilities to design biodegradable methacrylate polymer based hybrids for regenerative medicine. Bioactive glasses can regenerate bone but are brittle. Hybrids can overcome this problem as intimate interactions between glass and polymer creates synergetic properties. Implants have previously been made with synthetic polymers that degrade by water, however, they

  13. Monitoring of the aerobe biodegradation of chlorinated organic solvents by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Anikó; Futó, István; Palcsu, László

    2014-05-01

    Our chemical-biological basic research aims to eliminate chlorinated environmental contaminants from aquifers around industrial areas in the frame of research program supported by the European Social Fund (TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0043). The most careful and simplest way includes the in situ biodegradation with the help of cultured and compound specific strains. Numerous members of Pseudomonas bacteria are famous about function of bioremediation. They can metabolism the environmental hazardous chemicals like gas oils, dyes, and organic solvents. Our research based on the Pseudomonas putida F1 strain, because its ability to degrade halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene. Several methods were investigated to estimate the rate of biodegradation, such as the measurement of the concentration of the pollutant along the contamination pathway, the microcosm's studies or the compound specific stable isotope analysis. In this area in the Transcarpathian basin we are pioneers in the stable isotope monitoring of biodegradation. The main goal is to find stable isotope fractionation factors by stable isotope analysis, which can help us to estimate the rate and effectiveness of the biodegradation. The subsequent research period includes the investigation of the method, testing its feasibility and adaptation in the environment. Last but not least, the research gives an opportunity to identify the producer of the contaminant based on the stable isotope composition of the contaminant.

  14. The delivery of dissolved organic carbon from a forested hillslope to a headwater stream in southeastern Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yi; Hornberger, George M.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.

    2014-07-01

    Riparian soils, rich in organic carbon, act as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the adjacent stream, but the hydrologic factors that control the delivery of DOC are not well characterized. A mechanistic two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and reactive transport finite element model (FEM) was developed to explore both biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and refractory DOC (RDOC) delivery processes during storms for a hillslope transect in a southeastern Pennsylvania Piedmont watershed. The model indicated that DOC concentrations in outflow from a hillslope peaked on the falling limb of the discharge hydrograph, a temporal sequence consistent with a flushing hypothesis. Factors that control the lag time between the stream water peak discharge and peak DOC concentration were analyzed using a Monte Carlo simulation coupled with a multiple linear regression. The results are consistent with previous studies showing that the majority of DOC delivered to a stream during storms originates from the riparian zone. Further, the model suggests that the duration of the flood wave and hydraulic properties of the riparian soil play important roles in controlling the lag time between peak discharge and peak DOC concentration in outflow from a hillslope.

  15. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on investigations on the qualitative and quantitative cycling of particulate and dissolved organic matter within lakes and their drainage basins. Interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling and regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora remain the focal point of these studies. Major efforts were directed towards the sources fates, pathways, and interactions of dissolved organic matter in inorganic chemical cycling; allochthonous sources, metabolism en route, and inputs to the lake systems of increasing stages of eutrophication; and the relationships of these compounds to the nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, sessile algae, macrophytes, and bacterial populations. Results of studies carried out in a freshwater lake in Michigan (Lawrence Lake) are reported. 165 references.

  16. Assessing the Role of Dissolved Organic Phosphate on Rates of Microbial Phosphorus Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A. C.; Popendorf, K. J.; Duhamel, S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element crucial to life, and it is limiting in many parts of the ocean. In oligotrophic environments, the dissolved P pool is cycled rapidly through the activity of microbes, with turnover times of several hours or less. The overarching aim of this study was to assess the flux of P from picoplankton to the dissolved pool and the role this plays in fueling rapid P cycling. To determine if specific microbial groups are responsible for significant return of P to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover (cell-Pτ, the rate of cellular P uptake divided by cellular P content) to the rate of cellular biomass turnover (cellτ). High rates of P return to the dissolved pool during cell lifetime (high cell-Pτ/cellτ) indicate significant P regeneration, fueling more rapid turnover of the dissolved P pool. We hypothesized that cell-Pτ/cellτ varies widely across picoplankton groups. One factor influencing this variation may be each microbial group's relative uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) versus dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP). As extracellular hydrolysis is necessary for P incorporation from DOP, this process may return more P to the dissolved pool than DIP incorporation. This leads to the question: does a picoplankton's relative uptake of DOP (versus DIP) affect the rate at which it returns phosphorus to the dissolved pool? To address this question, we compared the rate of cellular P turnover based on uptake of DOP and uptake DIP using cultured representatives of three environmentally significant picoplankton groups: Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria. These different picoplankton groups are known to take up different ratios of DOP to DIP, and may in turn make significantly different contributions to the regeneration and cycling phosphorus. These findings have implications towards our understanding of the timeframes of biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the

  17. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse...... experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA......), carbamazepine (CBZ), triclosan (TCS) and caffeine (CAF). The model overestimated concentrations in most cases, when no degradation rates in plants were entered. Subsequently, biodegradation rates were fitted so that the measured concentrations were met.Obtained degradation kinetics are in the order, BPA

  18. Thallium and Silver binding to dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M. F.; Martin, L.; Simonucci, C.; Viollier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Silver (Ag) and thallium (Tl) are potential contaminants at the vicinity of mining sites and are harmful pollutants. Silver can be found in mine but also as released by the dissolution of Silver nanoparticles, a major new emerging contaminant. Tl is both lithophilic and calcophilic elements and found in sulphur ores (associated with lead, zinc, antimony…) or in rocks containing K-feldspar. Speciation of Ag and Tl is poorly known mainly due to their low concentrations in aquatic environments. Review of Ag and Tl geochemistry clearly shows a lack of quantitative information about interactions with natural organic matter. Organic ligands could play an important role in Ag or Tl bioavailability, chemical reactivity (adsorption or photo oxidation inhibition or catalysis) and hence geochemical transfers. Based on equilibrium between two solutions that are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, the so-called "Donnan membrane technique" (DMT) provides a measure of free ion concentrations. Analytes measurements are performed by HR-ICP-MS Element 2 (Thermo Scientific). Experimental setup allows the Donnan equilibrium to be reached after 100 and 120 hours for Tl. Experiments performed with purified natural organic matter allow calculating complexation constants in multiple pH conditions. With this work, we contribute new data and interpretations to an active debate on Ag and Tl geochemical modeling. In conclusion, this work brings a new view on risk assessment for mining activities.

  19. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-01-01

    samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmoll−1 in freshwater to 222μmoll−1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC......The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87...

  20. Interactions Between Prokaryotes and Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia Jo

    organic bound carbon equal in size to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Prokaryotes mediate the fate of a large part of marine DOM, which is their principal source of energy and substrate. However, a large fraction is also left behind in the water column persisting for millennia, and prokaryotes may hold...... the key to understanding the mechanisms controlling the cycling of DOM within marine waters. In the thesis presented here, the aim was to investigate the activity and composition of prokaryotes to determine their functional role in DOM utilization. The thesis incorporates a range of study systems...

  1. Biodegradation of organic contaminants from the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Prócel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the environmental aspects of high impact in dairy industries is the discharge of wastewaters, because of contaminating organic matter as well as the substantial generation of effluents. In the present study, a biofiltration of effluents from a dairy industry in San Miguel de Nono (Ecuador with a pollution load of 10.000 mg/L in terms of chemical oxygen demand and turbidity of 799 NTU was implemented. The system with a capacity of 55 L per batch consisted of three biofilters in series and activated zeolite assisted clarification. Organic degradation reached 98,9%; turbidity removal was 95,2%, 94,4% of nitrogen and 89,1% of phosphorus. The presence of milk fat did not decrease the efficiency of the biofiltration but increased the removal of suspended matter and pH neutralisation in the clarification. The optimal operating time was 6 hours under aerobic conditions.

  2. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  3. Microbial communities and their potential for degradation of dissolved organic carbon in cryoconite hole environments of Himalaya and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Aritri; Antony, Runa; Samui, Gautami; Thamban, Meloth

    2018-03-01

    Cryoconite holes (cylindrical melt-holes on the glacier surface) are important hydrological and biological systems within glacial environments that support diverse microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. This study describes retrievable heterotrophic microbes in cryoconite hole water from three geographically distinct sites in Antarctica, and a Himalayan glacier, along with their potential to degrade organic compounds found in these environments. Microcosm experiments (22 days) show that 13-60% of the dissolved organic carbon in the water within cryoconite holes is bio-available to resident microbes. Biodegradation tests of organic compounds such as lactate, acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate that are present in cryoconite hole water show that microbes have good potential to metabolize the compounds tested. Substrate utilization tests on Biolog Ecoplate show that microbial communities in the Himalayan samples are able to oxidize a diverse array of organic substrates including carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, amines/amides and polymers, while Antarctic communities generally utilized complex polymers. In addition, as determined by the extracellular enzyme activities, majority of the microbes (82%, total of 355) isolated in this study (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Basidiomycota) had ability to degrade a variety of compounds such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, cellulose and lignin that are documented to be present within cryoconite holes. Thus, microbial communities have good potential to metabolize organic compounds found in the cryoconite hole environment, thereby influencing the water chemistry in these holes. Moreover, microbes exported downstream during melting and flushing of cryoconite holes may participate in carbon cycling processes in recipient ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatio-seasonal variability in dissolved organic matter optical properties and its bioavailability in a subalpine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Masumi; Ejarque, Elisabet; Kainz, Martin J.

    2017-04-01

    Allochthonous and autochothonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lakes mainly originate from terrestrial and aquatic primary production, respectively. Due to their differing biochemical composition the degradability of DOM by microorganisms is expected to vary. The carbon use efficiency of bacteria and DOM biodegradability determine whether the consumed DOM is incorporated into microbial biomass or respired to CO2 and ultimately emitted into the atmosphere. Thus, understanding the interaction of biodegradable DOM and its consumers is crucial to increase our knowledge on the role of lakes in the global carbon cycling. However, interactions of specific aquatic DOM signatures and the microbial population still remain widely debated. The aim of this study was to explore how DOM biodegradability changes along a stream-lake continuum at different seasons of the year. We monitored DOM quantity and its optical properties, inorganic nutrients, CO2 and bacterial growth over 20 days in dark bioassays with water from the inflow, outflow and at three layers of an oligotrophic subalpine lake. Preliminary results reveal highest microbial abundance in the metalimnion in winter and summer (0.7 106 and 2.5 106 cells mL-1, respectively) and the inflow in spring and autumn (1 106 and 1.4 106 cells mL-1, respectively) after 20 days. Surprisingly, with the exception of winter samples final inflow bacterial abundance results high, despite its lowest initial natural cell concentration, providing evidence for effective utilisation of terrestrial DOM, even with its high humic signature as indicated by the humification index (HIX). Nonetheless, after a microbial biomass peak with the inflow yielding mostly highest after three days, at the final experimental stage microbial biomass does only marginally differ between all sites with the exception of autumn samples where outflow and metalimnion turn out most productive. Even though the DOM of all lake sites and the lake outflow were

  5. Dialysis is superior to anion exchange for removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from freshwater samples prior to dissolved organic nitrogen determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Gücker, Björn; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is usually determined as the difference between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). When applying this approach to samples with high DIN concentrations, there is a risk, that small relative errors in TDN and DIN measurements may...... propagate into high absolute errors of the determined DON concentration. To reduce such errors, two pretreatment methods have been suggested for the removal of DIN prior to the determination of DON: anion-exchange pretreatment (AEP) and dialysis pretreatment (DP). In this study, we tested the suitability...

  6. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), triclosan (TCS) and caffeine (CAF). The model overestimated concentrations in most cases, when no degradation rates in plants were entered. Subsequently, biodegradation rates were fitted so that the measured concentrations were met. Obtained degradation kinetics are in the order, BPA < CAF ≈ TCS < CBZ in roots, and BPA ≈ TCS < CBZ < CAF in leaves. Kinetics determined by inverse modeling are, despite the inherent uncertainty, indicative of the dissipation rates. The advantage of the procedure that is additional knowledge can be gained from existing experimental data. Dissipation kinetics found via inverse modeling is not a conclusive proof for biodegradation and confirmation by experimental studies is needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, E.C.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.; Oulehle, F.; Cooper, D.M.; Jones, T.G.; Burden, A.; Hall, J.; Evans, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes may relate to changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution. We integrated existing models of vegetation growth and soil organic matter turnover, acid–base dynamics, and organic matter mobility, to form the ‘MADOC’ model. After calibrating parameters governing interactions between pH and DOC dissolution using control treatments on two field experiments, MADOC reproduced responses of pH and DOC to additions of acidifying and alkalising solutions. Long-term trends in a range of acid waters were also reproduced. The model suggests that the sustained nature of observed DOC increases can best be explained by a continuously replenishing potentially-dissolved carbon pool, rather than dissolution of a large accumulated store. The simulations informed the development of hypotheses that: DOC increase is related to plant productivity increase as well as to pH change; DOC increases due to nitrogen pollution will become evident, and be sustained, after soil pH has stabilised. -- Highlights: • A model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was developed by integrating simple models • MADOC simulates effects of sulphur and nitrogen deposition and interactions with pH. • Responses of DOC and pH to experimental acidification and alkalisation were reproduced. • The persistence of DOC increases will depend on continued supply of potential DOC. • DOC fluxes are likely determined by plant productivity as well as soil solution pH. -- Effects of changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution on dissolved organic carbon fluxes are predicted by simulating soil organic matter cycling, the release of potentially-dissolved carbon, and interactions with soil pH

  8. Response of soil dissolved organic matter to microplastic addition in Chinese loess soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Liang, Chutao; Xue, Sha; Chen, Hao; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2017-10-01

    Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but little information is available on the effects of plastic residues, especially microplastic, on soil DOM. We conducted a soil-incubation experiment in a climate-controlled chamber with three levels of microplastic added to loess soil collected from the Loess Plateau in China: 0% (control, CK), 7% (M1) and 28% (M2) (w/w). We analysed the soil contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH 4 + , NO 3 - , dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), and PO 4 3- and the activities of fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDAse) and phenol oxidase. The higher level of microplastic addition significantly increased the nutrient contents of the DOM solution. The lower level of addition had no significant effect on the DOM solution during the first seven days, but the rate of DOM decomposition decreased in M1 between days 7 and 30, which increased the nutrient contents. The microplastic facilitated the accumulation of high-molecular-weight humic-like material between days 7 and 30. The DOM solutions were mainly comprised of high-molecular-weight humic-like material in CK and M1 and of high-molecular-weight humic-like material and tyrosine-like material in M2. The Microplastic stimulated the activities of both enzymes. Microplastic addition thus stimulated enzymatic activity, activated pools of organic C, N, and P, and was beneficial for the accumulation of dissolved organic C, N and P. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ele...

  10. Long-term experimental acidification drives watershed scale shift in dissolved organic matter composition and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. SanClements; Ivan J. Fernandez; Robert H. Lee; Joshua A. Roberti; Mary Beth Adams; Garret A. Rue; Diane M. McKnight

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) in surface waters have increased throughout much of the northern hemisphere. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the drivers of this phenomenon including decreased sulfur (S) deposition working via an acidity- change mechanism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and data from two long-...

  11. Pathways and mechanisms for removal of dissolved organic carbon from leaf leachate in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford N. Dahm

    1981-01-01

    Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water resulting from adsorption and microbial uptake was examined to determine the importance of biotic and abiotic pathways. Physical–chemical adsorption to components of the stream sediment or water and biotic assimilation associated with the microbial population was determined in recirculating chambers utilizing...

  12. Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter reduces the availability of phosphorus for aquatic primary producers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porcal, Petr; Kopáček, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 193, FEB (2018), s. 1018-1026 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09721S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : photochemistry * phosphorus * dissolved organic matter * aluminum * iron Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  13. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...

  14. Production of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter from Mangrove Leaf Litter and Floating Sargassum Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) strongly absorbs solar radiation in the blue-green and serves as the primary attenuator of water column ultraviolet radiation (UV-R). CDOM interferes with remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll and can control UV-R-induced damage to light...

  15. Seasonal changes in photochemical properties of dissolved organic matter in small boreal streams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, P. J.; Molot, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2013), s. 5533-5543 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/0781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : photodegradation * dissolved organic matter * seasonal * stream Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.753, year: 2013

  16. Effect of light availability on dissolved organic carbon release by Caribbean reef algae and corals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; van der Zande, R.M.; van Leent, P.J.M.; Meesters, E.H.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release of three algal and two coral species was determined at three light intensities (0, 30–80, and 200–400 µmol photons m–2 s–1) in ex situ incubations to quantify the effect of light availability on DOC release by reef primary producers. DOC release of three

  17. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Vicca, Sara; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jonard, Mathieu; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Gielen, Bert; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Waldner, Peter; Sawicka, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  18. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  19. Input materials and processing conditions control compost dissolved organic carbon quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been proposed as an indicator of compost maturity and stability. Further fractionation of compost DOC may be useful for determining how particular composting conditions will influence DOC quality. Eleven composts ranging in input materials and processing techniques

  20. Effects of watershed history on dissolved organic matter characteristics in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youhei Yamashita; Brian D. Kloeppel; Jennifer Knoepp; Gregory L. Zausen; Rudolf Jaffe'

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is recognized as a major component in the global carbon cycle and is an important driver in aquatic ecosystem function. Climate, land use, and forest cover changes all impact stream DOM and alter biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments. We determined the temporal variation in DOM quantity and quality in headwater streams at a...

  1. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The

  2. INFLUENCE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ON AGROCHEMICAL PHOTOREACTIONS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering studies by Don Crosby and co-workers demonstrated that the sunlight-induced dissipation of agrochemicals in water often is strongly affected by natural constituents in the water such as nitrate and dissolved organic matter. In this presentation, the focus is on the rol...

  3. Response of soil dissolved organic matter to microplastic addition in Chinese loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Liang, Chutao; Xue, Sha; Chen, Hao; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Plastic debris is accumulating in agricultural land due to the increased use of plastic mulches, which is causing serious environmental problems, especially for biochemical and physical properties of the soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in driving soil biogeochemistry, but

  4. Seasonal changes in the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in large Arctic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, S.A.; Amon, R.M.; Stedmon, Colin

    seasonal trends in Arctic river tCDOM composition. Parallel Factor Analysis was used to decompose the combined tCDOM fluorescence signal into five independent model components. The relationship of individual fluorescence components to dissolved organic carbon, lignin phenol concentrations, and the 14C...

  5. Quantifying the production of dissolved organic nitrogen in headwater streams using 15N tracer additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura T. Johnson; Jennifer L. Tank; Robert O. Hall; Patrick J. Mullholland; Stephen K. Hamilton; H. Maurice Valett; Jackson R. Webster; Melody J. Bernot; William H. McDowell; Bruce J. Peterson; Suzanne M. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Most nitrogen (N) assimilation in lake and marine ecosystems is often subsequently released via autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) production, but autochthonous DON production has yet to be quantified in flowing waters. We measured in-stream DON production following 24 h 15N-nitrate (NO3-...

  6. Dynamics of dissolved and extractable organic nitrogen upon soil amendment with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is increasingly recognized as a pivotal pool in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Numerous devices and sampling procedures have been used to estimate its size, varying from in situ collection of soil solution to extraction of dried soil with salt solutions. Extractable

  7. Interaction of extrinsic chemical factors affecting photodegradation of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, P. J.; Molot, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2014), s. 799-812 ISSN 1474-905X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/0781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : photodegradation * dissolved organic matter * calcium * nitrate * iron * pH Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2014

  8. Effect of dissolved organic carbon in recycled wastewaters on boron adsorption by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In areas of water scarcity, recycled municipal wastewaters are being used as water resources for non-potable applications, especially for irrigation. Such wastewaters often contain elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and solution boron (B). Boron adsorption was investigated on eight ...

  9. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-12-18

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering the redefinition of recalcitrant DOC recently proposed by Jiao et al., the dilution hypothesis best explains our experimental observations.

  10. Tracing the long-term microbial production of recalcitrant fluorescent dissolved organic matter in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin A.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean is resistant to microbial degradation, yet its formation remains poorly understood. The fluorescent fraction of DOM can be used to trace the formation of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM). A long-term (> 1 year) experiment revealed 27–52% removal ...

  11. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in an urbanized estuary located in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelho, Maria de Lara Palmeira de Macedo; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Monteiro, Adnívia Santos Costa; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges

    2017-06-01

    The Sal River estuary, which is located in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, stands out as an urban estuary, anthropogenically impacted by untreated and treated wastewater discharge. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used for characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the estuarine water. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 19.0 mg L -1 and, in general, the highest values were recorded during dry season. For both seasons (dry and rainy), DOC presented an inverse linear relationship with salinity, which indicates a conservative dilution of organic matter coming into the estuary. During rainy season, anthropogenic organic constituents and humic substances from land-based sources predominated in DOM composition, carried by river flow. Whereas during the dry season, it has been observed a significant increase of products generated by microbial degradation of anthropogenic organic matter. The relationships between fluorescence intensity and salinity suggest a conservative behavior during rainy season and a non-conservative behavior during dry season, with addition of fluorescent organic matter into the intermediate zone of the estuary. Photodegradation by action of sunlight caused a decrease in fluorescence intensity of humic and tryptophan-like constituents and the release of photoproducts, resulting in an increase in fluorescence intensity of protein-like constituents.

  12. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  13. Oxidation by UV and ozone of organic contaminants dissolved in deionized and raw mains water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Organic contaminants dissolved in deionized pretreated and raw mains water were reacted with ultraviolet light and ozone. Ozone first was used for partial oxidation followed by ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation to produce total oxidation. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) level and direct oxidation of halogenated compounds were measured throughout the treatment process. The rate of TOC reduction was compared for ozone injected upstream and inside the reactor

  14. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in Dl water had no detectable dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. {zeta}-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  15. Effects of a controlled freeze-thaw event on dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Lee, Ha Kyung; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing. Thawing at 2 °C after freezing at -20 °C increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but decreased colloidal Ca. The subsequent warming condition greatly increased both DOC and colloidal Ca. The colloidal organic carbon (COC) and dissolved Ca showed rather subtle changes in response to the freeze-thaw and warming treatments compared to the changes in DOC and colloidal Ca. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and Fourier transformation-infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) results showed that the freeze-thaw and warming treatments gave the opposite effects on the compositions of dissolved humic-like substances, polysaccharides or silicates, and aliphatic alcohols. A principal component analysis (PCA) with the DOC, fluorescence EEM, and FT-IR spectra produced two principal components that successfully distinguished the effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments. Due to the contrasting effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments, the overall effects of freeze-thaw events in nature on the dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter could vary depending on the thawing temperature.

  16. Effects of sulfate deposition on pore water dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and microbial enzyme activities in a northern peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Seifert-Monson; B.H. Hill; R.K. Kolka; T.M. Jicha; L.L. Lehto; C.M. Elonen

    2014-01-01

    Export of dissolved organic carbon from lakes and streams has increased throughout Europe and North America over the past several decades. One possible cause is altered deposition chemistry; specifically, decreasing sulfate inputs leading to changes in ionic strength and dissolved organic carbon solubility. To further investigate the relationship between deposition...

  17. Higher molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen turnover as affected by soil management history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønne Enggrob, Kirsten

    High molecular weight dissolved organic nitrogen turnover as affected by soil management history *Kirsten Lønne Enggrob,1 Lars Elsgaard,1 and Jim Rasmussen1 1Aarhus University, Dept. of Agroecology, Foulum, Denmark 1. Introduction Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) play an important role in soil N...... cycling. DON, as a collective term, refers to a diversity of organic N compounds which can operationally be grouped into high molecular weight (Mw) DON (Mw > 1 kDa) and low Mw DON (... of different management histories on the turnover of high Mw DON. Further, we distinguished between several classes of high Mw DON, i.e., 1-10 kDa and >10 kDa. 3. Materials and methods With the use of micro-lysimeters, the turnover of triple-labeled (15N, 14C and 13C) high Mw DON was studied in a sandy soil...

  18. Biodegradation of organics in landfill leachate by immobilized white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor BCC 8725.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetang, Jenjira; Babel, Sandhya

    2012-12-01

    Immobilized Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 was evaluated for the biodegradation of the organic components of four different types of landfill leachate collected at different time periods and locations from the Nonthaburi landfill site of Thailand in batch treatment. The effects of carbon source, ammonia and organic loading on colour, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and the reuse of immobilized fungi were investigated. It was found that fungi can remove 78% of colour, reduce BOD by 68% and reduce COD by 57% in leachate within 15 days at optimum conditions. Organic loading and ammonia were the factors that affected the biodegradation. When immobilized T versicolor on polyurethane foam (PUF) was subjected to repeated use for treatment over the course of three cycles, the decolourization efficiency of the first and the second cycle was very similar, whereas the third cycle was about 20% lower than the first cycle under similar conditions. The obtained removal of colour, BOD and COD indicates the effectiveness of fungi for leachate treatment with high organic loading and varied leachate characteristics.

  19. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Mahalingam; Aiken, George R.; Reddy, Michael M.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release (up to 35 μM total dissolved mercury) from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca2+. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in DI water (pH = 6.0) had no detectable (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates (determined by 13C NMR) correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. ζ-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar (pHpzc = 4.0) at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  20. Exchanges and photo-biogeochemical transformation of dissolved organic compounds in Eastern US tidal marsh ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Neale, Patrick; Megonigal, Patrick; Butterworth, Megan; Jaffe, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The role of tidal marshes as sources, sinks and/or transformers of biologically important nutrients, carbon and pollutants has been studied in various marsh-estuarine environments and geomorphological settings. Although there is no consensus on the magnitude and direction of marsh-estuary net (particulate and dissolved) organic fluxes, most previous studies suggest that salt marshes export dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the surrounding estuarine waters. There has been less attention, however, to the influence of transformations on marsh-exported organic carbon composition or "quality". Yet, carbon composition affects a wide variety of estuarine processes, including microbial respiration and photochemistry. Our objectives in this study were to quantify the photo-reactivity and bio-availability of dissolved organic carbon compounds exported from tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay and determine their effects on the optical properties of colored organic matter (CDOM). We quantified DOC bioavailability with two assays of microbial mineralization: the traditional batch incubation approach in which a suspension of DOM and microbial cells (1 µm filtrate) was incubated in bottles for 7 d, and a continuous-flow bioreactor approach in which DOC (0.2 µm filtrate) was passed through a microbial community that had been pre-established on glass beads from the same source water. Photochemical degradation was measured after a 10h exposure to filtered xenon irradiance simulating midday surface exposure. We measured decreases in CDOM absorption and fluorescence spectra, DOC concentrations, changes in molecular weight distribution, and increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2. Results provide important insights on the transformation, fate and cycling of marsh-exported organic compounds, and the role of tidal marsh systems as major regulators of short-scale biological, optical and biogeochemical variability in highly dynamic coastal margins and catchment areas.

  1. Influence of land use and land cover on the spatial variability of dissolved organic matter in multiple aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shatrughan; Dash, Padmanava; Silwal, Saurav; Feng, Gary; Adeli, Ardeshir; Moorhead, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Water quality of lakes, estuaries, and coastal areas serves as an indicator of the overall health of aquatic ecosystems as well as the health of the terrestrial ecosystem that drains to the water body. Land use and land cover plays not only a significant role in controlling the quantity of the exported dissolved organic matter (DOM) but also influences the quality of DOM via various biogeochemical and biodegradation processes. We examined the characteristics and spatial distribution of DOM in five major lakes, in an estuary, and in the coastal waters of the Mississippi, USA, and investigated the influence of the land use and land cover of their watersheds on the DOM composition. We employed absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy including excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis modeling techniques to determine optical properties of DOM and its characteristics in this study. We developed a site-specific PARAFAC model to evaluate DOM characteristics resulting in five diverse DOM compositions that included two terrestrial humic-like (C1 and C3), two microbial humic-like (C2 and C5), and one protein-like (C4) DOM. Our results showed elevated fluorescence levels of microbial humic-like or protein-like DOM in the lakes and coastal waters, while the estuarine waters showed relatively high fluorescence levels of terrestrial humic-like DOM. The results also showed that percent forest and wetland coverage explained 68 and 82% variability, respectively, in terrestrial humic-like DOM exports, while 87% variability in microbially derived humiclike DOM was explained by percent agricultural lands. Strong correlations between microbial humic-like DOM and fluorescence-derived DOM indices such as biological index (BIX) and fluorescence index (FI) indicated autochthonous characteristics in the lakes, while the estuary showed largely allochthonous DOM of terrestrial origin. We also observed higher concentrations of total dissolved

  2. Subarctic wintertime dissolved iron speciation driven by thermal constraints on Fe(II) oxidation, dissolved organic matter and stream reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuichiroh; Yamagata, Kei; Oota, Atsuki; Ooki, Atsushi; Isoda, Yutaka; Kuma, Kenshi

    2017-10-01

    We studied the seasonal variations in Fe(II), Fe(III), humic-like dissolved organic matter (DOM), nitrate and nitrite (NO3 + NO2), and silicate (Si(OH)4) in river waters of three subarctic rivers flowing into Hakodate Bay in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan from May 2010 to February 2014. High Fe(II) concentrations were detected in winter at the sampling sites where the river bottom was comprised of sandy or silty sediment, primarily the lower and middle reaches of the rivers. Conversely, from early spring to late autumn Fe(II) levels were low or undetectable. We infer that soluble Fe(II) concentration in these subarctic river waters is driven by the balance between the influx of Fe(II) to the river and the Fe(II) oxidation rates that determines the dynamics in Fe(II) concentration in the river water. The Fe(II) may originate from reductive dissolution of Fe(III) in the river sediment or from Fe(II)-bearing groundwater. The latter seems to be the most likely source during winter time. The high Fe(II) concentrations during winter is predominantly attributed to the extremely slow oxidation rate of Fe(II) to Fe(III) at low water temperature rather than to an actual increase in the flux of reduced Fe(II). Nevertheless, we propose that the flux of reduced Fe(II) from river sediments and groundwater in lowland area of the catchment to overlying river waters might be the most important sources of iron in river waters. This provides an important insight into the role of river processes and the interaction between climate and river morphology in determining the inputs of iron to subarctic coastal marine waters.

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy for characterizing biodegradation of magnetic nanoparticles in a living organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischenko, Ilya Nikitich, E-mail: IlyaMischenko@rambler.ru; Chuev, Michail Alexandrovich; Cherepanov, Valeriy Mihailovich; Polikarpov, Michail Alexeevich [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    We have developed a model for describing nanoparticles magnetic dynamics. This allows us to fit self-consistently the wide set of the experimental data, particularly, the evolution of Moessbauer spectral shape with temperature and external magnetic field as well as the magnetization curves for nanoparticles injected into mice. Thus, we reliably evaluate changes in characteristics of the nanoparticles and their chemical transformation to ferritin-like forms in mouse's organs as a function of time after injection of nanoparticles. Actually, the approach allows one to quantitatively characterize biodegradation and biotransformation of magnetic particles in a body.

  4. Removal of dissolved organic carbon in pilot wetlands of subsuperficial and superficial flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Agudelo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare removal of dissolved organic carbon (d o c obtained with pilot wetlands of subsuperficial flow (p h s s and superficial flow (p h s, with Phragmites australis as treatment alternatives for domestic residual waters of small communities and rural areas. Methodology: an exploratory and experimental study was carried out adding 100,12 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon to synthetic water contaminated with Chlorpyrifos in order to feed the wetlands. A total amount of 20 samples were done, 16 of them in four experiments and the other ones in the intervals with no use of pesticides. Samples were taken on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 in the six wetlands, three of them subsuperficial, and three of them superficial. The main variable answer was dissolved organic carbon, measured in the organic carbon analyzer. Results: a high efficiency in the removal of d o c was obtained with the two types of wetlands: 92,3% with subsuperficial flow and 95,6% with superficial flow. Such a high removal was due to the interaction between plants, gravel and microorganisms. Conclusion: although in both types of wetlands the removal was high and similar, it is recommended to use those of subsuperficial flow because in the superficial ones algae and gelatinous bio-films are developed, which becomes favorable to the development of important epidemiologic vectors in terms of public health.

  5. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Flávia; Cunha-Santino, Marcela Bianchessi; Bianchini, Irineu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40°C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days). After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic). However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity) and carbon release. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C. Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days. After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic. However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity and carbon release.

  7. Mercury and Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics During Snowmelt in the Upper Provo River, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, B. N.; Carling, G. T.; Nelson, S.; Aanderud, Z.; Shepherd Barkdull, N.; Gabor, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited to mountains by atmospheric deposition and mobilized during snowmelt runoff, leading to Hg contamination in otherwise pristine watersheds. Mercury is typically transported with dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils to streams and lakes. This study focused on Hg and DOM dynamics in the snowmelt-dominated upper Provo River watershed, northern Utah, USA. We sampled Hg, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and DOM fluorescence in river water, snowpack, and ephemeral streams over four years from 2014-2017 to investigate Hg transport mechanisms. During the snowmelt season (April through June), Hg concentrations typically increased from 1 to 8 ng/L showing a strong positive correlation with DOC. The dissolved Hg fraction was dominant in the river, averaging 75% of total Hg concentrations, suggesting that DOC is more important for transport than suspended particulate matter. Ephemeral channels, which represent shallow flow paths with strong interactions with soils, had the highest Hg (>10 ng/L) and DOC (>10 mg/L) concentrations, suggesting a soil water source of Hg and organic matter. Fluorescence spectroscopy results showed important changes in DOM type and quality during the snowmelt season and the soil water flow paths are activated. Changes in DOM characteristics during snowmelt improve the understanding of Hg dynamics with organic matter and elucidate transport pathways from the soil surface, ephemeral channels and groundwater to the Provo River. This study has implications for understanding Hg sources and transport mechanisms in mountain watersheds.

  8. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  9. Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Amazon Basin: Insights into Negro River Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Turcq, P.; Perez, M. P.; Benedetti, M.; Oliveira, M. A.; Lagane, C.; Seyler, P.; Oliveira, E.

    2006-12-01

    The study of global carbon cycle requires a precise knowledge of spatial and temporal distributions and exportation from continents to oceans. Organic carbon fluxes represent approximately half of the total carbon budget carried by rivers. Tropical rivers transport two third of the total organic carbon discharged into the world oceans but important gaps still exist in the knowledge of the tropical river carbon biochemistry. The Amazon River is responsible for 10% of the annual amount of organic carbon transported from rivers to oceans. The most important portion of total organic matter transported in the Amazon Basin is the dissolved fraction (between 80% and 95%). Amazonian annual flux of dissolved organic matter is directly related to hydrological variations. All rivers in the Amazon basin are characterized by monomodal hydrograms, with a low water period in october/november and a high water period in may/june. Temporal variations in Amazon dissolved organic carbon (3.0 to 9.1 mg l^{- 1}) are mainly controled by Negro River inputs. DOC and DON contributions from the Negro River can vary between 120 kgC s-1 and 520 kg C s-1, and between 5 kgN s--1 and 15 kgN s-1, during low and high water period, respectivelly. In the Negro River, during high water stages, while DOC concentrations are stable from the upstream stations to the downstream ones (about 11 mg l-1), discharge increases from 16000 to 46000 m3 s-1 and NOD can quintuple from upstream (0.071 mg l-1) to downstream (0.341 mg l-1). Then the nature of dissolved organic matter is variable (C/N ratio varied from 33 to 120 from upstream to downstream). During low water stages DOC concentrations are lower (mean DOC of 8.1 mg l-1) while DON is in the same range, discharge is about 10000 m3 s-1 at downstream stations of Negro River and the C/N ratio is lower and steadier along the River. Finaly, despite a low basin surface (12%) compared with the two other main Amazon tributaries, Solimões and Madeira Rivers, and a

  10. Anthropogenic aerosols as a source of ancient dissolved organic matter in glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Aiken, George R.; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hernes, Peter J.; Butman, David; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Striegl, Robert G.; Schuster, Paul; Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Vermilyea, Andrew W.; Scott, Durelle T.; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2012-03-01

    Glacier-derived dissolved organic matter represents a quantitatively significant source of ancient, yet highly bioavailable carbon to downstream ecosystems. This finding runs counter to logical perceptions of age-reactivity relationships, in which the least reactive material withstands degradation the longest and is therefore the oldest. The remnants of ancient peatlands and forests overrun by glaciers have been invoked as the source of this organic matter. Here, we examine the radiocarbon age and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in snow, glacier surface water, ice and glacier outflow samples from Alaska to determine the origin of the organic matter. Low levels of compounds derived from vascular plants indicate that the organic matter does not originate from forests or peatlands. Instead, we show that the organic matter on the surface of the glaciers is radiocarbon depleted, consistent with an anthropogenic aerosol source. Fluorescence spectrophotometry measurements reveal the presence of protein-like compounds of microbial or aerosol origin. In addition, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry measurements document the presence of combustion products found in anthropogenic aerosols. Based on the presence of these compounds, we suggest that aerosols derived from fossil fuel burning are a source of pre-aged organic matter to glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the molecular signature of the organic matter is conserved in snow, glacier water and outflow, suggesting that the anthropogenic carbon is exported relatively unchanged in glacier outflows.

  11. Anthropogenic aerosols as a source of ancient dissolved organic matter in glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Aiken, George R.; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hernes, Peter J.; Butman, David; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Striegl, Robert G.; Schuster, Paul F.; Abdulla, Hussain A.N.; Vermilyea, Andrew W.; Scott, Durelle T.; Spencer, Robert G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Glacier-derived dissolved organic matter represents a quantitatively significant source of ancient, yet highly bioavailable carbon to downstream ecosystems. This finding runs counter to logical perceptions of age–reactivity relationships, in which the least reactive material withstands degradation the longest and is therefore the oldest. The remnants of ancient peatlands and forests overrun by glaciers have been invoked as the source of this organic matter. Here, we examine the radiocarbon age and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in snow, glacier surface water, ice and glacier outflow samples from Alaska to determine the origin of the organic matter. Low levels of compounds derived from vascular plants indicate that the organic matter does not originate from forests or peatlands. Instead, we show that the organic matter on the surface of the glaciers is radiocarbon depleted, consistent with an anthropogenic aerosol source. Fluorescence spectrophotometry measurements reveal the presence of protein-like compounds of microbial or aerosol origin. In addition, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry measurements document the presence of combustion products found in anthropogenic aerosols. Based on the presence of these compounds, we suggest that aerosols derived from fossil fuel burning are a source of pre-aged organic matter to glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the molecular signature of the organic matter is conserved in snow, glacier water and outflow, suggesting that the anthropogenic carbon is exported relatively unchanged in glacier outflows.

  12. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pan-Arctic Distribution of Bioavailable Dissolved Organic Matter and Linkages With Productivity in Ocean Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl; Fichot, Cédric G.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2018-02-01

    Rapid environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean affect plankton productivity and the bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that supports microbial food webs. We report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and yields of amino acids (indicators of labile DOM) in surface waters across major Arctic margins. Concentrations of DOC and bioavailability of DOM showed large pan-Arctic variability that corresponded to varying hydrological conditions and ecosystem productivity, respectively. Widespread hot spots of labile DOM were observed over productive inflow shelves (Chukchi and Barents Seas), in contrast to oligotrophic interior margins (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Beaufort Seas). Amino acid yields in outflow gateways (Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay) indicated the prevalence of semilabile DOM in sea ice covered regions and sporadic production of labile DOM in ice-free waters. Comparing these observations with surface circulation patterns indicated varying shelf subsidies of bioavailable DOM to Arctic deep basins.

  14. Sources, fluxes, and behaviors of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the Nakdong River Estuary, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Ah; Kim, Guebuem

    2018-02-01

    We monitored seasonal variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the stable carbon isotope of DOC (δ13C-DOC), and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in water samples from a fixed station in the Nakdong River Estuary, Korea. Sampling was performed every hour during spring tide once a month from October 2014 to August 2015. The concentrations of DOC and humic-like FDOM showed significant negative correlations against salinity (r2 = 0.42-0.98, p salinity were 60-80 % higher in the summer and fall due to higher terrestrial production of humic-like FDOM. The slopes of protein-like FDOM against salinity, however, were 70-80 % higher in spring due to higher biological production in river water. Our results suggest that there are large seasonal changes in riverine fluxes of humic- and protein-like FDOM to the ocean.

  15. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Meerhof, Mariana; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural catchments are potentially important but often neglected sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM), of which a large part is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). DOC is an important source of aquatic microbial respiration and DON may be an important source of nitrogen...... years and measured DOC and DON concentration, as well as molecular composition by size-exclusion chromatography. We used absorbance, fluorescence and parallel factor analysis to gather additional information on the sources and composition of the DOM. The results were coupled to measurements...... with intensive agriculture in Uruguay and lowest in the stream with extensive agriculture in Denmark. In all streams, the molecular-size composition of DOC and DON were similar and most DOC and DON were exported as humic substances with low C:N ratio, which indicates high bioavailability. Moreover, DON...

  16. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhoff, Marianna

    Agricultural catchments are potentially important but often neglected sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM), of which a large part is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). DOC is an important source of aquatic microbial respiration and DON may be an important source of nitrogen...... years and measured DOC and DON concentration, as well as molecular composition by size-exclusion chromatography. We used absorbance, fluorescence and parallel factor analysis to gather additional information on the sources and composition of the DOM. The results were coupled to measurements...... with intensive agriculture in Uruguay and lowest in the stream with extensive agriculture in Denmark. In all streams, the molecular-size composition of DOC and DON were similar and most DOC and DON were exported as humic substances with low C:N ratio, which indicates high bioavailability. Moreover, DON...

  17. δ15N, δ13C and radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon as indicators of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, S.; Kalbitz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Decomposition, humification, and stabilization of soil organic matter are closely related to the dynamics of dissolved organic matter. Enhanced peat decomposition results in increasing aromatic structures and polycondensation of dissolved organic molecules. Although recent studies support the concept that DOM can serve as an indicator for processes driven by changing environmental processes in soils affecting the C and N cycle (like decomposition and humification) and also permit insight in former conditions some 1000 years ago, it is unknown whether dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) have an equal response to these processes. (author)

  18. The speciation, stability, solubility and biodegradation of organic co-contaminant radionuclide complexes: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential migration of radionuclides is of concern at contaminated land sites and, in the long term, waste repositories. Pathways of migration need to be characterised on a predictive level so that management decisions can be made with confidence. A pathway that is relatively poorly understood at present is radionuclide solubilisation due to complexation by organic complexing agents that are present in mixed radioactive wastes, and at radioactively contaminated land sites. Interactions of the complexing agents with radionuclides and the host environment, and the response to changes in the physicochemical conditions make their role far from simple to elucidate. In addition, chemical and biodegradation of the organic materials may be important. In this paper, key co-contaminant organics are reviewed with emphasis on their environmental fate and impact on radionuclide migration

  19. Determination of metallic complexing capacities of the dissolved organic material in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Luis M. Laglera-Baquer; Melchor González-Dávila; J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Langmuir isotherm for the study of the complexing properties of functional groups present both in dissolved organic material and on biological surfaces in aquatic systems needs a heterogeneous model and an iterative linear regression solution. The method proposed previously by van den Berg is improved by replacing the expression used to obtain the complexing capacity and the conditional stability constant of the functional groups with stronger trace metal affinity, for the line...

  20. Towards an understanding of feedbacks between plant productivity, acidity and dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Jessica; Monteith, Don; Evans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The recent origin of much dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (Tipping et al., 2010) implies that plant productivity is a major control on DOC fluxes. However, the flocculation, sorption and release of potentially-dissolved organic matter are governed by pH, and widespread increases in DOC concentrations observed in northern temperate freshwater systems seem to be primarily related to recovery from acidification (Monteith et al., 2007). We explore the relative importance of changes in productivity and pH using a model, MADOC, that incorporates both these effects (Rowe et al., 2014). The feedback whereby DOC affects pH is included. The model uses an annual timestep and relatively simple flow-routing, yet reproduces observed changes in DOC flux and pH in experimental (Evans et al., 2012) and survey data. However, the first version of the model probably over-estimated responses of plant productivity to nitrogen (N) deposition in upland semi-natural ecosystems. There is a strong case that plant productivity is an important regulator of DOC fluxes, and theoretical reasons for suspecting widespread productivity increases in recent years due not only to N deposition but to temperature and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, evidence that productivity has increased in upland semi-natural ecosystems is sparse, and few studies have assessed the major limitations to productivity in these habitats. In systems where phosphorus (P) limitation prevails, or which are co-limited, productivity responses to anthropogenic drivers will be limited. We present a revised version of the model that incorporates P cycling and appears to represent productivity responses to atmospheric N pollution more realistically. Over the long term, relatively small fluxes of nutrient elements into and out of ecosystems can profoundly affect productivity and the accumulation of organic matter. Dissolved organic N (DON) is less easily intercepted by plants and microbes than mineral N, and DON

  1. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon and trace elements by zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Hudson A.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2000-09-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are widespread and abundant in major freshwater ecosystems in North America, even though the phytoplankton food resources in some of these systems seem to be too low to sustain them. Because phytoplankton biomass is greatly depleted in ecosystems with large D. polymorpha populations and bacteria do not seem to be an important food source for this species, exploitation of alternative carbon sources may explain the unexpected success of D. polymorpha in such environments. Here we examine the possibility that absorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water could provide a nutritional supplement to zebra mussels. We find that mussels absorb 14C-labelled DOC produced by cultured diatoms with an efficiency of 0.23%; this indicates that DOC in natural waters could contribute up to 50% of the carbon demand of zebra mussels. We also find that zebra mussels absorb some dissolved metals that have been complexed by the DOM; although absorption of dissolved selenium was unaffected by DOC, absorption of dissolved cadmium, silver and mercury by the mussels increased 32-, 8.7- and 3.6-fold, respectively, in the presence of high-molecular-weight DOC.

  2. Microbial Community Response to Terrestrially Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in the Coastal Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipler, Rachel E; Kellogg, Colleen T E; Connelly, Tara L; Roberts, Quinn N; Yager, Patricia L; Bronk, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Warming at nearly twice the global rate, higher than average air temperatures are the new 'normal' for Arctic ecosystems. This rise in temperature has triggered hydrological and geochemical changes that increasingly release carbon-rich water into the coastal ocean via increased riverine discharge, coastal erosion, and the thawing of the semi-permanent permafrost ubiquitous in the region. To determine the biogeochemical impacts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (tDOM) on marine ecosystems we compared the nutrient stocks and bacterial communities present under ice-covered and ice-free conditions, assessed the lability of Arctic tDOM to coastal microbial communities from the Chukchi Sea, and identified bacterial taxa that respond to rapid increases in tDOM. Once thought to be predominantly refractory, we found that ∼7% of dissolved organic carbon and ∼38% of dissolved organic nitrogen from tDOM was bioavailable to receiving marine microbial communities on short 4 - 6 day time scales. The addition of tDOM shifted bacterial community structure toward more copiotrophic taxa and away from more oligotrophic taxa. Although no single order was found to respond universally (positively or negatively) to the tDOM addition, this study identified 20 indicator species as possible sentinels for increased tDOM. These data suggest the true ecological impact of tDOM will be widespread across many bacterial taxa and that shifts in coastal microbial community composition should be anticipated.

  3. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  4. Microbial Community Response to Terrestrially Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in the Coastal Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Sipler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Warming at nearly twice the global rate, higher than average air temperatures are the new ‘normal’ for Arctic ecosystems. This rise in temperature has triggered hydrological and geochemical changes that increasingly release carbon-rich water into the coastal ocean via increased riverine discharge, coastal erosion, and the thawing of the semi-permanent permafrost ubiquitous in the region. To determine the biogeochemical impacts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (tDOM on marine ecosystems we compared the nutrient stocks and bacterial communities present under ice-covered and ice-free conditions, assessed the lability of Arctic tDOM to coastal microbial communities from the Chukchi Sea, and identified bacterial taxa that respond to rapid increases in tDOM. Once thought to be predominantly refractory, we found that ∼7% of dissolved organic carbon and ∼38% of dissolved organic nitrogen from tDOM was bioavailable to receiving marine microbial communities on short 4 – 6 day time scales. The addition of tDOM shifted bacterial community structure toward more copiotrophic taxa and away from more oligotrophic taxa. Although no single order was found to respond universally (positively or negatively to the tDOM addition, this study identified 20 indicator species as possible sentinels for increased tDOM. These data suggest the true ecological impact of tDOM will be widespread across many bacterial taxa and that shifts in coastal microbial community composition should be anticipated.

  5. New biodegradable organic-soluble chelating agents for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima; Vazana, Shlomi; Katz, Zhanna; Goikhman, Roman; Seemann, Boaz; Marom, Hanit; Gozin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New soil remediation process using phase transition of partially miscible solvents. • Design and synthesis of new bio-degradable, organic soluble chelating agents. • Feasibility tests of the process on authentically polluted sediments and sludge. • Simultaneous removal of toxic metals and organic pollutants was demonstrated. -- Abstract: Advanced biodegradable and non-toxic organic chelators, which are soluble in organic media, were synthesized on the basis of the S,S-ethylenediamine-disuccinate (S,S-EDDS) ligand. The modifications suggested in this work include attachment of a lipophilic hydrocarbon chain (“tail”) to one or both nitrogen atoms of the S,S-EDDS. The new ligands were designed and evaluated for application in the Sediments Remediation Phase Transition Extraction (SR-PTE) process. This novel process is being developed for the simultaneous removal of both heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated soils, sediments or sludge. The new chelators were designed to bind various target metal ions, to promote extraction of these ions into organic solvents. Several variations of attached tails were synthesized and tested. The results for one of them, N,N′-bis-dodecyl-S,S-EDDS (C24-EDDS), showed that the metal-ligand complexes are concentrated in the organic-rich phase in the Phase Transition Extraction process (more than 80%). Preliminary applications of the SR-PTE process with the C24-EDDS ligand were conducted also on actually contaminated sludge (field samples). The extraction of five toxic metals, namely, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was examined. In general, the extraction performance of the new ligand was not less than that of S,S-EDDS when a sufficient ligand-to-extracted ion ratio (about 4:1 was applied

  6. Characterization of Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 and its physiological potential for biodegradation of selected organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtková, Hana; Kosina, Marcel; Sedláček, Ivo; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Harwotová, Markéta; Molinková, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 bacterial strain, deposited at the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, was originally isolated by Haľama and Augustín (1980) as a bacterium degrading aromatic hydrocarbons and derivates. A detailed study supported by a molecular genetics method of sequence analyses of rrs and rpoD genes was used to reclassify the strain, originally stored as 'Pseudomonas putida'. The physiological characteristics of the strain are complemented with research in the capacity to utilize selected organic pollutants (anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene). The obtained results point at very good biodegradation properties of the strain. Already after 7 days of the bacterial strain's action, there was a decrease in all the organic contaminants to 79.8 ± 2.6 %. In 14 days, the amount of organic contaminants dropped to 59.3 ± 2.8 %. After 21 days of biodegradation experiments, the overall quantity of the observed organic substances fell below the half limit to 45.7 ± 2.5 % of residuals. Finally, after 28 days, the residue was 35.4 ± 2.2 %, and after 35 days of the action of P. monteilii, the tested samples contained mere 27.8 ± 2.8 % of organic pollutants. The results imply that Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 is a prospective strain in terms of further biotechnological application in contaminated environment.

  7. Antarctic snow: metals bound to high molecular weight dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calace, Nicoletta; Nardi, Elisa; Pietroletti, Marco; Bartolucci, Eugenia; Pietrantonio, Massimiliana; Cremisini, Carlo

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we studied some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, U) probably associated to high molecular weight organic compounds present in the Antarctic snow. Snow-pit samples were collected and analysed for high molecular weight fraction and heavy metals bound to them by means of ultrafiltration treatment. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) recovered by ultrafiltration showed a dissolved organic carbon concentration (HMW-DOC) of about 18-83% of the total dissolved organic carbon measured in Antarctic snow. The characterisation of HMW-DOM fraction evidenced an ageing of organic compounds going from surface layers to the deepest ones with a shift from aliphatic compounds and proteins/amino sugars to more high unsaturated character and less nitrogen content. The heavy metals associated to HMW-DOM fraction follows the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd ∼ As ∼ U. The percentage fraction of metals bound to HMW-DOM respect to total metal content follows the order: Cu > Pb > Zn, Cd in agreement with humic substance binding ability (Irwing-William series). Going down to depth of trench, all metals except arsenic, showed a high concentration peak corresponding to 2.0-2.5 m layer. This result was attributed to particular structural characteristic of organic matter able to form different type of complexes (1:1, 1:2, 1:n) with metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissolved organic carbon in the INDEX area of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; DeSousa, S.N.

    carbon in the western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Research II 44 (3–4), 769–779. Chen, W., Wangersky, P.J., 1993. High temperature combustion of dissolved organic carbon produced in phytoplankton cultures. Marine Chemistry 41, 167–172. Copin-Montegut, G... organic carbon. Nature 395, 263–266. Hansell, D.A., Williams, P.M., Ward, B.B., 1993. Measurements of DOC and DON in the southern California Bight using oxidation by high temperature combustion. Deep-Sea Research I 40, 219–234. Hobbie, J.E., Holm-Hansen, O...

  9. Export of Dissolved Organic Carbon from a Ponded Freshwater Marsh Receiving Diverted Mississippi River Water

    OpenAIRE

    DeLaune, R. D.; Johnson, C. B.; Gambrell, R. P.; Jugsujinda, A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of diversion projects has been implemented to reintroduce Mississippi River water into Louisiana's coastal wetlands in order to reduce wetland loss. The export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured in a 3,700-ha ponded freshwater marsh that receives diverted Mississippi River water. Results show that highly organic marsh soil and plant material are a source of DOC. DOC, on average, was 3 mg/l greater in outlet water as compared to the concentration in river water entering th...

  10. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in coontail Ceratophyllum demersum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Pietsch, C.; Rieger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) is dead organic matter exceeding, in freshwater systems, the concentration of organic carbon in all living organisms by far. 80-90% (w/w) of the NOM is made up of humic substances (HS). Although NOM possesses several functional groups, a potential effect on aquatic organisms has not been studied. In this study, direct effects of NOM from various origins on physiological and biochemical functions in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum are presented. Environmentally relevant concentrations of NOM cause inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic oxygen production of C. demersum. Various NOM sources and the synthetic humic substance HS1500 inhibit the photosynthetic oxygen production of the plant as observed with 1-amino-anthraquinone, a known inhibitor of plant photosynthesis. 1-Aminoanthraquinone may serve as an analogue for the quinoid structures in NOM and HS. Most likely, the effects of NOM may be related to quinoid structures and work downstream of photosynthesis at photosystem (PS) II

  11. Seasonal ice and hydrologic controls on dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a boreal-rich fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan S. Kane; Merritt R. Turetsky; Jennifer W. Harden; A. David McGuire; James M. Waddington

    2010-01-01

    Boreal wetland carbon cycling is vulnerable to climate change in part because hydrology and the extent of frozen ground have strong influences on plant and microbial functions. We examined the response of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) across an experimental manipulation of water table position (both raised and lowered water table...

  12. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the sorption of plutonium to natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Karttunen, J.O.; Orlandini, K.A.; Larsen, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    One prominent aspect of the environmental behavior of plutonium is a tendency for strong, though not complete, association with soil and sediments. The nature of this association is not well understood, and the water quality parameters which may affect it have not been identified. It is assumed that adsorption is dependent upon the chemical species present (oxidation state and complex ion associations) and that the uncomplexed form of Pu(IV) is the one that is most highly sorbed. In certain oligotrophic waters the dissolved plutonium is primarily in the oxidized form (presumably as Pu(V)), a form that is weakly sorbed. This could account for its solubility. In all water, however, some of the dissolved plutonium is present in the reduced form (presumably as Pu(IV)). The apparent solubility of this reduced form, as measured by a sediment concentration factor, varies markedly among the lakes. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have now been measured in the waters from a number of lakes and a general dependence of the sediment concentration factor (K/sub D/) for Pu(IV) upon DOC has become evident. In order to study the nature of this plutonium-organic complex in more detail several experiments were conducted in which the sediment concentration factor was measured as a function of DOC concentration

  13. Molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules with tumor-specific biodegradability and enhanced chemotherapeutic functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Chen, Yu; Lin, Han; Yu, Luodan; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Liying; Zhu, Yufang; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the intrinsic features of high stability and unique multifunctionality, inorganic nanoparticles have shown remarkable potentials in combating cancer, but their biodegradability and biocompatibility are still under debate. As a paradigm, this work successfully demonstrates that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic mesoporous silica nanocarriers with unique tumor-sensitive biodegradability and high biocompatibility. Based on a "chemical homology" mechanism, molecularly organic-inorganic hybridized hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules (HMONs) with high dispersity and sub-50 nm particle dimension were constructed in mass production. A physiologically active disulfide bond (SS) was directly incorporated into the silica framework, which could break up upon contacting the reducing microenvironment of tumor tissue and biodegrade accordingly. Such a tumor-specific biodegradability is also responsible for the tumor-responsive drug releasing by the fast biodegradation and disintegration of the framework. The ultrasmall particle size of HMONs guarantees their high accumulation into tumor tissue, thus causing the high chemotherapeutic outcome. This research provides a paradigm that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic nanocarrier with unique biological effects suitable for biomedical application, benefiting the development of novel nanosystems with the unique bio-functionality and performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon-14 measurements and characterization of dissolved organic carbon in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon-14 was measured in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in ground water and compared with 14 C analyses of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Two field sites were used for this study; the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and the Milk River Aquifer in southern Alberta, Canada. The Stripa mine consists of a Precambrian granite dominated by fracture flow, while the Milk River Aquifer is a Cretaceous sandstone aquifer characterized by porous flow. At both field sites, 14 C analyses of the DOC provide additional information on the ground-water age. Carbon-14 was measured on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic fractions of the DOC. The organic compounds in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions were also characterized. The DOC may originate from kerogen in the aquifer matrix, from soil organic matter in the recharge zone, of from a combination of these two sources. Carbon-14 analyses, along with characterization of the organics, were used to determine this origin. Carbon-14 analyses of the hydrophobic fraction in the Milk River Aquifer suggest a soil origin, while 14 C analyses of the hydrophilic fraction suggest an origin within the Cretaceous sediments (kerogen) or from the shale in contact with the aquifer

  15. Bacterial degradation of dissolved organic matter released by Planktothrix agardhii (Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Tessarolli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Planktothrix agardhii often produces toxic blooms in eutrophic water bodies around the world, little is known about the fate of the organic matter released by these abundant Cyanobacteria. Thus, this study focused in estimating the bacterial consumption of the DOC and DON (dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen, respectively produced by axenic P. agardhii cultures and identifying some of the bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units involved in the process. Both P. agardhii and bacterial inocula were sampled from the eutrophic Barra Bonita Reservoir (SP, Brazil. Two distinct carbon degradation phases were observed: during the first three days, higher degradation coefficients were calculated, which were followed by a slower degradation phase. The maximum value observed for particulate bacterial carbon (POC was 11.9 mg L-1, which consisted of 62.5% of the total available DOC, and its mineralization coefficient was 0.477 day-1 (t½ = 1.45 days. A similar pattern of degradation was observed for DON, although the coefficients were slightly different. Changes in the OTUs patterns were observed during the different steps of the degradation. The main OTUs were related to the classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs, Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs and Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs. The genus Acinetobacter was the only identified organism that occurred during the whole process. Bacterial richness was higher at the slower degradation phase, which could be related to the small amounts of DOM (dissolved organic matter available, particularly carbon. The kinetics of the bacterial degradation of P. agardhii-originated DOM suggests minimal loss of DOM from the Barra Bonita reservoir.

  16. Determination of metallic complexing capacities of the dissolved organic material in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Laglera-Baquer

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Langmuir isotherm for the study of the complexing properties of functional groups present both in dissolved organic material and on biological surfaces in aquatic systems needs a heterogeneous model and an iterative linear regression solution. The method proposed previously by van den Berg is improved by replacing the expression used to obtain the complexing capacity and the conditional stability constant of the functional groups with stronger trace metal affinity, for the linear expression of the Langmuir isotherm proposed by Scatchard. The result is also an iterative linear regression process, which gives a convergent solution, together with better statistical weight distribution of the initial metallic titration data. It also fits better with the titration data obtained at very low dissolved metallic ion concentrations.

  17. Leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen from legume-based grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a considerable loss pathway in grassland soils. We investigated the white clover (Trifolium repens) contribution to N transport and temporal N dynamics under a pure stand of white clover and white clover......-ryegrass (Lolium perenne) mixture. The temporal dynamics of white clover N contribution was analysed by 15N incorporation into DIN and DON in percolating soil solution collected at 25 cm depth following white clover 15N leaf-labelling that was applied at different times during the growing season. The white clover...... contribution to N transport in the soil profile was investigated over two years by analysing 15N in DIN and DON in percolating soil solution collected at 25, 45, and 80 cm depth following 15N leaf labelling of white clover. The 15N analyses showed that white clover was a direct and major source of both DIN...

  18. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soil: impact on microbial biodegradation of organic compounds and possible improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Ademola O; Balgobind, Adhika; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-05-15

    Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals.

  19. Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Soil: Impact on Microbial Biodegradation of Organic Compounds and Possible Improvement Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Pillay

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation, treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals.

  20. Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Soil: Impact on Microbial Biodegradation of Organic Compounds and Possible Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Ademola O.; Balgobind, Adhika; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating that metal toxicity hampers the biodegradation of the organic component, a paucity of information exists in this area of research. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the problems associated with the degradation of chlorinated organics in co-contaminated environments, owing to metal toxicity and shed light on possible improvement strategies for effective bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds and heavy metals. PMID:23676353

  1. Assessing the effect of dissolved organic ligands on mineral dissolution rates: An example from calcite dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaio, T.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments suggest that dissolved organic ligands may primarily modify mineral dissolution rates by three mechanisms: (1) metal-ligand (M-L) complex formation in solution, which increases the degree of undersaturation, (2) formation of surface M-L complexes that attack the surface, and (3) formation of surface complexes which passivate or protect the surface. Mechanisms (1) and (2) increase the dissolution rate and the third decreases it compared with organic-free solutions. The types and importance of these mechanisms may be assessed from plots of dissolution rate versus degree of undersaturation. To illustrate this technique, calcite, a common repository cementing and vein-filling mineral, was dissolved at pH 7.8 and 22 C in Na-Ca-HCO 3 -Cl solutions with low concentrations of three organic ligands. Low citrate concentrations (50 microM) increased the dissolution rate consistent with mechanism (1). Oxalate decreased the rate, consistent with mechanism (3). Low phthalate concentration (<50 microM) decreased calcite dissolution rates; however, higher concentrations increased the dissolution rates, which became faster than in inorganic solutions. Thus, phthalate exhibits both mechanisms (2) and (3) at different concentrations. In such cases linear extrapolations of dissolution rates from high organic ligand concentrations may not be valid

  2. Assessing the biodegradability of terrestrially-derived organic matter in Scottish sea loch sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Loh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignin oxidation products, oxygen uptake rates, molar organic carbon to nitrogen (OC/N ratio (from bulk elemental analysis and Rp values (from loss on ignition experiments, the ratio of the refractory to total organic matter, OM were determined for sediments along transects of Loch Creran and Loch Etive. Lignin data indicated the importance of riverine inputs contributing to land-derived carbon in the lochs as total lignin (Λ, mg/100 mg organic carbon, OC decreased from 0.69 to 0.45 and 0.70 to 0.29 from the head to outside of Loch Creran and Loch Etive, respectively. In addition, significant correlations of lignin content against total OM and OC (p<0.05 also suggested a distinct contribution of terrestrial OM to carbon pools in the lochs. The general trend of decreasing oxygen uptake rates from the head (20.8 mmole m−2 day−1 to mouth (9.4 mmole m−2 day−1 of Loch Creran indicates decomposition of OM. Biodegradability of the sedimentary OM was also characterized by the increase of Rp values from the head to mouth of the lochs: 0.40 to 0.80 in Loch Etive and 0.43 to 0.63 in Loch Creran. Furthermore, the molar OC/N ratio decreased from 11.2 to 6.4 in Loch Creran, and from 17.5 to 8.2 in Loch Etive. Derived rate constants for OM degradation were found to decrease from LC0 to LC1, and increase from RE5 to RE6. This work demonstrates that oxygen uptake rates, Rp values and molar OC/N ratio are able to serve as useful proxies to indicate the biodegradability of sedimentary OM.

  3. Application of isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants sorbed to dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura, E-mail: laura.delgado@eez.csic.es; Wu, Laosheng; Gan, Jay

    2015-08-15

    Natural waters such as surface water and sediment porewater invariably contain dissolved organic matter (DOM). Association of strongly hydrophobic contaminants (HOCs) with DOM leads to decreased toxicity and bioavailability, but bioavailability of DOM-sorbed HOCs is difficult to measure. Current methods to estimate bioavailability of HOCs in water are based on only the freely dissolved concentration (C{sub free}). The ignorance of the exchangeable fraction of HOCs sorbed on DOM may result in an underestimation of the toxicity potential of HOCs to aquatic organisms. Here we explore the applicability of an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measuring the desorption fraction of DOM-sorbed pyrene and bifenthrin and determining their exchangeable pool (E) as an approximation of bioavailability. E values, expressed as percentage of the total concentration, ranged between 0.80 and 0.92% for pyrene and 0.74 and 0.85% for bifenthrin, depending primarily on the amount of chemical in the freely dissolved form. However, between 34 and 78% of the DOM-sorbed pyrene was exchangeable. This fraction ranged between 23% and 82% for bifenthrin. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a significant relationship (r{sup 2} > 0.72, P < 0.0001) between E and bioaccumulation into Daphnia magna. Therefore, IDM may be used to improve the bioavailability measurement and risk assessment of HOCs in aquatic systems.

  4. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  5. Development of an extraction method for the determination of dissolved organic radiocarbon in seawater by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Amano, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    We developed an extraction method for accurately and reproducibly determining dissolved organic radiocarbon in seawater by ultraviolet oxidation of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent accelerator mass spectrometry. We determined the irradiation time required for oxidation of the dissolved organic carbon. By modifying the experimental apparatus, we decreased contamination by dead carbon, which came mainly from petrochemical products in the apparatus and from the incursion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The modifications decreased the analytical blank level to less than 1% of sample size, a percentage that had not previously been achieved. The recovery efficiency was high, 95±1%. To confirm both the accuracy and reproducibility of the method, we tested it by analyzing an oxalic acid radiocarbon reference material and by determining the dissolved organic carbon in surface seawater samples. (author)

  6. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of dissolved organic materials in surface waters within the blast zone of Mount St Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Pereira, W.E.; Ceazan, M.L.; Wissmar, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    After the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St Helens, the concentration of dissolved organic material in surface waters near the volcano increased significantly as a result of the destruction of the surrounding conifer forest. Low molecular weight organic compounds identified in the blast zone surface waters were derived from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic materials incorporated into pyroclastic flow, mud flow and debris avalanche deposits. A major fraction of the dissolved organic material consisted of high molecular weight, colored, organic acids that are similar in their general properties to aquatic fulvic acids found in more typical surface waters except for greater sulfur contents. The other major fraction of the dissolved organic material consisted of hydrophilic acids, which may include compounds capable of supporting heterotrophic microorganisms, and precursors in the formation of aquatic fulvic acids. The organic chemistry of blast zone surface waters will probably be greatly influenced by the May 18, 1980, eruption for many years. ?? 1982.

  8. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F Haas

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta, a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata. Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻², stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹ and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻². Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence

  9. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Carlson, Craig A; Rohwer, Forest; Leichter, James J; Wyatt, Alex; Smith, Jennifer E

    2011-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta), a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii) and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata). Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻²), stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹) and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻²). Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence reef microbial

  10. Application of Bayesian belief net in modelling the origin and effects of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in a boreal aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Mika; Hoikkala, Laura; Soinne, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Bayesian belief nets (BBN) are capable of developing holistic understanding of the origin, transportation, and effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in ecosystems. The role of riverine DOM, transporting carbon and macronutrients N and P into lakes and coastal areas, has been largely neglected in research about processes influencing aquatic ecosystem functions although dissolved organic matter provides a significant nutrient source for primary producers in aquatic environments. This neglect has also contributed to the environmental policies which are focused in the control of inorganic N and P load. It is of great social and economic interest to gain improved knowledge of whether the currently applied policy instruments act in synchrony in mitigating eutrophication caused by N and P versus DOM load. DOM is a complex mixture of compounds that are poorly characterized. DOM export is strongly regulated by land use (urban, forest, agricultural land, peat land), in addition to soil type and soil organic carbon concentration. Furthermore, the composition of DOM varies according to its origin. The fate and effects of DOM loads in the fresh water and coastal environments depend, for example, on their biodegradability. Degradation kinetics again depends on the interactions between composition of the DOM pool and the receiving environment. Impact studies of dissolved organic matter pose a complicated environmental impact assessment challenge for science. There exists strategic uncertainty in the science about the causal dependencies and about the quality of knowledge related to DOM. There is a clear need for systematization in the approach as uncertainty is typically high about many key processes. A cross-sectorial, integrative analysis will aid in focusing on the most relevant issues. A holistic and unambiguous analysis will provide support for policy-decisions and management by indicating which outcome is more probable than another. The task requires coupling complex

  11. Temperature dependence of the relationship between pCO2 and dissolved organic carbon in lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Pinho, L.

    2016-02-15

    The relationship between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in Brazilian lakes, encompassing 225 samples across a wide latitudinal range in the tropics, was tested. Unlike the positive relationship reported for lake waters, which was largely based on temperate lakes, we found no significant relationship for low-latitude lakes (< 33°), despite very broad ranges in both pCO2 and DOC levels. These results suggest substantial differences in the carbon cycling of low-latitude lakes, which must be considered when upscaling limnetic carbon cycling to global scales.

  12. Hand-held Device for Monitoring Dissolved Organics in Fresh and Recycled Water on ppb Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Sexton, Brett; Hoobin, Pamela; Best, Michael; Marney, Donavan

    2011-09-01

    New hand-held robust UV255 sensor for the control of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water has been developed by CSIRO. The device is designed for compact operation and simplified circuitry. UV 255 sensor exhibited a good liner response at low concentration range of DOC (<5 ppm) and has shown the detection limit less than 10 ppb of DOC. The current design allows for immersion of the sensor into a solution. The sensor can also be modified for flow-through applications by allowing water to flow through side arms. New sensor discriminates readily between various types of potable and recycled water.

  13. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lundberg, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory scale experiment was set up to test the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as ageing of the La–P complex formed during phosphorus (P) sequestration by a La modified clay (Phoslock®). Short term (7 days) P adsorption studies revealed a significant negative effect of added...... DOC on the P sequestration of Phoslock®, whereas a long-term P adsorption experiment revealed that the negative effect of added DOC was reduced with time. The reduced P binding efficiency is kinetic, as evident from solid-state 31P magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, who showed that the P...

  14. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1977--30 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling and regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora remains the focal point of these studies. Major efforts are directed towards the sources, fates, pathways, and interactions of dissolved organic matter in inorganic chemical cycling; allochthonous sources, metabolism en route, and inputs to the lake systems of increasing stages of eutrophication; and the relationships of these compounds to the nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, sessile algae, macrophytes, and bacterial populations of the littoral zones and wetlands of the drainage basin. Analyses of regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling center on evaluation of quantitative control interactions among the microflora of the pelagial zones of seversal lakes of progressively greater eutrophy, littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and allochthonous inorganic--organic influxes and their biotic processing. The underlying thesis is that quantification of the dynamic carbon fluxes among these components and their rate control mechanisms by physical and chemical factors are fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication.

  15. Sources and coastal distribution of dissolved organic matter in the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, E; Amaral, V; Baldó, F; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo F; Bellanco, María J; Jiménez, María P; Forja, J; Vilas, César; Tovar-Sanchez, A

    2018-03-07

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major component of the organic matter pool, playing a key role in the global ocean functioning. However, studies on DOM in waters of many ocean regions, such as the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), are poorly known. Advanced aquatic sensors enable autonomous for long-term deployments in situ collection of high frequency DOM data using fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) as a proxy. The present study evaluates the relevance of FDOM, the estuarine influence and the environmental factors that determine its spatial distribution in the GoC. Our results suggest that the GoC water mass, under the estuarine influence of three main rivers, is receiving large amounts of DOM transported mainly by Guadalquivir and Guadiana rivers and much less from Tinto-Odiel. Salinity is the main factor explaining the FDOM variability within the Guadalquivir and Guadiana rivers and in the inner shelf of the GoC. In the outer shelf of the GoC, plankton-produced DOM could explain the persistent spatial pattern of FDOM, playing an important role in the dynamics of FDOM from the North area of the GoC through the persistent low-salinity Eastern North Atlantic Central Water. The oceanographic dynamics and the spatial pattern of FDOM concentration in the continental shelf of the GoC suggest a net transport of FDOM through the GCC (Gulf of Cadiz Current) to the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1978--30 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in continuing investigations focused on integrated studies of the qualitative and quantitative cycling and metabolism of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in lakes and their inflow sources (surface and subsurface). Emphasis is placed on the sources, fates, and interactions of dissolved and particulate organic matter in relation to: (a) inorganic chemical cycling, (b) allochthonous loading to the lake system, and (c) the coupled nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, bacterial populations, macrophytes, and attendant sessile algal-bacterial communities. Regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon and nutrient cycling are being evaluated among the (a) inorganic-organic influxes of allochthonous sources as they are controlled by wetland-littoral communities, (b) the littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and (c) the microflora of the pelagial zone. Quantification of carbon fluxes among these components and control mechanisms is fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication. The integrated studies addressing these multifacted objectives are summarized in three summary diagrams.

  17. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  18. Reduction in the exchange of coastal dissolved organic matter and microgels by inputs of extra riverine organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Lee, Chon-Lin; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-12-15

    Rivers drive large amounts of terrestrial and riverine organic matter into oceans. These organic materials may alter the self-assembly of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) polymers into microgels and can even affect the behavior of existing natural microgels. We used Suwannee River humic acid, fulvic acid, and natural organic matter as a model of riverine organic matter (ROM) to investigate the impacts of ROM input on DOM polymer and microgel conversion. Our results indicated that the release of extra ROM, even at low concentrations (0.1-10 mg L -1 ), into the marine organic matter pool decreased the size of self-assembled DOM polymers (from 4-5 μm to organic matter, such as negative surface charge stabilization and Ca 2+ cross-linking bridges. These findings reveal that ROM inputs may therefore impede the self-assembly of DOM polymers into particulate organic matter and reduce the sedimentation flux of organic carbon and other elements from surface water to the deep ocean, thereby disturbing the biological pump, the downward transportation of nutrients, and the marine organic carbon cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contrasted response of colloidal, organic and inorganic dissolved phosphorus forms during rewetting of dried riparian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Malique, François; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Petitjean, Patrice; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetated buffer strip (RVBS) are currently used to protect surface waters from phosphorus (P) emissions because of their ability to retain P-enriched soil particles. However, this protection role may be counterbalanced by the development in these zones of conditions able to trigger the release of highly mobile dissolved or colloidal P forms. Rewetting after drying is one of these conditions. So far, the potential sources of P mobilized during rewetting after drying are not clearly identified, nor are clearly identified the chemical nature of the released dissolved P species, or the role of the soil P speciation on these forms. In this study, two riparian soils (G and K) showing contrasting soil P speciation (65% of inorganic P species in soil G, as against 70% of organic P) were submitted to three successive dry/wet cycles in the laboratory. Conventional colorimetric determination of P concentrations combined with ultrafiltration, and measurements of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents using ICP-MS and TOC analyzers, respectively, were used to study the response of the different P forms to rewetting after drying and also their release kinetics during soil leaching. For both soils, marked P release peaks were observed at the beginning of each wet cycles, with the organic-rich K soils giving, however, larger peaks than the inorganic one (G soil). For both soils also, concentrations in molybdate reactive P (MRP) remained quite constant throughout each leaching episode, contrary to the molybdate unreactive P (MUP) concentrations which were high immediately after rewetting and then decreased rapidly during leaching. A speciation change was observed from the beginning to the end of all leaching cycles. Colloidal P was found to be a major fraction of the total P immediately after rewetting (up to 50-70%) and then decreased to the end of each wet cycle where most of the eluted P was true dissolved inorganic P. Colloidal

  20. New biodegradable organic-soluble chelating agents for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima; Vazana, Shlomi; Katz, Zhanna; Goikhman, Roman; Seemann, Boaz; Marom, Hanit; Gozin, Michael

    2013-09-15

    Advanced biodegradable and non-toxic organic chelators, which are soluble in organic media, were synthesized on the basis of the S,S-ethylenediamine-disuccinate (S,S-EDDS) ligand. The modifications suggested in this work include attachment of a lipophilic hydrocarbon chain ("tail") to one or both nitrogen atoms of the S,S-EDDS. The new ligands were designed and evaluated for application in the Sediments Remediation Phase Transition Extraction (SR-PTE) process. This novel process is being developed for the simultaneous removal of both heavy metals and organic pollutants from contaminated soils, sediments or sludge. The new chelators were designed to bind various target metal ions, to promote extraction of these ions into organic solvents. Several variations of attached tails were synthesized and tested. The results for one of them, N,N'-bis-dodecyl-S,S-EDDS (C24-EDDS), showed that the metal-ligand complexes are concentrated in the organic-rich phase in the Phase Transition Extraction process (more than 80%). Preliminary applications of the SR-PTE process with the C24-EDDS ligand were conducted also on actually contaminated sludge (field samples). The extraction of five toxic metals, namely, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was examined. In general, the extraction performance of the new ligand was not less than that of S,S-EDDS when a sufficient ligand-to-extracted ion ratio (about 4:1 was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  2. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in hillslope discharge: Modeling and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Sanda, Martin; Marx, Anne; Jankovec, Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Reliable quantitative prediction of water movement and fluxes of dissolved substances - specifically organic carbon - at both the hillslope and the catchment scales remains a challenge due to complex boundary conditions and soil spatial heterogeneity. In addition, microbially mediated transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are recognized to determine the balance of DOC in soils. So far, only few studies utilized stable water isotope information in modeling and even fewer linked dissolved carbon fluxes to mixing and/or transport models. In this study, stormflow dynamics of 18O/16O ratios in the water molecules (expressed as δ18O) and DOC were analyzed using a physically-based modeling approach. A one-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model was used to simulate the subsurface transport processes in a forest hillslope soil over a period of 2.5 years. The model was applied to describe the transformation of input signals of δ18O and DOC into output signals observed in the hillslope stormflow. To quantify uncertainty associated with the model parameterization, Monte Carlo analysis in conjunction with Latin hypercube sampling was applied. δ18O variations in hillslope discharge and in soil pore water were predicted reasonably well. Despite the complex nature of microbial transformations that caused uncertainty in model parameters and subsequent prediction of DOC transport, the simulated temporal patterns of DOC concentration in stormflow showed similar behavior to that reflected in the observed DOC fluxes. Due to preferential flow, the contribution of the hillslope DOC export was higher than the amounts that are usually found in the available literature.

  3. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Deep Groundwater from the Witwatersrand Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, M. J.; Hendrickson, S.; Simon, P.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Wilkie, K.; Onstott, T. C.; Washton, N.; Clewett, C.

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the isolation, fractionation, and chemical analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in deep groundwater in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. The groundwater was accessed through mining boreholes in gold and diamond mine shafts. Filtered water samples were collected and preserved for later analysis. In some cases, the organic carbon was also collected on DAX-8 and XAD-4 adsorption resins in situ and then transported to the surface for removal, clean-up, and lyophilization. Solid state C-13 NMR analysis of that organic carbon was conducted. Organic compounds were also isolated from the water using solid phase extraction cartridges for later analysis by GC-MS. Absorbance, fluorescence, and HPLC analyses was were used to analyze the DOC in the filtered water samples. C-14 and C-13 isotopic analysis of the organic carbon was also conducted. Identifiable components of the DOC include both organic acids and amino acids. However, initial results indicate that the majority of the subsurface DOC is a complex heterogeneous mixture with an average molecular weight of approximately 1000 Da, although this DOC is less complex than that found in soils or surface water. Finally, we will discuss possible sources of the organic carbon and its biogeochemical cycling in the subsurface.

  4. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds impact the biostability of non-chlorinated drinking water produced from surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, W A M; Schurer, R; Bahlman, J A; Ketelaars, H A M; Italiaander, R; van der Wal, A; van der Wielen, P W J J

    2018-02-01

    It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production plants which use the same surface water, and on the regrowth conditions in the related distribution systems. Easily biodegradable compounds in the drinking water were determined with AOC-P17/Nox during 2012-2015. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds measured as particulate and/or high-molecular organic carbon (PHMOC), were monitored at the inlet and after the different treatment stages of the three treatments during the same period. The results show that PHMOC (300-470 μg C L -1 ) was approximately 10% of the TOC in the surface water and was removed to 50-100 μg C L -1 . The PHMOC in the water consisted of 40-60% of carbohydrates and 10% of proteins. A significant and strong positive correlation was observed for PHMOC concentrations and two recently introduced bioassay methods for slowly biodegradable compounds (AOC-A3 and biomass production potential, BPC 14 ). Moreover, these three parameters in the biological active carbon effluent (BACF) of the three plants showed a positive correlation with regrowth in the drinking water distribution system, which was assessed with Aeromonas, heterotrophic plate counts, coliforms and large invertebrates. In contrast, the AOC-P17/Nox concentrations did not correlate with these regrowth parameters. We therefore conclude that slowly biodegradable compounds in the treated water from these treatment plants seem to have a greater impact on regrowth in the distribution system than easily biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How appetizing is the dissolved organic matter (DOM) trees lose during rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Whitetree, A.; Zhu, L.; Stubbins, A.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the chemical backbone of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which is important because it drives many processes in soils and waterways. Current DOC work has paid little attention to interactions between rain and plant canopies, where rainfall is partitioned into throughfall and stemflow. Even less DOC research has investigated the effect of arboreal epiphytes on throughfall and stemflow DOC. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) assess the degree and timing of DOC consumption by microbial communities (biolability) in throughfall and stemflow, and (2) determine whether the presence of arboreal epiphytes in the canopy affect DOC biolability. Biolability of stemflow and throughfall DOC from Juniperus virginiana (cedar) was determined by incubating samples for 14 days. Throughfall and stemflow DOC was highly biolabile with DOC concentrations decreasing by 30-60%. Throughfall DOC was more biolabile than stemflow DOC. DOC in both throughfall and stemflow from epiphyte-covered cedars was less biolabile than DOC from trees without epiphytes. The high biolability of tree-derived DOC indicates that its supply provides carbon substrates to the microbial community at the forest floor, in soils and the rhizosphere. Epiphytes appear to be important in determining the biolability of DOC and therefore the size of this carbon subsidy to the soil ecosystem.

  6. Unifying Concepts Linking Dissolved Organic Matter Composition to Persistence in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Anne M; Guillemette, François; Podgorski, David C; Aiken, George R; Butler, Kenna D; Spencer, Robert G M

    2018-03-06

    The link between composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to understanding the role aquatic systems play in the global carbon cycle; yet, unifying concepts driving molecular composition have yet to be established. We characterized 37 DOM isolates from diverse aquatic ecosystems, including their stable and radiocarbon isotopes (δ 13 C-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Δ 14 C-DOC), optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence), and molecular composition (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry). Isolates encompassed end-members of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM from sites across the United States, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctic lakes. Modern Δ 14 C-DOC and optical properties reflecting increased aromaticity, such as carbon specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ), were directly related to polyphenolic and polycyclic aromatic compounds, whereas enriched δ 13 C-DOC and optical properties reflecting autochthonous end-members were positively correlated to more aliphatic compounds. Furthermore, the two sets of autochthonous end-members (Pacific Ocean and Antarctic lakes) exhibited distinct molecular composition due to differences in extent of degradation. Across all sites and end-members studied, we find a consistent shift in composition with aging, highlighting the persistence of certain biomolecules concurrent with degradation time.

  7. Large Stimulation of Recalcitrant Dissolved Organic Carbon Degradation by Increasing Ocean Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lønborg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 96% of organic carbon in the ocean is in the dissolved form, most of it with lifetimes of decades to millennia. Yet, we know very little about the temperature sensitivity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC degradation in a warming ocean. Combining independent estimates from laboratory experiments, oceanographic cruises and a global ocean DOC cycling model, we assess the relationship between DOC decay constants and seawater temperatures. Our results show that the apparent activation energy of DOC decay (Ea increases by three-fold from the labile (lifetime of days and semi-labile (lifetime of months to the semi-refractory (lifetime of decades DOC pools, with only minor differences between the world's largest ocean basins. This translates into increasing temperature coefficients (Q10 from 1.7–1.8 to 4–8, showing that the generalized assumption of a constant Q10 of ~2 for biological rates is not universally applicable for the microbial degradation of DOC in the ocean. Therefore, rising ocean temperatures will preferentially impact the microbial degradation of the more recalcitrant and larger of the three studied pools. Assuming a uniform 1°C warming scenario throughout the ocean, our model predicts a global decrease of the DOC reservoir by 7 ± 1 Pg C. This represents a 15% reduction of the semi-labile + semi-refractory DOC pools.

  8. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5∼3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs

  9. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5{approx}3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs.

  10. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  11. In-situ production of humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter during Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Kim, Guebuem; Lim, Weol Ae; Park, Jong Woo

    2018-04-01

    We investigated phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) during the summers of 2013 and 2016 in the coastal area of Tongyeong, Korea, where Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms often occur. The density of red tides was evaluated using a dinoflagellate pigment, peridinin. The concentrations of peridinin and DOC in the patch areas were 15- and 4-fold higher than those in the non-patch areas. The parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model identified one protein-like FDOM (FDOMT) and two humic-like FDOM, classically classified as marine FDOM (FDOMM) and terrestrial FDOM (FDOMC). The concentrations of FDOMT in the patch areas were 5-fold higher than those in the non-patch areas, likely associated with biological production. In general, FDOMM and FDOMC are known to be dependent exclusively on salinity in any surface waters of the coastal ocean. However, in this study, we observed strikingly enhanced FDOMC concentration over that expected from the salinity mixing, whereas FDOMM increases were not clear. These FDOMC concentrations showed a significant positive correlation against peridinin, indicating that the production of FDOMC is associated with the red tide blooms. Our results suggest that FDOMC can be naturally enriched by some phytoplankton species, without FDOMM enrichment. Such naturally produced FDOM may play a critical role in biological production as well as biogeochemical cycle in red tide regions.

  12. Impact of dissolved organic matter on bioavailability of chlorotoluron to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ninghui; Zhang Shuang; Hong Min; Yang Hong

    2010-01-01

    Chlorotoluron (Chl) is a phenylurea herbicide and is widely used for controlling weeds. While it has brought great benefits to crop production, it has also resulted in contamination to ecosystem. In this study, we investigated accumulation of chlorotoluron (Chl) and biological responses of wheat plants as affected by dissolved organic matter (DOM). Wheat seedlings grown under 10 mg kg -1 Chl for 4 d showed a low level of chlorophyll accumulation and damage to plasma membrane. The growth was inhibited by exposure of chlorotoluron. Treatment with 50 mg DOC kg -1 DOM derived either from sludge (DOM-SL) or straw (DOM-ST) attenuated the chlorotoluron toxicity to plants. Both DOMs decreased activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in Chl-treated seedlings. However, an increased glutathione S-transferases activity was observed under the same condition. Wheat plants treated with Chl in the presence of DOM accumulated less Chl than those treated with Chl alone. Moreover, in the presence of DOM, bioconcentration factor (BCF) decreased whereas translocation factors increased. Analyses with FT-IR spectra confirmed the regulatory role of DOMs in reducing Chl accumulation in wheat. - Dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a soil amendment can reduce herbicide accumulation in crops.

  13. Identification of Mercury and Dissolved Organic Matter Complexes Using Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongmei [Environmental; Johnston, Ryne C. [UT/ORNL; Mann, Benjamin F. [Environmental; Chu, Rosalie K. [Environmental; Tolic, Nikola [Environmental; Parks, Jerry M. [UT/ORNL; Gu, Baohua [Environmental

    2016-12-30

    The chemical speciation and bioavailability of mercury (Hg) is markedly influenced by its complexation with naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environments. To date, however, analytical methodologies capable of identifying such complexes are scarce. Here, we utilize ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) coupled with electrospray ionization to identify individual Hg-DOM complexes. The measurements were performed by direct infusion of DOM in a 1:1 methanol:water solution at a Hg to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molar ratio of 3 × 10-4. Heteroatomic molecules, especially those containing multiple S and N atoms, were found to be among the most important in forming strong complexes with Hg. Major Hg-DOM complexes of C10H21N2S4Hg+ and C8H17N2S4Hg+ were identified based on both the exact molecular mass and patterns of Hg stable isotope distributions detected by FTICR-MS. Density functional theory was used to predict the solution-phase structures of candidate molecules. These findings represent the first step to unambiguously identify specific DOM molecules in Hg binding, although future studies are warranted to further optimize and validate the methodology so as to explore detailed molecular compositions and structures of Hg-DOM complexes that affect biological uptake and transformation of Hg in the environment.

  14. The river as a chemostat: fresh perspectives on dissolved organic matter flowing down the river continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; McKnight, Diane M.; Pellerin, Brian; Green, Mark B.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Aiken, George R.; Burns, Douglas A.; Findlay, Stuart E G; Shanley, James B.; Striegl, Robert G.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Clow, David W.; Laudon, Hjalmar; McGlynn, Brian L.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Smith, Richard A.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding is needed of how hydrological and biogeochemical processes control dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from headwaters downstream to large rivers. We examined a large DOM dataset from the National Water Information System of the US Geological Survey, which represents approximately 100 000 measurements of DOC concentration and DOM composition at many sites along rivers across the United States. Application of quantile regression revealed a tendency towards downstream spatial and temporal homogenization of DOC concentrations and a shift from dominance of aromatic DOM in headwaters to more aliphatic DOM downstream. The DOC concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships at each site revealed a downstream tendency towards a slope of zero. We propose that despite complexities in river networks that have driven many revisions to the River Continuum Concept, rivers show a tendency towards chemostasis (C-Q slope of zero) because of a downstream shift from a dominance of hydrologic drivers that connect terrestrial DOM sources to streams in the headwaters towards a dominance of instream and near-stream biogeochemical processes that result in preferential losses of aromatic DOM and preferential gains of aliphatic DOM.

  15. Removal of fluorescence and ultraviolet absorbance of dissolved organic matter in reclaimed water by solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianyuan; Li, Chao; Wang, Wenlong; He, Tao; Hu, Hongying; Du, Ye; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Storing reclaimed water in lakes is a widely used method of accommodating changes in the consumption of reclaimed water during wastewater reclamation and reuse. Solar light serves as an important function in degrading pollutants during storage, and its effect on dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated in this study. Solar light significantly decreased the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence (FLU) intensity of reclaimed water. However, its effect on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) value of reclaimed water was very limited. The decrease in the UV254 absorbance intensity and FLU excitation-emission matrix regional integration volume (FLU volume) of reclaimed water during solar light irradiation was fit with pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The decrease of UV254 absorbance was much slower than that of the FLU volume. Ultraviolet light in solar light had a key role in decreasing the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity during solar light irradiation. The light fluence-based removal kinetic constants of the UV254 and FLU intensity were independent of light intensity. The peaks of the UV254 absorbance and FLU intensity with an apparent molecular weight (AMW) of 100Da to 2000Da decreased after solar irradiation, whereas the DOC value of the major peaks did not significantly change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  17. Bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewaters from animal feedlots and storage lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyi; Khan, Eakalak; Simsek, Senay; Ohm, Jae-Bom; Simsek, Halis

    2017-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from animal wastes can contribute to pollution of surface waters. Bioavailable DON (ABDON) is a portion of DON utilized by algae with or without bacteria. This study determined DON and ABDON levels in animal wastewater collected from two different sources: an animal feedlot wastewater storage tank and a sheep wastewater storage lagoon. Inocula for the ABDON bioassays were comprised of individual species and several combinations involving two algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris) and a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) bacterial culture. The ratio of initial DON to initial total dissolved nitrogen was 18% in the feedlot wastewater samples and 70% in the lagoon wastewater samples. The results showed that between 1.6 and 4.5 mg-NL-1 DON (45-79% of initial DON) in the feedlot samples and between 3.4 and 7.5 mg-NL-1 DON (36%-79% of initial DON) in the lagoon samples were bioavailable with the inocula tested. These results suggest that when considering eutrophication potential of livestock wastewater, organic nitrogen should be included in addition to the obvious culprits, ammonia and nitrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shift in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in the Congo River network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thibault; Bouillon, Steven; Darchambeau, François; Massicotte, Philippe; Borges, Alberto V.

    2016-09-01

    The processing of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) during downstream transport in fluvial networks is poorly understood. Here, we report a dataset of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM composition (stable carbon isotope ratios, absorption and fluorescence properties) acquired along a 1700 km transect in the middle reach of the Congo River basin. Samples were collected in the mainstem and its tributaries during high-water (HW) and falling-water (FW) periods. DOC concentrations and DOM composition along the mainstem were found to differ between the two periods because of a reduced lateral mixing between the central water masses of the Congo River and DOM-rich waters from tributaries and also likely because of a greater photodegradation during FW as water residence time (WRT) increased. Although the Cuvette Centrale wetland (one of the world's largest flooded forests) continuously releases highly aromatic DOM in streams and rivers of the Congo Basin, the downstream transport of DOM was found to result in an along-stream gradient from aromatic to aliphatic compounds. The characterization of DOM through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) suggests that this transition results from (1) the losses of aromatic compounds by photodegradation and (2) the production of aliphatic compounds by biological reworking of terrestrial DOM. Finally, this study highlights the critical importance of the river-floodplain connectivity in tropical rivers in controlling DOM biogeochemistry at a large spatial scale and suggests that the degree of DOM processing during downstream transport is a function of landscape characteristics and WRT.

  19. Effect of Soil Passage and Ozonation on Dissolved Organic Carbon and Microbial Quantification in Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf A.

    2013-05-01

    Water quality data are presented from a laboratory bench scale soil columns study, to simulate an aquifer recharge system injected with MBR wastewater effluent. This study investigates the effect of soil filtration and ozonation on the dissolved organic carbon and bacterial count in the wastewater. Flow Cytometry was used to quantify microorganisms in water samples. Other analytical tests were conducted as well, such as seven anions, fluorescence spectroscopy (FEEM), ultraviolet absorption (UV 254 nm) and dissolved organic carbon measurement (DOC). Influent in this study was injected into two identical soil columns. One of the columns was injected with treated wastewater combined with ozonation called SC1, The second column was injected with treated wastewater only and called SC2. Passing the wastewater through a deeper depth in the soil column showed a reduction in the DOC concentration. Removal of DOC was 53.7 % in SC1 and 53.8 % in SC2. UV 254 nm results demonstrated that the majority of the UV absorbing compounds were removed after the first 30 cm in the soil columns. FEEM results revealed that soil column treatment only doesn\\'t remove humic-like and fulvic-like substances. However, combining soil column treatment with ozonation was capable of removing humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like substances from the wastewater. Flow Cytometry results showed a bacteria removal of 52.5 %-89.5 % in SC1 which was higher than SC2 removal of 29.1 %-56.5 %.

  20. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  1. Spatial distribution of soils determines export of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J-F; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electrical conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed...... hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding DOC concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that the fractions of coarse textured and organic soils have a major influence on N and DOC export...

  2. Long-term dynamics of dissolved organic carbon: implications for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Köhler, Stephan J; Futter, Martyn N

    2012-08-15

    Surface waters are the main source of drinking water in many regions. Increasing organic carbon concentrations are a cause for concern in Nordic countries since both dissolved and particulate organic carbon can transport contaminants and adversely affect drinking water treatment processes. We present a long-term study of dynamics of total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the River Fyris. This river supplies drinking water to approximately 200000 people in Uppsala, Sweden. The River Fyris is a main tributary to Lake Mälaren, which supplies drinking water to approximately 2 million people in the greater Stockholm area. Utilities responsible for drinking water supply in both Uppsala and Stockholm have expressed concerns about possible increases in TOC. We evaluate organic carbon dynamics within the Fyris catchment by calculating areal mass exports using observed TOC concentrations and modeled flows and by modeling dissolved organic carbon (as a proxy for TOC) using the dynamic, process based INCA-C model. Exports of TOC from the catchment ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 g m(-2) year(-1) in the period 1995-2010. The variation in annual exports was related to climatic variability which influenced seasonality and amount of runoff. Exports and discharge uncoupled at the end of 2008. A dramatic increase in TOC concentrations was observed in 2009, which gradually declined in 2010-2011. INCA-C successfully reproduced the intra- and inter-annual variation in concentrations during 1996-2008 and 2010-2011 but failed to capture the anomalous increase in 2009. We evaluated a number of hypotheses to explain the anomaly in 2009 TOC values, ultimately none proved satisfactory. We draw two main conclusions: there is at least one unknown or unmeasured process controlling or influencing surface water TOC and INCA-C can be used as part of the decision-making process for current and future use of rivers for drinking water supply. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  3. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  4. The Role of Refractory Dissolved Organic Matter in Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda

    The ocean assimilates a large amount of atmospheric CO2 and is potentially a buffer for climate change. A fraction of the assimilated CO2 is incorporated into algal biomass and further converted into refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM). Carbon bound in refractory DOM has the potential...... studies the prokaryotic production and degradation of oceanic refractory DOM and discusses the reasons for the persistent nature of this large DOM fraction. The first two papers investigate the microbial carbon pump, i.e. prokaryotic transfor-mation of organic carbon into refractory DOM. The results show...... of the second paper indicate that the microbial carbon pump also applies for biomole-cules, since certain neutral sugars and amino acids produced by prokaryotes are able to resist long-term degradation. In addition, there is a striking similarity between the com-position of old biomolecules found in the ocean...

  5. Efficient dissolved organic carbon production and export in the oligotrophic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Saeed; DeVries, Timothy

    2017-12-11

    Biologically fixed carbon is transferred from the surface to deep ocean as sinking particles or dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DOC is estimated to account for ~20% of global export production, but the degree to which this varies regionally has not been assessed at a global scale. Here we present the first observationally based global-scale assessment of DOC production and export, obtained by combining an artificial neural network estimate of the global DOC distribution, and a data-constrained ocean circulation model. Our results demonstrate that the efficiency of DOC production and export varies more than threefold across oceanographic regions. DOC production and export display a pronounced peak in the oligotrophic subtropical oceans, where DOC accounts for roughly half of the total organic carbon export. These stratified nutrient-depleted regions are expected to expand with future warming, amplifying the role of DOC in the biological pump, and magnifying the need to improve DOC cycling in climate models.

  6. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC......Freezing can affect concentrations and spectroscopic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water samples. Nevertheless, water samples are regularly frozen for sample preservation. In this study we tested the effect of different freezing methods (standard freezing at −18 °C and fast...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...

  7. The Role of Refractory Dissolved Organic Matter in Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda

    to be stored in the ocean’s interior for millennia and thereby avoiding being released as atmospheric CO2. In order to understand the role of refractory DOM in ocean carbon sequestration, its formation and removal mechanisms must be investigated. In a synopsis and four scientific papers, this PhD project......The ocean assimilates a large amount of atmospheric CO2 and is potentially a buffer for climate change. A fraction of the assimilated CO2 is incorporated into algal biomass and further converted into refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM). Carbon bound in refractory DOM has the potential...... studies the prokaryotic production and degradation of oceanic refractory DOM and discusses the reasons for the persistent nature of this large DOM fraction. The first two papers investigate the microbial carbon pump, i.e. prokaryotic transfor-mation of organic carbon into refractory DOM. The results show...

  8. Characterizing Dissolved Organic Matter and Metabolites in an Actively Serpentinizing Ophiolite Using Global Metabolomics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, L. M.; Rempfert, K. R.; Kraus, E. A.; Spear, J. R.; Templeton, A. S.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental metabolomics is an emerging approach used to study ecosystem properties. Through bioinformatic comparisons to metagenomic data sets, metabolomics can be used to study microbial adaptations and responses to varying environmental conditions. Since the techniques are highly parallel to organic geochemistry approaches, metabolomics can also provide insight into biogeochemical processes. These analyses are a reflection of metabolic potential and intersection with other organisms and environmental components. Here, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize dissolved organic carbon and aqueous metabolites from groundwater obtained from an actively serpentinizing habitat. Serpentinites are known to support microbial communities that feed off of the products of serpentinization (such as methane and H2 gas), while adapted to harsh environmental conditions such as high pH and low DIC availability. However, the biochemistry of microbial populations that inhabit these environments are understudied and are complicated by overlapping biotic and abiotic processes. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of carbon in an environment that is depleted of soluble inorganic carbon, and to characterize the flow of metabolites and describe overlapping biogenic and abiogenic processes impacting carbon cycling in serpentinizing rocks. We applied untargeted metabolomics techniques to groundwater taken from a series of wells drilled into the Semail Ophiolite in Oman.. Samples were analyzed via quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (QToF-LC/MS/MS). Metabolomes and metagenomic data were imported into Progenesis QI software for statistical analysis and correlation, and metabolic networks constructed using the Genome-Linked Application for Metabolic Maps (GLAMM), a web interface tool. Further multivariate statistical analyses and quality control was performed using EZinfo. Pools of dissolved organic carbon could

  9. Fate of {sup 14}C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangbi [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China); Wang, Aihua [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Li, Yang; Hu, Lening; Zheng, Hua; He, Xunyang [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China); Ge, Tida; Wu, Jinshui [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Kuzyakov, Yakov [Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Department of Agricultural Soil Science, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Su, Yirong, E-mail: yrsu@isa.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). {sup 14}C labeled DOM, extracted from the {sup 14}C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial {sup 14}C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial {sup 14}C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of {sup 14}C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4–11.0% of the initial DOM-{sup 14}C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 100 days was 1.2–2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9–60.0% of the initial DOM-{sup 14}C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7–35.7%), 2) {sup 14}C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) {sup 14}C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm

  10. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W.K.; Ganju, Neil K.; Pohlman, John; Suttles, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM–fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 ‰ and −20.8 to −26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca{sup 2+} associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca 2+ associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved

  13. Photochemical generation of reactive species upon irradiation of rainwater: Negligible photoactivity of dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinet, Alexandre; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the photochemical activity of dissolved organic matter present in rainwater. Formation rates of the reactive species hydroxyl radical (OH · ), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and dissolved organic matter triplet states ( 3 DOM * ) were determined by irradiation (UV-A) of wet-only rainwater samples collected in Turin (Italy) in the presence of specific scavengers (benzene, furfuryl alcohol and phenol, respectively). Photo-formation rates of OH · (∼ 3 . 10 -11 M s -1 ) and 1 O 2 (∼ 10 -14 M s -1 ) were lower (1 or 2 orders of magnitude) or largely lower (4 to 10 orders of magnitude) than those determined for fog and cloud samples in previous studies. 3 DOM * formation rate values were either negligible or quite low (∼ 10 -12 M s -1 ) by comparison with those evaluated for surface water samples. Deduced steady-state [OH · ] were in the same range as those reported for fog samples in the literature (8.7 . 10 -16 to 1.5 . 10 -15 M), while [ 1 O 2 ] was often several orders of magnitude lower and, therefore, could be considered as negligible. Nitrite (NO 2 - ) constituted the main source of OH · (69 ± 21 to 138 ± 36%), and the deduced contribution of DOM was low or nil. All the results obtained in this study tend to demonstrate that DOM (including HUmic LIke Substances, HULIS) present in rainwater is poorly or not photoactive. Therefore, there could be considerable difference between rainwater DOM (HULIS included) and the organic matter present in surface waters, particularly the humic substances, as far as the photochemical activity is concerned.

  14. Photochemical generation of reactive species upon irradiation of rainwater: negligible photoactivity of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Alexandre; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2010-07-15

    This paper focuses on the study of the photochemical activity of dissolved organic matter present in rainwater. Formation rates of the reactive species hydroxyl radical (OH(*)), singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and dissolved organic matter triplet states ((3)DOM()) were determined by irradiation (UV-A) of wet-only rainwater samples collected in Turin (Italy) in the presence of specific scavengers (benzene, furfuryl alcohol and phenol, respectively). Photo-formation rates of OH(*) ( approximately 3.10(-)(11)Ms(-)(1)) and (1)O(2) ( approximately 10(-)(14)Ms(-)(1)) were lower (1 or 2 orders of magnitude) or largely lower (4 to 10 orders of magnitude) than those determined for fog and cloud samples in previous studies. (3)DOM() formation rate values were either negligible or quite low ( approximately 10(-)(12)Ms(-)(1)) by comparison with those evaluated for surface water samples. Deduced steady-state [OH(*)] were in the same range as those reported for fog samples in the literature (8.7.10(-)(16) to 1.5.10(-)(15)M), while [(1)O(2)] was often several orders of magnitude lower and, therefore, could be considered as negligible. Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) constituted the main source of OH(*) (69 + or - 21 to 138 + or - 36%), and the deduced contribution of DOM was low or nil. All the results obtained in this study tend to demonstrate that DOM (including HUmic LIke Substances, HULIS) present in rainwater is poorly or not photoactive. Therefore, there could be considerable difference between rainwater DOM (HULIS included) and the organic matter present in surface waters, particularly the humic substances, as far as the photochemical activity is concerned. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissolved organic matter composition of Arctic rivers: Linking permafrost and parent material to riverine carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Swanson, David K.; Santosh, Panda; Butler, Kenna; Baltensperger, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent climate change in the Arctic is driving permafrost thaw, which has important implications for regional hydrology and global carbon dynamics. Permafrost is an important control on groundwater dynamics and the amount and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transported by high-latitude rivers. The consequences of permafrost thaw for riverine DOM dynamics will likely vary across space and time, due in part to spatial variation in ecosystem properties in Arctic watersheds. Here we examined watershed controls on DOM composition in 69 streams and rivers draining heterogeneous landscapes across a broad region of Arctic Alaska. We characterized DOM using bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, optical properties, and chemical fractionation and classified watersheds based on permafrost characteristics (mapping of parent material and ground ice content, modeling of thermal state) and ecotypes. Parent material and ground ice content significantly affected the amount and composition of DOM. DOC concentrations were higher in watersheds underlain by fine-grained loess compared to watersheds underlain by coarse-grained sand or shallow bedrock. DOC concentration was also higher in rivers draining ice-rich landscapes compared to rivers draining ice-poor landscapes. Similarly, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254, an index of DOM aromaticity) values were highest in watersheds underlain by fine-grained deposits or ice-rich permafrost. We also observed differences in hydrophobic organic acids, hydrophilic compounds, and DOM fluorescence across watersheds. Both DOC concentration and SUVA254 were negatively correlated with watershed active layer thickness, as determined by high-resolution permafrost modeling. Together, these findings highlight how spatial variations in permafrost physical and thermal properties can influence riverine DOM.

  16. Development And Application of Functional Assays For Freshwater Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S.; Tipping, E.; Gondar, D.; Baker, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters participates in many important ecological and geochemical reactions, including acid-base buffering, light absorption, proton binding, binding of heavy metals, organic contaminants, aluminium and radionuclides, adsorption at surfaces, aggregation and photochemical reactivity. We are studying DOM in order to understand and quantify these functional properties, so we can use the knowledge to predict the influence of DOM on the natural freshwater environment. As DOM has no readily identifiable structure, our approach is to measure what it does, rather than what it is. Thus, we have developed a series of 12 standardised, reproducible assays of physico-chemical functions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwaters. The assays provide quantitative information on light absorption, fluorescence, photochemical fading, pH buffering, copper binding, benzo(a)pyrene binding, hydrophilicity and adsorption to alumina. We have collected twenty DOM samples in total, ten samples from a eutrophic lake (Esthwaite Water) and ten samples from three stream waters. A mild isolation method was then used to concentrate the DOM samples for the assay work. When assaying the concentrates, parallel assays were also preformed with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), as a quality control standard. Our results showed that; (i) for eleven of the assays, the variability among the twenty DOM samples was significantly (p<0.001) greater than can be explained by analytical error, i.e. by comparison with results from the SRFA quality control; (ii) the functional properties of the DOM from Esthwaite Water are strongly influenced by the seasonally-dependent input of autochthonous DOM, derived from phytoplankton. The autochthonous DOM is less fluorescent, light absorbing, hydrophobic and has a lower acid group content and capacity to be adsorbed onto alumina than terrestrially derived allochthonous DOM; (iii) significant correlations were found between

  17. Alteration of Chemical Composition of Soil-leached Dissolved Organic Matter under Cryogenic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Schuur, E.

    2016-02-01

    Arctic permafrost thawing has drawn great attention because of the large amount of organic carbon (OC) storage in Arctic soils that are susceptible to increasing global temperatures. Due to microbial activities, some of the OC pool is converted in part to greenhouse gases, like CH4 and CO2 gas, which can result in a positive feedback on global warming. In Artic soils, a portion of OC can be mobilized by precipitation, drainage, and groundwater circulation which can in some cases be transported to rivers and eventually the coastal margins. To determine some of the mechanisms associated with the mobilization of OC from soils to aquatic ecosystems, we conducted a series of laboratory soil leaching experiments. Surface soil samples collected from Healy, Alaska were eluted with artificial rain at a constant rate. Leachates were collected over time and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Concentrations began from 387-705 mg/L and then dropped to asymptote states to 25-219 mg/L. High-resolution spectroscopy was used to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and CDOM fluorescence intensity also dropped with time. Fluorescence maximum intensity (Fmax) for peak C ranged from 0.7-4.2 RU, with Exmax/Emmax = 310/450 nm. Fmax for peak T ranged from 0.5-3.2 RU, with Exmax/Emmax = 275/325 nm. Peak C: peak T values indicated preferential leaching of humic-like components over protein-like components. After reaching asymptotic levels, samples were stored frozen and then thawed to study the cryogenic impact on OC composition. CDOM intensity and DOC concentration increased after the freeze-thaw cycle. It was likely that cryogenic processes promoted the breakdown of OC and the releases of more DOC from soils. PARAFAC of CDOM excitation and emission matrices (EEMs) will be used to analyze CDOM composition of the soil leachates.

  18. Dissolved organic carbon ameliorates the effects of UV radiation on a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5B4 SK (Canada); Chivers, Douglas P.; Niyogi, Som [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Anthropogenic activities over the past several decades have depleted stratospheric ozone, resulting in a global increase in ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Much of the negative effects of UVR in aquatic systems is minimized by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which is known to attenuate UVR across the water column. The skin of many fishes contains large epidermal club cells (ECCs) that are known to play a role in innate immune responses and also release chemical alarm cues that warn other fishes of danger. This study investigated the effects of in vivo UVR exposure to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), under the influence of two sources of DOC: Sigma Aldrich humic acid, a coal based commercial source of DOC and Luther Marsh natural organic matter, a terrigenous source of DOC. Specifically, we examined ECC investment and physiological stress responses and found that fish exposed to high UVR, in the presence of either source of DOC, had higher ECC investment than fish exposed to high UVR only. Similarly, exposure to high UVR under either source of DOC, reduced cortisol levels relative to that in the high UVR only treatment. This indicates that DOC protects fish from physiological stress associated with UVR exposure and helps maintain production of ECC under conditions of UVR exposure. - Highlights: • We examined the combined effect of UV radiation and Dissolved Organic Carbon on fish. • Physiological stress response and epidermal club cell investment were measured. • Fish exposed to high UVR and DOC had higher ECC investment and reduced cortisol levels. • DOC plays a role in protecting fish from physiological stress and maintains ECC production.

  19. Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smebye, Andreas; Alling, Vanja; Vogt, Rolf D; Gadmar, Tone C; Mulder, Jan; Cornelissen, Gerard; Hale, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Amendments of biochar, a product of pyrolysis of biomass, have been shown to increase fertility of acidic soils by enhancing soil properties such as pH, cation-exchange-capacity and water-holding-capacity. These parameters are important in the context of natural organic matter contained in soils, of which dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the mobile and most bioavailable fraction. The effect of biochar on the content and composition of DOM in soils has received little research attention. This study focuses on the effects of amendments of two different biochars to an acidic acrisol and a pH-neutral brown soil. A batch experiment showed that mixing biochar with the acrisols at a 10 wt.% dose increased the pH from 4.9 to 8.7, and this resulted in a 15-fold increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration (from 4.5 to 69 mg L(-1)). The pH-increase followed the same trend as the release of DOM in the experiment, causing higher DOM solubility and desorption of DOM from mineral sites. The binding to biochar of several well-characterised reference DOM materials was also investigated and results showed a higher sorption of aliphatic DOM to biochar than aromatic DOM, with DOM-water partitioning coefficients (Kd-values) ranging from 0.2 to 590 L kg(-1). A size exclusion occurring in biochar's micropores, could result in a higher sorption of smaller aliphatic DOM molecules than larger aromatic ones. These findings indicate that biochar could increase the leaching of DOM from soil, as well as change the DOM composition towards molecules with a larger size and higher aromaticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of dissolved organic matter from the Callovo-Oxfordian formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courdouan, Amandine; Christl, Iso; Meylan, Sebastien; Wersin, Paul; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the pore water of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, a potential host rock for the disposal of radioactive waste, is important to estimate its potential influence on the mobility of radionuclides in the rock. To isolate DOM, crushed rock material was extracted under anoxic conditions with deionized water, 0.1 M NaOH and synthetic pore water (SPW, water containing all major ions at pore water concentrations but no organic matter), respectively. The effects of extraction parameters on the extracted DOM including the solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction time, exposure to O 2 and acid pretreatment of the rock material prior to the anoxic extraction were evaluated. In addition, DOM in one of the first pore water samples collected in the underground rock laboratory at Bure (France) was characterized for comparison. The size distribution and the low molecular weight organic acid contents of the extracts and pore water DOM were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with an organic C detector (LC-OCD) and by ion chromatography. The results revealed that only a fraction of less than 1.2% of the total organic C present in the rock was extractable. Maximum dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations in the anoxic extracts ranged from 5.5 ± 0.3 mg/L for SPW extracts to 14.2 ± 1.1 mg/L for 0.1 M NaOH extracts. The major portion of the DOC in the anoxic extracts consisted of hydrophilic compounds (48-78%) having a molecular weight of less than 500 Da. Up to 21% of DOC in the anoxic extracts was identified as acetate, formate, lactate and malate. The short-term exposure of rock material to O 2 during rock crushing strongly increased DOC concentrations and led to a shift towards smaller molecular weight compounds and to a higher low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) content as compared to the strictly anoxic extraction. The pore water sampled from a packed-off borehole exhibited a higher DOC concentration (56.7 mg/L) than the

  1. Adoption of biodegradable mulching films in agriculture: is there a negative prejudice towards materials derived from organic wastes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Anna Scaringelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years ongoing research has moved towards the valorisation of organic waste by the identification of possible products with a good market perspective. In this paper we consider the possibility of using the organic fraction of municipal waste to produce biodegradable mulching films for agricultural purposes. The aim of this research was to estimate the potential demand of horticultural farms located in the province of Foggia (Italy for biodegradable films derived from organic waste. We carried out a survey of 107 producers in the area. Findings showed that the adoption of the innovative films does not depend on the nature of the raw material used and that the willingness to pay for such films is higher with respect to the price of similar products already available in the market. In addition, farmers’ preferences towards mulching films’ attributes (strength, durability, mechanical harvesting, transparency, etc. are identified.

  2. Influence of dissolved organic matter on the environmental fate of metals, nanoparticles, and colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2011-01-01

    We have known for decades that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals and the mobility of colloidal particles in aquatic environments. In recent years, concerns about the ecological and human health effects of metal-based engineered nanoparticles released into natural waters have increased efforts to better define the nature of DOM interactions with metals and surfaces. Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties and enhanced reactivities that are not apparent in larger materials of the same composition1,2 or dissolved ions of metals that comprise the nanoparticles. These nanoparticle-specific properties generally result from the relatively large proportion of the atoms located at the surface, which leads to very high specific surface areas and a high proportion of crystal lattice imperfections relative to exposed surface area. Nanoscale colloids are ubiquitous in nature,2 and many engineered nanomaterials have analogs in the natural world. The properties of these materials, whether natural or manmade, are poorly understood, and new challenges have been presented in assessing their environmental fate. These challenges are particularly relevant in aquatic environments where interactions with DOM are key, albeit often overlooked, moderators of reactivity at the molecular and nanocolloidal scales.

  3. Mixing it up in the ocean carbon cycle and the removal of refractory dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald

    2018-02-07

    A large quantity of reduced carbon is sequestered in the ocean as refractory dissolved molecules that persist through several circuits of global overturning circulation. Key aspects of the cycling of refractory dissolved organic carbon (DOC) remain unknown, making it challenging to predict how this large carbon reservoir will respond to climate change. Herein we investigate mechanisms that remove refractory DOC using bioassay experiments with DOC isolated from surface, mesopelagic and deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The isolated DOC was refractory to degradation by native microbial communities, even at elevated concentrations. However, when the refractory DOC was introduced to a series of novel environmental conditions, including addition of a labile substrate, a microbial community from coastal waters and exposure to solar radiation, a substantial fraction (7-13%) was removed within 1.5 years. Our results suggest that while refractory molecules can persist in the ocean for millennia, removal is rapid when they encounter their fate. The observed and projected climate-induced slowdown of global overturning circulation could reduce the exposure of refractory molecules to disparate removal processes. Assuming a constant rate of production, the reservoir size of refractory DOC could increase as overturning circulation slows, providing a negative feedback to rising atmospheric CO 2 .

  4. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic matter in the central North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Druffel, E.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the first detailed profile of radiocarbon measured in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the oligotrophic gyre of the central North Pacific. Δ 14 C of DOC ranged from -150 per mille (1,310 yr BP) in surface waters to -540 per mille (6,240 yr BP) at 5,710 m, 40 m off the bottom. The surprising similarity in the shapes of the profiles of Δ 14 C in the DOC and DIC pools suggest that similar processes are controlling the radiocarbon distribution in each of the two reservoirs and that bomb-produced radiocarbon has penetrated the DOC + DIC pools to a depth of ∼ 900 m. The depletion of the Δ 14 Csub(DOC) values by 300 per mille with respect to the Δ 14 Csub(DIC) values suggests that a certain fraction of the DOC is recycled within the ocean on longer time-scales than DIC. (author)

  5. Evaluation of leachate dissolved organic nitrogen discharge effect on wastewater effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen is limited more and more frequently in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents because of the concern of causing eutrophication in discharge waters. Twelve leachates from eight landfills in Florida and California were characterized for total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average concentration of TN and DON in leachate was approximately 1146mg/L and 40mg/L, respectively. Solid-phase extraction was used to fractionate the DON based on hydrophobic (recalcitrant fraction) and hydrophilic (bioavailable fraction) chemical properties. The average leachate concentrations of bioavailable (bDON) and recalcitrant (rDON) DON were 16.5mg/L and 18.4mg/L, respectively. The rDON fraction was positively correlated, but with a low R 2 , with total leachate apparent color dissolved UV 254 , chemical oxygen demand (COD), and humic acid (R 2 equals 0.38, 0.49, and 0.40, respectively). The hydrophobic fraction of DON (rDON) was highly colored. This fraction was also associated with over 60% of the total leachate COD. Multiple leachate and wastewater co-treatment simulations were carried out to assess the effects of leachate on total nitrogen wastewater effluent quality using removals for four WWTPs under different scenarios. The calculated pass through of DON suggests that leachate could contribute to significant amounts of nitrogen discharged to aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton-dissolved organic matter coherence on molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eLucas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remineralisation and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition at Helgoland Roads (North Sea in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of twenty days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS, respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen concentration, temperature and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of bacterial community composition variation.

  7. Short-Term Dynamics of North Sea Bacterioplankton-Dissolved Organic Matter Coherence on Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Judith; Koester, Irina; Wichels, Antje; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Callies, Ulrich; Wiltshire, Karen H; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Remineralization and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine microbes shape the DOM composition and thus, have large impact on global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, information on bacterioplankton-DOM interactions on a molecular level is limited. We examined the variation of bacterial community composition (BCC) at Helgoland Roads (North Sea) in relation to variation of molecular DOM composition and various environmental parameters on short-time scales. Surface water samples were taken daily over a period of 20 days. Bacterial community and molecular DOM composition were assessed via 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing and ultrahigh resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), respectively. Environmental conditions were driven by a coastal water influx during the first half of the sampling period and the onset of a summer phytoplankton bloom toward the end of the sampling period. These phenomena led to a distinct grouping of bacterial communities and DOM composition which was particularly influenced by total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration, temperature, and salinity, as revealed by distance-based linear regression analyses. Bacterioplankton-DOM interaction was demonstrated in strong correlations between specific bacterial taxa and particular DOM molecules, thus, suggesting potential specialization on particular substrates. We propose that a combination of high resolution techniques, as used in this study, may provide substantial information on substrate generalists and specialists and thus, contribute to prediction of BCC variation.

  8. Impacts of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter cycling in small temperate streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Lambert, T.; Larsen, A.; Lane, S.

    2017-12-01

    Beavers are engineers that modify the structure of river reaches and their hydrological functioning. By building dams, they modify the travel time of running waters and can lead to the flooding of surrounding soils and terrestrial vegetation, with potentially significant impact on biogeochemical cycles. Contradictory effects of beaver ponds on dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and composition have however been reported, and the underlying reasons are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the landscape morphology as an important driver determining how a beaver population can affect stream DOM cycling. Four streams localized in Switzerland and Germany were visited during different seasons (spring, summer, winter) and monitored at upstream and downstream locations of beaver ponds across a hydrological cycle. The sites differed in terms of river channel morphology, presence or absence of floodplain, and vegetation cover. DOM composition was investigated through absorbance and fluorescence measurements coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along with stream water quality (nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature). The results show that the effects of beaver dams were variable, and emphasizes the importance of the geomorphological context.

  9. Linking the Molecular Signature of Heteroatomic Dissolved Organic Matter to Watershed Characteristics in World Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sasha; Riedel, Thomas; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Large world rivers are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans. Watershed geomorphology and land use can drive the quality and reactivity of DOM. Determining the molecular composition of riverine DOM is essential for understanding its source, mobility and fate across landscapes. In this study, DOM from the main stem of 10 global rivers covering a wide climatic range and land use features was molecularly characterized via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). FT-ICR mass spectral data revealed an overall similarity in molecular components among the rivers. However, when focusing specifically on the contribution of nonoxygen heteroatomic molecular formulas (CHON, CHOS, CHOP, etc.) to the bulk molecular signature, patterns relating DOM composition and watershed land use became apparent. Greater abundances of N- and S-containing molecular formulas were identified as unique to rivers influenced by anthropogenic inputs, whereas rivers with primarily forested watersheds had DOM signatures relatively depleted in heteroatomic content. A strong correlation between cropland cover and dissolved black nitrogen was established when focusing specifically on the pyrogenic class of compounds. This study demonstrated how changes in land use directly affect downstream DOM quality and could impact C and nutrient cycling on a global scale.

  10. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Cook

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August–September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation and/or radical (within cloud droplets oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10−12 alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced. Overall, the cloud water molecular

  11. Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ryan D.; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Peng, Zhuoyu; Boone, Eric; Chu, Rosalie K.; Dukett, James E.; Gunsch, Matthew J.; Zhang, Wuliang; Tolic, Nikola; Laskin, Alexander; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on

  12. Sources, distributions and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada and Makarov Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Robbins, Lisa L.; Wynn, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was conducted in the Canada and Makarov Basins and adjacent seas during 2010–2012 to investigate the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean. Sources and distributions of DOM in polar surface waters were very heterogeneous and closely linked to hydrological conditions. Canada Basin surface waters had relatively low DOC concentrations (69 ± 6 μmol L−1), CDOM absorption (a325: 0.32 ± 0.07 m−1) and CDOM-derived lignin phenols (3 ± 0.4 nmol L−1), and high spectral slope values (S275–295: 31.7 ± 2.3 μm−1), indicating minor terrigenous inputs and evidence of photochemical alteration in the Beaufort Gyre. By contrast, surface waters of the Makarov Basin had elevated DOC (108 ± 9 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (15 ± 3 nmol L−1), high a325 values (1.36 ± 0.18 m−1), and low S275–295 values (22.8 ± 0.8 μm−1), indicating pronounced Siberian river inputs associated with the Transpolar Drift and minor photochemical alteration. Observations near the Mendeleev Plain suggested limited interactions of the Transpolar Drift with Canada Basin waters, a scenario favoring export of Arctic DOM to the North Atlantic. The influence of sea-ice melt on DOM was region-dependent, resulting in an increase (Beaufort Sea), a decrease (Bering-Chukchi Seas), and negligible change (deep basins) in surface DOC concentrations and a325 values. Halocline structures differed between basins, but the Canada Basin upper halocline and Makarov Basin halocline were comparable in their average DOC (65–70 μmol L−1) and lignin phenol concentrations (3–4 nmol L−1) and S275–295 values (22.9–23.7 μm−1). Deep-water DOC concentrations decreased by 6–8 μmol L−1 with increasing depth, water mass age, nutrient concentrations, and apparent oxygen utilization. Maximal estimates of DOC degradation rates (0.036–0.039 μmol L−1

  13. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  14. Fluorescence and dissolved organic matter properties in a connected aquifer river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Reza; Baker, Andy; Andersen, Martin S.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Fogwill, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    There have been limited investigations on the sources, distribution, and transformation of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater systems that are connected to streams and rivers. The role of such landscape settings in the terrestrial carbon cycle is therefore not well understood. We used optical methods to study dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater in a connected river/aquifer reach adjacent to a limestone karst landscape near Wellington, NSW, Australia. Optical properties of water samples and their relation to DOM structure and source enables prompt evaluation of the relative abundance of organic matter components, and fingerprints the sources of DOM. We collected surface water samples along the river, and groundwater samples from alluvial and karst monitoring bores and from caves where they intercepted the groundwater table. Absorbance values were measured at wavelengths of 254, 340 and 350 nm and fluorescence properties were characterised by obtaining excitation (400 nm to 240 nm) - emission matrices (210 to 620 nm). The absorbance data were processed to provide the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and spectral slopes. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to discriminate fluorescent DOM components and to assess their dynamics in river and groundwater. Our groundwater DOM data show lower spectral slope, high SUVA values, and lower fluorescence/absorbance ratio, compared to the river. This is indicating a greater amount of relatively high molecular weight, chromophoric, and hydrophobic groundwater DOM is present in the groundwater compared to the river, which had relatively low molecular weight and hydrophilic DOM. PARAFAC modelling revealed different models were necessary for river and groundwater samples, with component one of the groundwater PARAFAC model in the 'peak T' region, and component one of the river model in the 'peak C' region. These results suggest that sedimentary organic matter in the alluvial and karstic aquifer is a

  15. Characterization of dissolved and particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in Neversink Reservoir, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, Robert L.; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) was isolated from the water of the Neversink Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply, located in the Catskill Mountains of New York. The NOM was fractionated into the following nine different fractions by the isolation procedure: (1) coarse particulates, (2) fine-particulate organics, (3) solvent-extractable organics, (4) hydrophobic neutrals (HPON fraction), (5) dissolved colloids, (6) bases, (7) hydrophobic acids (HPOA), (8) transphilic acids + neutrals (TPI-A+N), and (9) hydrophilic acids + neutrals (HPI-A+N). Each of these fractions, with exception of the first and the third which were too small for the complete series of analyses, was characterized by elemental, carbohydrate, and amino acid analyses, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectrometry. The data obtained from these analyses indicate (1) that the fine-particulate organics and colloids are mainly composed of peptidoglycans, and lipopolysaccharides derived from algal, bacterial, and fungal cell walls, (2) that the HPO-N fraction most likely consists of a mixture of alicyclic terpenes and carbohydrates, (3) that the HPOA fraction consists mainly of lignin components conjugated to carbohydrates, (4) that the TPI-A+N and the HPI-A+N fractions most likely represent complex mixtures of relatively low molecular weight carboxylic acids derived from terpenes, carbohydrates, and peptides, and (5) that the base fraction is composed of free amino acids, browning reaction products, and peptide fragments.

  16. Characterization of biochars and dissolved organic matter phases obtained upon hydrothermal carbonization of Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Wedwitschka, H; Zehnsdorf, A; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2015-01-01

    The invasive aquatic plant Elodea nuttallii was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 200 °C and 240 °C to produce biochar. About 58% w/w of the organic carbon of the pristine plant was translocated into the solid biochar irrespectively of the operating temperature. The process water rich in dissolved organic matter proved a good substrate for biogas production. The E. nuttallii plants showed a high capability of incorporating metals into the biomass. This large inorganic fraction which was mainly transferred into the biochar (except sodium and potassium) may hamper the prospective application of biochar as soil amendment. The high ash content in biochar (∼ 40% w/w) along with its relatively low content of organic carbon (∼ 36% w/w) is associated with low higher heating values. Fatty acids were completely hydrolyzed from lipids due to hydrothermal treatment. Low molecular-weight carboxylic acids (acetic and lactic acid), phenols and phenolic acids turned out major organic breakdown products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissolved organic carbon from sewage sludge and manure can affect estrogen sorption and mineralization in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpe, Britta; Marschner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this study, effects of sewage sludge and manure borne dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) sorption and mineralization processes were investigated in three agricultural soils. Batch equilibrium techniques and equilibrium dialysis methods were used to determine sorption mechanisms between DOC, estrogens and the soil solid phase. It was found that that the presence of organic waste borne DOC decreased estrogen sorption in soils which seems to be controlled by DOC/estrogen complexes in solution and by exchange processes between organic waste derived and soil borne DOC. Incubation studies performed with 14 C-estrogens showed that DOC addition decreased estrogen mineralization, probably due to reduced bioavailability of estrogens associated with DOC. This increased persistence combined with higher mobility could increase the risk of estrogen transport to ground and surface waters. - The effect of DOC on estrogen sorption and mineralization is influenced by exchange processes between organic waste borne and soil derived DOC.

  18. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ghernaout

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio as a function of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic contents removal by coagulation process. It is well established that coagulation process could bring a reduction in dissolved organic carbon of around 30–60% by increasing the coagulant dose and optimising reaction pH, in which large organic molecules with hydrophobic property was removed preferentially. Furthermore, the literature affirmed that the greater removal of UV-absorbing substances indicates that alum coagulation preferentially removed the hydrophobic fraction of the total organic carbon. For the hydrophobic fraction, it needs to be removed entirely without its transformation into hydrophilic fractions by coagulation process avoiding pre-chlorination/pre-oxidation due to the risk of organic molecules fragmentation. Determining the exact numerical values of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio for raw water and treated water at different stages of the treatment processes in a water treatment plant, as for the DCO/DBO5 ratio in the case of wastewater treatment, would help on more focusing on OM control and removal.

  19. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in research to evaluate the impact of utilization of fossil fuels on surface water is reported. Analyses of regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling center on evaluation of quantitative control interactions among the microflora of the pelagial zones of several lakes of progressively greater eutrophy, littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, and allochthonous inorganic-organic influxes and their biotic processing. The underlying thesis is that quantification of the dynamic carbon fluxes among these components and their rate control mechanisms by physical and chemical factors are fundamental to elucidation of the rate functions of lake eutrophication. A major portion of the research has been directed towards the fate and nutrient mechanisms regulating qualitative and quantitative utilization and losses of organic carbon synthesized within lakes and their drainage basins. It has become increasingly apparent that the wetland and littoral flora, and attendant epiphytic and benthic microflora, have major regulatory controls on biogeochemical cycling of whole lake systems. A major effort on factors regulating the metabolism of littoral macrophytes and attached algae has been coupled to integrated studies on their decomposition and the fate of detrital dissolved and particulate organic matter. These organic products are being coupled to influences on enzymatic activity and inorganic nutrient cycling.

  20. Survey of Permafrost Thaw Influence on Surface Water Dissolved Organic Matter in Sub-Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, K.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Guerard, J.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical and functional group composition of permafrost organic matter largely remains unknown. Characterizing dissolved organic matter (DOM) chemical composition offers insight into the quality and extent of the permafrost carbon pool that may mobilize and transform into smaller components or greenhouse gasses upon thaw. The Goldstream watershed in interior Alaska is underlain by discontinuous permafrost with varying stage of talik (thaw bulb) development, allowing for the comparison of thaw stage on DOM composition. Surface water samples were collected from lakes and streams in regions of the watershed with varying degrees of permafrost thaw in order to investigate seasonal variability and associated trends in DOM composition. Additionally, select permafrost cores were obtained and utilized in leachate experiments to identify the fraction and reactivity of the soil organic carbon pool leached from active layer and permafrost soil upon thaw. Leached organic moieties were compared to the total permafrost organic carbon pool and the DOM of the overlying surface water. Extracted isolates from both permafrost and active layer were characterized by 3D excitation-emission fluorescence, UV-vis spectroscopy, PARAFAC, SPR-W5-WATERGATE 1H- NMR, total organic carbon, ICP-MS, and ion chromatography, coupled with photolysis experiments to determine reactive oxygen species production to characterize potential reactivity. Differences in carbon pool composition were resolved between seasons and with the extent of permafrost thaw. This is a key first step to determine how permafrost degradation influences DOM pool composition on a molecular level, which is essential for assessing permafrost organic matter impact on biogeochemical cycling and other ecological functions as it becomes incorporated into a warming landscape.

  1. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    -polluted groundwater. For humic acids the O/C ratios were slightly higher than reported in the literature, indicating a high content of carboxylic groups, phenolic groups or carbohydrates. Acid-base titration indicated that, in the fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction, carboxylic acids were the dominating......Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...... for about 60% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 1800 Da. The hydrophilic fraction constituted about 30% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 2100 Da, and the humic acid fraction made up about 10% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent...

  2. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  3. Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Imai, Akio; Matsushige, Kazuo; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon ( 14 C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions ( 13 C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14 C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470 per mille to -79 per mille and from -27.9 per mille to -24.2 per mille , respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14 C and 13 C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

  4. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalá, T.S.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Otero, J.

    2016-01-01

    effect of photobleaching is also detected. C3 (tryptophan-like) and C4 (tyrosine-like) variability was mostly dictated by salinity (S), by means of positive non-linear relationships, suggesting a primary physical control of their distributions at the global surface ocean scale that could be related......Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two humic......- (C1 and C2) and two amino acid-like (C3 and C4) components previously identified in ocean waters. Generalizedadditive models (GAMs) were used to explore the environmental factors that drive the global distribution of these PARAFAC components. The explained variance for the humic-like components...

  5. Changes in the composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter during sea ice formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin A.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-01-01

    processes such as sea ice formation as the source of the significant DOM removal in the Arctic Ocean. We present the results of a mesocosm experiment designed to investigate how sea ice formation affects DOM composition and bioavailability. We measured the change in different fluorescent dissolved organic...... the humic-like FDOM signal in the seawater below the ice during the initial ice formation. Humic-like FDOM fractions with a marine signal were preferentially retained in sea ice (relative to salinity), whereas humic-like FDOM with a terrestrial signal behaved more conservatively with respect to salinity...... matter (FDOM) fractions in sea ice, brines (contained in small pores between the ice crystals), and the underlying seawater during a 14 d experiment. Two series of mesocosms were used: one with seawater alone and one with seawater enriched with humic-rich river water. Abiotic processes increased...

  6. Growth response of four freshwater algal species to dissolved organic nitrogen of different concentration and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Graeber, Daniel; Badrian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    1. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds dominate the nitrogen pool of many lakes, but their importance as nitrogen sources for freshwater phytoplankton is not fully understood. Previous growth experiments demonstrated the availability of urea and amino acids but often at unnaturally high...... cases matched by nitrate. 4. Urea was also utilised over a longer time period than any other compound, including nitrate. The assumed delay in availability with increasing compound complexity was not supported by this experiment. 5. The studied species differed in their temporal response...... and their compound preferences. Therefore, DON composition can influence biomass and structure of phytoplankton communities. 6. These experiments demonstrate the importance of the main DON compounds for phytoplankton growth when no inorganic nitrogen is available. DON should in future be included in nitrogen budget...

  7. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on pelagial and near-sediment water traits in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Banaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC on the environmental conditions of macrophytes has been studied in 35 lakes divided into soft- and hardwater: oligohumic (16.0 mg C dm-3. The optimum environmental conditions for macrophytes have been found in oligohumic lakes, characterised by low water colour and its good transparency. In soft- and hardwater lakes increasing concentration of DOC is accompanied with an increase in the colour (r=0.95, while the visibility decreases. With increasing DOC in the near-sediment layer the pH values decrease while the concentration of nitrogen increases and the concentration of phosphorus slightly increases. In hardwater lakes with increasing DOC concentration, the redox potential, conductivity, total hardness and calcium concentration in the near-sediment water decrease, whereas the content of CO2 remains at a very low level.

  8. Characterization by fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in rural drinking water storage tanks in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faissal; Ouazzani, Naaila; Mandi, Laila; Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Poirot, Hélène; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2018-04-01

    Water storage tanks, fed directly from the river through opened channels, are particular systems used for water supply in rural areas in Morocco. The stored water is used as drinking water by the surrounding population without any treatment. UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence) have been tested as rapid methods to assess the quality of the water stored in the reservoirs as well as along the river feeding them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS50), collected with a difference of 50 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths, revealed a high tryptophan-like fluorescence, indicative of a pollution induced by untreated domestic and/or farm wastewater. The best correlations were obtained between the total SFS50 fluorescence and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and biological oxygen demand, showing that the contribution of humic-like fluorescent substances cannot be neglected to rapidly assess reservoir water quality in terms of DOC by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Effects of anthropogenic surfactants on the conversion of marine dissolved organic carbon and microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2017-04-15

    The possible impact of three types of anthropogenic surfactants on the ability of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to form self-assembled microgels was evaluated. The behavior of existing native microgels was also examined in the presence of surfactants. These results reveal that the release of surfactants even at low concentrations into the aquatic environment could effectively hinder the self-assembly of DOC polymers. The extent of the size reduction had the following order: anionic, cationic, and non-ionic. Furthermore, charged surfactants can disrupt existing native microgels, converting large assemblies into smaller particles. One possible mechanisms is that surfactants are able to enhance the stability of DOC polymers and disrupt aggregates due to their surface charges and protein-denaturing activities. These findings suggest that the ecological system is altered by anthropogenic surfactants, and provide useful information for ecological assessments of different types of surfactants and raise warnings about surfactant applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal Variability in Dissolved Organic Matter Quantity and Composition from the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. G.; Aiken, G. R.; Wickland, K. P.; Striegl, R. G.; Hernes, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Yukon River basin (YRB) is one of the largest in North America draining an area of 855 x 103 km2 in northwestern Canada and central Alaska and is a major source of terrigenous organic matter to the eastern Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean. The Yukon is also a relatively pristine catchment draining a vast area of taiga that is exceptionally susceptible to climatic change. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role in ecosystem biogeochemistry and is ubiquitous in aquatic systems. Samples were collected over a five year period from 2001 to 2005 from a number of locations and at different points in the hydrologic regime throughout the YRB. Sample locations represented different locations on the mainstream of the Yukon River, as well as tributaries ranging from organic rich black waters draining permafrost impacted watersheds to those dominated by glacial melt waters and groundwater. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were observed to vary greatly from 1.5 to 26.1 mgCL-1 depending on source waters and time of year. Specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA) was also determined and ranged from to 1.3 to 4 highlighting the range in dissolved aromatic carbon content from different sources within the YRB. The hydrophobic acid (HPOA) fraction of the DOM was isolated from samples by XAD-8 resin adsorption for further investigation of DOM composition. The HPOA fraction represented 32 to 57 % of the total DOC for the range of samples studied. SUVA values from the HPOA fraction were higher than the unfractionated water samples (2.5 to 4.4) indicating a higher aromatic content for the HPOA fractions relative to the unfractionated DOM. However, the HPOA SUVA showed a good correlation to the unfractionated water samples SUVA (r2 = 0.84, pgymnosperms and woody and non-woody vascular plant materials, respectively. In addition, acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols can indicate the degree of oxidation and have been shown to increase with

  11. Controls of dissolved organic matter quality: Evidence from a large-scale boreal lake survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothawala, D.N.; Stedmon, Colin; Müller, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    analyzed in relation to lake chemistry, catchment, and climate characteristics. Land cover, particularly the percentage of water in the catchment, was a primary factor explaining variability in PARAFAC components. Likewise, lake water retention time influenced DOM quality. These results suggest......Inland waters transport large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial environments to the oceans, but DOM also reacts en route, with substantial water column losses by mineralization and sedimentation. For DOM transformations along the aquatic continuum, lakes play an important...... role as they retain waters in the landscape allowing for more time to alter DOM. We know DOM losses are significant at the global scale, yet little is known about how the reactivity of DOM varies across landscapes and climates. DOM reactivity is inherently linked to its chemical composition. We used...

  12. Spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter in various agricultural soils throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiakai; Liang, Chenglong; Shen, Guangzhu; Lv, Jialong; Wu, Haiming

    2017-06-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an essential role in many environmental processes, particularly in soil ecosystems. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (3D-EEMs) were used to characterize DOM extracted from various agricultural soils across four climate regions of China. The maximum (86.01 mg L -1 ) and minimum (17.39 mg L -1 ) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were found in soils from Jiangsu and Yunnan, respectively. Specific UV-Vis absorption at 254 nm (SUVA 254 ) for soil DOM from the temperate continental climate (TCC) region was higher than that of soil DOM in other climate regions. Three fluorescence components including UVC humic-like substances (excitation peak at 400 nm, emission peak at 525 nm), UVA humic-like substances (250(330)/430 nm), and tyrosine-like materials (220(275)/320 nm) were identified in soil DOM using PARAFAC analysis. However, there were no significant differences in the distributions of these three components for soil DOM from different climate regions. Positive correlations were found among the humification index (HIX), fluorescence index (FI), and autochthonous index (BIX). Our results demonstrate that EEMs-PARAFAC could be a feasible approach for characterizing DOM in agricultural soils from different crop systems and can be used to further study complex DOM in agricultural environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lability of High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter Polysaccharides Increases with Mild Acid or Base Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler Sherwood, B.; Sosa, O.; Nelson, C. E.; Repeta, D.; DeLong, E.

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 662 Pg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has accumulated in the global ocean, yet the biological and chemical constraints on DOC turnover remain poorly understood. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM) is largely comprised of semi-labile polysaccharides. These polysaccharides resist degradation even in the presence of nutrient amendments, suggesting unknown factors of polysaccharide composition affect microbial degradation. In a series of microcosm incubations conducted at station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, we tested the affect of mild base (KOH-DOM) and acid (HCl-DOM) treatments on polysaccharide lability. KOH-DOM, HCl-DOM, and untreated HMWDOM was added to seawater from the deep chlorophyll maximum and 200m. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM yielded higher bacterial abundance and greater carbon drawdown relative to untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM also showed significant production of fluorescent DOM (fDOM), whereas untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls showed a net decrease in fDOM as measured by parallel factor analysis of DOM excitation-emission spectra. Metagenomic analyses revealed that microcosms amended with untreated HMWDOM and controls became dominated by Alteromonas genera ( 60% total sequence reads). In contrast, KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM amended microcosms yielded greater bacterial diversity; Alteromonas genera comprised 25% of sequence reads, with differences primarily accounted for by proportional increases in vibrio, roseobacter, rugeria and marinomonas clades. Transcriptomic analyses identified differential gene expression during growth on each DOM fraction. This study provides new insight into specific chemical moieties that may limit the bacterial degradation rate of semi-labile HMWDOM in the ocean.

  14. Adsorption kinetics of dissolve organic matter at the water-air interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The surface active nature of humic substances and naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), has been confirmed by a growing number of studies. The main quantity from which the surface activity has been deduced obtained from measurements of surface-tension (ST, mN m-1) at the water/air interface. All studies demonstrated the decay in the ST of water (72.5 mN m-1 at 25C) with increased aqueous concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The ST values reported for DOM should be defined as equilibrium ST, when the adsorption and orientation of the amphipathic molecule at the water/air interface have reached equilibrium state. However, for any amphipathic molecule the adsorption kinetics at the water/air interface is not reached instantaneously and may range from seconds up to several hours. The time depended ST started from the time where a new water/air interface is formed. Thereafter, amphipathic molecules need first to diffuse from the bulk solution to the interface, subsequently adsorb and simultaneously achieving the correct orientation at the interface. The consequence of this process will be expressed in a decay of the ST as a function of time until it will reach the equilibrium the surface tension. The main objective of this study was to quantify the rate and extent of DOM adsorption kinetics at the water-air interface through dynamic surface tension measurement, using the pendant drop method. The applicability of a diffusion-only model to describe the results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Decoupling of dissolved organic matter patterns between stream and riparian groundwater in a headwater forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Susana; Lupon, Anna; Catalán, Núria; Castelar, Sara; Martí, Eugènia

    2018-03-01

    Streams are important sources of carbon to the atmosphere, though knowing whether they merely outgas terrestrially derived carbon dioxide or mineralize terrestrial inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still a big challenge in ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of riparian groundwater (GW) and in-stream processes on the temporal pattern of stream DOM concentrations and quality in a forested headwater stream, and whether this influence differed between the leaf litter fall (LLF) period and the remaining part of the year (non-LLF). The spectroscopic indexes (fluorescence index, biological index, humification index, and parallel factor analysis components) indicated that DOM had an eminently protein-like character and was most likely originated from microbial sources and recent biological activity in both stream water and riparian GW. However, paired samples of stream water and riparian GW showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations as well as the spectroscopic character of DOM differed between the two compartments throughout the year. A simple mass balance approach indicated that in-stream processes along the reach contributed to reducing DOC and DON fluxes by 50 and 30 %, respectively. Further, in-stream DOC and DON uptakes were unrelated to each other, suggesting that these two compounds underwent different biogeochemical pathways. During the LLF period, stream DOC and DOC : DON ratios were higher than during the non-LLF period, and spectroscopic indexes suggested a major influence of terrestrial vegetation on stream DOM. Our study highlights that stream DOM is not merely a reflection of riparian GW entering the stream and that headwater streams have the capacity to internally produce, transform, and consume DOM.

  16. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Dissolved organic matter export in glacial and non-glacial streams along the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E. W.; Scott, D.; Jeffery, A.; Schreiber, S.; Heavner, M.; Edwards, R.; D'Amore, D. V.; Fellman, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Alaska drainage basin contains more than 75,000 km2 of glaciers, many of which are rapidly thinning and receding. We are using a paired watershed approach to evaluate how changes in glacier ecosystems will impact the export dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the Gulf of Alaska. Our primary study watersheds, Lemon Creek and Montana Creek, are similar in size, bedrock lithology and elevation range and extend from near sea level to the margin or interior of the Juneau Icefield. Lemon Creek has a glacial coverage of ~60%, while Montana Creek is free of glacier ice. Our goal is to evaluate seasonal differences in the quantity, chemical character and reactivity of DOM being exported from these watersheds to downstream near-shore marine ecosystems. In addition, we are monitoring a variety of physical parameters that influence instream DOM metabolism in both watersheds. Our initial results from the 2009 runoff season indicate that concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are substantially higher in the non-glacial watershed. However, fluorescence analyses indicate that DOM from the glacier watershed has a higher protein and lower humic material content compared to DOM from the non-glacial watershed. After the spring snowmelt season, physical parameters between the two watersheds diverged, with higher streamflow and turbidity as well as colder water temperatures in the glacial watershed. Although our previous yield calculations show significantly higher DOC fluxes from the forested watershed, our results here suggest that glacier watersheds may be an important source of labile carbon to the near shore marine ecosystem. The contrast in the physical habitat between the two rivers (e.g glacier stream = cold, low light penetration, unstable substrate) supports the hypothesis that that in-stream DOM processing is limited within glacier dominated rivers, therefore delivering a higher percentage of labile DOM downstream.

  18. Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Regional Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Westerhoff, P.; Leenheer, J.A.; Booksh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the >10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation-emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation-emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (??i,n). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 hydrophobic or hydrophilic acid, neutral, and base DOM fractions plus nonfractionated DOM from wastewater effluents and rivers in the southwestern United States. DOM fractions fluoresced in one or more EEM regions. The highest cumulative EEM volume (??T,n = ????i,n) was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions, followed by lower ??T,n values for hydrophobic acid, base, and hydrophilic acid DOM fractions, respectively. An extracted wastewater biomass DOM sample contained aromatic protein- and humic-like material and was characteristic of bacterial-soluble microbial products. Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds (as indicated by solid-state 13C NMR and FTIR data) resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM.

  19. Variations in abundance, composition and sources of dissolved organic matter in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; DeVilbiss, S. E.; Zhou, Z.; Klump, J. V.

    2016-02-01

    Green Bay is the largest freshwater estuary in the Great Lakes and receives disproportionately high terrestrial runoffs from surrounding watersheds. Although seasonal hypoxic conditions and the formation of "dead zones" in Green Bay have received increasing attention, dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the bay and its relation to hypoxia remain understudied. Water samples were collected during summer 2014 from Green Bay, covering stations from eutrophic lower Fox River to northern Green Bay for the measurements of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-vis absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) in addition to hydrographic parameters. DOM abundance, composition, mixing behavior, and sources were quantified for Green Bay in June and August 2014. DOC concentrations ranged from 202 - 571 µM-C with an average of 36173 µM-C, showing a south-to-north concentration gradient, with the highest concentration, more higher-molecular-weight and aromatic DOM components in the lower Fox River. Absorption coefficient (a254) was significantly correlated to DOC concentration and specific conductivity, showing an apparent conservative mixing behavior, especially in August. Non-chromophoric DOC comprised, on average, 33% of the bulk DOC in June and 47% in August, consistent with change in DOM sources between June and August and the lower optical active of autochthonous and more degraded DOM. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis on EEMs data gave rise to two terrestrial humic-like, one aquagenic humic-like, and one protein-like DOM components. Fluorescence indices (BIX and HIX) agreed well with the relative abundance of fluorescent DOM components, with more humified DOM in June and aquagenic DOM in August. Variations in DOM abundance and composition attested the dominance of terrestrial DOM and a dynamic changes in DOM quality along the river-bay transect and between June and August.

  20. Relationships between land cover and dissolved organic matter change along the river to lake transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Frost, Paul C.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Williams, Clayton J.; Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Nelson, J. C.; Richardson, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences the physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesized that controls over spatial variation in DOM quantity and composition (measured with DOM optical properties) differ based on the source of DOM to aquatic ecosystems. DOM quantity and composition should be better predicted by land cover in aquatic habitats with allochthonous DOM and related more strongly to nutrients in aquatic habitats with autochthonous DOM. Three habitat types [rivers (R), rivermouths (RM), and the nearshore zone (L)] associated with 23 tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes were sampled to test this prediction. Evidence from optical indices suggests that DOM in these habitats generally ranged from allochthonous (R sites) to a mix of allochthonous-like and autochthonous-like (L sites). Contrary to expectations, DOM properties such as the fluorescence index, humification index, and spectral slope ratio were only weakly related to land cover or nutrient data (Bayesian R 2 values were indistinguishable from zero). Strongly supported models in all habitat types linked DOM quantity (that is, dissolved organic carbon concentration [DOC]) to both land cover and nutrients (Bayesian R2 values ranging from 0.55 to 0.72). Strongly supported models predicting DOC changed with habitat type: The most important predictor in R sites was wetlands whereas the most important predictor at L sites was croplands. These results suggest that as the DOM pool becomes more autochthonous-like, croplands become a more important driver of spatial variation in DOC and wetlands become less important.

  1. Small scale variability of transport and composition of dissolved organic matter in the subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinemann, T.; Mikutta, R.; Kalbitz, K.; Guggenberger, G.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most mobile fraction of carbon in the soil and connects the carbon-rich topsoil with the subsoil where translocated OM may get stabilized. The water flux in soil is highly heterogeneous, both temporarily and spatially. We, therefore, hypothesize that at high flow velocities, DOM can bypass possible mineral binding sites and microorganisms, thus leading to less degraded DOM under high flow velocities. To address this question, we investigated water and DOM fluxes in situ using segmented suction plates (4 x 4 segments on 24 x 24 cm) installed into three soil observatories at three depths (10 cm, 50 cm, and 150 cm) in a Dystric Cambisol under Beech (Fagus sylvatica) near Hannover, Germany. To follow the transport of carbon from the litter layer through the soil, an in situ 13C-labelling experiment has been conducted in January 2015. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DOM composition was analyzed using high temperature combustion and photometric methods. The amount of transported DOC decreased by ca. 80 % from 10 to 50 cm depth and by 40 % from 50 to 150 cm depth. Different flow patterns existed at the centimeter scale, which were stable over time for individual suction plate segments. The specific UV280 nm absorbance of DOM decreased with increasing soil depth. This indicates a selective loss of aromatic compounds. The influence of different flow regimes on the DOM quality became apparent in the subsoil samples (>50 cm depth) showing a correlation of increasing UV280 nm absorbance with increasing water flux. The 13C-labelling experiment showed that after 10 month just 0.3 % of the DOC in 150 cm depth was derived from fresh litter. The transport of leaf litter carbon seemed to be controlled by the flow regime as the DO13C ratio and the water flux correlated positively. This can be an indication for the importance of preferential flow on carbon transport to the subsoil.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics in the Upper Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. S.; Lajtha, K.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching through soil affects soil carbon sequestration and the carbon metabolism of receiving water bodies. Improving our understanding of the sources and fate of DOM at varying spatial and temporal patterns is crucial for land management decisions. However, little is known about how DOM sources change with land use types and seasonal flow patterns. In the Willamette River Basin (WRB), which is home to Oregon's major cities including Portland and Salem, forested headwaters transition to agricultural and urban land. The climate of WRB has a distinctive seasonal pattern with dry warm summers and wet winters driven by winter precipitation and snowmelt runoff between November and March. This study examined DOM fluorescence characteristic in stream water from 21 locations collected monthly and 16 locations collected seasonally to identify the sources and fate of DOM in the upper WRB in contrasting land uses. DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations increased as the flow rate increased during winter precipitation at all sites. This indicates that increased flow rate increased the connectivity between land and nearby water bodies. DOM fluorescent properties varied among land use types. During the first precipitation event after a long dry summer, a microbial DOM signature in agricultural areas increased along with nitrate concentrations. This may be because accumulated nutrients on land during the dry season flowed to nearby streams during the first rain event and promoted microbial growth in the streams. During the month of the highest flow rate in 2014, sampling sites near forest showed evidence of a greater terrestrial DOM signature compared to its signature during the dry season. This indicates fluorescent DOM characteristics in streams vary as the flow connectivity changes even within the same land type.

  3. Human activities cause distinct dissolved organic matter composition across freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clayton J.; Frost, Paul C.; Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Chiandet, Aisha S.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in freshwater ecosystems is influenced by interactions between physical, chemical, and biological processes that are controlled, at one level, by watershed landscape, hydrology, and their connections. Against this environmental template, humans may strongly influence DOM composition. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of DOM composition variation across freshwater ecosystems differentially affected by human activity. Using optical properties, we described DOM variation across five ecosystem groups of the Laurentian Great Lakes Region: large lakes, Kawartha Lakes, Experimental Lakes Area, urban stormwater ponds, and rivers (n = 184 sites). We determined how between ecosystem variation in DOM composition related to watershed size, land use and cover, water quality measures (conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrient concentration, chlorophyll a), and human population density. The five freshwater ecosystem groups had distinctive DOM composition from each other. These significant differences were not explained completely through differences in watershed size nor spatial autocorrelation. Instead, multivariate partial least squares regression showed that DOM composition was related to differences in human impact across freshwater ecosystems. In particular, urban/developed watersheds with higher human population densities had a unique DOM composition with a clear anthropogenic influence that was distinct from DOM composition in natural land cover and/or agricultural watersheds. This nonagricultural, human developed impact on aquatic DOM was most evident through increased levels of a microbial, humic-like parallel factor analysis component (C6). Lotic and lentic ecosystems with low human population densities had DOM compositions more typical of clear water to humic-rich freshwater ecosystems but C6 was only present at trace to background levels. Consequently, humans are strongly altering the quality of DOM in

  4. Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen in the north Atlantic Ocean in sustaining primary production: a 3-D modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Charria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An eddy-permitting coupled ecosystem-circulation model including dissolved organic matter is used to estimate the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON supply sustaining primary production in the subtropical north Atlantic Ocean.

    After an analysis of the coupled model performances compared to the data, a sensitivity study demonstrates the strong impact of parameter values linked to the hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrogen and remineralisation of dissolved organic nitrogen on surface biogeochemical concentrations.

    The physical transport of dissolved organic nitrogen contributes to maintain the level of primary production in this subtropical gyre. It is dominated by the meridional component. We estimate a meridional net input of 0.039 molN m−2 yr−1 over the domain (13–35° N and 71–40° W in the subtropical gyre. This supply is driven by the Ekman transport in the southern part and by non-Ekman transport (meridional current components, eddies, meanders and fronts in the northern part of the subtropical gyre. At 12° N, our estimate (18 kmolN s−1 confirms the estimation (17.9 kmolN s−1 made by Roussenov et al. (2006 using a simplified biogeochemical model in a large scale model. This DON meridional input is within the range (from 0.05 up to 0.24 molN m−2 yr−1 (McGillicuddy and Robinson, 1997; Oschlies, 2002 of all other possible mechanisms (mesoscale activity, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric deposition fuelling primary production in the subtropical gyre. The present study confirms that the lateral supply of dissolved organic nitrogen might be important in closing the N budget over the north Atlantic Ocean and quantifies the importance of meridional input of dissolved organic nitrogen.

  5. Compositional Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter released from the sediment of Han river in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H.; Choi, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolved organic matter (DOM) has variable characteristics depending on the sources. The DOM of a river is affected by rain water, windborne material, surface and groundwater flow, and sediments. In particular, sediments are sources and sinks of nutrients and pollutants in aquatic ecosystems by supplying large amounts of organic matter. The DOM which absorbs ultraviolet and visible light is called colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is responsible for the optical properties of natural waters in several biogeochemical and photochemical processes and absorbs UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B (280-315), which are harmful to aquatic ecosystems (Helms et al., 2008). In this study, we investigated the quantity and quality of DOM and CDOM released from the sediments of Han river which was impacted by anthropogenic activities and hydrologic alternation of 4 Major River Restoration Project. The target area of this study is Gangchenbo (GC), Yeojubo (YJ), and Ipobo(IP) of the Han River, Korea. Sediments and water samples were taken on July and August of 2016 and were incubated at 20° up to 7 days. Absorbance was measured with UV-visible spectrophotometer (Libra S32 PC, Biochrom). Fluorescence intensity determined with Fluorescence EEMs (F-7000, Hitachi). Absorbance and fluorescence intensity were used to calculate Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA254), Humification index (HIX), Biological index (BIX), Spectral slope (SR) and component analysis. The DOC concentration increased after 3 days of incubation. According to the SUVA254 analysis, the microbial activity is highest in the initial overlying water of IP. HIX have range of 1.35-4.08, and decrease poly aromatic structures of organic matter during incubation. From the results of the BIX, autochthonous organic matter was released from the sediments. In all sites, Humic-like DOM, Microbial humic-like DOM and Protein-like DOM increased significantly between Day 0 and 3(except Humic-like, Microbial humic-like DOM in

  6. Different effects of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and urea on the priming of soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Lanfang; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Binbin; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is important for the regulation of the global climate and soil fertility. Decomposition of SOC may be significantly affected by the supply of plant-derived labile carbon (C). To investigate the impact of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and urea (N) additions on the decomposition of native SOC as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of priming effects (PEs), a batch of incubation experiments was conducted for 250 days by application of (13)C-labeled plant-derived DOM and urea to soils. The direction of PE induced by the addition of DOM was different from the addition of N, i.e. it switched from negative to positive in DOM-amended soils, whereas in the N-treated soil it switched from positive to negative. Adding DOM alone was favorable for soil C sequestration (59 ± 5 mg C per kg soil), whereas adding N alone or together with DOM accelerated the decomposition of native SOC, causing net C losses (-62 ± 4 and -34 ± 31 mg C per kg soil, respectively). These findings indicate that N addition and its interaction with DOM are not favorable for soil C sequestration. Adding DOM alone increased the level of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but it did not increase the level of soil mineral N. Changes in the ratio of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) to microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) after the addition of DOM and N suggest that a possible shift in the microbial community composition may occur in the present study. Adding DOM with or without N increased the activities of β-glucosidase and urease. Changes in the direction and magnitude of PE were closely related to changes in soil C and N availability. Soil C and N availability might influence the PE through affecting the microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity as well as causing a possible shift in the microbial community composition.

  7. Effect of catchment land use and soil type on the concentration, quality, and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Iida; Soinne, Helena; Helin, Janne; Asmala, Eero; Hoikkala, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We studied the effects of catchment characteristics (soil type and land use) on the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water and on the bacterial degradation of terrestrial DOM. The share of organic soil was the strongest predictor of high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (DOC, DON, and DOP, respectively), and was linked to DOM quality. Soil type was more important than land use in determining the concentration and quality of riverine DOM. On average, 5-9 % of the DOC and 45 % of the DON were degraded by the bacterial communities within 2-3 months. Simultaneously, the proportion of humic-like compounds in the DOM pool increased. Bioavailable DON accounted for approximately one-third of the total bioavailable dissolved nitrogen, and thus, terrestrial DON can markedly contribute to the coastal plankton dynamics and support the heterotrophic food web.

  8. Modified kinetic-hydraulic UASB reactor model for treatment of wastewater containing biodegradable organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt.

  9. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-02

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p Al (IMAl) decreased (p Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  10. Comparison of the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in three lakes in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    New information on the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in three lakes in Minnesota has been gained from spectral editing and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, indicating the effects of lake hydrological settings on DOM composition. Williams Lake (WL), Shingobee Lake (SL), and Manganika Lake (ML) had different source inputs, and the lake water residence time (WRT) of WL was markedly longer than that of SL and ML. The hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) and transphilic organic acid (TPIA) fractions combined comprised >50% of total DOM in these lakes, and contained carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), aromatics, carbohydrates, and N-containing compounds. The previously understudied TPIA fractions contained fewer aromatics, more oxygen-rich CRAM, and more N-containing compounds compared to the corresponding HPOA. CRAM represented the predominant component in DOM from all lakes studied, and more so in WL than in SL and ML. Aromatics including lignin residues and phenols decreased in relative abundances from ML to SL and WL. Carbohydrates and N-containing compounds were minor components in both HPOA and TPIA and did not show large variations among the three lakes. The increased relative abundances of CRAM in DOM from ML, SL to WL suggested the selective preservation of CRAM with increased residence time.

  11. Interactions between dissolved organic matter and mercury in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Haitzer, M.; Ryan, J.N.; Nagy, K.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using organic matter isolated from various surface waters in the Florida Everglades to study the interactions between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and Hg(II). Conditional distribution coefficients (KDOM???), obtained using an equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange method, were strongly affected by the Hg/DOM concentration ratio. Very strong interactions (KDOM??? = 1023.2??0.5 L kg-1), indicative of Hg-thiol bonds, were observed at Hg/DOM ratios below approximately 1 ??g per mg DOM. Above approximately 10 ??g Hg per mg DOM much lower KDOM??? values (1010.7??0.5 L kg-1) were obtained DOM-Hg interactions were also studied by HgS (log Ksp = -52.4) dissolution and precipitation experiments. In the dissolution experiments, a significant amount of Hg was released from cinnabar in the presence of DOM, suggesting strong interactions. Conversely, precipitation of HgS was strongly inhibited in the presence of low concentrations (???3 mg C/L) of DOM. In both the dissolution and precipitation experiments, organic matter rich in aromatic moieties was more reactive with HgS than less aromatic fractions and sulfur-containing model compounds. These results suggest that DOM can influence the geochemistry of inorganic complexes of Hg in the Everglades, especially HgS, by strong Hg-DOM binding and colloidal stabilization.

  12. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in anaerobic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Tomoko; Burdige, David J.; Crispo, Sabrina M.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Griffin, Sheila; Johnson, Leah; Le, Diemmi

    2013-06-01

    Cycling of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was investigated in anoxic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin, California Borderland, by analyzing the concentration and isotopic signatures (Δ14C and δ13C) of pore-water DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and organic compound classes extracted from the bulk sediments. DOC and DIC increased across the sediment-water interface, indicating net efflux of these solutes out of the sediments. Throughout the depth interval examined (0-30 cm), the Δ14C value of DOC (Δ14CDOC) was similar to, or higher than, that of bulk sedimentary particulate organic carbon (POC), indicating degradation of relatively 14C-rich components of POC. There were prominent peaks in both Δ14CDOC and Δ14CDIC in the uppermost 2 cm of the sediment column, indicating degradation and remineralization of 14C-rich, labile organic matter in the near-surface sediments. However, below these sub-surface maxima, Δ14CDOC and Δ14CDIC decreased with depth by ˜200‰ and ˜50‰, respectively. Given the diffusive time scales, these decreases were too large to be explained by 14C loss due to radioactive decay. To help explain these observations, we constructed and implemented a selective degradation model that considers bulk pore-water DOC to be the sum of three kinetically- and isotopically-distinct sub-components. Based on this model, the most reactive DOC fraction, which supported ˜60% of the DIC production, had a Δ14C value indicating the presence of bomb-14C. The intermediate fraction had a Δ14C value of ˜-60‰ and accounted for most of the pore-water DOC standing stock. The least reactive fraction was virtually non-reactive in these sediments, and had a Δ14C value of ˜-500‰. The benthic DOC flux of this 14C-depleted, poorly-reactive DOC fraction may represent a source of pre-aged, refractory DOC to the oceans.

  14. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Giesbrecht, Ian; Korver, Maartje C.; Floyd, William C.; Sanborn, Paul; Bulmer, Chuck; Lertzman, Ken P.

    2017-08-01

    The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM) composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km-2 yr-1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km-2 yr-1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September-April). Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the British Columbia coast, suggesting that

  15. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  16. Effect of exposure to sunlight and phosphorus-limitation on bacterial degradation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Søndergaard, Morten; Tranvik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the interacting effect of photochemical conditioning of dissolved organic matter and inorganic phosphorus on the metabolic activity of bacteria in freshwater. Batch cultures with lake-water bacteria and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracted from a humic boreal river were...... to calculate bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Bacterial degradation of DOC increased with increasing exposure to simulated sunlight and availability of phosphorus and no detectable growth occurred on DOC that was not pre-exposed to simulated sunlight. The outcome of photochemical degradation of DOC changed...

  17. Co-optimization of diesel fuel biodegradation and N2 fixation through the addition of particulate organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehler, M.; Swistak, J.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment is widespread and current bioremedial techniques are often not cost effective for small spills. The formulation of simple and inexpensive bioremedial methods could help reduce the impacts of frequent low volume spills in areas like marinas and ports. Particulate organic carbon (POC) was added to diesel fuel amended samples from inshore marine waters in the form of corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems), with and without inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Biodegradation of diesel fuel ( 14 C hexadecane mineralization) and N 2 fixation were measured in response to the additions, The addition of POC was necessary for N 2 fixation and diesel fuel biodegradation to co-occur. The effects of diesel fuel and inorganic nutrient additions on N 2 fixation rates were not consistent, with both inhibitory and stimulatory responses to each addition observed. The highest observed diesel fuel biodegradation levels were in response to treatments that included inorganic nutrients. The addition of POC alone increased diesel fuel degradation levels above that observed in the control. In an attempt to determine the effect of the POC on the microbial community, the corn particles were observed microscopically using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with tetrazolium salt additions. The corn particles were found to have abundant attached bacterial communities and microscale oxygen concentration gradients occurring on individual particles. The formation of oxygen replete microzones may be essential for the co-occurrence of aerobic diesel fuel biodegradation and oxygen inhibited N2 fixation. Mesocosm experiments are currently underway to further examine the structure and function of this primarily heterotrophic system and to explore the potential contribution of N 2 fixation to the N requirements of diesel fuel biodegradation

  18. Effects of dissolved organic matter on permethrin bioavailability to Daphnia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weichun; Spurlock, Frank; Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jianying

    2006-05-31

    Synthetic pyrethroids are widely used insecticides in both agricultural and urban environments. Recent studies show frequent appearances of pyrethroid residues in runoff effluents and sediments, which stimulated concerns over the potential ecotoxicological implications. Pyrethroids are known to have two contrasting characteristics, high aquatic toxicity and strong affinity for the solid phase, that may negate the actual toxicity in a multiphased system. This study evaluated the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the pyrethroid uptake by and acute toxicity to water-column invertebrates using permethrin as a model compound. During the bioassays, the freely dissolved permethrin concentration was simultaneously measured using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fibers as a biomimetic surrogate. The presence of DOM consistently decreased permethrin uptake and increased its LC(50). For instance, compared to the DOM-free treatment, the LC(50) of permethrin to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a pond water containing DOM at 10 mg L(-)(1) increased from 0.56 to 1.03 microg L(-)(1), whereas the bioaccumulation factor by Daphnia magna decreased by 56%. Permethrin accumulation on the PDMS fiber closely mimicked permethrin uptake by D. magna. Statistical analyses suggest that permethrin associated with DOM was completely unavailable to D. magna or C. dubia. The effect of DOM on permethrin bioavailability appeared to depend also on the source of the DOM. These results indicate that the inhibitory role of DOM should be considered in the development of toxicologically relevant water quality limits and in monitoring protocols for permethrin and other pyrethroids in runoff effluents and surface streams that ubiquitously contain DOM.

  19. Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Export in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe*, A.; Eißfeller, V.; Langenbruch, C.; Seven, J.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils in order to understand the effect of tree diversity on below ground processes. We established a leaf litter exchange experiment in the National Park Hainich (Thuringia, Germany) in December 2008. Labeled (13C) and unlabeled leaf litter of beach (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were exposed to study the decomposition process. Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 μm pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany) in 5 cm soil depth and pH, conductivity, DOC and anions (Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, F-) were determined. The 13DOC values were measured using high performance liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS). The values of conductivity and pH in the soil water indicate slower decomposition processes for leaf litter of beech in comparison to ash leaf litter. The conductivity was correlated with the Cl- ion during the first spring, which suggests the export of carbon due to leaching processes. However during the summer the conductivity correlated with the NO3- ions, which indicates mineralization as driving process. Surprisingly, the contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool was very low. The highest contribution with up to 8.6% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first 3 month of application. However, in the mean only 1.2% and 2.6% of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. This represents in total only up to 0.41% of labeled litter carbon that was added. The higher percentages of ash litter derived 13C in DOM of soil water compared to beech indicates a positive effect of litter quality on decomposition. However, we did not find a faster decomposition or higher ash litter derived carbon export in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments, which would indicate food selection or biodiversity effects.

  20. Sources, bioavailability, and photoreactivity of dissolved organic carbon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanauskas, R.; Moran, M.A.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hollibaugh, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed bioavailability, photoreactivity, fluorescence, and isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) collected at 13 stations in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during various seasons to estimate the persistence of DOC from diverse shallow water habitat sources. Prospective large-scale wetland restorations in the Delta may change the amount of DOC available to the food web as well as change the quality of Delta water exported for municipal use. Our study indicates that DOC contributed by Delta sources is relatively refractory and likely mostly the dissolved remnants of vascular plant material from degrading soils and tidal marshes rather than phytoplankton production. Therefore, the prospective conversion of agricultural land into submerged, phytoplankton-dominated habitats may reduce the undesired export of DOC from the Delta to municipal users. A median of 10% of Delta DOC was rapidly utilizable by bacterioplankton. A moderate dose of simulated solar radiation (286 W m-2 for 4 h) decreased the DOC bioavailability by an average of 40%, with a larger relative decrease in samples with higher initial DOC bioavailability. Potentially, a DOC-based microbial food web could support ???0.6 ?? 109 g C of protist production in the Delta annually, compared to ???17 ?? 109 g C phytoplankton primary production. Thus, DOC utilization via the microbial food web is unlikely to play an important role in the nutrition of Delta zooplankton and fish, and the possible decrease in DOC concentration due to wetland restoration is unlikely to have a direct effect on Delta fish productivity. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Pan-arctic trends in terrestrial dissolved organic matter from optical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul James Mann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is causing extensive warming across arctic regions resulting in permafrost degradation, alterations to regional hydrology, and shifting amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM transported by streams and rivers. Here, we characterize the DOM composition and optical properties of the six largest arctic rivers draining into the Arctic Ocean to examine the ability of optical measurements to provide meaningful insights into terrigenous carbon export patterns and biogeochemical cycling. The chemical composition of aquatic DOM varied with season, spring months were typified by highest lignin phenol and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations with greater hydrophobic acid content, and lower proportions of hydrophilic compounds, relative to summer and winter months. Chromophoric DOM (CDOM spectral slope (S275-295 tracked seasonal shifts in DOM composition across river basins. Fluorescence and parallel factor analysis identified seven components across the six Arctic rivers. The ratios of ‘terrestrial humic-like’ versus ‘marine humic-like’ fluorescent components co-varied with lignin monomer ratios over summer and winter months, suggesting fluorescence may provide information on the age and degradation state of riverine DOM. CDOM absorbance (a350 proved a sensitive proxy for lignin phenol concentrations across all six river basins and over the hydrograph, enabling for the first time the development of a single pan-arctic relationship between a350 and terrigenous DOC (R2 = 0.93. Combining this lignin proxy with high-resolution monitoring of a350, pan-arctic estimates of annual lignin flux were calculated to range from 156 to 185 Gg, resulting in shorter and more constrained estimates of terrigenous DOM residence times in the Arctic Ocean (spanning 7 months to 2½ years. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models incorporating both absorbance and fluorescence variables proved capable of explaining much of the

  2. Composition and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Baltic Sea

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    Michael Seidel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area is 1.6–1.9 Tg C per year which is 43–51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area toward the North Sea is 1.8–2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years, seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur

  3. Composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Manecki, Marcus; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Deutsch, Barbara; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Jürgens, Klaus; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal shelf seas is an important part of the global carbon cycle, yet, it is still not well understood. One of the largest brackish shelf seas, the Baltic Sea in northern Europe, is characterized by high freshwater input from sub-arctic rivers and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean via the North Sea. We studied the molecular and isotopic composition and turnover of solid-phase extractable (SPE) DOM and its transformation along the salinity and redox continuum of the Baltic Sea during spring and autumn. We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and other geochemical and biological approaches. Our data demonstrate a large influx of terrestrial riverine DOM, especially into the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The DOM composition in the central Baltic Sea changed seasonally and was mainly related to autochthonous production by phytoplankton in spring. Especially in the northern, river-dominated basins, a major fraction of riverine DOM was removed, likely by bio- and photo-degradation. We estimate that the removal rate of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (Bothnian Bay to the Danish Straits/Kattegat area) is 1.6 - 1.9 Tg C per year which is 43 to 51% of the total riverine input. The export of terrestrial DOM from the Danish Straits/Kattegat area towards the North Sea is 1.8 - 2.1 Tg C per year. Due to the long residence time of terrestrial DOM in the Baltic Sea (total of ca. 12 years), seasonal variations caused by bio- and photo-transformations and riverine discharge are dampened, resulting in a relatively invariant DOM molecular and isotopic signature exported to the North Sea. In the deep stagnant basins of the Baltic Sea, the DOM composition and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations changed seasonally, likely because of vertical particle transport and subsequent degradation releasing DOM. DOM in the deep anoxic basins was also enriched in sulfur-containing organic molecules

  4. Release dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soil amended with biosolids

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    Trifonov, Pavel; Ilani, Talli; Arye, Gilboa

    2014-05-01

    Among the soil organic matter (SOM) components, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the link between the solid phase and the soil solution. Previous studies emphasize the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) in soils as major pathways of element cycling. In addition to DOM contribution to carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient budgets, it also influence soil biological activity, reduces metal-ion toxicity, increase the transport of some compounds and contribute to the mineral weathering. Amending soils with biosolids originated from sludge have become very popular in the recent years. Those additions significantly affect the quantity and the composition of the DOM in agricultural soils. It should be noted that under most irrigation habitants, the soil is subjected to drying and re-wetting cycles, inducing a complex changes of soil structure, aggregation, SOM quality and micro-flora. However, most studies that addressed the above issues (directly or indirectly) are engaged with soils under cover of naturally occurring forests of relatively humid areas rather than agricultural soils in arid areas. In the current study we examined the DOC and DON release dynamic of sand and loess soils sampled from the Negev Desert of Israel. Each one of the soils were mixing with 5% (w/w) of one of the biosolids and packed into a Plexiglass column (I.d. 5.2 cm, L=20 cm). The flow-through experiments were conducted under low (1 ml/min) or high (10 ml/min) flow rates in a continuous or interrupted manner. The leachates were collected in time intervals equivalent to about 0.12 pore volume of a given soil-biosolids mixture. The established leaching curves of DOC, DON, NO3-, NH4+ and Cl- are analyzed by water flow and solute transport model for saturate (continuous runs) or variably saturate water flow conditions (interrupted runs). The chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium (i.e. equilibrium and/or kinetics adsorption/desorption) versions of the convection dispersion

  5. Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.

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    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent

  6. Leaching of chloride, sulphate, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and phenolic organic pesticides from contaminated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H

    2016-10-01

    Concrete samples from demolition waste of a former pesticide plant in Sweden were analysed for total contents and leachate concentrations of potentially hazardous inorganic substances, TOC, phenols, as well as for pesticide compounds such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols. Leachates were produced by means of modified standard column leaching tests and pH-stat batch tests. Due to elevated contents of chromium and lead, as well as due to high chloride concentrations in the first leachate from column tests at L/S 0.1, recycling of the concrete as a construction material in groundworks is likely to be restricted according to Swedish guidelines. The studied pesticide compounds appear to be relatively mobile at the materials own pH>12, 12, 9 and 7. Potential leaching of pesticide residues from recycled concrete to ground water and surface water might exceed water quality guidelines for the remediation site and the EU Water Framework Directive. Results of this study stress the necessity to systematically study the mechanism behind mobility of organic contaminants from alkaline construction and demolition wastes rather than rely on total content limit values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectroscopic Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Afforestation Forest Soil of Miyun District, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Shi, Zong-Hai; Zhong, Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Li, Jun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, soil samples collected from different plain afforestation time (1 year, 4 years, 10 years, 15 years, and 20 years) in Miyun were characterized, including total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available K (K+), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOM in the soil samples with different afforestation time was further characterized via DOC, UV-Visible spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results suggested that the texture of soil sample was sandy. The extracted DOM from soil consisted mainly of aliphatic chains and only a minor aromatic component. It can be included that afforestation can improve the soil quality to some extent, which can be partly reflected from the indexes like TOC, TN, TP, K+, MBC, and DOC. And the characterization of DOM implied that UV humic-like substances were the major fluorophores components in the DOM of the soil samples, which consisted of aliphatic chains and aromatic components with carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups. PMID:27433371

  8. Tracing Aquatic Priming Effect During Microbial Decomposition of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Carbon in Chemostat Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, Karoline; Raeke, Julia; Kamjunke, Norbert; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Tittel, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Microbial decomposition of terrestrial carbon may be enhanced by the addition of easily decomposable compounds, a phenomenon referred to as priming effect. We investigated the microbial decomposition of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in one-stage and two-stage flow-through cultures (chemostats) in the absence and presence of growing phytoplankton as phytoplankton-derived organic matter might facilitate the mineralization of more refractory terrestrial compounds. Peat water and soil leachate were used as terrestrial substrates, and only slight DOC decomposition was observed in the absence of phytoplankton for both substrates. A priming effect was revealed via 14 C data. Priming was more pronounced for the peat water substrate than for the soil leachate. The total DOC concentrations increased for both substrates in the presence of phytoplankton due to exudation and cell lysis. Samples from the soil leachate experiments were analyzed using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Predominantly, the same saturated, aliphatic molecules with H/C ratios >1.5 were completely decomposed in the absence and in the presence of phytoplankton. The decomposition of more stable molecules differed in their intensity. Oxidized and unsaturated molecules with H/C ratios 0.4 were more strongly decomposed in phytoplankton presence (i.e., under priming). We conclude that an aquatic priming effect is not easily detectable via net concentration changes alone, and that qualitative investigations of the DOC processed by bacterial decomposition are necessary to detect aquatic priming.

  9. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  10. Extraordinary slow degradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a cold marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Guebuem; Lee, Shin-Ah; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-09-08

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon reservoir in the ocean, and the amount of carbon in this reservoir rivals that in atmospheric CO2. In general, DOC introduced into the deep ocean undergoes a significant degradation over a centennial time scale (i.e., ~50 μM to ~34 μM in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). However, we here show that high concentrations of DOC (58 ± 4 μM) are maintained almost constantly over 100 years in the entire deep East/Japan Sea (EJS). The degradation rate in this sea is estimated to be 0.04 μmol C kg(-1) yr(-1), which is 2-3 times lower than that in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Since the source of DOC in the deep EJS is found to be of marine origin on the basis of δ(13)C-DOC signatures, this slow degradation rate seems to be due to low temperature (DOC in the world ocean is very sensitive to global warming and slowdown of global deep-water overturning.

  11. The Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Dissolved Organic Matter and Microbial Biomass of chernozem soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ann-Christin; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the impact of the extreme weather events freezing-thawing and drying-rewetting on C-, N- and P-dynamics in dissolved organic matter and microbial biomass. The three variants of a chernozem soil (Voronezh region, Russia) are (1) fertilized maize cropping, (2) unfertilized maize cropping and (3) a bare fallow. After both abiotic perturbations the respiration rates were generally lower in the freezing-thawing than in the drying-rewetting treatment, due to the lower temperature. The elevated respiration came along with the decay of organic matter, which was also manifested in increased mineralization of C, N and P immediately after rewetting. However, freezing-thawing had significantly less impact on C-, N- and P-mobilization. We conclude that drying-rewetting leads to an initially increased mobilization of C, N and P, which becomes obvious as increased amounts of DOM immediately after rewetting. Freezing-thawing does not affect mobilization in the same way. There, only an increased mobilization of C can be observed. Especially concerning N and P, the reaction is dependent on the form of use/cropping in both treatments.

  12. An overview of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater and implications for drinking water safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Hynds, P.; Flynn, R.

    2017-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is composed of a diverse array of compounds, predominantly humic substances, and is a near ubiquitous component of natural groundwater, notwithstanding climatic extremes such as arid and hyper-arid settings. Despite being a frequently measured parameter of groundwater quality, the complexity of DOC composition and reaction behaviour means that links between concentration and human health risk are difficult to quantify and few examples are reported in the literature. Measured concentrations from natural/unpolluted groundwater are typically below 4 mg C/l, whilst concentrations above these levels generally indicate anthropogenic influences and/or contamination issues and can potentially compromise water safety. Treatment processes are effective at reducing DOC concentrations, but refractory humic substance reaction with chlorine during the disinfection process produces suspected carcinogenic disinfectant by-products (DBPs). However, despite engineered artificial recharge systems being commonly used to remove DOC from recycled treated wastewaters, little research has been conducted on the presence of DBPs in potable groundwater systems. In recent years, the capacity to measure the influence of organic matter on colloidal contaminants and its influence on the mobility of pathogenic microorganisms has aided understanding of transport processes in aquifers. Additionally, advances in polymerase chain reaction techniques used for the detection, identification, and quantification of waterborne pathogens, provide a method to confidently investigate the behaviour of DOC and its effect on contaminant transfer in aquifers. This paper provides a summary of DOC occurrence in groundwater bodies and associated issues capable of indirectly affecting human health.

  13. Determination of dissolved organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstea, Elfrida M.; Bridgeman, John

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the removal efficiency of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in several wastewater treatment works, at different processing stages. The correlation between fluorescence values and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) has been examined. Fluorescence was measured for unfiltered and filtered (0.45 and 0.20 μm) samples of crude, settled and secondary treated wastewater (activated sludge), and final effluent. Moreover, the potential of using portable fluorimeters has been explored in a laboratory scale activated sludge process. Good correlations were observed for filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples between protein-like fluorescence intensity (excitation 280 nm, emission 350 nm) and BOD (r = 0.78), COD (r = 0.90) and TOC (r = 0.79). BOD displayed a higher correlation at the 0.20 μm filtered samples compared to COD and TOC. Slightly better relation was seen between fluorescence and conventional parameters at the portable fluorimeters compared to laboratory-based instruments. The results indicated that fluorescence spectroscopy, in particular protein-like fluorescence, could be used for continuous, real-time assessment of DOM removal efficiency in wastewater treatment works.

  14. Export of Dissolved Organic Carbon from a Ponded Freshwater Marsh Receiving Diverted Mississippi River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. DeLaune

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diversion projects has been implemented to reintroduce Mississippi River water into Louisiana's coastal wetlands in order to reduce wetland loss. The export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was measured in a 3,700-ha ponded freshwater marsh that receives diverted Mississippi River water. Results show that highly organic marsh soil and plant material are a source of DOC. DOC, on average, was 3 mg/l greater in outlet water as compared to the concentration in river water entering the wetland. DOC in water leaving the marsh was higher in summer months, with a concentration up to 18 mg/l. Based on a discharge of 1,000 ft3/sec (28.3 m3/sec, it was estimated that the equivalent of 7,335 kg/day of DOC would be exported from the marsh into Lake Cataouatche, located in the northern portion of the Louisiana Barataria Basin estuary. Results suggest that river diversion would likely increase the export of DOC from the marsh as compared to normal transport associated with rainfall and tidal exchange.

  15. Microbial response to different phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter sources in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipler, R. E.; Spackeen, J.; McQuaid, J.; Bertrand, E. M.; Roberts, Q. N.; Baer, S. E.; Hutchins, D. A.; Allen, A. E.; Bronk, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Western Antarctic shelves are highly productive regions that play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically serving as a critical sink for carbon dioxide. Fixed carbon is stored within the phytoplankton cell as particulate organic matter or released into the surrounding water as dissolved organic matter (DOM). These phytoplankton-derived sources of organic matter support higher trophic levels as well as heterotrophic bacterial growth and respiration. The composition of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter is a function of the taxa as well as the environmental conditions under which it is produced. Phytoplankton community composition within western Antarctic Seas changes throughout Austral spring and summer with early production dominated by ice algae, switching to pelagic diatoms and flagellates later in the season. The goal of this study was to compare the response of Ross Sea microbial communities to DOM produced by ice algae or late season diatoms, specifically recent isolates of Pseudo nitzschia obtained from the Ross Sea. During 5-day bioassay studies, exudates from a natural ice algal community and from Pseudo nitzschia sp. isolates were added to natural microbial communities collected from two different Ross Sea locations, an ice-edge and an ice-covered site. The bacterial response to the DOM additions was greatest in the ice-covered community with a 5 and 3-fold higher bacterial abundance in the ice algae DOM and Pseudo nitzschia DOM treatments, respectively, relative to the control. The ice edge bacterial community responded similarly to both sources with a 2-fold increase in bacterial abundance compared to the control. Unlike the bacterial response, there was little difference in chlorophyll a concentrations between treatments, indicating that phytoplankton growth was not stimulated or inhibited by our additions.

  16. Contribution of dust inputs to dissolved organic carbon and water transparency in Mediterranean reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, I.; Ortega-Retuerta, E.; Morales-Baquero, R.; Reche, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Mediterranean reservoirs receive frequent atmospheric Saharan dust inputs with soil-derived organic components mostly during the stratification periods, when run-off inputs are particularly limited. Here, we quantified and optically characterized the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of the (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition in collectors placed near three reservoirs from the western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, we determined the WSOC contribution to the pool of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the reservoirs and the influence of dust-derived chromophoric organic components on the water transparency during their stratification periods. We found synchronous dynamics in the WSOC atmospheric inputs among the three collectors and in the DOC concentrations among the three reservoirs. The DOC concentrations and the WSOC atmospheric inputs were positive and significantly correlated in the most oligotrophic reservoir (Quéntar) and in the reservoir with the highest ratio of surface area to mixing water depth (Cubillas). Despite these correlations, WSOC atmospheric inputs represented less than 10% of the total DOC pool, suggesting that indirect effects of dust inputs on reservoir DOC may also promote these synchronous patterns observed in the reservoirs. Chromophoric components from dust inputs can significantly reduce the water transparency to the ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The depths where UVR at λ = 320 nm was reduced to ten percent of surface intensity (Z10%) decreased 27 cm in Béznar, 49 cm in Cubillas, and 69 cm in Quéntar due to the dust inputs. Therefore, the increasing dust export to the atmosphere may have consequences for the water transparency of aquatic ecosystems located under the influence of the global dust belt.

  17. Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Zhijian; He, Qiang; Wang, Hang; Li, Xia; Schoer, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters - Results from a worldwide proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Verma, Mahendra P.; Carvalho, Matheus C.; Grassa, Fausto; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Monvoisin, Gael; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) are of particular interest in aquatic geochemistry. The precision for this kind of analysis is typically reported in the range of 0.1 to 0.5‰. To date, no published data attempted a comparison of δ13C measurements of DIC and DOC from for natural water samples among different laboratories. Five natural water sample types (lake water, seawater, two geothermal waters, and petroleum well water) were analyzed for their δ13C-DIC and δ13C-DOC values by 5 laboratories with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in an international proficiency test. Reported δ13C-DIC values for lake water and seawater showed fairly good agreement within a range of about 1‰ whereas geothermal and petroleum waters were characterized by much larger differences of up to 6.6‰ between laboratories. In contrast, δ13C-DOC values were only comparable for seawater and showed differences of 10 to 21‰ for all other samples. This study [1] indicates that scatter in δ13C-DIC isotope data can be in the range of several per mil for samples from extreme environments (geothermal waters) and may not yield reliable information with respect to dissolved carbon (petroleum wells). The analyses of lake water and seawater also revealed a larger than expected difference. Evaluation of analytical procedures of the participating laboratories indicated that the differences cannot be explained by analytical errors or different data normalization procedures and must be related to specific sample characteristics or secondary effects during sample storage and handling. Our results reveal the need for further research on sources of error and on method standardization. References [1] van Geldern, R., Verma, M.P., Carvalho, M.C., Grassa, F., Huertas, A.D., Monvoisin, G. and Barth, J.A.C. (2013): Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters - Results from a

  19. Atmospheric fluxes of organic matter to the Mediterranean Sea: contribution to the elemental C: N: P ratios of surface dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoudi, Kahina; Barani, Aude; Hélias-Nunige, Sandra; Van Wambeke, France; Pulido-Villena, Elvira

    2016-04-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that atmospheric transport plays an important role in the supply of macro- and micro-nutrients to the surface ocean. This atmospheric input is especially important in oligotrophic regions where the vertical supply from the subsurface is low particularly during the stratification period. Compared to its inorganic counterpart, the organic fraction of atmospheric deposition and its impact on surface ocean biogeochemistry has been poorly explored. In the ocean, carbon export to depth (and therefore, its long term storage with presumed consequences on climate) occurs both through particle sedimentation and through the transfer of dissolved organic matter (DOM) via diffusion or convection. DOM export from the surface ocean represents up to 50% of total organic carbon flux to the deep ocean in oligotrophic regions such as the Mediterranean Sea. The efficiency of this C export pathway depends, among others, on the elemental C: N: P ratios of surface DOM which might be affected by the relative contribution of microbial processes and allochthonous sources. This work reports a one-year time-series (April 2015-April 2016) of simultaneous measurements of (1) total (dry + wet) atmospheric fluxes of organic carbon, organic nitrogen, and organic phosphorus and (2) concentration of dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, and dissolved organic phosphate at the surface layer (0-200 m) in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Atmospheric and oceanic surveys were conducted at the Frioul and ANTARES sites, respectively, operated by the long-term observation network MOOSE (Mediterranean Oceanic Observation System for the Environment).

  20. Identification of residual non-biodegradable organic compounds in wastewater effluent after two-stage biochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main non-biodegradable compounds (soluble microbial product – SMP of wastewater from the Maotai aromatic factories, located in the Chishui river region, were analyzed by UV spectroscopy, and by solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, after a two-stage biochemical treatment. The UV-Vis spectra revealed that the wastewater contained two double-bonds in conjugated systems (conjugated diene or α, β- unsaturated ketone, etc. and simple non-conjugated chromophores containing n electrons from carbonyl groups or the like. The residual organic non-biodegradable substances were identified using SPE-GC/MS analysis as complex polymers containing hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl functional groups with multiple connections to either benzene rings or heterocyclic rings. As these compounds are difficult to remove by conventional biochemical treatments, our findings provide a scientific basis for the design of efficient new strategies to remove SMP from wastewater.

  1. Representation of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the JULES Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhavali, Mahdi; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Guenet, Bertrand; Ciais, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Current global models of the carbon cycle consider only vertical gas exchanges between terrestrial or oceanic reservoirs and the atmosphere, hence not considering lateral transport of carbon from the continent to the oceans. This also means that such models implicitly consider that all the CO2 which is not respired to the atmosphere is stored on land, hence overestimating the land sink of carbon. Moving toward a boundless carbon cycle that is integrating the whole continuum from land to ocean to atmosphere is needed in order to better understand Earth's carbon cycle and to make more reliable projection of its future. Here we present an original representation of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) processes in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). The standard version of JULES represent energy, water and carbon cycles and exchanges with the atmosphere, but only account for water run-off, not including export of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to the aquatic environments. The aim of the project is to include in JULES a representation of DOC production in terrestrial soils, due to incomplete decomposition of organic matter, its decomposition to the atmosphere, and its export to the river network by leaching. In new developed version of JULES (JULES-DOCM), DOC pools, based on their decomposition rate, are classified into labile and recalcitrant within 3 meters of soil. Based on turnover rate, DOC coming from plant material pools and microbial biomass is directed to labile pool, while DOC from humus is directed to recalcitrant pool. Both of these pools have free (dissolved) and locked (adsorbed) form where just the free pool is subjected to decomposition and leaching. DOC production and decomposition are controlled by rate modifiers (moisture, temperature, vegetation fraction and decomposition rate) at each soil layer. Decomposed DOC is released to the atmosphere following a fixed carbon use efficiency. Leaching accounts for both surface (runoff) and

  2. Molecular signatures of biogeochemical transformations in dissolved organic matter from ten World Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Thomas; Zark, Maren; Vähätalo, Anssi; Niggemann, Jutta; Spencer, Robert; Hernes, Peter; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Rivers carry large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans thereby connecting terrestrial and marine element cycles. Photo-degradation in conjunction with microbial turnover is considered a major pathway by which terrigenous DOM is decomposed. To reveal globally relevant patterns behind this process, we performed photo-degradation experiments and year-long bio-assays on DOM from ten of the largest world rivers that collectively account for more than one-third of the fresh water discharge to the global ocean. We furthermore tested the hypothesis that the terrigenous component in deep ocean DOM may be far higher than biomarker studies suggest, because of the selective photochemical destruction of characteristic biomolecules from vascular plants. DOM was molecularly characterized by a combination of non-targeted ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and quantitative molecular tracer analyses. We show that the reactivity of DOM is globally related to broad catchment properties. Basins that are dominated by forest and grassland export more photo-degradable DOM than other rivers. Chromophoric compounds are mainly vascular plant-derived polyphenols, and partially carry a pyrogenic signature from vegetation fires. These forest and grassland dominated rivers lost up to 50% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during irradiation, and up to 85% of DOC was lost in total if subsequently bio-incubated for one year. Basins covered by cropland, on the other hand, export DOM with a higher proportion of photo-resistant and bio-available DOM which is enriched in nitrogen. In these rivers, 30% or less of DOC was photodegraded. Consistent with previous studies, we found that riverine DOM resembled marine DOM in its broad molecular composition after extensive degradation, mainly due to almost complete removal of aromatics. More detailed molecular fingerprinting analysis (based on the relative abundance of >4000 DOM molecular formulae), however, revealed clear differences

  3. An intercomparison of three methods for the large-scale isolation of oceanic dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Perdue, E. Michael; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Chen, Hongmei; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Stubbins, Aron

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from large volumes of deep (674 m) and surface (21 m) ocean water via reverse osmosis/electrodialysis (RO/ED) and two solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods (XAD-8/4 and PPL) at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA). By applying the three methods to common water samples, the efficiencies of XAD, PPL and RO/ED DOM isolation were compared. XAD recovered 42% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from deep water (25% with XAD-8; 17% with XAD-4) and 30% from surface water (16% with XAD-8; 14% with XAD-4). PPL recovered 61 ± 3% of DOC from deep water and 61% from surface water. RO/ED recovered 82 ± 3% of DOC from deep water, 14 ± 3% of which was recovered in a sodium hydroxide rinse, and 75 ± 5% of DOC from surface water, with 12 ± 2% in the sodium hydroxide rinse. The highest recoveries of all were achieved by the sequential isolation of DOC, first with PPL and then via RO/ED. This combined technique recovered 98% of DOC from a deep water sample and 101% of DOC from a surface water sample. In total, 1.9, 10.3 and 1.6 g-C of DOC were collected via XAD, PPL and RO/ED, respectively. Rates of DOC recovery using the XAD, PPL and RO/ED methods were 10, 33 and 10 mg-C h− 1, respectively. Based upon C/N ratios, XAD isolates were heavily C-enriched compared with water column DOM, whereas RO/ED and PPL ➔ RO/ED isolate C/N values were most representative of the original DOM. All techniques are suitable for the isolation of large amounts of DOM with purities suitable for most advanced analytical techniques. Coupling PPL and RO/ED techniques may provide substantial progress in the search for a method to quantitatively isolate oceanic DOC, bringing the entirety of the DOM pool within the marine chemist's analytical window.

  4. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, Cara A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2017-12-01

    In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios) is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in thermokarst

  5. A molecular perspective on the ageing of marine dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flerus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM was extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE from 137 water samples from different climate zones and different depths along an eastern Atlantic Ocean transect. The extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS with electrospray ionization (ESI. Δ14C analyses were performed on subsamples of the SPE-DOM. In addition, the amount of dissolved organic carbon was determined for all water and SPE-DOM samples as well as the yield of amino sugars for selected samples. Linear correlations were observed between the magnitudes of 43 % of the FT-ICR mass peaks and the extract Δ14C values. Decreasing SPE-DOM Δ14C values went along with a shift in the molecular composition to higher average masses (m/z and lower hydrogen/carbon (H/C ratios. The correlation was used to model the SPE-DOM Δ14C distribution for all 137 samples. Based on single mass peaks, a degradation index (IDEG was developed to compare the degradation state of marine SPE-DOM samples analyzed with FT-ICR MS. A correlation between Δ14C, IDEG, DOC values and amino sugar yield supports that SPE-DOM analyzed with FT-ICR MS reflects trends of bulk DOM. DOM weighted normalized mass peak magnitudes were used to compare aged and recent SPE-DOM on a semi-quantitative molecular basis. The magnitude comparison showed a continuum of different degradation rates for the detected compounds. A high proportion of the compounds should persist, possibly modified by partial degradation, in the course of thermohaline circulation. Prokaryotic (bacterial production, transformation and accumulation of this very stable DOM occur primarily in the upper ocean. This DOM is an important contribution to very old DOM, showing that production and degradation are dynamic processes.

  6. Retrogressive thaw slumps temper dissolved organic carbon delivery to streams of the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Littlefair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Siberia and Alaska, permafrost thaw has been associated with significant increases in the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC to recipient stream ecosystems. Here, we examine the effect of retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs on DOC concentration and transport, using data from eight RTS features on the Peel Plateau, NWT, Canada. Like extensive regions of northwestern Canada, the Peel Plateau is comprised of thick, ice-rich tills that were deposited at the margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. RTS features are now widespread in this region, with headwall exposures up to 30 m high and total disturbed areas often exceeding 20 ha. We find that intensive slumping on the Peel Plateau is universally associated with decreasing DOC concentrations downstream of slumps, even though the composition of slump-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM; assessed using specific UV absorbance and slope ratios is similar to permafrost-derived DOM from other regions. Comparisons of upstream and downstream DOC flux relative to fluxes of total suspended solids suggest that the substantial fine-grained sediments released by RTS features may sequester DOC. Runoff obtained directly from slump rill water, above entry into recipient streams, indicates that the deepest RTS features, which thaw the greatest extent of buried, Pleistocene-aged glacial tills, release low-concentration DOC when compared to paired upstream, undisturbed locations, while shallower features, with exposures that are more limited to a relict Holocene active layer, have within-slump DOC concentrations more similar to upstream sites. Finally, fine-scale work at a single RTS site indicates that temperature and precipitation serve as primary environmental controls on above-slump and below-slump DOC flux, but it also shows that the relationship between climatic parameters and DOC flux is complex for these dynamic thermokarst features. These results demonstrate that we should expect clear variation in

  7. Characterisation of Dissolved Organic Carbon by Thermal Desorption - Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materić, Dušan; Peacock, Mike; Kent, Matthew; Cook, Sarah; Gauci, Vincent; Röckmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an integral component of the global carbon cycle. DOC represents an important terrestrial carbon loss as it is broken down both biologically and photochemically, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. The magnitude of this carbon loss can be affected by land management (e.g. drainage). Furthermore, DOC affects autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in aquatic ecosystems, and, when chlorinated during water treatment, can lead to the release of harmful trihalomethanes. Numerous methods have been used to characterise DOC. The most accessible of these use absorbance and fluorescence properties to make inferences about chemical composition, whilst high-performance size exclusion chromatography can be used to determine apparent molecular weight. XAD fractionation has been extensively used to separate out hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. Thermochemolysis or pyrolysis Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) give information on molecular properties of DOC, and 13C NMR spectroscopy can provide an insight into the degree of aromaticity. Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a sensitive, soft ionisation method suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic vapours. So far, PTR-MS has been used in various environmental applications such as real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources, chemical composition measurements of aerosols etc. However, as the method is not compatible with water, it has not been used for analysis of organic traces present in natural water samples. The aim of this work was to develop a method based on thermal desorption PTR-MS to analyse water samples in order to characterise chemical composition of dissolved organic carbon. We developed a clean low-pressure evaporation/sublimation system to remove water from samples and thermal desorption system to introduce

  8. Analysis of the degradation of biodegradable mulches in a pepper crop under organic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; González, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as an alternative to polyethylene is increasing nowadays, particularly in organic farming, due to environmental factors. It is necessary to test their functionality under field conditions by identifying, for example, the undesirable early degradation which commonly takes place in some of these biodegradable materials. In this sense, it is quite common and easy to apply the use of visual scales to estimate the level of deterioration of mulches, which can be subjective. Therefore, the objectives of this work are: i) To study the degradation of different mulch materials under field conditions by measuring the soil surface they covered. ii) To compare these soil surface values with the overall assessment of their functionality obtained by visual scales. The trial was performed in an organically grown pepper crop in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) in the 2014 spring-summer season. The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. To assess the evolution of the soil surface covered by the mulches, a total of 560 photographs of the superficial (exposed) part and 196 photographs of the buried part of the materials (1415x2831 pixels, 28 pixels/cm) were analyzed by using Adobe Photoshop CS at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 145 days after transplanting. Additionally, four experts evaluated the functionality of these materials based on the photographs according to a scale from 1 (completely deteriorated material) to 9 (intact material). The results show: i) The superficial part corresponding to the polyethylene and the

  9. Source water controls on the character and origin of dissolved organic matter in streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. O' Donnell; George R. Aiken; Evan S. Kane; Jeremy B. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming and permafrost degradation at high latitudes will likely impact watershed hydrology, and consequently, alter the concentration and character of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in northern rivers. We examined seasonal variation of DOC chemistry in 16 streams of the Yukon River basin, Alaska. Our primary objective was to evaluate DOC chemical composition....

  10. Experimental insights into the importance of aquatic bacterial community composition to the degradation of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logue, J.B.; Stedmon, Colin; Kellerman, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of carbon, yet our understanding of the relationship between the taxonomic composition and the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still poor. In this experimental study, we were able to demonstrate a direct link between community compositi...

  11. Consumption and release of dissolved organic carbon by marine bacteria in a pulsed-substrate environment: from experiments to modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichinger, M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Sempere, R.; Poggiale, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of episodic occurrence of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in the natural environment, bacterial degradation of labile DOC was studied under laboratory-controlled conditions followed by modelling. A single labile DOC compound was periodically added to the experimental culture

  12. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  13. Effect of catchment land use and soil type on the concentration, quality, and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, Iida; Soinne, Helena; Helin, Janne

    2016-01-01

    of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (DOC, DON, and DOP, respectively), and was linked to DOM quality. Soil type was more important than land use in determining the concentration and quality of riverine DOM. On average, 5–9 % of the DOC and 45 % of the DON were degraded by the bacterial...

  14. Effects of native perennial vegetation buffer strips on dissolved organic carbon in surface runoff from an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomorra E. Smith; Randall K. Kolka; Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Richard M. Cruse; Mark D. Tomer

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed's carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially...

  15. Effect of light and nutrient availability on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by Caribbean turf algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; den Haan, J.; Visser, P.M.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae increasingly dominate benthic communities on coral reefs. Given their abundance and high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates, turf algae are considered important contributors to the DOC pool on modern reefs. The release of photosynthetically fixed carbon as DOC generally, but not

  16. Designing a dynamic data driven application system for estimating real-time load of dissolved organic carbon in a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying. Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of naturally occurring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a river is central to estimating surface water quality, aquatic carbon cycling, and global climate change. Currently, determination of the DOC in surface water is primarily accomplished by manually collecting samples for laboratory analysis, which requires at least 24 h. In other words...

  17. Dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries — A study through in situ and satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, H.B.; Sangekar, N.P.; Lotliker, A.A.; Vethamony, P.

    The spatial and temporal distribution of absorption of chromophoric dissolved organic matter at 440 nm (a sub (CDOM) (440)) in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries situated along the west coast of India, has been analysed. The study was carried out using...

  18. Molecular composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen in a lake flow-influenced river in south Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a large percentage of the total nitrogen in rivers and estuaries, and can contribute to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. This study reports on the composition and bioavailability of DON along the Caloosahatchee River (Florida), a heavily managed system ...

  19. Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elizabeth W. Boyer; James B. Shanley; Carol Kendall; Daniel H. Doctor; George R. Aiken; Nobuhito Ohte

    2008-01-01

    We explored catchment processes that control stream nutrient concentrations at an upland forest in northeastern Vermont, USA, where inputs of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition are among the highest in the nation and affect ecosystem functioning. We traced sources of water, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) using stream water samples collected at high...

  20. Hydro-climatological influences on long-term dissolved organic carbon in a mountain stream of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitin K. Singh; Wilmer M. Reyes; Emily S. Bernhardt; Ruchi Bhattacharya; Judy L. Meyer; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Ryan E. Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant increases in surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been reported for large aquatic ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere and have been attributed variously to global warming, altered hydrologic conditions, and atmospheric deposition, among other factors. We analyzed a 25-yr DOC record (1988–2012) available for a...

  1. Nutrient dynamics across a dissolved organic carbon and burn gradient in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Coble, A. A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Kolosov, R.; Spencer, R. G.; Wymore, A.; McDowell, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    In stream ecosystems, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) processing are tightly linked. In temperate streams, greater DOC concentrations and higher DOC:NO3- ratios promote the greatest nitrate (NO3-) uptake. However, less is known about this relationship in other biomes including the arctic which is undergoing changes due to climate change contributing to thawing of permafrost and alterations in biogeochemical cycles in soils and streams. Headwater streams draining into the N. Tunguska River in the central Siberian plateau are affected by forest fires but little is known about the aquatic biogeochemical implications in both a thawing and burning landscape. There are clear patterns between carbon concentration and fire history where generally DOC concentration in streams decrease after fires and older burn sites have shown greater DOC concentrations and more bioavailable DOC that could promote greater heterotrophic uptake of NO3-. However, the relationship between nutrient dynamics, organic matter composition, and fire history in streams is not very clear. In order to assess the influence of organic matter composition and DOC concentration on nutrient uptake in arctic streams, we conducted a series of short-term nutrient addition experiments following the tracer addition for spiraling curve characterization (TASCC) method, consisting of NO3- and NH4++PO43- additions, across 4 streams that comprise a fire gradient that spans 3- >100 years since the last burn with DOC concentrations ranging between 12-23 mg C/L. We hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be greatest in older burn sites due to greater DOC concentrations and availability. We will specifically examine how nutrient uptake relates to DOC concentration and OM composition (analyzed via FTICR-MS) across the burn gradient. Across the four sites DOC concentration and DOC:NO3- ratios decreased from old burn sites to recently burned sites. Results presented here can elucidate on the potential impacts

  2. Bioavailability of dissolved organic matter originating from different sources in the River Vantaa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoikkala, Laura; Soinne, Helena; Asmala, Eero; Helin, Janne; Autio, Iida; Rahikainen, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Most of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool in the Baltic Sea is of terrestrial origin. Organic matter load to the Baltic Sea has been identified as the second greatest environmental pressure both in the Bothnian Bay and in the Gulf of Finland by the HELCOM Holistic Assessment. Loads of terrestrial DOM may increase the productivity, oxygen consumption and light attenuation in the coastal waters. The quantity and quality of DOM loads that enter the Baltic Sea depend on the properties of the catchment area, land use and the runoff as well as ecological processes and water retention time in freshwater systems, and are sensitive to temperature. In this study we investigate DOM loads from River Vantaa, which has a catchment area of 1 685 km2 and flows through the most important population center in Southern Finland into the Gulf of Finland. We focus on the effects of soil type and land-use on the DOM load and on the bioavailability of DOM to bacteria in the Baltic Sea. In addition, samples will be collected from up- and downstream of main water treatment plants to estimate the effect of municipal waste on the DOM loads. Further, we aim to estimate the total DOM loads to the Baltic Sea from samples taken at the river mouth. Water samples are collected from river branches selected according to the main land-use (forest or agricultural land) and soil type (mineral or organic soil) in the catchment area. The DOC, DON and DOP loads will be measured. The bioavailability of DOC is measured by incubating the DOM samples (<0.2 µm) in nutrient replete conditions with bacterial inocula (<0.8 µm, retentate of 100 kD TFF) from either river mouth or the Gulf of Finland for two months at dark. Time courses of DOC and DON concentrations, CDOM absorption and fluorescence, bacterial biomass and respiration will be followed.

  3. Optimal conditions for chlorothalonil and dissolved organic carbon in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rìos-Montes, Karina A; Casas-Zapata, Juan C; Briones-Gallardo, Roberto; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2017-04-03

    The most efficient system of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the presence of chlorothalonil pesticide (CLT) present in synthetic domestic wastewater was determined using the macrophyte Phragmites australis. Two concentrations of CLT (85 and 385 μg L -1 ) and one concentration of glucose (20 mg L -1 ) were evaluated in four pilot scale horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands coupled with two sizes of silica gravel, igneous gravel, fine chalky gravel (3.18-6.35 mm), coarse gravel (12.70-25.40 mm) and two water surface heights (20 and 40 cm). For a month, wetlands were acclimated with domestic wastewater. Some groups of bacteria were also identified in the biofilm attached to the gravel. In each treatment periodic samplings were conducted in the influent and effluent. Chlorothalonil was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-ECD m), DOC by an organic carbon analyzer and bacterial groups using conventional microbiology in accordance with Standard Methods. The largest removals of DOC (85.82%-85.31%) were found when using fine gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and the lower layer of water (20 cm). The bacterial groups quantified in the biofilm were total heterotrophic, revivable heterotrophic, Pseudomonas and total coliforms. The results of this study indicate that fine grain gravel (3.18-6.35 mm) and both water levels (20 to 40 cm) can be used in the removal of organic matter and for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT in HSSFCW.

  4. Biodegradation of used motor oil in soil using organic waste amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, O P; Agamuthu, P; Abdul Aziz, A R

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day(-1)) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day(-1)) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration.

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Biodegradation Process of some Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from Ras Gemsa on western coast of Suez Gulf, then microbiologically and chemically analyzed. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was at concentration of 357 ppm and exceeded the known permissible limits ranged from 5 to 100 ppm according to the receiving water bulk. On the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts ( CFU ) clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon. The ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones was about 3.3%. Five hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated from Suez Gulf Consortia. One isolate HD1 were selected to be promising due to its capacity of hydrocarbon degradation, this promising isolate was characterized and identified by API system as Bacillus subtilis. The biodegradation kinetics of radiated polluted water samples by B. subtilis and the Suez Gulf consortium was monitored gravimetrically. The results showed that The Suez Gulf consortium had more biodegradation capacity than the single isolate B. subtilis overall radiation doses applied and non-radiated polluted water sample. The data showed a significant increase of the biodegradability with increase of radiation doses used

  6. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG, banana skin (BS, and spent mushroom compost (SMC was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92% was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1 in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1 in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration.

  7. Biodegradation of the organic disulfide 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid by Rhodococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Heba; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Four Rhodococcus spp. exhibited the ability to use 4,4'-dithiodibutyric acid (DTDB) as a sole carbon source for growth. The most important step for the production of a novel polythioester (PTE) using DTDB as a precursor substrate is the initial cleavage of DTDB. Thus, identification of the enzyme responsible for this step was mandatory. Because Rhodococcus erythropolis strain MI2 serves as a model organism for elucidation of the biodegradation of DTDB, it was used to identify the genes encoding the enzymes involved in DTDB utilization. To identify these genes, transposon mutagenesis of R. erythropolis MI2 was carried out using transposon pTNR-TA. Among 3,261 mutants screened, 8 showed no growth with DTDB as the sole carbon source. In five mutants, the insertion locus was mapped either within a gene coding for a polysaccharide deacetyltransferase, a putative ATPase, or an acetyl coenzyme A transferase, 1 bp upstream of a gene coding for a putative methylase, or 176 bp downstream of a gene coding for a putative kinase. In another mutant, the insertion was localized between genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the TetR family (noxR) and an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (nox). Moreover, in two other mutants, the insertion loci were mapped within a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in the vicinity of noxR and nox. The interruption mutant generated, R. erythropolis MI2 noxΩtsr, was unable to grow with DTDB as the sole carbon source. Subsequently, nox was overexpressed and purified, and its activity with DTDB was measured. The specific enzyme activity of Nox amounted to 1.2 ± 0.15 U/mg. Therefore, we propose that Nox is responsible for the initial cleavage of DTDB into 2 molecules of 4-mercaptobutyric acid (4MB). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of the Organic Disulfide 4,4′-Dithiodibutyric Acid by Rhodococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Heba; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Four Rhodococcus spp. exhibited the ability to use 4,4′-dithiodibutyric acid (DTDB) as a sole carbon source for growth. The most important step for the production of a novel polythioester (PTE) using DTDB as a precursor substrate is the initial cleavage of DTDB. Thus, identification of the enzyme responsible for this step was mandatory. Because Rhodococcus erythropolis strain MI2 serves as a model organism for elucidation of the biodegradation of DTDB, it was used to identify the genes encoding the enzymes involved in DTDB utilization. To identify these genes, transposon mutagenesis of R. erythropolis MI2 was carried out using transposon pTNR-TA. Among 3,261 mutants screened, 8 showed no growth with DTDB as the sole carbon source. In five mutants, the insertion locus was mapped either within a gene coding for a polysaccharide deacetyltransferase, a putative ATPase, or an acetyl coenzyme A transferase, 1 bp upstream of a gene coding for a putative methylase, or 176 bp downstream of a gene coding for a putative kinase. In another mutant, the insertion was localized between genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the TetR family (noxR) and an NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (nox). Moreover, in two other mutants, the insertion loci were mapped within a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in the vicinity of noxR and nox. The interruption mutant generated, R. erythropolis MI2 noxΩtsr, was unable to grow with DTDB as the sole carbon source. Subsequently, nox was overexpressed and purified, and its activity with DTDB was measured. The specific enzyme activity of Nox amounted to 1.2 ± 0.15 U/mg. Therefore, we propose that Nox is responsible for the initial cleavage of DTDB into 2 molecules of 4-mercaptobutyric acid (4MB). PMID:26407888

  9. Effect of biochar or activated carbon amendment on the volatilisation and biodegradation of organic soil pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, David; Meynet, Paola; Bushnaf, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biochar or activated carbon added to contaminated soil may temporarily reduce the volatilisation of organic pollutants by enhanced sorption. The long-term effect of sorbent amendments on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHs) will depend on the responses of the soil bacterial community members, especially those which may utilize VPHs as carbon substrates. We investigated the volatilisation and biodegradation of VPHs emanating from NAPL sources and migrating through one meter long columns containing unsaturated sandy soil with and without 2% biochar or activated carbon amendment. After 420 days, VPH volatilisation from AC amended soil was less than 10 percent of the cumulative VPH volatilisation flux from unamended soil. The cumulative CO2 volatilisation flux increased more slowly in AC amended soil, but was comparable to the untreated soil after 420 days. This indicated that the pollution attenuation over a 1 meter distance was improved by the AC amendment. Biochar was a weaker VPH sorbent than AC and had a lesser effect on the cumulative VPH and CO2 fluxes. We also investgated the predominant bacterial community responses in sandy soil to biochar and/or VPH addition with a factorially designed batch study, and by analyzing preserved soil samples. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on soil bacterial communities, while VPH addition was a strong community structure shaping factor. The bacterial community effects of biochar-enhanced VPH sorption were moderated by the limited biomass carrying capacity of the sandy soil investigated which contained only low amounts of inorganic nitrogen. Several Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas putida strains, became dominant in VPH polluted soil with and without biochar. The ability of these versatile VPH degraders to effectively regulate their metabolic pathways according to substrate availabilities may additionally have moderated bacterial community structure responses to the presence of biochar

  10. Terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter in the chesapeake bay and the middle atlantic bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Guo, Laodong; Santschi, Peter H.

    2000-10-01

    Concentrations of lignin-phenols were analyzed in high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (0.2 μm > HMW DOM > 1 kDa) isolated from surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay (C. Bay), and surface and bottom waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). The abundance of lignin-phenols in HMW DOM was higher in the C. Bay (0.128 ± 0.06 μg L -1) compared to MAB surface waters (0.016 ± 0.004 μg L -1) and MAB bottom waters (0.005 ± 0.003 μg L -1). On an organic carbon-normalized basis, lignin-phenol abundances in the HMW DOM (i.e., Λ 6), were significantly higher ( p vanillin (Ad/Al) V in HMW DOM, indicative of lignin decay, ranged from 0.611 to 1.37 in C. Bay, 0.534 to 2.62 in MAB surface waters, and 0.435 to 1.96 in MAB bottom water. Ratios of S/V and (Ad/Al) V showed no significant differences between each environment, providing no evidence of any compositionally distinct input of terrestrial organic matter into each environment. When considering depth profiles of suspended particulate matter in the MAB, with C:N ratios, and bulk radiocarbon ages and stable carbon isotopic values in HMW DOM isolated from these areas, two scenarios present themselves regarding the sources and transport of terrestrially derived HMW DOM in the MAB. Scenario #1 assumes that a low amount of refractory terrestrial organic matter and old DOC are uniformly distributed in the oceans, both in surface and bottom waters, and that primary production in surface waters increases DOC with low lignin and younger DOC which degrades easily. In this case, many of the trends in age and biomarker composition likely reflect general patterns of Atlantic Ocean surface and bottom water circulation in the area of the MAB. Scenario 2 assumes terrestrial organic matter in bottom waters of the MAB may have originated from weathered shelf and slope sediments in nearshore areas via a combination of mechanisms (e.g., diffusion, recent resuspension events, and/or desorption of DOM from riverine POM buried deep

  11. Plant diversity effects on leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen from an experimental grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Sophia; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) from soil represents a resource loss and, in particular leaching of nitrate, can threaten drinking water quality. As plant diversity leads to a more exhaustive resource use, we investigated the effects of plant species richness, functional group richness, and the presence of specific functional groups on nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic N (DON), and total dissolved N (TDN) leaching from an experimental grassland in the first 4 years after conversion from fertilized arable land to unfertilized grassland. The experiment is located in Jena, Germany, and consists of 82 plots with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 60 plant species and 1-4 functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall herbs, non-leguminous small herbs). Nitrate, ammonium, and TDN concentrations in soil solution in the 0-0.3 m soil layer were measured every second week during 4 years on 62 plots and DON concentrations were calculated as difference between TDN and inorganic N. Missing concentrations in soil solution were estimated using a Bayesian statistical model. Downward water fluxes (DF) per plot from the 0-0.3 m soil layer were simulated in weekly resolution with a water balance model in connection with a Bayesian model for simulating missing soil water content measurements. To obtain annual nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching from the 0-0.3 m soil layer per plot, we multiplied the respective concentrations in soil solution with DF and aggregated the data to annual sums. TDN leaching resulted from summation of nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching. DON leaching contributed most to TDN leaching, particularly in plots without legumes. Dissolved inorganic N leaching in this grassland was dominated by nitrate. The amount of annual ammonium leaching was small and little influenced by plant diversity. Species richness affected DON leaching only in the fourth and last investigated year, possibly because of a delayed soil biota effect that increased microbial transformation of organic

  12. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakocz Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  13. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic changes of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactors at different organic loading rates: Evidence from spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were utilized to explore the dynamics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and effluent for the membrane bioreactors at two different organic loading rates (OLRs). Combination of three different fluorescent components explained the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter. The lower OLR resulted in a higher production of tryptophan-like component (C1) in EPS, while the opposite trends were found for the other two components (humic-like C2 and tyrosine-like C3), signifying the role of C1 in the endogenous condition. Larger sized molecules were more greatly produced in EPS at the lower OLR. Meanwhile, all the size fractions of SMP were more abundant at the higher OLR particular for the early phase of the operation. Irrespective of the OLR, the higher degrees of the membrane retention were found for relatively large sized and protein-like molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  16. Influences of binding to dissolved organic matter on hydrophobic organic compounds in a multi-contaminant system: Coefficients, mechanisms and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi-Long; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    The complexation flocculation (CF) method was successfully employed to identify binding coefficients (K doc ) of specific organic contaminants to dissolved organic matter (DOM, often indicated by dissolved organic carbon, DOC) in a multi-contaminant hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) system. K doc values were obtained for most of the evaluated 33 HOCs, indicating the feasibility and applicability of the CF method in a multi-contaminant system. Significant positive correlations were observed between binding coefficients and octanol–water partition coefficients (K ow ) for organic halogen compounds, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (R 2  = 0.95, p < 0.05) and organic chlorine pesticides (OCPs) (methoxychlor excluded, R 2  = 0.82, p < 0.05). The positive correlations identified between the lgK doc and lgBCF (bioconcentration factor) for PBDEs and OCPs, as well as the negative correlation observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), indicated that different binding or partition mechanisms between PAHs and organic halogen compounds exist. These differences further result in discriminative competition partitions of HOCs between DOM and organisms. Assuming that only freely dissolved HOCs are bioconcentrative, the results of DOM-influenced bioconcentration factor (BCF DOM ) and DOM-influenced lowest observed effect level (LOEL DOM ) indicate that the ecological risk of HOCs is decreased by DOM. - Highlights: • Complexing-flocculation is viable in measuring K doc in a multi-polluted system. • The binding mechanisms between PAHs and organic halogens were different. • DOM should be considered when assessing ecological risk of HOCs in natural ecosystem. - Assuming only freely dissolved HOCs are effective, bioconcentration factors and ecological risks of HOCs are decreased by dissolved organic matter via binding.

  17. Functional Molecular Diversity of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Is Reduced during Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mentges

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is a highly diverse mixture of compounds, accounting for one of the world's largest active carbon pools. The surprising recalcitrance of some DOM compounds to bacterial degradation has recently been associated with its diversity. However, little is known about large-scale patterns of marine DOM diversity and its change through degradation, in particular considering the functional diversity of DOM. Here, we analyze the development of marine DOM diversity during degradation in two data sets comprising DOM of very different ages: a three-year mesocosm experiment and highly-resolved field samples from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The DOM molecular composition was determined using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We quantify DOM diversity using three conceptually different diversity measures, namely richness of molecular formulas, abundance-based diversity, and functional molecular diversity. Using these measures we find stable molecular richness of DOM with age >1 year, systematic changes in the molecules' abundance distribution with degradation state, and increasing homogeneity with respect to chemical properties for more degraded DOM. Coinciding with differences in sea water density, the spatial field data separated clearly into regions of high and low diversity. The joint application of different diversity measures yields a comprehensive overview on temporal and spatial patterns of molecular diversity, valuable for general conclusions on drivers and consequences of marine DOM diversity.

  18. Radiocarbon Content of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the South Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, S. K.; McNichol, A. P.; Xu, L.; Hansell, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We report four profiles of the radiocarbon content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spanning the South Indian Ocean (SIO), ranging from the Polar Front (56°S) to the subtropics (29°S). Surface waters held mean DOC Δ14C values of -426 ± 6‰ ( 4,400 14C years) at the Polar Front and DOC Δ14C values of -252 ± 22‰ ( 2,000 14C years) in the subtropics. At depth, Circumpolar Deep Waters held DOC Δ14C values of -491 ± 13‰ ( 5,400 years), while values in Indian Deep Water were more depleted, holding DOC Δ14C values of -503 ± 8‰ ( 5,600 14C years). High-salinity North Atlantic Deep Water intruding into the deep SIO had a distinctly less depleted DOC Δ14C value of -481 ± 8‰ ( 5,100 14C years). We use multiple linear regression to assess the dynamics of DOC Δ14C values in the deep Indian Ocean, finding that their distribution is characteristic of water masses in that region.

  19. Characterization of Optical Attenuation by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) control the downward irradiance in the ultraviolet and visible range of the electromagnetic radiation. CDOM is a strong absorber in shorter wavelengths (ultraviolet light) with steeper spectral slopes in the open ocean. Despite the importance of CDOM in understanding physical and biogeochemical processes in the marine environment, in situ measurements of optical properties in the Red Sea are sparse. This study comprises CDOM absorption from two different instruments (i.e. a spectrophotometer and WET Labs ac-s sensor), and assesses the variations in optical properties of CDOM in the Red Sea using data collected in 2014 and 2015. Three global inversion algorithms (Garver-Siegel-Maritorena model - GSM, Quasi-Analytical Algorithm - QAA, and the Constrained Linear-Matrix inversion model - CLM) were applied to recent data collected in the Red Sea, providing the comparison at five key selected wavelengths (412, 443, 490, 510, and 555 nm) demonstrated that in situ aCDOM values were higher than the values predicted from the three inversion algorithms and leads to underestimating in situ measurements. This finding is consistent with the conclusion of Brewin et al. (2015) that overestimation of chlorophyll in the Red Sea could be due to excessive CDOM.

  20. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Dowdy, K. L.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E. B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Holmes, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved and highly biologically available (biolabile) upon thaw. A better understanding of the processes regulating Yedoma degradation is important to improve estimates of the response and magnitude of permafrost carbon feedbacks to climate warming. In this study, we examine the composition of ice wedges and the influence of ice wedge thaw on the biolability of Yedoma OM. Incubation assays were used to assess OM biolability, fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the OM composition, and potential enzyme activity rates to examine the controls and regulation of OM degradation. We show that increasing amounts of ice wedge melt water in Yedoma-leached incubations enhanced the loss of dissolved OM over time. This may be attributed to the presence of low-molecular weight compounds and low initial phenolic content in the OM of ice wedges, providing a readily available substrate that promotes the degradation of Yedoma OC. The physical vulnerability of ice wedges upon thaw (causing irreversible collapse), combined with the composition of ice wedge-engrained OM (co-metabolizing old OM), underlines the particularly strong potential of Yedoma to generate a positive feedback to climate warming relative to other forms of non-ice wedge permafrost.

  1. 36 year trends in dissolved organic carbon export from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räike, Antti; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Thomas, David N

    2012-10-01

    Increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in lakes, rivers and streams in northern mid latitudes have been widely reported during the last two decades, but relatively few studies have dealt with trends in DOC export. We studied the export of DOC from Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea between 1975 and 2010, and estimated trends in DOC fluxes (both flow normalised and non-normalised). The study encompassed the whole Finnish Baltic Sea catchment area (301,000 km(2)) covering major land use patterns in the boreal zone. Finnish rivers exported annually over 900,000 t DOC to the Baltic Sea, and the mean area specific export was 3.5 t km(-2). The highest export (7.3t km(-2)) was measured in peat dominated catchments, whereas catchments rich in lakes had the lowest export (2.2 t km(-2)). Inter-annual variation in DOC export was high and controlled mainly by hydrology. There was no overall trend in the annual water flow, although winter flow increased in northern Finland over 36 years. Despite the numerous studies showing increases in DOC concentrations in streams and rivers in the northern hemisphere, we could not find any evidence of increases in DOC export to the northern Baltic Sea from Finnish catchments since 1975. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical Proxies for Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Osburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical proxies, especially DOM fluorescence, were used to track terrestrial DOM fluxes through estuaries and coastal waters by comparing models developed for several coastal ecosystems. Key to using optical properties is validating and calibrating them with chemical measurements, such as lignin-derived phenols - a proxy to quantify terrestrial DOM. Utilizing parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC, and comparing models statistically using the OpenFluor database (http://www.openfluor.org we have found common, ubiquitous fluorescing components which correlate most strongly with lignin phenol concentrations in several estuarine and coastal environments. Optical proxies for lignin were computed for the following regions: Mackenzie River Estuary, Atchafalaya River Estuary, Charleston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, and Neuse River Estuary. The slope of linear regression models relating CDOM absorption at 350 nm (a350 to DOC and to lignin, varied 5 to 10 fold among systems. Where seasonal observations were available from a region, there were distinct seasonal differences in equation parameters for these optical proxies. Despite variability, overall models using single linear regression were developed that related dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration to CDOM (DOC = 40×a350+138; R2 = 0.77; N = 130 and lignin (Σ8 to CDOM (Σ8 = 2.03×a350-0.5; R2 = 0.87; N = 130. This wide variability suggested that local or regional optical models should be developed for predicting terrestrial DOM flux into coastal oceans and taken into account when upscaling to remote sensing observations and calibrations.

  3. Dissolved organic matter characteristics along sabo dammed streams based on ultraviolet visible and fluorescence spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praise, Susan; Ito, Hiroaki; An, Ying; Watanabe, Kazuya; Watanabe, Toru

    2018-02-17

    Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics were investigated in two mountainous streams with closed-type sabo dams. Surface water was collected from four stations along the two mountainous streams and analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) methods. Optical properties of DOM indicated an increase in molecular weight and aromaticity at stations near the sabo dams. Average spectral ratio values were low before and after the dam (i.e., Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA 254 ) increased in the vicinities of the dams. While chromophoric DOM characteristics from two sites were influenced by the dam, fluorescence components, however, did not show notable changes around dams. Instead, the three chromophoric components distinguished by EEM-parallel factor analysis, that is, humic-like (C1 and C2) and protein-like (C3) increase along the stream. Fulvic-like component (C1) had a high fluorescence intensity at all stations; all the three components were more abundant in the downstream section. Chromophoric DOM properties varied along the stream based on alterations in molecular size and aromaticity. Using multivariate analysis, the studied sites were grouped into three clusters related to sabo dams and other activities. We conclude that sabo dams modify DOM characteristics which influence the behavior of DOM transported along the stream.

  4. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  5. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin

    2017-11-27

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.

  6. Stable and radiocarbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. D.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Kolasinski, J.; Roberts, B. J.; Xu, X.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is of primary importance to marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. Stable carbon (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopic measurements are powerful tools for evaluating DOC sources and cycling. However, the isotopic signature of DOC in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) remains almost completely unknown. Here we present the first DOC Δ14C and δ13C depth profiles from the GOM. Our results suggest the Mississippi River exports large amounts of DOC with an anthropogenic "bomb" Δ14C signature. Riverine DOC is removed and recycled offshore, and some marine production of DOC is observed in the river plume. Offshore profiles show that DOC has higher Δ14C than its Caribbean feed waters, indicative of a modern deep DOC source in the GOM basin. Finally, high DOC with negative δ13C and Δ14C values were observed near the Macondo Wellhead, suggesting a transformation of Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbons into a persistent population of DOC.

  7. Degradation potentials of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from thawed permafrost peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, Francois; Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E.; Biasi, Christina; Christensen, Torben R.; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Berggren, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Global warming can substantially affect the export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat-permafrost to aquatic systems. The direct degradability of such peat-derived DOC, however, is poorly constrained because previous permafrost thaw studies have mainly addressed mineral soil catchments or DOC pools that have already been processed in surface waters. We incubated peat cores from a palsa mire to compare an active layer and an experimentally thawed permafrost layer with regard to DOC composition and degradation potentials of pore water DOC. Our results show that DOC from the thawed permafrost layer had high initial degradation potentials compared with DOC from the active layer. In fact, the DOC that showed the highest bio- and photo-degradability, respectively, originated in the thawed permafrost layer. Our study sheds new light on the DOC composition of peat-permafrost directly upon thaw and suggests that past estimates of carbon-dioxide emissions from thawed peat permafrost may be biased as they have overlooked the initial mineralization potential of the exported DOC.

  8. Compositions and constituents of freshwater dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Huang, Wen; Ran, Yong; Mao, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentration factor controls sorption of DOM and thus yields of reverse osmosis. • Solid-state 13 C NMR was used to characterize RO-isolated DOM from freshwater. • C distribution of freshwater RO-DOM differs from that of reported marine DOM. • The compositions of DOM were transformed during transport from rivers to oceans. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from riverine and lacustrine water was isolated using a reverse osmosis (RO) system. Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) was used to quantitatively evaluate the compositions and constituents of DOM, which are compared with previous investigations on marine DOM. Results indicated that concentration factor (CF) was a key metric controlling yield and sorption of DOM on the RO system. The sorption was likely non-selective, based on the 13 C NMR and δ 13 C analyses. Carbohydrates and lipids accounted for 25.0–41.5% and 30.2–46.3% of the identifiable DOM, followed by proteins (18.2–19.8%) and lignin (7.17–12.8%). The freshwater DOM contained much higher alkyl and aromatic C but lower alkoxyl and carboxyl C than marine DOM. The structural difference was not completely accounted for by using structure of high molecular weight (HMW) DOM, suggesting a size change involved in transformations of DOM during the transport from rivers to oceans

  9. Modeling subsurface fluxes of dissolved organic carbon at the hillslope scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Sanda, Martin; Marx, Anne; Jankovec, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Reliable quantitative prediction of water movement and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at both hillslope and catchment scales remains a challenge due to complex boundary conditions and soil spatial heterogeneity. In this study, a one-dimensional dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model was used to analyze subsurface transport processes in a forest hillslope soil over a period of 2.5 years. Among the processes determining the DOC distribution in the soil profile the microbially mediated transformations of DOC, dependent on soil moisture and soil temperature conditions, were considered. To quantify uncertainty associated with the model parameterization, Monte Carlo analysis was performed. The model was applied to describe the transformation of DOC source into output signal observed in the hillslope stormflow. Despite the complex nature of microbial transformations that caused uncertainty in model parameters and subsequent prediction of DOC transport, the simulated temporal patterns of DOC concentration in stormflow showed similar behavior to that reflected in the observed DOC fluxes. Due to preferential flow, the hillslope DOC export was higher than the amounts that are usually found in the available literature.

  10. Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Based on Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Absorption, and Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 is the most commonly practiced test to assess the water quality of surface waters and the waste loading. However, BOD5 is not a good parameter for the control of water or wastewater treatment processes because of its long test period. It is very difficult to produce consistent and reliable BOD5 results without using careful laboratory quality control practices. This study was performed to develop software sensors to predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration, UV light absorbance at 254 nm, and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluate the feasibility of the software sensors. In short, the software sensors developed in this study could well predict the BOD5 of river water (r=0.78 and for the WWTP effluent (r=0.90.

  11. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods.

  12. Quantifying tropical peatland dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Peacock, Mike; Evans, Chris D; Page, Susan E; Whelan, Mick J; Gauci, Vincent; Kho, Lip Khoon

    2017-05-15

    UV-visible spectroscopy has been shown to be a useful technique for determining dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. However, at present we are unaware of any studies in the literature that have investigated the suitability of this approach for tropical DOC water samples from any tropical peatlands, although some work has been performed in other tropical environments. We used water samples from two oil palm estates in Sarawak, Malaysia to: i) investigate the suitability of both single and two-wavelength proxies for tropical DOC determination; ii) develop a calibration dataset and set of parameters to calculate DOC concentrations indirectly; iii) provide tropical researchers with guidance on the best spectrophotometric approaches to use in future analyses of DOC. Both single and two-wavelength model approaches performed well with no one model significantly outperforming the other. The predictive ability of the models suggests that UV-visible spectroscopy is both a viable and low cost method for rapidly analyzing DOC in water samples immediately post-collection, which can be important when working at remote field sites with access to only basic laboratory facilities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of reactive oxygen species in the degradation of lignin derived dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Derek C.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Cory, Rose M.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in transforming the chemical composition of the large pool of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from land to water annually. However, due to the challenges inherent in isolating the effects of individual ROS on DOM composition, the role of ROS in the photochemical alteration of DOM remains poorly characterized. In this work, terrestrial DOM was independently exposed to singlet oxygen (1O2), and superoxide (O2-rad under controlled laboratory conditions). Using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry to track molecular level alterations of DOM by ROS, these findings suggest exposure to 1O2 (generated using Rose Bengal and visible light) removed formulas with an O/C > 0.3, and primarily resulted in DOM comprised of formulas with higher oxygen content, while O2-rad exposure (from KO2 in DMSO) removed formulas with O/C 1.5). Comparison of DOM altered by ROS in this study to riverine and coastal DOM showed that (20-80%) overlap in formulas, providing evidence for the role of ROS in shaping the composition of DOM exported from rivers to oceans.

  14. Isolation, purification and analysis of dissolved organic carbon from Gohagoda uncontrolled open dumpsite leachate, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Mayakaduwa, S S

    2017-07-01

    Extract and analysis of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) fractions were analyzed from the leachate of an uncontrolled dumpsite at Gohagoda, Sri Lanka. DOC fractions, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and the hydrophilic (Hyd) fractions were isolated and purified with the resin techniques. Spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis were performed to characterize DOCs. Maximum TOC and DOC values recorded were 56,955 and 28,493 mg/L, respectively. Based on the total amount of DOC fractionation, Hyd dominated accounting for ∼60%, and HA and FA constituted ∼22% and ∼17%, respectively, exhibiting the mature phase of the dumpsite. The elemental analysis of DOCs revealed carbon variation following HA > FA > Hyd, while hydrogen and nitrogen were similar in each fraction. The N/C ratio for HA was recorded as 0.18, following a similar trend in old dumpsite leachate elsewhere. The O/C ratios for HA and FA were recorded higher as much as 1.0 and 9.3, respectively, indicating high degree of carbon mineralization in the leachates. High content of carboxylic, phenolic and lactone groups in all DOCs was observed disclosing their potential for toxic substances transportation. The results strongly suggest the risk associated with DOCs in dumpsite leachate to the aquatic and terrestrial environment.

  15. Optical properties and molecular diversity of dissolved organic matter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its light absorbing chromophoric component (CDOM) are of particular interest in the Arctic region because of climate change effects that lead to warmer sea surface temperatures and longer exposure to sunlight. We used continuous UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, excitation emission matrix fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry during a transect from the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea ice edge through Bering Strait to determine the variability of DOM and CDOM. These data were combined with discrete sampling for stable oxygen isotopes of seawater, in order to evaluate the contributions of melted sea ice versus runoff to the DOM and CDOM components. This study demonstrated that high geographical resolution of optical properties in conjunction with stable oxygen ratios and non-targeted ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was able to distinguish between different DOM sources in the Arctic, including identification of labile DOM sources in Bering Strait associated with high algal blooms and sampling locations influenced by terrestrially-derived DOM, such as the terrestrial DOM signal originating from Arctic rivers and dirty/anchor sea ice. Results of this study also revealed the overall variability and chemodiversity of Arctic DOM present in the Bering and Chukchi Seas.

  16. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) profile during backwashing cycle of drinking water biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin; Yu, Guozhong; Zhang, Huining; Xu, Jinli

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation was made in this study on the variation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) during a whole backwashing cycle of the biofiltration for drinking water treatment. In such a cycle, the normalized DON concentration (C(effluent)/C(influent)) was decreased from 0.98 to 0.90 in the first 1.5h, and then gradually increased to about 1.5 in the following 8h. Finally, it remained stable until the end of this 24-hour cycle. This clearly 3-stage profile of DON could be explained by three aspects as follows: (1) the impact of the backwashing on the biomass and the microbial activity; (2) the release of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during the biofiltration; (3) the competition between heterotrophic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria. All the facts supported that more DON was generated during later part of the backwashing cycle. The significance of the conclusion is that the shorter backwashing intervals between backwashing for the drinking water biofilter should further decrease the DON concentration in effluent of biofilter. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sorption of triclosan on electrospun fibrous membranes: Effects of pH and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangjie Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three hydrophobic and polyporous electrospun fibrous membranes (EFMs were prepared by electrospinning methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide (MPEG-PLGA, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and poly(d,l-lactide (PDLLA. The effects of pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM on triclosan (TCS sorption by EFMs in aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicated that hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and π–π bonding interactions led to fast adsorption, which governed the adsorption rates of TCS onto EFMs. The maximum sorption capacities of MPEG-PLGA, PLGA and PDLLA reached 130, 93 and 99 mg g−1, respectively, which were in positive correlation with their pore volumes and influenced by pore filling processes. The solution pH could significantly influence the TCS sorption by EFMs. In acid condition, protonated TCS facilitated their sorption onto EFMs. No obvious sorption was observed in alkaline condition due to repulsive forces between negatively charged EFMs and deprotonated TCS (pKa = 7.9. The presence of DOM inhibited TCS sorption onto EFMs due to competitive adsorption. The results could be due to the occupation of the adsorption sites and the blockage of the pore entrance by DOM.

  18. Photodegradation of estrone enhanced by dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2011-05-01

    In the present work the degradation of estrone (E1) a natural estrogenic hormone has been studied under simulated solar irradiation. The photodegradation of E1 has been investigated in the absence and in the presence of 7.7-8.9 mg L-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), under solar light simulation with irradiance approximating that of the sun. DOC extracts from different origins have been used. Half-lives ranging between 3.9 h and 7.9 h were observed. Results indicated that E1 was photodegraded even in the absence of DOC. The presence of DOC was found to enhance the degradation of E1. Experiments performed with the addition of reactive species scavengers (azide ions and 2-propanol) have shown that these two species play a significant role in the photodegradation. Some experiments have been performed with a DOC previously submitted to solar irradiation. Changes in optical and physico-chemical properties of DOC strongly affect its photoinductive properties, and hence its efficiency on E1 degradation. A part of the study consisted in the investigation of photoproducts structures. Five photoproducts were shown by chromatographic analysis: one arising from direct photolysis and the four others from DOC photoinduced degradation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Changes in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Disinfection Byproduct Precursors in Advanced Drinking Water Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phungsai, Phanwatt; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2018-03-20

    Molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from treatment processes at two drinking water treatment plants in Japan were investigated using unknown screening analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. DOM formulas with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO-DOM) were the most abundant class in water samples, and over half of them were commonly found at both plants. Among the treatment processes, ozonation induced the most drastic changes to DOM. Mass peak intensities of less saturated CHO-DOM (positive (oxygen subtracted double bond equivalent per carbon (DBE-O)/C)) decreased by ozonation, while more saturated oxidation byproducts (negative (DBE-O)/C) increased and new oxidation byproducts (OBPs) were detected. By Kendrick mass analysis, ozone reactions preferred less saturated CHO-DOM in the same alkylation families and produced more saturated alkylation families of OBPs. Following ozonation, biological activated carbon filtration effectively removed water samples where at least half were unknown. Putative precursors of these DBPs were determined based on electrophilic substitutions and addition reactions. Ozonation demonstrated better decomposition of addition reaction-type precursors than electrophilic substitution-type precursors; over half of both precursor types decreased during biological activated carbon filtration.

  20. Influence of chemical and structural evolution of dissolved organic matter on electron transfer capacity during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Cui, Dong-Yu; Liu, Yong; Tan, Wen-Bin; Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated. • Composting treatment increased the ETC of DOM from municipal solid wastes. • The ETC increase related to humic matter, and molecule weight, and N and S content. - Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can mediate electron transfer and change chemical speciation of heavy metals. In this study, the electron transfer capability (ETC) of compost-derived DOM was investigated through electrochemical approaches, and the factors influencing the ETC were studied using spectral and elemental analysis. The results showed that the electron accepting capacity (EAC) and electron donating capacity (EDC) of compost-derived DOM were 3.29–40.14 μmol e− (g C) −1 and 57.1– 346.07 μmol e− (g C) −1 , respectively. Composting treatment increased the fulvic- and humic-like substance content, oxygenated aliphatic carbon content, lignin-derived aromatic carbon content, molecule weight, and N and S content of DOM, but decreased the aliphatic carbon content and the C and H content. This conversion increased the EDC and EAC of the DOM during composting

  1. Unique characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter and their association with membrane fouling behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the frequent occurrence of algal bloom in drinking water supplies, driven by increasing anthropogenic input and climate change, has posed serious problems for membrane filtration processes, resulting in reduced membrane permeability and increased energy consumption. It is essential to comprehensively understand the characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent effects on the filtration processes for better insight into membrane fouling mitigation. Many studies have revealed that algal DOM has displayed unique characteristics distinguished from other sources of DOM with respect to the chemical composition, the structures, and the molecular weight distributions. Algal DOM is considered to be a major obstacle in understanding membrane fouling due to its complicated interactions among dissimilar algal DOM constituents as well as between algal DOM and membrane material matrices. The present review article summarizes (1) recent characterizing methods for algal DOM, (2) environmental factors affecting the characteristics of algal DOM, (3) the discrepancies between algal DOM and other sources of aquatic DOM, particularly terrestrial sources, and (4) potential fouling effects of algal DOM on membrane filtration processes and their associations with algal DOM characteristics. A broad understanding of algal DOM-driven membrane fouling can lead to breakthroughs in efficient membrane filtration processes to treat algal bloom water sources.

  2. Photobleaching-induced changes in photosensitizing properties of dissolved organic matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Photosensitizing properties of different dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated according to their performance in singlet oxygen (1O2), triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), and hydroxyl radical (·OH) productions. The photobleaching of DOM solutions after irradiation was characterized by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photosensitizing properties of pre-irradiated DOM solutions were changed in a sunlight simulator. The performance of DOMs in photosensitized degradation of several contaminants was investigated. For a 20h exposure, the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) of some contaminants decreased as a function of exposure time, and highly depended on the properties of both DOM and contaminant. Degradation of contaminants with lower kobs was more susceptible to DOM photobleaching-induced decrease in kobs. Under the current experimental conditions, the photobleaching-induced decrease of DOM photo-reactivity in contaminant degradation was mainly attributed to indirect phototransformation of DOM caused by the interactions between photo-inductive DOM moieties and photochemically-produced reactive species. Reactive contaminants can inhibit DOM indirect photobleaching by scavenging reactive species, photosensitized degradation of these contaminants exhibited a stable kobs as a result. This is the first study to report DOM photobleaching-induced changes in the simultaneous DOM photosensitized degradation of contaminants and the inhibitory effect of reactive contaminants on DOM photobleaching.

  3. Enhancing organic matter removal in desalination pretreatment systems by application of dissolved air flotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutova, Yulia; Karna, Barun Lal; Hambly, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems caused by organic matter (OM) remains a significant operational issue during desalination. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has recently received attention as a pre-treatment option for seawater OM removal; however, only a limited number of studies have...... been undertaken. This may be because it is difficult to characterise OM in seawater due to the high salt content and low carbon concentration. In this study, DAF pre-treatment experiments were conducted using a model seawater solution, and real seawater and brackish water samples. DAF performance...... on the sample, respectively. The optimal normalised coagulant dose (Fe3+ to DOC ratio) was observed to be 0.5-4 at pH5.5 increasing to 4-12 at pH7.5. At pH5.5, the optimum coagulant dose increased with increasing humic character of the feed water. Overall, the OM removal efficiency by DAF observed in this study...

  4. Dissolved Organic Matter in Impacted Streams and Rivers: Challenges and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cohen, S.; Wilson, H. F.; Shang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities can alter the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from lands to streams and rivers, which can lead to widespread environmental and ecological consequences. DOM is known to act as a master variable regulating important biogeochemical processes, such as protecting aquatic biota from UV, influencing states and transports of ecotoxins and trace metal pollutants, and serving as basal substrate and energy sources for heterotrophic food webs. Therefore, effective management decisions should include DOM monitoring and characterizations, while relevant data to inform how to monitor and regulate watershed exports of DOM, remain surprisingly scarce. In particular, it is still unclear whether human activities change DOM in systematic fashions that the changes can be unambiguously stated and quantitatively defined. We synthesized previous findings on anthropogenic alterations in the amount, source, and qualityof DOM in streams and rivers across geographic regions. While highlighting difficulties in unambiguously linking human activities and freshwater DOM characteristics, we observed that human activities can lead to opposite changes in DOM characteristics, depending on hydrological variation and watershed size. This synthesis represents the first step towards establishing a framework to predict and manage terrestrially derived DOM in human impacted streams and rivers.

  5. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption and desorption of dissolved organic matter by carbon nanotubes: Effects of solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maya; Chefetz, Benny

    2016-06-01

    Increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has led to their introduction into the environment where they can interact with dissolved organic matter (DOM). This study focuses on solution chemistry effects on DOM adsorption/desorption processes by single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Our data show that DOM adsorption is controlled by the attachment of DOM molecules to the SWCNTs, and that the initial adsorption rate is dependent on solution parameters. Adsorbed amount of DOM at high ionic strength was limited, possibly due to alterations in SWCNT bundling. Desorption of DOM performed at low pH resulted in additional DOM adsorption, whereas at high pH, adsorbed DOM amount decreased. The extent of desorption conducted at increased ionic strength was dependent on pre-adsorbed DOM concentration: low DOM loading stimulated additional adsorption of DOM, whereas high DOM loading facilitated release of adsorbed DOM. Elevated ionic strength and increased adsorbed amount of DOM reduced the oxidation temperature of the SWCNTs, suggesting that changes in the assembly of the SWCNTs had occurred. Moreover, DOM-coated SWCNTs at increased ionic strength provided fewer sites for atrazine adsorption. This study enhances our understanding of DOM-SWCNT interactions in aqueous systems influenced by rapid changes in salinity, and facilitates potential use of SWCNTs in water-purification technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of wildfires on physicochemical changes of watershed dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revchuk, Alex D; Suffet, I H

    2014-04-01

    Physicochemical characterization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provides essential data to describe watershed characteristics after drastic changes caused by wildfires. Post-fire watershed behavior is important for water source selection, management, and drinking water treatment optimization. Using ash and other burned vegetation fragments, a leaching procedure was implemented to describe physicochemical changes to watershed DOC caused by wildfires. Samples were collected after the 2007 and 2009 wildfires near Santa Barbara, California. Substantial differences in size distribution (measured by ultrafiltration), polarity (measured by polarity rapid assessment method), and the origin of leached DOC (measured by fluorescence) were observed between burned and unburned sites. Recently burned ash had 10 times the DOC leaching potential, and was dominated by large size fragments, compared to weathered 2-year-old ash. Charged DOC fractions were found to positively correlate with DOC size, whereas hydrophobic and hydrophilic DOC fractions were not. Proteins were only observed in recently burned ash and were indicative of recent post-fire biological activity.

  8. Photochemical reactions between mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic matter decrease Hg bioavailability and methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Wei; Yin, Xiangping; Jubb, Aaron M; Chen, Hongmei; Lu, Xia; Zhang, Weihua; Lin, Hui; Yu, Han-Qing; Liang, Liyuan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Gu, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to surface water is one of the dominant sources of Hg in aquatic environments and ultimately drives methylmercury (MeHg) toxin accumulation in fish. It is known that freshly deposited Hg is more readily methylated by microorganisms than aged or preexisting Hg; however the underlying mechanism of this process is unclear. We report that Hg bioavailability is decreased by photochemical reactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water. Photo-irradiation of Hg-DOM complexes results in loss of Sn(II)-reducible (i.e. reactive) Hg and up to an 80% decrease in MeHg production by the methylating bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Loss of reactive Hg proceeded at a faster rate with a decrease in the Hg to DOM ratio and is attributed to the possible formation of mercury sulfide (HgS). These results suggest a new pathway of abiotic photochemical formation of HgS in surface water and provide a mechanism whereby freshly deposited Hg is readily methylated but, over time, progressively becomes less available for microbial uptake and methylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal characteristics of dissolved organic matters in modified A2O process of pilot test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the running effect of Guodian Shenyang North Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on excitation-emission matrix (EEM fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence regional integration (FRI and material balance are used to evaluate the dissolved organic matter removal performance of modified A2O process. The results suggest that the albuminoid matters are the dominant components in modified A2O process influent, and there is small amount of fulvic-like materials. The removal efficiencies of the normalized integral volume of region Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅳ are 81.5%, 54.0% and 63.4%, respectively, while the removal performance of normalized integral volume of region Ⅲ and Ⅴ is low, and the removal efficiencies are 30.2%, 27.8%, respectively. The calculation of material balance shows that pre-anoxic and anaerobic zones are mainly used for the material removal in the region Ⅰ and Ⅳ. Anoxic zone is mainly used for material removal in the region Ⅰ. Aerobic zone could remove material in all regions. In addition, normalized integral volume of region Ⅳ and the soluble chemical oxygen demand have nice linear correlation, and the correlation coefficient R2 is 0.991 1. The normalized integral volume of region Ⅳ can better reflect the variation trend of soluble chemical oxygen demand in modified A2O process.

  10. Dissolved organic matter adsorption to model surfaces: adlayer formation, properties, and dynamics at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanious, Antonius; Aeppli, Meret; Sander, Michael

    2014-08-19

    Adlayers of dissolved organic matter (DOM) form on many surfaces in natural and engineered systems and affect a number of important processes in these systems. Yet, the nanoscalar properties and dynamics of DOM adlayers remain poorly investigated. This work provides a systematic analysis of the properties and dynamics of adlayers formed from a diverse set of eight humic and fulvic acids, used as DOM models, on surfaces of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different alkylthiols covalently bound to gold supports. DOM adsorption to positively charged amine-terminated SAMs resulted in the formation of water-rich adlayers with nanometer thicknesses that were relatively rigid, irreversibly adsorbed, and collapsed upon air drying, as demonstrated by combined quartz crystal microbalance and ellipsometry measurements. DOM adlayer thicknesses varied only slightly with solution pH from 5 to 8 but increased markedly with increasing ionic strength. Contact angle measurements revealed that the DOM adlayers were relatively polar, likely due to the high water contents of the adlayers. Comparing DOM adsorption to SAM-coated sensors that systematically differed in surface charge and polarity characteristics showed that electrostatics dominated DOM-surface interactions. Laccase adsorption to DOM adlayers on amine-terminated SAMs served to demonstrate the applicability of the presented experimental approach to study the interactions of (bio)macromolecules and (nano)particles with DOM.

  11. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  12. Characterization of atrazine binding to dissolved organic matter of soil under different types of land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long-Ji; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Yan-Ni; Cui, Hong-Yang; Wei, Yu-Quan; Liu, Hai-Long; Chen, Xiao-Meng; Wei, Zi-Min

    2018-01-01

    Atrazine is widely used in agriculture. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under four types of land use (forest (F), meadow (M), cropland (C) and wetland (W)) was used to investigate the binding characteristics of atrazine. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and Stern-Volmer model were combined to explore the complexation between DOM and atrazine. The EEM-PARAFAC indicated that DOM from different sources had different structures, and humic-like components had more obvious quenching effects than protein-like components. The Stern-Volmer model combined with correlation analysis showed that log K values of PARAFAC components had a significant correlation with the humification of DOM, especially for C3 component, and they were all in the same order as follows: meadow soil (5.68)>wetland soil (5.44)>cropland soil (5.35)>forest soil (5.04). The 2D-COS further confirmed that humic-like components firstly combined with atrazine followed by protein-like components. These findings suggest that DOM components can significantly influence the bioavailability, mobility and migration of atrazine in different land uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Roxarsone binding to soil-derived dissolved organic matter: Insights from multi-spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    The fate and transport of roxarsone (ROX), a widely used organoarsenic feed additive, in soil is significantly influenced by the ubiquitous presence of soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, fluorescence quenching titration and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to study ROX binding to DOM. Binding mechanisms were revealed by fluorescence lifetime measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Humic- and protein-like fluorophores were identified in the excitation-emission matrix and synchronous fluorescence spectra of DOM. The conditional stability constant (log KC) for ROX binding to DOM was found to be 5.06, indicating that ROX was strongly bound to DOM. The binding order of ROX to DOM fluorophores revealed by 2D-COS followed the sequence of protein-like fluorophore ≈ the longer wavelength excited humic-like (L-humic-like) fluorophore > the shorter wavelength excited humic-like (S-humic-like) fluorophore. 2D-COS resolved issues with peak overlapping and allowed further exploration of the interaction between ROX and DOM. Results of fluorescence lifetime and FTIR spectra demonstrated that ROX interacted with DOM through the hydroxyl, amide II, carboxyl, aliphatic CH, and NO2 groups, yielding stable DOM-ROX complexes. The strong interaction between ROX and DOM implies that DOM plays an important role in the environmental fate of ROX in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods. PMID:28552976

  15. Formation of haloacetamides during chlorination of dissolved organic nitrogen aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Wenhai; Gao Naiyun; Deng Yang

    2010-01-01

    The stability of haloacetamides (HAcAms) such as dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) was studied under different experimental conditions. The yield of HAcAms during aspartic acid (Asp) chlorination was measured at different molar ratio of chlorine atom to nitrogen atom (Cl/N), pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly consisted of humic acid (HA) mixture. Ascorbic acid showed a better capacity to prevent the decay of DCAcAm and TCAcAm than the other two dechlorinating agents, thiosulfate and sodium sulfite. Lower Cl/N favored the DCAcAm formation, implying that breakpoint chlorination might minimize its generation. The pH decrease could lower the concentration of DCAcAm but favored dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) formation. DCAcAm yield was sensitive to the DOC due to higher chlorine consumption caused by HA mixture. Two possible pathways of DCAcAm formation during Asp chlorination were proposed. Asp was an important precursor of DCAN, DCAcAm and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), and thus removal of Asp before disinfection may be a method to prevent the formation of DCAcAm, DCAN and DCAA.

  16. Production and excitation-emission fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter from marine tropical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, W. G.; Zika, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays an important key role in the photochemistry and biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the coastal region. Their distribution can vary in space and time due to supply of CDOM from different sources. To determine properties of fluorescence-CDOM produced by various marine tropical species, two species from each of the different marine communities were examined after incubation in the dark for forty-nine (49) days: seagrasses-Enhalus acoroides (EA), Thalassia testudinium (TT); corals-Pocillopora cylindrical (PC), Seriatopora hystrix (SH) ; mangroves- Avicennia marina (AM), Sonneratia alba (SA); brown algae-Hormophysa cuneiformis (HC), Sargassum sp.(SS). Average CDOM production is highest from mangrove species (218 QSU/g-sample/day), followed by seagrass (42 QSU/g-sample/day), brown alga (26 QSU/g-sample/day) then corals (19 QSU/g-sample/day).The fluorescence maximum at 312; 380-420 nm emission-excitation pair appears to be present in all species that is an identified humic-like signature. These results suggest that the production of the fluorescent CDOM fraction is a common phenomenon of tropical marine species and as such constitutes a major part of the marine CDOM pool in coastal regions.

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of the molecular fingerprint of soil dissolved organic matter in a headwater agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, Laurent; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Jaffrezic, Anne; Lambert, Thibault; Gruau, Gérard

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is implied in (i) ecosystem services such as the support of biodiversity, (ii) the alteration of the drinkable water quality by formation of trihalomethane and (iii) the transfer of micropollutants from soils to rivers. Moreover, since DOM connects soils and oceans that are interacting with the atmosphere, understanding its biogeochemistry will help in investigating the carbon cycle and in creating strategies to mitigate climate change. DOM in headwater stream ecosystems is mainly inherited from allochtonous inputs with different reservoirs being mobilized during storm and interstorm events at the scale of an hydrological year. Those changes in DOM reservoirs, if accompanied by composition and reactivity changes, may impact DOM ecosystem services and drinking water production processes. Elucidating the compositional changes due to changes in the source of DOM in rivers has thus become a important axis of DOM research. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the molecular tools of the organic geochemistry and more specifically the combination of thermochemiolysis and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (THM-GC-MS) to (i) link the variability of the river DOM composition to different DOM reservoirs in catchment soils and (ii) provide hypothesis on the nature and the mechanisms of formation (microbial growth, litter decomposition) of those reservoirs. This analytical method seems particularly adapted since it allows the differentiation between vegetal and microbial inputs and the determination of the extent of the biodegradation process of biomolecules such as lignin. To test this method, the molecular fingerprint of soil DOM has been investigated in the wetland area of a small (500 ha) agricultural catchment (the so-called Kervidy-Naizin catchment) located in Brittany, western France. The soil DOM was sampled fortnightly at three depths using zero-tension lysimeters during the hydrological year 2010-2011. The samples were

  18. The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate- Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Roden, E. E.; Gerbig, C.; Kim, C. S.; Aiken, G. R.; Dewild, J. F.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental results from methylation assays of sulfate-reducing bacteria with a pure culture, and through synchrotron-based characterization of mercury in simulated natural waters. Pure cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of fermentative growth, were allowed to methylate a mercury isotopic tracer present at growth conditions allowed control over ambient sulfide concentrations to favor the predicted dominance of dissolved HgS0. The DOM used was a hydrophobic fraction isolated from Florida Everglades surface water. Results showed that 5-10% of the mercury isotopic tracer was methylated in both DOM-amended and DOM-free cultures. In DOM-amended cultures, 10-20% greater cell growth was observed, suggesting an apparent slower rate of methylation in DOM-free cultures and a beneficial contribution of DOM to cell growth. We note that as much as ~10% of ambient mercury associated with DOM was also methylated, possibly explaining the observed difference in methylation rates in terms of dilution of the total bioavailable mercury pool for DOM-amended cultures. Our observations suggest that, in some cases, DOM- partitioned mercury is subject to microbial methylation at environmentally significant rates. The nature of mercury- sulfide-DOM interaction was investigated in separate experiments. No precipitation was observed in solutions containing DOM and equimolar Hg2+ and aqueous sulfide at concentrations supersaturated with respect to metacinnabar. The equilibrated Hg-S-DOM solution was loaded on

  19. Strong linkages between surface and deep-water dissolved organic matter in the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Guebuem; Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    Vertical and horizontal distributions of total dissolved amino acids (TDAAs), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were measured in the East/Japan Sea (EJS). The euphotic zone of this sea is N-limited, and the N : P ratio is ˜ 13 below 200 m depth. Elevated TDAA concentrations (137 ± 34 nM) and DOC-normalized yields (0.8 ± 0.2 % of DOC) were observed in deep waters ( ≥ 1000 m) of the EJS and compared with those in the deep North Pacific Ocean. Significantly high TDAA concentrations and yields were observed in a region of deep-water formation, indicating the convection of margin-derived bioavailable dissolved organic matter (DOM) to deep waters. Declining TDAA concentrations (36 ± 12 %) and yields (33 ± 13 %) were observed between 1000 and 3000 m throughout the EJS, indicating the utilization of bioavailable DOM in deep waters. Concentrations of the D-enantiomers of amino acids (Ala, Glx, Asx, and Ser) were relatively high in deep waters of the EJS, indicating substantial bacterial contributions to DOM from surface and upper mesopelagic waters. Climate warming during the past few decades in the EJS is weakening deep convection during the winter, and one consequence of this reduction in deep convection is a decline in the supply of bioavailable DOM from surface waters.

  20. Laterally spreading iron, humic-like dissolved organic matter and nutrients in cold, dense subsurface water of the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Nanako; Kuma, Kenshi; Morita, Yuichirou; Sasayama, Ryouhei; Ooki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Nishioka, Jun; Yamashita, Youhei; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aoyama, Michio

    2014-10-27

    The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the Arctic Ocean. The formation of cold, dense water in the subsurface layer of the western Arctic Ocean is a key process in the lateral transport of iron, macronutrients, and other chemical constituents. Here, we present iron, humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, and nutrient concentration data in waters above the continental slope and shelf and along two transects across the shelf-basin interface in the western Arctic Ocean. We detected high concentrations in shelf bottom waters and in a plume that extended in the subsurface cold dense water of the halocline layer in slope and basin regions. At σθ = 26.5, dissolved Fe, humic-like fluorescence intensity, and nutrient maxima coincided with N* minima (large negative values of N* indicate significant denitrification within shelf sediments). These results suggest that these constituents are supplied from the shelf sediments and then transported laterally to basin regions. Humic dissolved organic matter probably plays the most important role in the subsurface maxima and lateral transport of dissolved Fe in the halocline layer as natural Fe-binding organic ligand.

  1. Determination of Dissolved Organic Sulfur in Seawater, and its Distribution in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, B.; Filippino, K. C.; Cutter, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    Although there are measurements of specific organic sulfur compounds in marine waters, the total concentration of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) is unknown. However, this poorly quantified component in the global sulfur cycle is the precursor to the radiatively important gas, carbonyl sulfide, and contains very strong ligands that complex trace metals, affecting their bioavailability/cycling. Nevertheless, the high concentration of sulfate in seawater (28 mM) has hampered efforts to determine DOS. In order to obtain DOS data for different marine regimes, we have developed a novel analytical method that employs: (1) sulfate removal using Ba, followed by ion exchange; (2) determination of the nanomolar concentrations of residual sulfate; and (3) reductive pyrolysis (combustion at 1050 C in pure hydrogen) of a treated (as in (1)) sample to quantitatively produce hydrogen sulfide from all forms of sulfur, which is then quantified using GC/flame photometric detection. A wide variety of model S compounds (e.g., DMSP, glutathione, taurine, marine and freshwater humics) have been analyzed to test the efficiency of the method with good results. The method's detection limit is 15 nM S, the precision is 2000 nM S). To examine the estuarine distribution of DOS, water samples from the Chesapeake Bay were taken in July 1997 (earlier version of the method) and June 2001. These were 0.4 um filtered, placed in glass vials, and quick frozen for temporary storage (<2 months). In 2001, DOS concentrations in the Bay averaged 312+/-75 nM S, in close agreement with those in 1997 except in the uppermost (riverine) Bay. The distributions show slightly decreasing concentrations from the riverine to the seaward end of the Bay. No obvious correlations with nutrients or chlorophyll are apparent. However, the distributions do appear to be affected by higher concentrations in the rivers (S-containing humic acids?).

  2. Hydrological and biogeochemical controls on watershed dissolved organic matter transport: pulse-shunt concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A; Saiers, James E; Sobczak, William V

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological precipitation and snowmelt events trigger large "pulse" releases of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) into drainage networks due to an increase in DOM concentration with discharge. Thus, low-frequency large events, which are predicted to increase with climate change, are responsible for a significant percentage of annual terrestrial DOM input to drainage networks. These same events are accompanied by marked and rapid increases in headwater stream velocity; thus they also "shunt" a large proportion of the pulsed DOM to downstream, higher-order rivers and aquatic ecosystems geographically removed from the DOM source of origin. Here we merge these ideas into the "pulse-shunt concept" (PSC) to explain and quantify how infrequent, yet major hydrologic events may drive the timing, flux, geographical dispersion, and regional metabolism of terrestrial DOM. The PSC also helps reconcile long-standing discrepancies in C cycling theory and provides a robust framework for better quantifying its highly dynamic role in the global C cycle. The PSC adds a critical temporal dimension to linear organic matter removal dynamics postulated by the river continuum concept. It also can be represented mathematically through a model that is based on stream scaling approaches suitable for quantifying the important role of streams and rivers in the global C cycle. Initial hypotheses generated by the PSC include: (1) Infrequent large storms and snowmelt events account for a large and underappreciated percentage of the terrestrial DOM flux to drainage networks at annual and decadal time scales and therefore event statistics are equally important to total discharge when determining terrestrial fluxes. (2) Episodic hydrologic events result in DOM bypassing headwater streams and being metabolized in large rivers and exported to coastal systems. We propose that the PSC provides a framework for watershed biogeochemical modeling and predictions and discuss implications to

  3. Seasonal Variation in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Photoreactivity within a Small Sub-arctic Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, J.; Osborne, R.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex heterogeneous mixture, ubiquitous to all natural surface waters, uniquely composed of source inputs specific to spatial, temporal, and ecological circumstances. In arctic and sub-arctic regions, elucidating DOM composition and reactivity is complicated by seasonal variations. These include changes in productivity and source inputs to the water column, as well as winter overflow events that may contribute allochthonous organic material. DOM from a small boreal stream in a watershed of discontinuous permafrost in the Goldstream Valley of interior Alaska was isolated by solid-phase extraction (PPL) at multiple points during the year - late spring, late summer, and in the winter during an active overflow event. Compositional characteristics of each of the isolates were characterized by SPR-W5-WATERGATE 1H NMR spectroscopy, specific UV-Vis absorbance, and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and compared against end-member reference DOM isolates. Kinetics of photobleaching experiments reveal the influence of compositional differences among the isolated DOMs on their chemical reactivity, and offer insight into potential differences in their source materials and ecological function throughout the year. Photobleaching studies were conducted using a variety of reactive species quenchers or sensitizers in order to assess susceptibility of oxidative transformation mechanisms on the different DOM isolates, which were then analyzed by 1H NMR, UV-Vis degradation kinetics, and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of fluorescence EEMs. Better understanding of the seasonal variations of boreal DOM character and function on a molecular level is critical to assessing alterations in its ecological role and cycling in the face of current and future ecosystem perturbations in arctic and sub-arctic regions.

  4. Permafrost conditions in peatlands regulate magnitude, timing, and chemical composition of catchment dissolved organic carbon export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefeldt, David; Roulet, Nigel T

    2014-10-01

    Permafrost thaw in peatlands has the potential to alter catchment export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and thus influence downstream aquatic C cycling. Subarctic peatlands are often mosaics of different peatland types, where permafrost conditions regulate the hydrological setting of each type. We show that hydrological setting is key to observed differences in magnitude, timing, and chemical composition of DOC export between permafrost and nonpermafrost peatland types, and that these differences influence the export of DOC of larger catchments even when peatlands are minor catchment components. In many aspects, DOC export from a studied peatland permafrost plateau was similar to that of a forested upland catchment. Similarities included low annual export (2-3 g C m(-2) ) dominated by the snow melt period (~70%), and how substantial DOC export following storms required wet antecedent conditions. Conversely, nonpermafrost fens had higher DOC export (7 g C m(-2) ), resulting from sustained hydrological connectivity during summer. Chemical composition of catchment DOC export arose from the mixing of highly aromatic DOC from organic soils from permafrost plateau soil water and upland forest surface horizons with nonaromatic DOC from mineral soil groundwater, but was further modulated by fens. Increasing aromaticity from fen inflow to outlet was substantial and depended on both water residence time and water temperature. The role of fens as catchment biogeochemical hotspots was further emphasized by their capacity for sulfate retention. As a result of fen characteristics, a 4% fen cover in a mixed catchment was responsible for 34% higher DOC export, 50% higher DOC concentrations and ~10% higher DOC aromaticity at the catchment outlet during summer compared to a nonpeatland upland catchment. Expansion of fens due to thaw thus has potential to influence landscape C cycling by increasing fen capacity to act as biogeochemical hotspots, amplifying aquatic C cycling, and

  5. Mobility of Dissolved Organic Matter from the Suwannee River (Georgia, USA) in Sand-Packed Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Daniel P; Bolster, Diogo; Maurice, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Suwannee River and of synthetic polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) was investigated in columns packed with naturally Fe/Al-oxide-coated sands from Oyster, Virginia. Surface-water samples were collected in May 2012 and processed by XAD-8 (humic substances; HPOA), XAD-4 (transphilic acids [TPIAs]), and reverse osmosis (broad range of components; NOM). Median transport time ( R o ) of PSSs increased with molecular weight (MW) from 1,000 to 8,000 Da but decreased for the largest PSS (18,000 Da), which is consistent with previous observations of MW effects on DOM adsorption and transport. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of HPOAs and NOM were similar whereas TPIA transport was distinct; although all DOM samples had similar R o values, BTC asymmetry and dispersivity were greater for TPIAs. All samples exhibited power-law tailing that is characteristic of heterogeneous sorbent/sorbate interactions, potentially including kinetic effects. The one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation was unable to capture the tailing but it was captured well using a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) model. CTRW parameters were similar for the NOM and HPOA samples but distinctly different for TPIAs, which had more pronounced tailing. While retardation of organics generally tends to increase with MW, the lower average MW of TPIAs did not result in decreased overall retardation, which suggests the importance of compositional differences. Results suggest that while TPIAs tend to be a relatively minor component of DOM, their transport behavior differs from that of the predominant HPOA fraction, and they might thus have different impacts on pollutant transport.

  6. Sources and fate of bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Peierls, B. L.; Hounshell, A.; Osburn, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is a widespread problem affecting the structure and function of estuaries and is often linked to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment, since N is the primary nutrient limiting algal production. Watershed management actions typically have ignored dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loading because of its perceived refractory nature and instead focused on inorganic N as targets for loading reductions. A fluorescence-based model indicated that anthropogenic sources of DON near the head of the microtidal Neuse River Estuary (NRE), NC were dominated by septic systems and poultry waste. A series of bioassays were used to determine the bioavailability of river DON and DON-rich sources to primary producers and whether those additions promoted the growth of certain phytoplankton taxa, particularly harmful species. Overall, at time scales up to two to three weeks, estuarine phytoplankton and bacteria only showed limited responses to additions of high molecular weight (HMW, >1 kDa) river DON. When increases in productivity and biomass did occur, they were quite small compared with the response to inorganic N. Low molecular weight (LMW) river DON, waste water treatment plant effluent, and poultry litter extract did have a positive effect on phytoplankton and bacterial production, indicating a bioavailable fraction. High variability of bulk DON concentration suggested that bioavailable compounds added in the experimental treatments were low in concentration and turned over quite rapidly. Some phytoplankton taxa, as measured by diagnostic photopigments, appeared to be selectively enhanced by the HMW and specific source DON additions, although the taxa could not be positively identified as harmful species. Preliminary tests show that labile autochthonous organic matter may act as a primer for the mineralization of the HMW DON. These and other, longer-term bioavailability studies will be needed to adequately address the fate of watershed DON in estuarine ecosystems.

  7. In-Lake Processes Offset Increased Terrestrial Inputs of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color to Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Kothawala, Dolly; Futter, Martyn N.; Liungman, Olof; Tranvik, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Increased color in surface waters, or browning, can alter lake ecological function, lake thermal stratification and pose difficulties for drinking water treatment. Mechanisms suggested to cause browning include increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron concentrations, as well as a shift to more colored DOC. While browning of surface waters is widespread and well documented, little is known about why some lakes resist it. Here, we present a comprehensive study of Mälaren, the third largest lake in Sweden. In Mälaren, the vast majority of water and DOC enters a western lake basin, and after approximately 2.8 years, drains from an eastern basin. Despite 40 years of increased terrestrial inputs of colored substances to western lake basins, the eastern basin has resisted browning over this time period. Here we find the half-life of iron was far shorter (0.6 years) than colored organic matter (A420 ; 1.7 years) and DOC as a whole (6.1 years). We found changes in filtered iron concentrations relate strongly to the observed loss of color in the western basins. In addition, we observed a substantial shift from colored DOC of terrestrial origin, to less colored autochthonous sources, with a substantial decrease in aromaticity (-17%) across the lake. We suggest that rapid losses of iron and colored DOC caused the limited browning observed in eastern lake basins. Across a wider dataset of 69 Swedish lakes, we observed greatest browning in acidic lakes with shorter retention times (water residence time, along with iron, pH and colored DOC may be of central importance when modeling and projecting changes in brownification on broader spatial scales. PMID:23976946

  8. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  9. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago; Guihéneuf, Solène; Le Guével, Rémy; Biard, Pierre-François; Paquin, Ludovic; Amrane, Abdeltif; Couvert, Annabelle

    2016-04-15

    Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF6(-), NTf2(-) and NfO(-). Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD28 of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating the Concentration and Biodegradability of Organic Matter in 22 Wastewater Treatment Plants Using Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrices and Parallel Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at monitoring the changes of fluorescent components in wastewater samples from 22 Korean biological wastewater treatment plants and exploring their prediction capabilities for total organic carbon (TOC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and the biodegradability of the wastewater using an optical sensing technique based on fluorescence excitation emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC. Three fluorescent components were identified from the samples by using EEM-PARAFAC, including protein-like (C1, fulvic-like (C2 and humic-like (C3 components. C1 showed the highest removal efficiencies for all the treatment types investigated here (69% ± 26%–81% ± 8%, followed by C2 (37% ± 27%–65% ± 35%, while humic-like component (i.e., C3 tended to be accumulated during the biological treatment processes. The percentage of C1 in total fluorescence (%C1 decreased from 54% ± 8% in the influents to 28% ± 8% in the effluents, while those of C2 and C3 (%C2 and %C3 increased from 43% ± 6% to 62% ± 9% and from 3% ± 7% to 10% ± 8%, respectively. The concentrations of TOC, DOC, BOD, and COD were the most correlated with the fluorescence intensity (Fmax of C1 (r = 0.790–0.817, as compared with the other two fluorescent components. The prediction capability of C1 for TOC, BOD, and COD were improved by using multiple regression based on Fmax of C1 and suspended solids (SS (r = 0.856–0.865, both of which can be easily monitored in situ. The biodegradability of organic matter in BOD/COD were significantly correlated with each PARAFAC component and their combinations (r = −0.598–0.613, p < 0.001, with the highest correlation coefficient shown for %C1. The estimation capability was further enhanced by using multiple regressions based on %C1, %C2 and C3/C2 (r = −0.691.

  11. Metaproteomic characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in surface seawaters in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Po; Wang, Da-Zhi; Xie, Zhang-Xian; Dai, Min-Han; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important reservoir of carbon and energy in the marine environment and plays a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle. This study characterized proteins of high-molecular-weight DOM (size between 5 kDa and classification and function dominated the dissolved protein pool (43-53%) while the remaining proteins presented close similarity in biological origin among the four sampling sites. Rhodospirillaceae, Prochlorococcus, SAR11 clade and viruses were the major contributors to dissolved proteins in the HMW-DOM from surface seawaters while very few proteins were from the eukaryotic phytoplankton and no archaeal proteins were detected. Transporters with substrate specificities for nitrogen- and carbon-containing compounds (1.5% of the total spectra for each) were highly detected while no phosphate transporters were found, suggesting that carbon and nitrogen might be more limiting than phosphorus in the surface seawater. Viral proteins were assigned into three families: Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae, and the Myoviridae proteins were the most abundant. Among them, structure proteins were the most abundant viral proteins. This study indicated that the dissolved proteins of HMW-DOM presented compositional and biologically original homogeneity in the surface seawaters of the South China Sea, and bacteria and viruses dominated the dissolved protein pool.

  12. Natural diet of coral-excavating sponges consists mainly of dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Benjamin; de Goeij, Jasper M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Mulders, Yannick; van der Ent, Esther; Ribes, Marta; van Duyl, Fleur C

    2014-01-01

    Coral-excavating sponges are the most important bioeroders on Caribbean reefs and increase in abundance throughout the region. This increase is commonly attributed to a concomitant increase in food availability due to eutrophication and pollution. We therefore investigated the uptake of organic matter by the two coral-excavating sponges Siphonodictyon sp. and Cliona delitrix and tested whether they are capable of consuming dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as part of their diet. A device for simultaneous sampling of water inhaled and exhaled by the sponges was used to directly measure the removal of DOC and bacteria in situ. During a single passage through their filtration system 14% and 13% respectively of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the inhaled water was removed by the sponges. 82% (Siphonodictyon sp.; mean ± SD; 13 ± 17 μmol L(-1)) and 76% (C. delitrix; 10 ± 12 μmol L(-1)) of the carbon removed was taken up in form of DOC, whereas the remainder was taken up in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC; bacteria and phytoplankton) despite high bacteria retention efficiency (72 ± 15% and 87 ± 10%). Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix removed DOC at a rate of 461 ± 773 and 354 ± 562 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Bacteria removal was 1.8 ± 0.9 × 10(10) and 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(10) cells h(-1), which equals a carbon uptake of 46.0 ± 21.2 and 42.5 ± 14.0 μmol C h(-1) respectively. Therefore, DOC represents 83 and 81% of the TOC taken up by Siphonodictyon sp. and C. delitrix per hour. These findings suggest that similar to various reef sponges coral-excavating sponges also mainly rely on DOC to meet their carbon demand. We hypothesize that excavating sponges may also benefit from an increasing production of more labile algal-derived DOC (as compared to coral-derived DOC) on reefs as a result of the ongoing coral-algal phase shift.

  13. Seasonal changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter composition and quality in the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Winterfeld, M.; Hefter, J.; Bodenstab, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Eulenburg, A.; Heim, B.; Koch, B.; Schefuss, E.; Moerth, C. M.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic rivers are known to export large quantities of carbon by discharge of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), and in a warming and progressively moister Arctic, these exports may increase resulting in a reduction of arctic continental carbon stocks. These rivers have highly variable discharge rates with a pronounced maximum during the spring freshet associated with highest concentrations of DOC and POC. Most studies investigating the isotopic composition and quality of carbon exported by Arctic rivers rely on samples taken in summer during base flow, which is due to the logistical challenges associated with sampling in the remote Arctic permafrost regions. Here we present a record of δ13C and Δ14C of DOC and POC collected between late May during the freshet and late August 2014 in the Lena River Delta. POC Δ14C shows an initial trend towards older values in the spring samples, which is reversed in summer, associated with a shift towards more depleted δ13C values. We interpret this aging trend as reflecting progressive thawing throughout the ice-free season, resulting in mobilization of progressively older carbon from deeper thawed layers. The summer reversal indicates admixture of aquatic organic matter. DOC Δ14C, in contrast, remains at relatively modern levels with rather constant δ13C values throughout the sampling period. We furthermore analysed the biomarker composition of Lena Delta particulate OM collected in spring and summer. From spring to summer, we observe trends in abundance of individual leaf-wax derived biomarkers indicating higher abundance of algal biomass in the summer particles. Trends in soil microbial biomarkers and compound-specific δD of leaf-wax lipids suggest a shift in sources towards higher contributions from the southern catchment in summer. DOC composition investigated with FT-ICR-MS changes from spring with higher abundances of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios to late summer, when fewer compounds

  14. Investigation of dissolved organic substances in the Northern Dvina under different hydrological seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorina, Natalia; Spencer, Robert; Klimov, Sergey; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Ladesov, Anton; Shestakov, Semen; Vorobieva, Taisia

    2017-04-01

    The rivers of the Russian Arctic, which include the Northern Dvina, are important sources of organic matter of terrestrial origin to the seas of the Arctic Ocean. The Northern Dvina River accounts for 50% of the entire flow of the river system to the White Sea. The spring freshet period accounts for 60% of the annual hydrological flow, and 80% of the annual flow of riverine suspended sediment. Despite the importance of the study of organic matter in dissolved form for global carbon cycling, this topic has received little attention in this region of Russia. This paper presents results from a study examining dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Northern Dvina River encompassing different hydrological seasons, utilizing a range of methods for isolation and concentration. The goal of this study was to characterize the molecular features of DOM in the Northern Dvina River across the seasonal hydrograph. IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a FTIR spectrometer Vertex 70 (Bruker, Germany), with a resolution of 4 cm-1, measuring the range 4000-400 cm-1 and 128 recorded parallel determinations. The absorption band at 3200cm-1 and 1600 cm-1 are due to OH group. In the range of 2800-3000 cm-1 we observed bands due to methyl, methylene groups, and possibly the presence of nitrogen-containing C = NH groups. In the area of 1710 cm-1 there is a strong band of carbonyl groups characteristic of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. The mild band at 1450 cm-1 is noted and can be attributed to the C-C vibrations of the aromatic ring. In the range of 1100-1000 cm-1 is observed a band related to C-O groups. The absorption bands at 1030 cm-1 correspond to C-O-C symmetric stretching vibrations, and at the 1150 cm-1 belongs to the aromatic C-H-planar deformation fluctuations. Based on data from the infrared spectrometry, it should be noted that along with the strongly expressed aliphatic component, studied samples are characterized by the presence of aromatic ring groups. An

  15. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the melt water of Icelandic glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Reiss, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Recently, glaciers have been recognized as unique ecosystems with potential effects on the global carbon cycle. Among other transport processes organic carbon stored in glacier ecosystems is released from the glaciers through melt at the glaciers surface that discharges into proglacial streams and finally into the ocean. Nevertheless, the potential role of glaciers in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood (Hood et al. 2015). One particular problem in this respect is that there is a lack in regional and global analysis of the total amount of organic carbon released from glaciers. Although, the release of organic carbon has been investigated in proglacial streams in Alaska, the European Alps and Greenland, to our knowledge, there is no information available for Icelandic proglacial streams. Thus, the aims of this study are: 1) to develop a first base information about the concentration of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) in several Icelandic proglacial streams and 2) to detect the variability of DOC and POC along a proglacial stream from the glacier source to the mouth into the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, a field trip was conducted between 23 and 31 July 2016, whereby, 25 water samples were taken. The sampling points cover melt water from the following Icelandic glaciers Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, Myrdalsjökull and Tungnafellsjökull. Further water samples were taken along the river Hvitá starting at the glacier Langjökull and ending at the mouth into the Atlantic ocean in the southwest of Iceland. At every sample point electrical conductivity, water temperate and the pH-value were measured in situ using a calibrated portable water quality meter (Hanna Combo HI98129). The water samples (130 ml) were filtered using pre-combusted GF/F filters (Whatman, pore sizes 0.7 µm) and stored in a cooling box until the shipment to the laboratory of the Department for Geography, Philipps-University of Marburg. The DOC concentrations in

  16. [Effects of tree species transfer on soil dissolved organic matter pools in a reforested Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Qun; He, Zong-Ming; Hu, Zhen-Hong; Yu, Zai-Peng; Wang, Min-Huang; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Fan, Shao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Based on the comparison between reforested 19-year-old Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations on cut-over land of C. lanceolata, effects of tree species transfer on soil dissolved organic matter were investigated. Cold water, hot water and 2 mol x L(-1) KCl solution were used to extract soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers. In M. laosensis plantaion, the concentrations of soil DOC extracted by cold water, hot water and 2 mol L(-1) KCl solutions were significantly higher than that in C. lanceolata plantation. In the 0-5 and 5-10 cm layers, the concentrations of soil DON extracted by cold water and hot water in M. laosensis plantation were significantly higher than that in C. lanceolata plantation. The extracted efficiencies for DOC and DON were both in order of KCl solution > hot water > cold water. In the 0-5 cm layers, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) under M. laosensis was averagely 76.3% greater than under C. lanceolata. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive relationships between hot water extractable organic matter and soil MBC. Differences in the sizes of soil DOC and DON pools between the M. laosensis and C. lanceolata forests might be attributed to the quality and quantity of organic matter input. The transfer from C. lanceolata to M. laosensis could improve soil fertility in the plantation.

  17. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the Upper Klamath River, Lost River, and Klamath Straits Drain, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jami H.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2017-12-11

    Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which together comprise total organic carbon, were measured in this reconnaissance study at sampling sites in the Upper Klamath River, Lost River, and Klamath Straits Drain in 2013–16. Optical absorbance and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which contains DOC, also were analyzed. Parallel factor analysis was used to decompose the optical fluorescence data into five key components for all samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate differences in DOM source and processing among sites.At all sites in this study, average DOC concentrations were higher than average POC concentrations. The highest DOC concentrations were at sites in the Klamath Straits Drain and at Pump Plant D. Evaluation of optical properties indicated that Klamath Straits Drain DOM had a refractory, terrestrial source, likely extracted from the interaction of this water with wetland peats and irrigated soils. Pump Plant D DOM exhibited more labile characteristics, which could, for instance, indicate contributions from algal or microbial exudates. The samples from Klamath River also had more microbial or algal derived material, as indicated by PCA analysis of the optical properties. Most sites, except Pump Plant D, showed a linear relation between fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) and DOC concentration, indicating these measurements are highly correlated (R2=0.84), and thus a continuous fDOM probe could be used to estimate DOC loads from these sites.

  18. Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Robert S.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kendall, Carol

    2007-12-01

    Lignin phenol concentrations and compositions were determined on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracts (XAD resins) within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), the tidal freshwater portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary, located in central California, USA. Fourteen stations were sampled, including the following habitats and land-use types: wetland, riverine, channelized waterway, open water, and island drains. Stations were sampled approximately seasonally from December, 1999 through May, 2001. DOC concentrations ranged from 1.3 mg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 39.9 mg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 3.0 mg L -1), while lignin concentrations ranged from 3.0 μg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 111 μg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 11.6 μg L -1). Both DOC and lignin concentrations varied significantly among habitat/land-use types and among sampling stations. Carbon-normalized lignin yields ranged from 0.07 mg (100 mg OC) -1 at an island drain to 0.84 mg (100 mg OC) -1 for a wetland (median 0.36 mg (100 mg OC) -1), and also varied significantly among habitat/land-use types. A simple mass balance model indicated that the Delta acted as a source of lignin during late autumn through spring (10-83% increase) and a sink for lignin during summer and autumn (13-39% decrease). Endmember mixing models using S:V and C:V signatures of landscape scale features indicated strong temporal variation in sources of DOC export from the Delta, with riverine source signatures responsible for 50% of DOC in summer and winter, wetland signatures responsible for 40% of DOC in summer, winter, and late autumn, and island drains responsible for 40% of exported DOC in late autumn. A significant negative correlation was observed between carbon-normalized lignin yields and DOC bioavailability in two of the 14 sampling stations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to describe organic vascular plant DOC sources at the level of

  19. Applications of PDMS partitioning methods in the study of biodegradation of pyrene in the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejeda-Agredano, MC; Gouliarmou, Varvara; Ortega-Calvo, JJ

    Although there are reports on the inhibition of anthropogenic organic chemicals biodegradation due to binding to dissolved humic substances (HS), there is an increasing body of evidence pointing to an enhancing effect in the case of hydrophobic chemicals, like pyrene. The addition of humic fracti...

  20. Advancing understanding of the fluvial export of organic matter through high-resolution profiling of dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Drew, S.; Gilvear, D.; Murray, H.; Heal, K.

    2012-04-01

    Quantifying the natural variation (complexity) of a system remains an enduring scientific challenge in better understanding controls on surface water quality. This characterisation is needed in order to reveal controlling processes, such as dilution, and also to identify unusual load profiles. In trying to capture that natural variation we still rely largely on concentration time series (and associated export budgets) generated from manual spot sampling, or from samples collected by autosamplers - approaches which are unlikely to provide the high temporal resolution of parameter concentration required. Now however, advances in sensor technology are helping us address this challenge. Here we present detailed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export profiles from a small upland river (9.4 km sq.), generated since June 2011 by semi-continuous logging of UV-vis absorption (200-750 nm, every 2.5 nm) every 30 minutes. Observed increases in the concentration of the DOC, [DOC], in freshwaters have prompted significant research to