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Sample records for biodegradable copolymer incorporating

  1. Protein-Reactive, Thermoresponsive Copolymers with High Flexibility and Biodegradability

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Ma, Zuwei; Wagner, William R.

    2008-01-01

    A family of injectable, biodegradable, and thermosensitive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide, acrylic acid, N-acryloxysuccinimide, and a macromer polylactide–hydroxyethyl methacrylate were synthesized by free radical polymerization. Copolymers were injectable at or below room temperature and formed robust hydrogels at 37 °C. The effects of monomer ratio, polylactide length, and AAc content on the chemical and physical properties of the hydrogel were investigated. Copolymers exhibited ...

  2. Weathering and Biodegradation Study on Graft Copolymer Compatibilized Hybrid Bionanocomposites of Poly(Lactic Acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, VP; Nayak, Sanjay K.; Mohanty, Smita

    2016-07-01

    This work reports on the influence of moisture absorption and accelerated weathering on the properties of graft copolymer compatibilized bionanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Moisture absorption tests were conducted for 30 days by immersing the samples in a distilled water bath at room temperature, and the amount of moisture absorbed in each time interval was measured. The rate of moisture uptake decreased by incorporation of C30B nanoclay and graft copolymer into fiber-reinforced PLA composites. Changes in the mechanical properties of composites in each time interval of moisture absorption were investigated using tensile and impact tests. Exposure to moisture caused significant drops in the mechanical properties. The morphological characterization of biocomposites during the aforementioned tests has been made using SEM, while bionanocomposites were analyzed by TEM. Further, this paper also reported the effect of accelerated weathering on the mechanical properties and the results are confirmed through SEM analysis. Biodegradation behaviors of PLA biocomposites and bionanocomposites have also been studied.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable materials: PDLLA-(MAh-Diol)n-PDLLA copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Chen; Yuan Liang Wang; Mei Na Huang

    2007-01-01

    The novel biodegradable copolymer PDLLA-(MAH-Diol)n-PDLLA with unsaturated bond was synthesized by copolymerizing lactide and prepolymer, which was prepared by the polycondensation of maleic anhydride and poly(ethylene glycol), using ptoluene sulphonic acid as catalyst. The new copolymer has improved hydrophilicity and flexibility. The structure and properties of the novel polymers were studied by FTIR, NMR, GPC-MALLS and DSC.

  4. Biodegradation of starch–graft–polystyrene and starch–graft–poly(methacrylic acid) copolymers in model river water

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Vladimir; Veličković Sava; Antonović Dušan; Popović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the biodegradation study of grafted copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and corn starch and poly(methacrylic acid) and corn starch in model river water is described. These copolymers were obtained in the presence of different amine activators. The synthesized copolymers and products of degradation were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Biodegradation was monitored by mass decrease and number of microorganisms...

  5. Triblock Copolymers Based on 1,3-Trimethylene Carbonate and Lactide as Biodegradable Thermoplastic Elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable triblock copolymers based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and different lactides (i.e. D,L-lactide(DLLA), L-lactide (LLA), D-lactide (DLA)) designated as poly(DLLA-TMC-DLLA), poly(LLA-TMC-LLA) and poly(DLA-TMC-DLA) were prepared and their mechanical and thermal properties were comp

  6. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10−4 mg/mL and 3.9 × 10−5 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability

  7. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo, E-mail: zghu@htu.cn

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b–poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl–triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b–poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b–polylactide (PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following “Click” reaction of PLA-b–PBAMO-b–PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10{sup −4} mg/mL and 3.9 × 10{sup −5} mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The method to synthesize PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA is relatively facile and efficient. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA self-assembles into spherical micelles with low CMC in water. • PLA-b–PHMTYO-b–PLA exhibits better biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  8. Biodegradable PELA block copolymers: in vitro degradation and tissue reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, H; Nataf, P R; Cohn, D; Appelbaum, Y J; Pizov, G; Uretzky, G

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of, and tissue reaction elicited by a series of polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polylactic acid (PLA) PELA block copolymers were studied in vitro and in vivo. In particular, the effect of pH, temperature and enzymatic activity was addressed. The mass loss was faster, the more basic the media, while, expectedly, PELA copolymers degraded faster with the higher temperature. The addition of an enzyme (carboxylic ester hydrolase) had no effect. The degradation process strongly affected the mechanical properties of the materials under investigation, the elongation at break dropping drastically after two days of degradation. After seven days, only gross observation of the extensively degraded samples was possible. The in vivo studies compared the tissue reaction elicited by various PELA copolymers to that evoked by PLA. Evaluation of tissue reaction observed with a PELA sample after sterilization with gamma radiation showed acute inflammation with considerable dispersion of the material, 12 days after implantation. The granulomatous reaction observed with PELA copolymers after ethylene oxide sterilization was identical to the reaction observed with PLA. PMID:3064826

  9. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  10. Biodegradable polymers derived from renewable resources: Highly branched copolymers of itaconic anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Joshua Andrew

    In an effort to design cyclic anhydride containing polymers that are derived from renewable resources and have biodegradable characteristics, three copolymer systems using itaconic anhydride have been studied. Two of the systems were copolymers with stearate based monomers; vinyl stearate and stearyl methacrylate, while the third was a copolymer with a methacrylate terminated poly (lactic acid) (PLA) macromonomer. For the stearate systems, stearyl methacrylate showed good copolymerization with equal conversions for both monomers. On the other hand vinyl stearate did not show as good results due to its decreased reactivity, which resulted in a copolymer highly enriched in itaconic anhydride with significant amounts of unreacted vinyl stearate under all copolymer compositions. These differing results were confirmed through analysis of reactivity ratios showing a results that are more favorable for copolymerization for the methacrylate system. Copolymers from both systems showed single melting transitions in a precarious range of 45--50°C arising from the stearyl side groups, though after quenching from the melt this shifted to below room temperature. Anhydride retention was confirmed through structural analysis. Similar to the stearyl methacrylate system, methacrylate terminated PLA macromonomers were copolymerized with itaconic anhydride. PLA's acceptance as a biodegradable material derived from renewable resources, make it a viable choice, with which to design anhydride containing copolymers. Good copolymerization was shown for all compositions studied with retention of the anhydride, though at high itaconic anhydride concentrations conversions were reduced significantly. Copolymers showed glass transition temperatures ranging from 32°C for 85 mole % PLA macromonomer to 73°C for 85 mole % itaconic anhydride. An effort to produce PLA macromonomers through a process of chemical recycling commercial PLA was also undertaken. Promising results were obtained showing

  11. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  12. Morphological study of biodegradable PEO/PLA block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, H; Cohn, D

    1987-11-01

    A series of PEO/PLA copolymers, covering a wide range of compositions and segmental lengths, was synthesized, and their morphology was investigated by means of DSC and IR studies. For matrices comprising PEO chains with molecular weights below 3400, no soft-segment crystallinity was detected. When long hard segments were present, essentially monophasic, semicrystalline polymers were obtained, with PLA blocks melting around 130 degrees C. Polymers containing longer soft segments (PEO 6000) exhibited a two-phase matrix, with both components being able to crystallize. The relative degree of crystallinity of PEO and PLA blocks was also determined. The thermal history of the sample strongly affected the morphology of the matrix, especially when both blocks were long enough to crystallize. To further explore these polymers, solvent cast films were prepared and their morphology assessed. Casting from acetone, which is an excellent solvent for PLA, resulted in hard blocks exhibiting lower degrees of crystallinity, while methanol had a similar effect on PEO soft segments. PMID:3680315

  13. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  14. Biodegradation of the cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksińska, Małgorzata P; Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Lejcuś, Krzysztof; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking and the high molecular weight of superabsorbent copolymers (SAPs) are the two main causes of their resistance to biodegradation. However, SAP particles are colonized by microorganisms. For the purposes of this study, the dry technical copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate containing 5.28 % of unpolymerized monomers was wrapped in a geotextile and incubated in unsterile Haplic Luvisol soil as a water absorbing geocomposite. The highest number of soil bacteria that colonized the hydrated SAP and utilized it as the sole carbon and energy source was found after the first month of incubation in soil. It was equal to 7.21-7.49 log10 cfu g(-1) of water absorbed by the SAP and decreased by 1.35-1.61 log10 units within the next 8 months. During this time, the initial SAP water holding capacity of 1665.8 g has decreased by 24.40 %. Moreover, the 5 g of SAP dry mass has declined by 31.70 %. Two bacteria, Rhizobium radiobacter 28SG and Bacillus aryabhattai 31SG isolated from the watered SAP were found to be able to biodegrade this SAP in pure cultures. They destroyed 25.07 and 41.85 mg of 300 mg of the technical SAP during the 60-day growth in mineral Burk's salt medium, and biodegradation activity was equal to 2.95 and 6.72 μg of SAP μg(-1) of protein, respectively. B. aryabhattai 31SG and R. radiobacter 28SG were also able to degrade 9.99 and 29.70 mg of 82 mg of the ultra-pure SAP in synthetic root exudate medium during the 30-day growth, respectively. PMID:26817471

  15. Controlled synthesis of biodegradable lactide polymers and copolymers using novel in situ generated or single-site stereoselective polymerization initiators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Polylactides and their copolymers are key biodegradable polymers used widely in biomedical, pharmaceutical and ecological applications. The development of synthetic pathways and catalyst/initiator systems to produce pre-designed polylactides, as well as the fundamental understanding of the polymeriz

  16. Syntheses of amphiphilic biodegradable copolymers of poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) for drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jing; WANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable and amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate)-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP-b-PHB-b-PEEP) have been successfully synthesized through ring-opening polymerization.The structures are confirmed by gel permeation chromatography and NMR analyses.Crystallization investigated by X-ray diffraction reveals that the block copolymer with higher content of poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) is more amorphous,showing decreased crystallizability.The obtained copolymers self-assemble into biodegradable nanoparticles with a coreshell micellar structure in aqueous solution,verified by the probe-based fluorescence measurements and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) observation.The hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) block serves as the core of the micelles and the micelles are stabilized by the hydrophilic PEEP block.The size and size distribution are related to the compositions of the copolymers.Paclitaxel (PTX) has been encapsulated into the micelles as a model drug and a sustained drug release from the micelles is observed.MTT assay also demonstrates that the block copolymers are biocompatible,rendering these copolymers attractive for drug delivery.

  17. Syntheses of amphiphilic biodegradable copolymers of poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) for drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable and amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate)-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP-b-PHB-b-PEEP) have been successfully synthesized through ring-opening polymerization. The structures are confirmed by gel permeation chromatography and NMR analyses. Crystallization investigated by X-ray diffraction reveals that the block copolymer with higher content of poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) is more amorphous, showing decreased crystallizability. The obtained copolymers self-assemble into biodegradable nanoparticles with a coreshell micellar structure in aqueous solution, verified by the probe-based fluorescence measurements and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) observation. The hydrophobic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) block serves as the core of the micelles and the micelles are stabilized by the hydrophilic PEEP block. The size and size distribution are related to the compositions of the copolymers. Paclitaxel (PTX) has been encapsulated into the micelles as a model drug and a sustained drug release from the micelles is observed. MTT assay also demonstrates that the block copolymers are biocompatible, rendering these copolymers attractive for drug delivery.

  18. Paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticles using block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Yul; Ryu, Je Ho; Chu, Chong Woo; Son, Gyung Mo; Jeong, Young-IL; Kwak, Tae-Won; Kim, Do Hyung; Chung, Chung-Wook; Rhee, Young Ha; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Block copolymers composed of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized to prepare paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticle for antitumor drug delivery. In a 1H-NMR study, chemical structures of PHO/PEG block copolymers were confirmed and their molecular weight (M.W.) was analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Paclitaxel as a model anticancer drug was incorporated into the nanoparticles of PHO/PEG block copolymer. They have spherical shapes...

  19. Temperature-Responsive Biocompatible Copolymers Incorporating Hyperbranched Polyglycerols for Adjustable Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. House

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-triggered copolymers are proposed for a number of bio-applications but there is no ideal material platform, especially for injectable drug delivery. Options are needed for degradable biomaterials that not only respond to temperature but also easily accommodate linkage of active molecules. A first step toward realizing this goal is the design and synthesis of the novel materials reported herein. A multifunctional macromer, methacrylated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-MA with an average of one acrylate unit per copolymer, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polylactide (HEMAPLA and acrylic acid (AAc. The potential to fully exploit the copolymers by modification of the multiple HPG hydroxyl groups will not be discussed here. Instead, this report focuses on the thermoresponsive, biocompatible, and degradation properties of the material. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMAPLA-co-AAc-co-HPG-MA displayed increasing lower critical solution temperatures (LCST as the HPG content increased over a range of macromer ratios. For the copolymer with the maximum HPG incorporation (17%, the LCST was ~30 °C. In addition, this sample showed no toxicity when human uterine fibroid cells were co-cultured with the copolymer for up to 72 h. This copolymer lost approximately 92% of its mass after 17 hours at 37 °C. Thus, the reported biomaterials offer attractive properties for the design of drug delivery systems where orthogonally triggered mechanisms of therapeutic release in relatively short time periods would be attractive.

  20. Synthesis of biodegradable amphiphilic Y-shaped block co-polymers via ring-opening polymerization for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Yan, Lifeng; Li, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel Y-shaped biodegradable block co-polymers of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) (PCL-(PEEP)2) were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of EEP with bis-hydroxy-functional ROP initiator (init-PCL-(OH)2). The init-PCL-(OH)2 was synthesized by ROP of CL using 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (HBA) as initiator and L-tartaric acid as catalyst in bulk, and subsequently the resulting vinyl-terminated PCL was end-capped by acetyl chloride, followed by Michael addition using excess diethanolamine. The Y-shaped co-polymers and their intermediates were characterized by (1)H-, (13)C-, (31)P-NMR, FT-IR and gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the Y-shaped co-polymers increased with the increasing of the molar ratios of EEP to init-PCL-(OH)2 in the feed, while the PCL chain length was kept constant. The amphiphilic block co-polymers could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution, which was demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, (1)H-NMR and atomic force microscopy. A study of controlled release of indomethacin indicated that the amphiphilic block co-polymers could potentially provide novel vehicles for drug delivery.

  1. Synthesis and self-assembly behavior of a biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer nanomicelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lixia; Bian, Longchun; Zhao, Mimi; Lei, Jingxin; Wang, Jiliang

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel amphiphilic biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer (SBC) prepared by grafting hydrophilic and biocompatible hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) polymeric segments onto the natural hydrophobic soybean oil chains. FTIR, H1-NMR, and GPC measurements have been used to investigate the molecular structure of the obtained SBC macromolecules. Self-assembly behaviors of the prepared SBC in aqueous solution have also been extensively evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared SBC nanocarrier with the size range of 40 to 80 nm has a potential application in the biomedical field.

  2. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Dong Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Da Hye Kim,3,4 Gyun-Taek Lim,2 Ki-Choon Choi5 1Department of Oriental Medicine Materials, Dongshin University, Naju, South Korea; 2Department of Polymer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea; 3Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Japan; 4United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan; 5Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (PAA-MMA incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion: We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. Keywords: cisplatin, nanoparticle, poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate, ion complexes

  3. Facile synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gaicen; Fan, Xiaoshan; Xu, Bingcan; Zhang, Delong; Hu, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers bearing pendant hydroxyl groups polylactide-b-poly(3,3-bis(Hydroxymethyl-triazolylmethyl) oxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA) were synthesized via a facile and efficient method. First, the block copolymer intermediates polylactide-b-poly(3,3-Diazidomethyloxetane)-b-polylactide (PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA) were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PBAMO as a macroinitiator. Following "Click" reaction of PLA-b-PBAMO-b-PLA with propargyl alcohol provided the targeted amphiphilic block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA with pendant hydroxyl groups. The composition and structure of prepared copolymers were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The self-assembly behavior of the copolymers in water was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS). The results showed that the novel copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA self-assembled into spherical micelles with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm in aqueous solution. These copolymers also exhibited low critical micellar concentrations (CMC: 6.9 × 10(-4)mg/mL and 3.9 × 10(-5)mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these copolymers was determined in the presence of L929 cells. The results showed that the block copolymers PLA-b-PHMTYO-b-PLA exhibited better biocompatibility. Therefore, these well-defined copolymers are expected to find some applications in drug delivery or tissue engineering. PMID:25175206

  4. Biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers containing functionalized PEO blocks:Controlled synthesis and biomedical potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of controllable amphiphilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) as the hydrophilic block and poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) as the hydrophobic block with the amino terminal group at the end of the PEO chain(PCL-b-PEO-NH2) were synthesized.Based on the further reaction of reactive amino groups,diblock copolymers with functional carboxyl groups(PCL-b-PEO-COOH) and functional compounds RGD(PCL-b-PEO-RGD) as well as the triblock copolymers with thermosensitive PNIPAAm blocks(PCL-b-PEO-b-PNIPAAM) were synthesized.The well-controlled structures of these copolymers with functional groups and blocks were characterized by gel permeation chromatography(GPC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy.These copolymers with functionalized hydrophilic blocks were fabricated into microspheres for the examination of biofunctions via cell culture experiments and in vitro drug release.The results indicated the significance of introducing functional groups(e.g.,NH2,COOH and RGD) into the end of the hydrophilic block of amphiphilic block copolymers for biomedical potentials in tissue engineering and controlled drug release.

  5. Electroactive and Biodegradable Aniline Copolymer%生物可降解电活性苯胺聚合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保松; 齐宏旭; 陶磊; 危岩

    2011-01-01

    导电聚合物通过其独特的电活性或导电性,可智能地传递或控制细胞电化学信号,从而定向诱导组织器官的再生修复,已成为神经和组织工程领域研究的热点.本文主要介绍了我们实验室生物可降解电活性苯胺聚合物的相关工作,介绍了以苯胺齐聚物与可降解高分子接枝或嵌段制备具有电活性、可生物降解的新型导电聚合物及其在细胞培养和组织工程方面的研究.介绍了静电纺丝制备电活性纳米纤维的概况.苯胺齐聚物与可降解聚合物的接枝和嵌段可同时赋予其电活性、生物相容性和生物可降解性.可生物降解的电活性聚合物是未来生物组织工程领域的发展趋势之一,具有广阔的应用前景.%Electroactive and electrically conductive polymers, which can ideally conduct bioelectrical signals in vivo, have shown potential applications in the culture of excitable cells and as electroactive scaffolds for neuronal or cardiac tissue engineering. In this paper, the new research progress of electroactive, biodegradable aniline oligomer grafted copolymers,block copolymers and cell culture were introduced. Recent progresses of electrospinning fibre are reviewed. The materials which are electroactive,remarkably biocompatible and biodegradable,were designed and synthesized by covalently grafting or block-copolymerizing aniline oligomers onto or with biodegradable polymers. The properties of these copolymers are promising for biomedical applications both in vitro and in vivo. Some potentially rewarding research directions are suggested.

  6. STUDIES ON GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF DL—LACTIDE ON CORN STARCH AND BIODEGRADABILITY OF THE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUYingcai; ZHUChangying; 等

    2000-01-01

    The starch/D,L-lactide graft copolymers were synthesized by reacting D,L-lactide with corn starch in N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAM)in the presence of triethylamine(NEt3)and anhydrous lithium chloride.The effect of reaction time and the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural unit of starch on monomer conversion(C%),graft(G%)and graft efficiency(GE%)were studied,The C%,G%and GE% could approach 37.3% 179.7%and 68.0%,respectively when the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structuralunit of starch is 10:1 and the graft copolymerization was carried out at 80-85℃ for 4hr under nitrogen atmosphere.The Fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy.differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X_ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used in order to characterize the graft copolymers.FTIR spectra show that absorption band at 1740cm-1 confirmed the formation of ester bond,indicating the starch /D,L-lactide graft copolymers were produced,the DSC characteristic results show the melting temperature of the graft copolymer were elevated slightly as the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural units of starch increased and the X-ray diffraction spectra show the synthesized graft copolymers were amorphous.The degradability of graft copolymer was tested with the aid of acid,alkali and microbe such as bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus.The results of water rsistance show the graft copolymer produced can be used as a component of impermeable coating for cardboard.

  7. Improvement of microstructures and properties of biodegradable PLLA and PCL blends compatibilized with a triblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The AL specimen exhibits phase separation. → PCL phase is in the form of spherical shapes dispersed in the continuous PLLA phase. → Spherical shape of PCL phase disappear with addition of the copolymer. - Abstract: Incompatibility and immiscible binary blends of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with 70/30 wt.% composition were modified and prepared by addition of 0.5, 1 and 2 phr of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer. The effect of the copolymer ratio on the microstructures and properties of the blends was investigated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and Mode I fracture testing. The addition of the copolymer to PLLA/PCL improved its fracture toughness. A reduction in the amount of spherical of PCL upon the addition of copolymers was confirmed by FE-SEM. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) of PLLA and PCL shifted closer together, indicating that the blend compatibility increased. Thus, PEO-PPO-PEO can be employed as compatibilizer to improve the toughness and compatibility of PLLA/PCL blends.

  8. Synthesis and Properties of Biodegradable Copolymers of 9-Phenyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro-[5,5]undcane-3-one and Ethylene Ethyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XU; Zhi Lan LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel biodegradable copolymer poly(CC-co-EEP) was synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization of cyclic carbonate 9-phenyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro-[5, 5]undcane-3-one (CC)and ethylene ethyl phosphate (EEP). The obtained poly (CC-co-EEP)s were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). In vitro hydrolytic degradation of the copolymers were investigated in phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4).Hydrophilic phosphate units apparently improved the degradability of poly(carbonate-phosphate).

  9. Paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticles using block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Yul; Ryu, Je Ho; Chu, Chong Woo; Son, Gyung Mo; Jeong, Young-Il; Kwak, Tae-Won; Kim, Do Hyung; Chung, Chung-Wook; Rhee, Young Ha; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Block copolymers composed of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized to prepare paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticle for antitumor drug delivery. In a (1)H-NMR study, chemical structures of PHO/PEG block copolymers were confirmed and their molecular weight (M.W.) was analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Paclitaxel as a model anticancer drug was incorporated into the nanoparticles of PHO/PEG block copolymer. They have spherical shapes and their particle sizes were less than 100 nm. In a (1)H-NMR study in D2O, specific peaks of PEG solely appeared while peaks of PHO disappeared, indicating that nanoparticles have core-shell structures. The higher M.W. of PEG decreased loading efficiency and particle size. The higher drug feeding increased drug contents and average size of nanoparticles. In the drug release study, the higher M.W. of PEG block induced the acceleration of drug release rate. The increase in drug contents induced the slow release rate of drug. In an antitumor activity study in vitro, paclitaxel nanoparticles have practically similar anti-proliferation activity against HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. In an in vivo animal study using HCT116 colon carcinoma cell-bearing mice, paclitaxel nanoparticles have enhanced antitumor activity compared to paclitaxel itself. Therefore, paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticles of PHO/PEG block copolymer are a promising vehicle for antitumor drug delivery. PMID:25288916

  10. MANUFACTURING BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYETHYLENE AND FUNCTIONALIZED BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Shabarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The continuous growth of production and consumption of plastic packaging creates a serious problem of disposal of package. This problem has ecological character, because the contents of the landfills decompose for decades, emit toxic com¬pounds and pollute the environment. The work is devoted to obtaining and investigation mechanical and rheological properties of biodegradable composite materials based on polyethylene and starch. Materials and Methods. In this work the author used polyethylene grade HDPE 273- 83 (GOST 16338-85, Sevilen brand 12206-007 (TU 6-05-1636-97 and potato starch (GOST 53876-2010 as a filler. Functionalization of sevilen was carried in the 30 % ethanol solution KOH at a temperature 80 °C during 3 hours. Compounding components was carried out at the laboratory of the two rotary mixer HAAKE PolyLab Rheomix 600 OS with rotors Banbury. Formation of plates for elastic strength and rheological studies were carried out on a hydraulic press Gibitre. Elastic and strength tests were carried out on the tensile machine the UAI-7000 M. Rheology tests were carried out on the rheometer Haake MARS III. The humidity filler (starch authors determined by the thermogravimetric method on the analyzer of moisture “Evlas-2M”. Results. It is shown, that the filler should not contain more than 7% moisture. Functionalization of ethylene with vinyl acetate copolymer (sevilen has performed by the method of alkaline alcoholysis. By the method of IC – spectroscopy the authors confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the polymer. Using as a compatibilizer functionalized by the method of alcoholises has greatly ( significantly improved physical, mechanical and rheological properties of composite materials. Optimal content of sevilen (F in the compound according to the results of experiments amount 10 %. Discussion and Conclusions. Using of functionalized by the method of alcoholysis ethy-lene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a

  11. Towards biomimetic scaffolds: anhydrous scaffold fabrication from biodegradable amine-reactive diblock copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Michael; Tessmar, Jörg; Neubauer, Markus; Blaimer, Andrea; Blunk, Torsten; Göpferich, Achim; Schulz, Michaela B

    2003-11-01

    The development of biomimetic materials and their processing into three-dimensional cell carrying scaffolds is one promising tissue engineering strategy to improve cell adhesion, growth and differentiation on polymeric constructs developing mature and viable tissue. This study was concerned with the fabrication of scaffolds made from amine-reactive diblock copolymers, N-succinimidyl tartrate monoamine poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid), which are able to suppress unspecific protein adsorption and to covalently bind proteins or peptides. An appropriate technique for their processing had to be both anhydrous, to avoid hydrolysis of the active ester, and suitable for the generation of interconnected porous structures. Attempts to fabricate scaffolds utilizing hard paraffin microparticles as hexane-extractable porogens failed. Consequently, a technique was developed involving lipid microparticles, which served as biocompatible porogens on which the scaffold forming polymer was precipitated in the porogen extraction media (n-hexane). Porogen melting during the extraction and polymer precipitation step led to an interconnected network of pores. Suitable lipid mixtures and their melting points, extraction conditions (temperature and time) and a low-toxic polymer solvent system were determined for their use in processing diblock copolymers of different molecular weights (22 and 42 kDa) into highly porous off-the-shelf cell carriers ready for easy surface modification towards biomimetic scaffolds. Insulin was employed to demonstrate the principal of instant protein coupling to a prefabricated scaffold. PMID:12922156

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a Biodegradable Copolymer: RGD Peptide Modification of Poly (lactic acid-co-lysine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The poly ( lactic acid- co-lysine ) was synthesized using IR and 1 H NMR to characterize the copolymer. And then the RGD modification copolymer RGD-PLAL was prepared. The contact angles were used to see the RGD modification occurrence. Also high molecular weight polymer was controlled to the reaction of polymerization of copolymer.

  13. Nanocomposite scaffold fabrication by incorporating gold nanoparticles into biodegradable polymer matrix: Synthesis, characterization, and photothermal effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Farkas, Balazs; Romano, Ilaria; Diaspro, Alberto; Beke, Szabolcs, E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle incorporation into scaffold materials is a valuable route to deliver various therapeutic agents, such as drug molecules or large biomolecules, proteins (e.g. DNA or RNA) into their targets. In particular, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with their low inherent toxicity, tunable stability and high surface area provide unique attributes facilitating new delivery strategies. A biodegradable, photocurable polymer resin, polypropylene fumarate (PPF) along with Au NPs were utilized to synthesize a hybrid nanocomposite resin, directly exploitable in stereolithography (SL) processes. To increase the particles' colloidal stability, the Au NP nanofillers were coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The resulting resin was used to fabricate a new type of composite scaffold via mask projection excimer laser stereolithography. The thermal properties of the nanocomposite scaffolds were found to be sensitive to the concentration of NPs. The mechanical properties were augmented by the NPs up to 0.16 μM, though further increase in the concentration led to a gradual decrease. Au NP incorporation rendered the biopolymer scaffolds photosensitive, i.e. the presence of Au NPs enhanced the optical absorption of the scaffolds as well, leading to possible localized temperature rise when irradiated with 532 nm laser, known as the photothermal effect. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticle incorporation into biopolymer resin was realized. • Gold incorporation into biopolymer resin is a big step in tissue engineering. • Composite scaffolds were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. • Gold nanoparticles are remarkable candidates to be utilized as “transport vehicles”. • The photothermal effect was demonstrated using a 532-nm laser.

  14. Nanocomposite scaffold fabrication by incorporating gold nanoparticles into biodegradable polymer matrix: Synthesis, characterization, and photothermal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticle incorporation into scaffold materials is a valuable route to deliver various therapeutic agents, such as drug molecules or large biomolecules, proteins (e.g. DNA or RNA) into their targets. In particular, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with their low inherent toxicity, tunable stability and high surface area provide unique attributes facilitating new delivery strategies. A biodegradable, photocurable polymer resin, polypropylene fumarate (PPF) along with Au NPs were utilized to synthesize a hybrid nanocomposite resin, directly exploitable in stereolithography (SL) processes. To increase the particles' colloidal stability, the Au NP nanofillers were coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The resulting resin was used to fabricate a new type of composite scaffold via mask projection excimer laser stereolithography. The thermal properties of the nanocomposite scaffolds were found to be sensitive to the concentration of NPs. The mechanical properties were augmented by the NPs up to 0.16 μM, though further increase in the concentration led to a gradual decrease. Au NP incorporation rendered the biopolymer scaffolds photosensitive, i.e. the presence of Au NPs enhanced the optical absorption of the scaffolds as well, leading to possible localized temperature rise when irradiated with 532 nm laser, known as the photothermal effect. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticle incorporation into biopolymer resin was realized. • Gold incorporation into biopolymer resin is a big step in tissue engineering. • Composite scaffolds were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. • Gold nanoparticles are remarkable candidates to be utilized as “transport vehicles”. • The photothermal effect was demonstrated using a 532-nm laser

  15. Poly(CL/DLLA-b-CL multiblock copolymers as biodegradable thermoplastic elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid and ∑-caprolactone based polymers and their derivates are widely used in biomedical applications. Different properties are introduced by modifying the composition. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone/D,L-lactide-b-poly(ε-caprolactone multiblock copolymers were synthesized as poly(ester-urethanes (PEUs by polymerizing in two steps involving ring-opening polymerization of precursors and by diisocyanate linking of precursors to produce thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs. The precursors and products were characterized by SEC, 1H-NMR and DSC, and dynamic mechanical study (by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA as well as morphological characterization (by transmission electron microscopy, TEM of the product TPEs was carried out. Tensile and creep recovery properties of them were also studied. According to the characterizations, all the polymerizations were successful, and the prepared TPEs showed clear elastic behavior. In the DMA scans, rubbery plateau in the storage modulus curves between Tg and terminal flow region was clearly detectable indicating elasticity. The TEM images demonstrated phase separation of amorphous and crystalline blocks when the degree of crystallinity of the hard blocks was high enough. The elongations of TPEs varied between 800–1800%, while the modulus was 7–66 MPa. Two different types of recovery tests indicated the creep properties of TPEs to be highly dependent on the degree of crystallinity.

  16. The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran-whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2014-08-30

    Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI) nanocomposites were produced using montmorillonite (MMT) and nano-TiO2 as nanoparticles in the percentage of 1, 3, and 5% (w/w) by a casting and solvent-evaporation method. Physical, mechanical, and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were determined as a function of nanoparticle concentration. The results revealed that the effect of these nanoparticles was different according to their nature and percentage. The films incorporated with 5% (w/w) MMT showed the highest tensile strength, Young's modulus, puncture strength, and the lowest WVP compared with the control and TiO2 added films. In contrast to MMT, addition of TiO2 nanoparticles due to the plasticizing effect led to a significant change in color and transparency of nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations demonstrated the films' properties in relation to their microstructures. The surface topography results also showed a considerable increase in roughness parameters by incorporating the nanoparticles in kefiran-WPI matrix.

  17. Nanocomposite scaffold fabrication by incorporating gold nanoparticles into biodegradable polymer matrix: Synthesis, characterization, and photothermal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrasoul, Gaser N; Farkas, Balazs; Romano, Ilaria; Diaspro, Alberto; Beke, Szabolcs

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle incorporation into scaffold materials is a valuable route to deliver various therapeutic agents, such as drug molecules or large biomolecules, proteins (e.g. DNA or RNA) into their targets. In particular, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with their low inherent toxicity, tunable stability and high surface area provide unique attributes facilitating new delivery strategies. A biodegradable, photocurable polymer resin, polypropylene fumarate (PPF) along with Au NPs were utilized to synthesize a hybrid nanocomposite resin, directly exploitable in stereolithography (SL) processes. To increase the particles' colloidal stability, the Au NP nanofillers were coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The resulting resin was used to fabricate a new type of composite scaffold via mask projection excimer laser stereolithography. The thermal properties of the nanocomposite scaffolds were found to be sensitive to the concentration of NPs. The mechanical properties were augmented by the NPs up to 0.16μM, though further increase in the concentration led to a gradual decrease. Au NP incorporation rendered the biopolymer scaffolds photosensitive, i.e. the presence of Au NPs enhanced the optical absorption of the scaffolds as well, leading to possible localized temperature rise when irradiated with 532nm laser, known as the photothermal effect. PMID:26249594

  18. Biodegradable gadolinium-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers for gene transfection and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Gangmin; Shi, Ting; Shao, Zhihong; Zhao, Peng; Shi, Donglu; Ren, Jie; Lin, Chao; Wang, Peijun

    2016-08-01

    Theranostic nano-polyplexes containing gene and imaging agents hold a great promise for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we develop a group of new gadolinium (Gd)-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide)s for gene delivery and T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cationic poly(urethane amide)s (denoted as CPUAs) having multiple disulfide bonds, urethane and amide linkages were synthesized by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and a mixture of di(4-nitrophenyl)-2, 2'-dithiodiethanocarbonate (DTDE-PNC) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride at varied molar ratios. Then, Gd-chelated CPUAs (denoted as GdCPUAs) were produced by chelating Gd(III) ions with DTPA residues of CPUAs. These GdCPUAs could condense gene into nanosized and positively-charged polyplexes in a physiological condition and, however, liberated gene in an intracellular reductive environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the GdCPUA at a DTDE-PNC/DTPA residue molar ratio of 85/15 induced the highest transfection efficiency in different cancer cells. This efficiency was higher than that yielded with 25kDa branched polyethylenimine as a positive control. GdCPUAs and their polyplexes exhibited low cytotoxicity when an optimal transfection activity was detected. Moreover, GdCPUAs may serve as contrast agents for T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The results of this work indicate that biodegradable Gd-chelated cationic poly(urethane amide) copolymers have high potential for tumor theranostics. PMID:27157741

  19. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multi block copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a possibil......Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a...

  20. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    they do possess high permittivity. Combining two such polymers in a block copolymer allows for further crosslinking and presents the possibility of substantial improvements in the actuation response of the resulting dielectric elastomer – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesise a PDMS...

  1. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, EVOH-Piassava, for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 μm, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  2. New copolymers for nonlinear optics applications that incorporate delocalized pi-electron subunits with well-defined conjugation lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Charles W.; Hall, Thomas J.; Havelka, Kathleen O.; Polis, David W.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Dalton, Larry R.

    1990-12-01

    During the past three years it has become more evident that long conjugation sequences in electroactive materials may not be a stringent requirement for high third order nonlinear optical (NLO) activity. Since long conjugation lengths in these materials often make them difficult to process, the resulting insolubility often precludes the formation of optical quality films for device applications. The incorporation of shorter electroactive segments alternating with flexible non-active spacers may allow high NLO activity coupled with good optical film forming capability. In this paper we would like to present several approaches to copolymer design which incorporate various electroactive oligomer segments with well-defined conjugation lengths. The control one obtains in this appmach allows the design of sharp optical windows, and the ability to tailor absorption characteristics to particular frequencies.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a novel amphiphilic biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Hua Wu; Fang Liang; Tian Zhu Wei; Xi Ming Song; Shu Yao Wu; Guo Lin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrin/poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) (β-CD-PBLG) copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxy-γ-benzyl L-glutamate anhydride (BLG-NCA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) initiated by mono-amino-β-cyclodex-trin(H2N-β-CD). The structures of the copolymers were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and GPC. The fluorescence technique was used to determine the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of copolymer miceU solution, the diameter and the distribution of micelles were characterized by DLS. The results showed that BLG-NCA could be initiated by H2N-β-CD to produce copolymer. The nano-micells were formed by these copolymers in water.

  4. Synthesis and properties of a novel biodegradable poly(ester amine copolymer based on poly(L-lactide and low molecular weight polyethylenimine for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo QF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Qing Fa Guo, Ting Ting Liu, Xi Yan, Xiu Hong Wang, Shuai Shi, Feng Luo, Zhi Yong QianState Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Gene therapy is a promising approach to the treatment of a wide range of diseases. The development of efficient and adequate gene delivery systems could be one of the most important factors. Polyethyleneimine, a cationic polymer, is one of the most successful and widely used vectors for nonviral transfection in vitro and in vivo.Methods: A novel biodegradable poly(ester amine copolymer (PEA was successfully prepared from low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI, 2000 Da and poly(L-lactide copolymers.Results: According to the results of agarose gel electrophoresis, particle size and zeta potential measurement, and transfection efficiency, the PEA copolymers showed a good ability to condense plasmid DNA effectively into nanocomplexes with a small particle size (≤150 nm and moderate zeta potential (≥10 mV at an appropriate polymeric carrier/DNA weight ratio. Compared with high molecular weight PEI (25kDa, the PEA obtained showed relatively high gene transfection efficiency as well as low cytotoxicity in vitro.Conclusion: These results indicate that such PEA might have potential application as a gene delivery system.Keywords: polyethylenimine, poly(L-lactide, gene delivery, cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency

  5. Temperature-sensitivity and cell biocompatibility of freeze-dried nanocomposite hydrogels incorporated with biodegradable PHBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingsong, E-mail: zqs8011@163.com; Chen, Li, E-mail: chenlis@tjpu.edu.cn; Dong, Youyu; Lu, Si

    2013-04-01

    The structure, morphology, thermal behaviors and cytotoxicity of novel hydrogels, composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) and biodegradable polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) under nanoclay hectorite “Laponite XLG” severed as physical cross-linker, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, gravimetric method, differential scanning calorimetry, and cell culture experiments. It was found that, due to the introduction of hydrophobic PHBV, the homogeneity of interior pore in the pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel was disrupted, the transparency and swelling degree gradually decreased. Although the weight ratio between PHBV and NIPAM increased from 5 to 40 wt.%, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTTs) of hydrogel were not altered compared with the pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel. No matter what PHBV content, the PHBV/PNIPAM/Hectorite hydrogels always exhibit good stimuli-responsibility. In addition, human hepatoma cells(HepG2) adhesion and spreading on the surface of PHBV-based hydrogels was greatly improved than that of pure PNIPAM nanocomposite hydrogel at 37 °C due to the introduction of PHBV. Highlights: ► Thermo-responsive and cell biocompatible hydrogels incorporated PHBV was synthesized. ► The introduction of PHBV decreases the transparency of nanocomposite hydrogel. ► The introduction of PHBV has a little shift on VPTTs of nanocomposite hydrogel. ► The HepG2 cells could adhere and spread on the surface of PHBV-based hydrogels. ► Cell sheet could be detached simultaneously from the surface of hydrogels.

  6. Projection Stereolithographic Fabrication of Human Adipose Stem Cell-incorporated Biodegradable Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron X Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor self-healing ability of cartilage necessitates the development of methods for cartilage regeneration. Scaffold construction with live stem cell incorporation and subsequent differentiation presents a promising route. Projection stereolithography (PSL offers high resolution and processing speed as well as the ability to fabricate scaffolds that precisely fit the anatomy of cartilage defects using medical imaging as the design template. We report here the use of a visible-light based PSL (VL-PSL system to encapsulate human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs into a biodegradable polymer (poly-D,L-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/ poly-D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA-PEG/hyaluronic acid (HA matrix to produce live cell constructs with customized architectures. After fabrication, hASCs showed high viability (84% and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs, which possessed high mechanical property with a compressive modulus of 780 kPa. The hASC-seeded constructs were then cultured in Control or TGF-β3-containing chondrogenic medium for up to 28 days. In chondrogenic medium treated group (TGF-β3 group hASCs maintained 77% viability and expressed chondrogenic genes Sox9, collagen type II, and aggrecan at 11, 232, and 2.29 x 10(5 fold increases, respectively, compared to levels at day 0 in non-chondrogenic medium. The TGF-β3 group also produced a collagen type II and glycosaminoglycan (GAG-rich extracellular matrix, detected by immunohistochemistry, and Alcian blue and Safranin O staining suggesting robust chondrogenesis within the scaffold. Without chondroinductive addition (Control group, cell viability decreased with time (65% at 28 days and showed poor cartilage matrix deposition. After 28 days, mechanical strength of the TGF-β3 group remained high at 240 kPa. Thus, the PSL- and PLLA-PEG/HA based fabrication method using adult stem cells is a promising approach in producing mechanically competent engineered cartilage for joint cartilage

  7. Synthesis and incorporation of thienylene vinylene oligomers in main-chain copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrigal, L.G.; Elandaloussi, E.H.; Spangler, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    Poly [2,5-thienylene vinylene] (PTV) has been studied extensively over the past decade for both its metallic conductivity behavior upon chemical doping, as well as its interesting third order nonlinear optical properties. PTV oligomers have been synthesized by the group, as well as others, and the formation of polaron-like radical-cations or bipolaron-like dications by oxidative doping has been demonstrated. In this paper the authors describe a general synthetic approach to PTV oligomers functionalized for copolymer formation by step-growth reaction.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Functional Biodegradable Copolymer-Poly(lactic acid-4-hydroxyproline-polyethylene glycol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu Fang DUAN; Yu Bin ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    A series of poly(lactic acid-4-hydroxyproline-polyethylene glycol) (PLA-Hpr-PEG) copolymers were synthesized by direct melt copolymerization of D,L-lactic acid and 4-hydroxyproline with different feed amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 5%, respectively. The properties of these copolymers were characterized by using IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray diffraction and differential scaning calorimetry (DSC). PLA-Hpr-PEG are amorphous copolymers. Copolymers showed increasing water uptake capacity with increasing PEG percentage in the feed, which result in an increasing degradable rate in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) at 37℃.

  9. New Biodegradable Thermoplastic Multiblock Copolymers from Lactic Acid, ε-Caprolactone, Poly(Ethylene Oxide) and Toluene Diisocyanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jen(o) Borda; Sándor Kéki; Ildikó Bodnár; Nóra Németh; Miklós Zsuga

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The interest in finding new biodegradable materials for applications in important areas has been motivated by environmental protection aspects. Foremost among the potentially biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, poly(lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone) received considerable attention as their potential application in a wide range of biomedical and pharmaceutical areas was recognized.

  10. In-situ formation of biodegradable hydrogels by stereocomplexation of PEG-(PLLA)8 and PEG-(PDLA)8 star block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Christine; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Li, Liangbin; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Feijen, Jan

    2006-10-01

    Eight-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide), PEG-(PLLA)(8), and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D-lactide), PEG-(PDLA)(8), star block copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of either L-lactide or D-lactide at room temperature in the presence of a single-site ethylzinc complex and 8-arm PEG (M(n) = 21.8 x 10(3) or 43.5 x 10(3)) as a catalyst and initiator, respectively. High lactide conversions (>95%) and well-defined copolymers with PLLA or PDLA blocks of the desired molecular weights were obtained. Star block copolymers were water-soluble when the number of lactyl units per poly(lactide) (PLA) block did not exceed 14 and 17 for PEG21800-(PLA)(8) and PEG43500-(PLA)(8), respectively. PEG-(PLA)(8) stereocomplexed hydrogels were prepared by mixing aqueous solutions with equimolar amounts of PEG-(PLLA)(8) and PEG-(PDLA)(8) in a polymer concentration range of 5-25 w/v % for PEG21800-(PLA)(8) star block copolymers and of 6-8 w/v % for PEG43500-(PLA)(8) star block copolymers. The gelation is driven by stereocomplexation of the PLLA and PDLA blocks, as confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The stereocomplexed hydrogels were stable in a range from 10 to 70 degrees C, depending on their aqueous concentration and the PLA block length. Stereocomplexed hydrogels at 10 w/v % polymer concentration showed larger hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains as compared to 10 w/v % single enantiomer solutions, as determined by cryo-TEM. Correspondingly, dynamic light scattering showed that 1 w/v % solutions containing both PEG-(PLLA)(8) and PEG-(PDLA)(8) have larger "micelles" as compared to 1 w/v % single enantiomer solutions. With increasing polymer concentration and PLLA and PDLA block length, the storage modulus of the stereocomplexed hydrogels increases and the gelation time decreases. Stereocomplexed hydrogels with high storage moduli (up to 14 kPa) could be obtained at 37 degrees C in PBS. These stereocomplexed hydrogels are promising for use in

  11. Acute toxicity evaluation of in situ gel-forming controlled drug delivery system based on biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Fang; Gong Changyang; Dong Pengwei; Fu Shaozhi; Gu Yingchun; Guo Gang; Zhao Xia; Wei Yuquan; Qian Zhiyong, E-mail: anderson-qian@163.co, E-mail: zhiyongqian@scu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymer was synthesized, and was characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and GPC. The PCL-PEG-PCL/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution displayed in situ gelling behavior when subcutaneously injected into the body. Toxicity tests and a histopathological study were performed in BALB/c mice. We focused mainly on acute organ toxicity of BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of subcutaneous injection was 5 g/kg body weight (b.w.), and the mice were observed continuously for 14 days. For the histopathological study, samples including heart, lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach and intestine were histochemically prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. No mortality or significant signs of toxicity were observed during the whole observation period, and there is no significant lesion to be shown in histopathological study of major organs in the mice. Therefore, the maximal tolerance dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by subcutaneous injection was calculated to be higher than 5 g/kg b.w. Therefore, the PCL-PEG-PCL/DMSO system was thought to be non-toxic after subcutaneous injection, and it might be a candidate for an in situ gelling controlled drug delivery system.

  12. Anthocyanin Incorporated Dental Copolymer: Bacterial Growth Inhibition, Mechanical Properties, and Compound Release Rates and Stability by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Hrynash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (ACY; Vaccinium macrocarpon. Methods. Resin samples were prepared (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA at 70/30 mol% and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either ACY or chlorhexidine (CHX, except for the control group. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (Streptococcus mutans for 24 h. Cell viability (n=3 was assessed by counting the number of colony forming units on replica agar plates. Flexural strength (FS and elastic modulus (E were tested on a universal testing machine (n=8. Compound release and chemical stability were evaluated by UV spectrophotometry and 1H NMR (n=3. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. Results. Both compounds inhibited S. mutans growth, with CHX being most effective (P<0.05. Control resin had the lowest FS and E values, followed by ACY and CHX, with statistical difference between control and CHX groups for both mechanical properties (P<0.05. The 24 h compound release rates were ACY: 1.33 μg/mL and CHX: 1.92 μg/mL. 1H NMR spectra suggests that both compounds remained stable after being released in water. Conclusion. The present findings indicate that anthocyanins might be used as a natural antibacterial agent in resin based materials.

  13. Lysine-tagged peptide coupling onto polylactide nanoparticles coated with activated ester-based amphiphilic copolymer: a route to highly peptide-functionalized biodegradable carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handké, Nadège; Ficheux, Damien; Rollet, Marion; Delair, Thierry; Mabrouk, Kamel; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Verrier, Bernard; Trimaille, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Efficient biomolecule conjugation to the surface of biodegradable colloidal carriers is crucial for their targeting efficiency in drug/vaccine delivery applications. We here propose a potent strategy to drastically improve peptide immobilization on biodegradable polylactide (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs). Our approach particularly relies on the use of an amphiphilic block copolymer PLA-b-poly(N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PLA-b-P(NAS-co-NVP)) as NP surface modifier, whose the N-succinimidyl (NS) ester functions of the NAS units along the polymer chain ensure N-terminal amine peptide coupling. The well-known immunostimulatory peptide sequence derived from the human interleukin 1β (IL-1β), VQGEESNDK, was coupled on the NPs of 169 nm mean diameter in phosphate buffer (pH 8, 10 mM). A maximum amount of 2 mg immobilized per gram of NPs (i.e. 0.042 peptidenm(-2)) was obtained. Introduction of a three lysine tag at the peptide N-terminus (KKKVQGEESNDK) resulted in a dramatic improvement of the immobilized peptide amounts (27.5 mg/g NP, i.e. 0.417 peptidenm(-2)). As a comparison, the density of tagged peptide achievable on surfactant free PLA NPs of similar size (140 nm), through classical EDC or EDC/NHS activation of the surface PLA carboxylic end-groups, was found to be 6 mg/g NP (i.e. 0.075 peptidenm(-2)), showing the decisive impact of the P(NAS-co-NVP)-based hairy corona for high peptide coupling. These results demonstrate that combined use of lysine tag and PLA-b-P(NAS-co-NVP) surfactant represents a valuable platform to tune and optimize surface bio-functionalization of PLA-based biodegradable carriers. PMID:23277324

  14. Incorporating biodegradation and advanced oxidation processes in the treatment of spent metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAdam, Jitka; Ozgencil, Haci; Autin, Olivier; Pidou, Marc; Temple, Clive; Parsons, Simon; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The treatment of spent metalworking fluids (MWFs) is difficult due to their complex and variable composition. Small businesses often struggle to meet increasingly stringent legislation and rising costs as they need to treat this wastewater on site annually over a short period. Larger businesses that treat their wastewater continuously can benefit from the use of biological processes, although new MWFs designed to resist biological activity represent a challenge. A three-stage treatment is generally applied, with the oil phase being removed first, followed by a reduction in COD loading and then polishing of the effluent's quality in the final stage. The performance of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which could be of benefit to both types of businesses was studied. After assessing the biodegradability of spent MFW, different AOPs were used (UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton and UV/TiO2) to establish the treatability of this wastewater by hydroxyl radicals (*OH). The interactions of both the chemical and biological treatments were also investigated. The wastewater was found to be readily biodegradable in the Zahn-Wellens test with 69% COD and 74% DOC removal. The UV/TiO2 reactor was found to be the cheapest option achieving a very good COD removal (82% at 20 min retention time and 10 L min(-1) aeration rate). The photo-Fenton process was found to be efficient in terms of degradation rate, achieving 84% COD removal (1 M Fe2+, 40 M H2O2, 20.7 J cm(-2), pH 3) and also improving the wastewater's biodegradability. The UV/H202 process was the most effective in removing recalcitrant COD in the post-biological treatment stage. PMID:23437675

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Amphiphilic Star and Y-Shaped Block Copolymers as Potential Carriers for Vinorelbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two amphiphilic block copolymers using hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG were successfully synthesized. One of them is an (A-b-B4 type star polymer [(PCL-b-PEG4] and the other one is a Y-shaped PEG–(PCL2. A star-shaped polymer (PCL-b-PEG4 was prepared by ring-opening polymerization (ROP of ε-caprolactone continued by click reaction of (PCL-azide4 and PEG-alkyne. The synthesis of Y-shaped PEG–(PCL2 block copolymer was carried out via Diels-Alder click reaction of a furan protected maleimide end-functionalized PEG (PEG-MI with an anthracene end-functionalized PCL following the ROP of ε-caprolactone. The characterization of micelles is carried out using both materials in aqueous media as drug delivery vehicles, which showed satisfying results and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of the anti-cancer drug vinorelbine (VLB. However, micelles consisted of Y-shaped unimers were found to be more convenient for delivery of hydrophobic drugs such as VLB because they formed in lower concentration, carrying a higher amount of drugs and owing a monomodal distribution. We concluded that the free tails of hydrophobic chains in Y-shaped block copolymer facilitate the assembly of amphiphilic material in water to form micelles.

  16. P(MMA-EMA Random Copolymer Electrolytes Incorporating Sodium Iodide for Potential Application in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Akmaliah Dzulkurnain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes based on 90 wt% of methyl methacrylate and 10 wt% of ethyl methacrylate (90MMA-co-10EMA incorporating different weight ratios of sodium iodide were prepared using the solution casting method. The complexation between salt and copolymer host has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity and thermal stability of the electrolytes were measured using impedance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the polymer electrolytes. The ionic conductivity and glass transition temperature increased up to 20 wt% of sodium iodide (5.19 × 10−6 S·cm−1 and decreased with the further addition of salt concentration, because of the crosslinked effect. The morphology behavior of the highest conducting sample also showed smaller pores compared to the other concentration. The total ionic transference number proved that this system was mainly due to ions, and the electrochemical stability window was up to 2.5 V, which is suitable for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. This sample was then tested in a dye-sensitized solar cell and exhibited an efficiency of 0.62%.

  17. PGA-incorporated collagen: Toward a biodegradable composite scaffold for bone-tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Shirin; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Kalalinia, Fatemeh; Peivandi, Mohammad Taghi; HosseinKhani, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Behravan, Javad

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays composite scaffolds based on synthetic and natural biomaterials have got attention to increase healing of non-union bone fractures. To this end, different aspects of collagen sponge incorporated with poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber were investigated in this study. Collagen solution (6.33 mg/mL) with PGA fibers (collagen/fiber ratio [w/w]: 4.22, 2.11, 1.06, 0.52) was freeze-dried, followed by dehydrothermal cross-linking to obtain collagen sponge incorporating PGA fibers. Properties of scaffold for cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that collagen sponge exhibited an interconnected pore structure with an average pore size of 190 μm, irrespective of PGA fiber incorporation. The collagen-PGA sponge was superior to the original collagen sponge in terms of the initial attachment, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSC). The shrinkage of sponges during cell culture was significantly suppressed by fiber incorporation. Incorporation of PGA fiber is a simple and promising way to reinforce collagen sponge without impairing biocompatibility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2020-2028, 2016. PMID:27059133

  18. INCLUSION COMPLEX FORMATION BETWEEN α-CYCLODEXTRIN AND BIODEGRADABLE COMBLIKE COPOLYMERS WITH POLY(α,β-MALIC ACID) BACKBONES AND mPEG SIDE CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zeng; Yuan Li; Jia-jing Li; Rui Wang; Bin He; Yu Nie; Xiang-lin Luo; Zhi-rong Zhang; Zhong-wei Gua

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion complexes(ICs)composed of ocyclodextrins(α-CD)and biodegradable comblike copolymers with poly(α,β-malic acid)(PMA)backbones and methylated poly(ethylene glycol)(mPEG)side chains were prepared by the host-guest reaction.Two series of ICs with mPEG750 and mPEG2000 were prepared.The stoichiometry(EG/CD)of all the ICs in mPEG2000 series was 3.1,no matter what the graft degree was.While in mPEG750 series,the stoichiometry(EG/CD)was very different;it increased with the amount of mPEG decreasing.The decomposition temperatures of the fragments in ICs were closely related to graft degrees.The stack of α-CDs in ICs was a channel-type structure.The crystal of ICs was lamellar,and it could be reorganized to well-defined supermolecular structure.

  19. Biodegradable block poly(ester-urethane)s based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wenfeng; Qiu, Handi; Chen, Zhifei; Xu, Kaitian

    2011-04-01

    A series of block poly(ester-urethane)s (abbreviated as PU3/4HB) based on biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3/4HB) segments were synthesized by a facile way of melting polymerization using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as the coupling agent and stannous octanoate (Sn(Oct)(2)) as catalyst, with different 4HB contents and segment lengths. The chemical structure, molecular weight and distribution were systematically characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The thermal property was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hydrophilicity was investigated by static contact angle of deionized water and CH(2)I(2). DSC curves revealed that the PU3/4HB polyurethanes have their T(g) from -25.6 °C to -4.3 °C, and crystallinity from 2.5% to 25.3%, being almost amorphous to semi-crystalline. The obtained PU3/4HBs are hydrophobic (water contact angle 77.4°-95.9°), and their surface free energy (SFE) were studied. The morphology of platelets adhered on the polyurethane film observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that platelets were activated on the PU3/4HB films which would lead to blood coagulation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay revealed that the PU3/4HBs displayed higher platelet adhesion property than raw materials and biodegradable polymer polylactic acid (PLA) and would be potential hemostatic materials. Crystallinity degree, hydrophobicity, surface free energy and urethane linkage content play important roles in affecting the LDH activity and hence the platelet adhesion. CCK-8 assay showed that the PU3/4HB is non-toxic and well for cell growth and proliferation of mouse fibroblast L929. It showed that the hydrophobicity is an important factor for cell growth while 3HB content of the PU3/4HB is important for the cell proliferation. Through changing the

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE COPOLYMERS AS NON-PHOSPHOROUS DETERGENT BUILDERS%用于无磷洗涤助剂的可生物降解共聚物P(AA-co-MDO)的合成及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建维; 马倩; 崔亦华; 刘卅; 彭进平

    2012-01-01

    A cyclic ketene acetal of 2-methylene-l ,3-dioxepane( MDO) was prepared and undergone free-radical ring-opening polymerization with acrylic acid ( AA ) to produce biodegradable copolymers P ( AA-co-MDO) which had ester groups in the backbone and carboxyl as pendant functional groups. The structures and weight-average molecular weights ( Mw ) were characterized by Flourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) , nuclear magnetic resonance ( H-NMR) and multi-angle laser light scattering measurements ( MALLS). Obvious changes of molecular weight could not be observed when the ratio of MDO to AA was varied. The thermal property of the copolymers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric analysis. It was found that the copolymers showed evident glass transition temperature. The thermostability of the copolymers declined as the MDO content increased, but still maintained at a high level to meet the requirement of production process of detergent builders. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that P( AA-co-MDO) copolymers were amorphous and these copolymers may have good biodegradable performance. The degradation experiments of copolymers in activated sludge revealed that the more MDO content was in copolymer, the faster degradation rate of the copolymer was. The performance of the copolymers and other detergent builders was studied and the results showed that the copolymers possessed high chelating capacity, good dispersancy and favorable pH buffer ability,and therefore were ideal detergent builders.%合成了一种环状乙烯酮缩二醇化合物2-亚甲基-1,3-二氧环庚烷(MDO)单体,并通过与部分中和的丙烯酸(AA)进行自由基开环聚合,合成了主链上含有酯基、侧链上含有羧基的新型可生物降解共聚物P(AA-co-MDO),用傅里叶变换红外(FTIR),核磁共振(1H-NMR)和多角度激光光散射(MALLS)对共聚物的组成与分子量进行了表征,结果表明,共聚物结构明确.同时,通过

  1. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhang; Chunhua Fu; Xiaoli Sun; Donghua Liu; Zaijun Lu; Zhijing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis ...

  2. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides; Viabilidade da producao de sementes biocompativeis e biodegradaveis com radionuclideos incorporados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, W.S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Ouro Preto (CEFET/OP), MG (Brazil); Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: wanderley@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  3. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pego, Ana Paula; Poot, André A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more r

  4. Mathematical modelling of oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment incorporating biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Oil biodegradation by native bacteria is one of the most important natural processes that can attenuate the environmental impacts of marine oil spills. However, very few numerical models of oil spill fate and transport include biodegradation kinetics of spilled oil. Furthermore, in models where biodegradation is included amongst the oil transformation processes simulated, it is mostly represented as a first order decay process neglecting the effect of several important parameters that can limit biodegradation rate, such as oil composition and oil droplets-water interface. To this end, the open source numerical model MEDSKIL-II, which simulates oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment, has been modified to include biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets dispersed in the water column. MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and weathering of oil spills following a Lagrangian approach for the solution of the advection-diffusion equation. Transport is governed by the 3D sea currents and wave field provided by ocean circulation models. In addition to advective and diffusive displacements, the model simulates several physical and chemical processes that transform the oil (evaporation, emulsification, dispersion in the water column, adhesion to coast). The fate algorithms employed in MEDSLIK-II consider the oil as a uniform substance whose properties change as the slick weathers, an approach that can lead to reduced accuracy, especially in the estimation of oil evaporation and biodegradation. Therefore MEDSLIK-II has been modified by adopting the "pseudo-component" approach for simulating weathering processes. Spilled oil is modelled as a relatively small number of discrete, non-interacting components (pseudo-components). Chemicals in the oil mixture are grouped by physical-chemical properties and the resulting pseudo-component behaves as if it were a single substance with characteristics typical of the chemical group. The fate (evaporation, dispersion

  5. Influence of organophilic ammonium-free nano clay incorporation on the mechanical properties and biodegradability of the Ecoflex; Influencia da adicao de nanoargila organofilica livre de sal de amonio nas propriedades mecanicas e na biodegradacao do Ecoflex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Reinaldo Y.; Barbosa, Ronilson V. [Empresa IOTO International - Divisao Masterbatches, Campo Magro, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: juliana.kloss@gmail.com; Richart, Fabio S.; Kloss, Juliana R. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Quimica - UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The disposable of polymeric materials, petroleum derived, represents a growing global environmental problem, causing environmental pollution to assume alarming proportions. In this context, the interest in the use and production of biodegradable materials that have character and policy has raged in various sectors of society. Besides biodegradation, is also significant investment in research and development in the nanotechnology area. Given these factors, the objective of this work was the incorporation of organophilic nanoclay ammonium-free salt (Novaclay) in the Ecoflex, mechanical properties evaluation and influences this material of the biodegradation, according to ASTM G 160. The products were characterized before and after biodegradation by analysis: visual, weight loss, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the pure Ecoflex and Ecoflex/Novaclay nanocomposite were partially biodegraded in the method used and showed morphological and mechanical properties changes. (author)

  6. Fabrication of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by incorporating ligand-free hydroxyapatite nanoparticles into biodegradable polymer scaffolds and release studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Farkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the optical fabrication approach of preparing free-standing composite thin films of hydroxyapatite (HA and biodegradable polymers by combining pulsed laser ablation in liquid and mask-projection excimer laser stereolithography (MPExSL. Ligand-free HA nanoparticles were prepared by ultrafast laser ablation of a HA target in a solvent, and then the nanoparticles were dispersed into the liquid polymer resin prior to the photocuring process using MPExSL. The resin is poly(propylene fumarate (PPF, a photo-polymerizable, biodegradable material. The polymer is blended with diethyl fumarate in 7:3 w/w to adjust the resin viscosity. The evaluation of the structural and mechanical properties of the fabricated hybrid thin film was performed by means of SEM and nanoindentation, respectively, while the chemical and degradation studies were conducted through thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR. The photocuring efficiency was found to be dependent on the nanoparticle concentration. The MPExSL process yielded PPF thin films with a stable and homogenous dispersion of the embedded HA nanoparticles. Here, it was not possible to tune the stiffness and hardness of the scaffolds by varying the laser parameters, although this was observed for regular PPF scaffolds. Finally, the gradual release of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles over thin film biodegradation is reported.

  7. Synthesis of biodegradable thermoplastic elastomers (BTPE based on ε-caprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to mimic blood vessels, biodegradable thermoplastic elastomer (BTPE is designed to be elastic, flexible and tough. A series of biodegradable triblock copolymers and poly(ester-urethanes (PEU based on ε-caprolactone have been synthesized and studied. The crystallinity of the poly(ε-caprolactone used as soft segment has been disrupted by incorporating either L-lactide (L-LA units or trimethylene carbonate (TMC units. Our studies suggest that soft segment composition does affect the mechanical properties significantly.

  8. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine(PLA-PEG-PLL as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(L-lysine (PLA-PEG-PLL copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ε-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%. These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

  9. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers.

  10. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers. PMID:27022875

  11. Effects of the Incorporation of a Hydrophobic Middle Block into a PEG-Polycation Diblock Copolymer on the Physicochemical and Cell Interaction Properties of the Polymer-DNA Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rahul; Lee, Jae-Sung; Bettencourt, Ryan C.; Xiao, Chuan; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Won, You-Yeon

    2008-01-01

    One-component homopolymers of cationic monomers (polycations) and diblock copolymers comprising poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and a polycation block have been the most widely used types of polymers for formulation of polymer-based gene delivery systems. In this study, we incorporate a hydrophobic middle block into the conventional PEG-polycation architecture, and investigate the effects of this hydrophobic modification on the physicochemical and cell-level biological properties of the polymer-D...

  12. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety.

  13. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety. PMID:27008344

  14. Biodegradable polymeric prodrugs of naltrexone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennet, D.B.; Li, X.; Adams, N.W.; Kim, S.W.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Feijen, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the narcotic antagonist naltrexone may improve patient compliance in the treatment of opiate addiction. Random copolymers consisting of the ¿-amino acids N5-(3-hydroxypropyl--glutamine and -leucine were synthesized with equimolar

  15. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH); Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante por feixe de eletrons na incorporacao de fibra de Piacava (Attalea funifera Mart.) no copolimero de etileno e alcool vinilico (EVOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Beatriz Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, {sup E}VOH-Piassava{sup ,} for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 {mu}m, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  16. Fibrous wound repair associated with biodegradable poly-L/D-lactide copolymer implants: study of the expression of tenascin and cellular fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, R; Salo, A; Suuronen, R; Lindqvist, C; Meurman, J H; Virtanen, I

    1998-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are known to play a role in inflammatory and hyperplastic processes. Our aim in the present study was to study the distribution of tenascin (Tn), cellular fibronectins (cFn) and myofibroblasts around biodegradable poly-L/D-lactide (PLA) implants with monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Ethylene-oxide and gamma-irradiation sterilized PLA plate-type implants were inserted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of ten adult rabbits. Follow-up times were 4, 12, 16, 36 and 48 wk. Only some inflammatory cells were observed. In electron microscopy, a close coherence between the implant and the stromal tissue was seen. Immunoreactivity for Tn, cFn and alpha-actin was detected as a distinct layer bordering the implant, regardless of the sterilization method for the first 36 wk. From week 36 onwards, Tn immunoreactivity was downregulated while cFn immunoreactivity still persisted. A moderate upregulation for myofibroblasts was seen on the week 48 specimens, when hydrolysation of PLA implant had started. The persistent content of myofibroblasts, Tn and cFn suggests a prolonged wound healing produced by PLA implants. The absence of Tn at the week 48 specimens suggests that cFn, rather than Tn may be needed for alpha-actin-mediated contraction by myofibroblasts. PMID:15348694

  17. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  18. A siloxane-incorporated copolymer as an in situ cross-linkable binder for high performance silicon anodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, M. T.; Bok, Taesoo; Kim, Si Hoon; Park, Sooham; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Soojin; Ryu, Ja-Hyoung

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) can be highly tuned by various factors including the morphology of the anode material, the nature of the electrolyte, the binding material, and the percentage of conducting materials. Binding materials have been of particular interest to researchers over the decades as a means to further improve the cycle durability and columbic efficiency of LIBs. Such approaches include the introduction of different polymeric binders such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and alginic acid (Alg) into the Si anode of LIBs. To achieve a better efficiency of LIBs, herein, we introduce a novel copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate-co-triethoxyvinylsilane) (TBA-TEVS), as an efficient binder with stable cycle retention and excellent specific capacity. The binder forms a highly interconnected three-dimensional network upon thermal treatment as a result of de-protection of the tert-butyl group and the consequent inter-intra condensation reaction, which minimizes pulverization of the Si nanoparticles. Moreover, the siloxane group is expected to promote the formation of stable solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layers. A series of random copolymers were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of tert-butyl acrylate and triethoxyvinylsilane. Twenty-one percent of TEVS in the TBS-TEVS copolymer gave rise to a superior performance as a binder for Si anodes, where the anodes showed a stable specific capacity of 2551 mA h g-1 over hundreds of cycles and an initial columbic efficiency (ICE) of 81.8%.The electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) can be highly tuned by various factors including the morphology of the anode material, the nature of the electrolyte, the binding material, and the percentage of conducting materials. Binding materials have been of particular interest to researchers over the decades as a means to further improve the cycle durability and columbic efficiency of LIBs. Such approaches

  19. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  20. Glycine/Glycolic acid based copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, in 't Peter J.A.; Shen, Zheng-Rong; Takens, Gijsbert A.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Glycine/glycolic acid based biodegradable copolymers have been prepared by ring-opening homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione, and ring-opening copolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione and glycolide. The homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione was carried out in the melt at 200°C for 3 min u

  1. Stereocomplexation in Copolymer Networks Incorporating Enantiomeric Glycerol-Based 3-Armed Lactide Oligomers and a 2-Armed ɛ-Caprolactone Oligomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Shibita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of enantiomeric glycerol-based 3-armed lactide oligomers (H3DLAO and H3LLAO and a diethylene glycol-based 2-armed ɛ-caprolactone oligomer (H2CLO with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI produced polyesterurethane copolymer networks (PEU-3scLAO/2CLOs 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 with different feed ratios of stereocomplex (sc lactide oligomer (H3scLAO = H3DLAO + H3LLAO, H3DLAO/H3LLAO = 1/1 and H2CLO. Thermal and mechanical properties of the copolymer networks were compared with those of a simple homochiral (hc network (PEU-3DLAO produced by the reaction of H3DLAO and HDI. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric analyses revealed that sc crystallites are formed without any hc crystallization for PEU-3scLAO/2CLOs, and that PEU-3DLAO is amorphous. The melting temperatures of sc crystallites for PEU-3scLAO/2CLOs were much higher than that of hc crystallites of H3DLAO. The polarized optical microscopic analysis revealed that the nucleation efficiency is enhanced with increasing feed of H3scLAO fraction, whereas the spherulite growth rate is accelerated with increasing feed H2CLO fraction over 100/0-50/50 networks. PEU-3scLAO/2CLO 100/0 (i.e., PEU-3scLAO exhibited a higher tensile strength and modulus than PEU-3DLAO. The elongation at break and tensile toughness for PEU-3scLAO/2CLOs increased with an increasing feed amount of H2CLO.

  2. BIODEGRADABLE MICROSPHERES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Dupinder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers having a particle size ranging from 1-1000 μm. The range of techniques for the preparation of microspheres offers a variety of opportunities to control aspects of drug administration and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. Of the many polymeric drug delivery systems, biodegradable polymers have been used widely as drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The majority of biodegradable polymers have been used in the form of microparticles, from which the incorporated drug is released to the environment in a controlled manner. They can be employed to deliver medication in a rate-controlled and sometimes targeted manner. Medication is released from a microsphere by drug leaching from the polymer or by degradation of the polymer matrix. This review discusses characteristics and degradation behaviors of biodegradable polymers which are currently used in drug delivery.

  3. Biodegradable polymersomes for targeted ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Meng, F.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polymersomes with a sub-micron size were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol)–polylactide (PEG–PDLLA) block-copolymers in aqueous media. Air-encapsulated polymersomes could be obtained by a lyophilization/rehydration procedure. Preliminary results showed that these polymersomes were

  4. A free-standing, sheet-shaped, "hydrophobic" biomaterial containing polymeric micelles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer for possible incorporation/release of "hydrophilic" compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroishi, Hitomi; Yoshida, Chikara; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2013-02-01

    Sheet-shaped materials with a large contact area relative to the drug targeting site lead to advantages over conventional particle-shaped drug carriers and have several advantages for their biomedical applications. The present study proposes a methodology for preparing a novel sheet-shaped "hydrophobic" and biocompatible biomaterial in which polymeric micelles are uniformly dispersed for the incorporation of "hydrophilic" compounds into the sheet. The methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer (CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA) was successfully synthesized by means of the anionic ring-opening polymerization of both ethylene oxide and dl-lactide. CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA was self-assembled and formed stable micelle-like w/o emulsion with a hydrophilic inner core in organic solvents. A sheet-shaped material containing a hydrophilic inner space for incorporating hydrophilic compounds was obtained by spin-coating both the micelle solution and a sheet-forming polymer. Fluorescent images of the sheet proved that polymeric micelles providing hydrophilic spaces were uniformly dispersed in the hydrophobic sheet. The facile technique presented in this paper can be a tool for fabricating sheet-shaped biomaterials that have a hydrophilic inner core and, consequently, that are suitable for the sustained release of hydrophilic compounds.

  5. Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vroman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources or from biological resources (renewable resources. In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. The following review presents an overview of the different biodegradable polymers that are currently being used and their properties, as well as new developments in their synthesis and applications.

  6. Tuning the processability, morphology and biodegradability of clay incorporated PLA/LLDPE blends via selective localization of nanoclay induced by melt mixing sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE blend nanocomposites based on two different commercial-grade nanoclays, Cloisite® 30B and Cloisite® 15A, were produced via different melt mixing procedures in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. The effects of mixing sequence and clay type on morphological and rheological behaviors as well as degradation properties of the blends were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD results showed that generally the level of exfoliation in 30B based nanocomposites was better than 15A based nanocomposites. In addition, due to difference in hydrophilicity and kind of modifiers in these two clays, the effect of 30B on refinement of dispersed phase and enhancement of biodegradability of PLA/LLDPE blend was much more remarkable than that of 15A nanoclay. Unlike the one step mixing process, preparation of nanocomposites via a two steps mixing process improved the morphology. Based on the XRD and TEM (transmission electron microscopic results, it is found that the mixing sequence has a remarkable influence on dispersion and localization of the major part of 30B nanoclay in the PLA matrix. Owing to the induced selective localization of nanoclays in PLA phase, the nanocomposites prepared through a two steps mixing sequence exhibited extraordinary biodegradability, refiner morphology and better melt elasticity.

  7. Incorporação de urucum como aditivo antioxidante em embalagens biodegradáveis a base de quitosana The incorporation of annatto as antioxidant additive based biodegradable packaging chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Castelo Branco de Santana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar uma embalagem biodegradável, utilizando como matriz polimérica a quitosana, plastificada com glicerol, bem como avaliar o efeito da adição de um aditivo antioxidante natural (urucum nas embalagens na proteção antioxidante. As embalagens foram preparadas por casting contendo 1,5% de quitosana, 0,15% de glicerol e 0,25 a 1,0% de urucum. O azeite de dendê embalado com os filmes contendo o aditivo foi monitorado aos 0, 7, 15, 30 e 45 dias de armazenamento sob condições de oxidação acelerada (63%UR/30°C. O azeite de dendê embalado no filme que continha o maior percentual de urucum (1,0% foi o que menos oxidou ao longo do período estudado. Constatou-se que, à medida que aumentam as perdas de Fenóis Totais nas formulações dos filmes, ocorre uma redução nos aumentos do Índice de Peróxidos do produto embalado, demonstrando assim que, ao invés do produto, os compostos da embalagem é quem estão sofrendo oxidação.The objective was to develop and characterize a biodegradable packaging using chitosan as polymeric matrix, plasticized with glycerol, as well as evaluate the effect of adding a natural antioxidant additives (annatto in antioxidant protection in packaging. The cans were prepared by casting containing 1.5% of chitosan, 0.15% glycerol and 0.25 to 1.0% of coloring. Palm oil packed with the films containing the additive was monitored at 0, 7, 15, 30 and 45 days of storage under accelerated oxidation conditions (63% UR/30°C. Palm oil packed in the film that contained the highest percentage of annatto (1.0% was the least oxidized during the study period. It was found that, as they increase the losses of phenolic compounds in the formulations of the films, there is a reduction in the peroxide increases the packaged product, thus demonstrating that instead of the product, the compounds of the package's who are suffering oxidation.

  8. Poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate random copolymers reinforced with SWCNTs for multifunctional conductive biopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fortunati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a versatile strategy for preparing multifunctional composite films with tunable properties. Novel conductive composites based on the combination of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and biodegradable poly(butylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate/diglycolate random copolymers (P(BCEmBDGn are here presented. In particular, synthesized PBCE homopolymer and two copolymers containing different amounts of ether–oxygen containing co-units, P(BCE90BDG10 and P(BCE70BDG30, have been considered as matrices of SWCNTs based composites. The effect of incorporation of different amounts of SWCNTs (0.1–0.5–0.75–1 wt% on morphological, thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was deeply investigated. The morphology of the fracture surfaces is affected by the SWCNT presence, while the increase in the SWCNT content does not provide significant microstructure modifications. The thermal properties underlined that nanotubes can act as nucleating agents, favouring the polymer crystallization process. The mechanical behavior demonstrated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes both in the case of PBCE homopolymer and in random copolymers based formulations exerted a reinforcing effect. All composites exhibit high electrical conductivity in comparison to the neat polymers. This work demonstrates that this combinatorial approach can be used to develop materials with tunable and advanced functional properties.

  9. 可降解聚酯酰胺共聚物的合成及其性能研究%The synthesis and performance of biodegradable polyester amide copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃军; 冯正洋; 戴红; 石璞

    2015-01-01

    以丁二酸、丁二醇、1,6-己二胺为原料,二丁基二月桂酸锡为催化剂,甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)为扩链剂,通过熔融共聚,合成了 M w为40~65 k 的聚丁二酸-丁二醇-1,6-己二胺共聚物,并采用压延成膜法制得聚酯酰胺薄膜.研究了1,6-己二胺含量对聚酯酰胺的热性能、结晶性能、降解性能和流变性能的影响.结果表明,合成了聚酯酰胺,其熔点达到100.97℃,热分解温度为317.85℃;随着1,6-己二胺添加量增加,聚酯酰胺的拉伸强度不断变大,断裂伸长率略有下降;1,6-己二胺的加入并未改变聚酯酰胺的晶型,但降低了其结晶度;1,6-己二胺的加入提高了聚酯酰胺降解性能,而且改善了其流变性能,这有利于聚酯酰胺的成型加工和应用.%Succinic acid-butanediol-1,6-hexamethylenediamine polyester amide copolymers with Mw from 40 000 to 65 000 were synthesized by succinic acid,1,4-butylene and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine,through high temper-ature melt reaction.Meanwhile,the second dibutyl tin laurate was selected as catalyst,and the toluene disocya-nate (TDI)was selected as chain extender.The succinic acid-butylene-adipic amine copolymer films were pre-pared by calendering film-forming method.The influences of the content of 1,6-adipic amine on the copolymer performance of thermal,crystallization,degradation and rheological properties were researched.The results showed that the polyester amide copolymers were synthesized successfully,whose melting point is 100.97 ℃and the thermal decomposition temperature is 317.85 ℃.With the increasing of 1,6-adipic amine,the tensile strength of copolymers increased accordingly,and the elongation at break decreased slightly.1,6-adipic amine did not change the crystal type of copolymer,but the crystallinity of copolymer decreased.With adding the 1,6-adipic amine in copolymer,the degradation performance and rheological properties of the copolymers were im-proved,which is useful for the

  10. Spectroelectrochemistry of aniline-o-aminophenol copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali [Institute fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Holze, Rudolf [Institute fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)]. E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de

    2006-11-12

    Electroactive copolymers of aniline and o-aminophenol (OAP) with varying concentration ratios prepared by potential cycling in acidic aqueous solutions of the monomers on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and gold electrodes were studied with in situ UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. Characteristic UV-vis and Raman features have been identified and their dependencies on the electrode potential are discussed. Spectroelectrochemical results reveal the formation of polyaniline-based copolymers at low concentration of OAP in the feed but incorporation of more OAP units into the copolymer with higher concentration of OAP in the comonomer feed. Spectroelectrochemical features are significantly different from those of both homopolymers.

  11. Biodegradable polymers: Which, when and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwal V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plethora of drug therapies and types of drugs demand different formulations, fabrications conditions and release kinetics. No single polymer can satisfy all the requirements. Therefore there have been tremendous advances in area of biodegradable copolymers over the last 30 years. This article reviews current research on biodegradable polymers, focusing their potential as drug carries. The major classes of polymers are briefly discussed with regard to synthesis, properties and biodegradability, and known degradation modes and products are indicated based on studies reported in the literature. A vast majority of biodegradable polymers studied belongs to the polyester family, which includes polyglycolides and polylactides. Other degradable polymers such as polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides and polyphosphazenes are also discussed and their advantages and disadvantages are summarized.

  12. A biodegradable ocular implant for long-term suppression of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Xu Wen; Liu, Kerh Lin; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Wong, Tina T; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-10-01

    Timolol maleate (TM) has been used for many years for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. However, the topical mode of administration (eyedrops) is far from optimal because of the issues of low bioavailability, high drug wastage, and lack of patient compliance. Suboptimal control of the IOP leads to disease progression and eventually to blindness. Ideally, TM is delivered to the patient so that its action is both localized and sustained for 3 months or more. In this work, we developed a subconjunctival TM microfilm for sustained, long-term delivery of TM to the eyes, using the biodegradable elastomer poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC). The copolymer is biocompatible and has flexibility and mechanical characteristics suitable for a patient-acceptable implant. Controlling the release of TM for 3 months is challenging, and this work describes how, by using a combination of multilayering and blending with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymers, we were able to develop a TM-incorporated biodegradable film that can deliver TM at a therapeutic dose for 90 days in vitro. The data was further confirmed in a diseased primate model, with sustained IOP-lowering effects for 5 months with a single implant, with acceptable biocompatibility and partial degradation.

  13. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the additio...

  14. POLY (β-HYDROXYALKANOATES): NATURAL BIOCOMPATIBLE AND BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS PRODUCED BY BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT W.LENZ; RICHARD A.GROSS; HELMUT BRANDL; R.CLINTON FULLER

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of different types of microorganisms are known to produce intracellular energy and carbon storage products, which have been generally described as being poly (β-hydroxybutyrate ), PHB, but which are, more often than not, copolymers containing different alkyl groups at the β-position. Hence, PHB belongs to the family ofpoly (β-hydroxyalkanoastes), PHA, all of which are usually formed as intracellular inclusions in bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Recently, it became of industrial interest to evaluate these PHA polyesters as natural biodegradable and biocompatible plastics for a wide range of possible applications, such as surgical sutures or packaging containers. For industrial applications, the controlled incorporation of repeating units with different chain lengths into a series ofcopolymers is desirable in order to produce polyesters with a range of material properties because physical and chemical characteristics depend strongly on the polymer composition. Such "tailor- made" copolymers can be produced under controlled growth conditions in that, if a defined mixture of substrates for a certain type of microorganisms is supplied, a well defined and reproducible copolymer is formed.

  15. Functional Block Copolymers via Anionic Polymerization for Electroactive Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Alison

    2013-01-01

           Ion-containing block copolymers blend ionic liquid properties with well-defined polymer architectures. This provides conductive materials with robust mechanical stability, efficient processability, and tunable macromolecular design. Conventional free radical polymerization and anion exchange achieved copolymers containing n-butyl acrylate and phosphonium ionic liquids. These compositions incorporated vinylbenzyl triphenyl phosphonium and vinylbenzyl tricyclohexyl phosphonium cations be...

  16. Study on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwang Chen; Licheng Tan; Lie Chen; Yan, Yang; Xiaofeng Wang [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering. Inst. of Polymer Materials]. E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Progress on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters based on aliphatic and aromatic diacids, diols and ester monomers was reviewed. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability. Physical properties and biodegradability of copolyesters varied with chain length of the aliphatic polyester segment and atacticity of copolyesters. The process ability of copolyesters could be improved significantly after incorporating a stiff chain segment through copolymerization of aliphatic polyesters with an aromatic liquid crystal element. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters as a new type of biodegradable materials could replace some general plastics in certain applications, namely biomedical and environmental friendly fields. (author)

  17. Synthesis of PCEC Copolymers with Controlled Molecular Weight Using Full Factorial Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polycaprolactone (PCL is a biodegradable polyester and has attracted attention as a suitable carrier for development of controlled drug delivery due to its non-toxicity and biocompatibility. It has been reported that the biodegradability of PCL can be enhanced by copolymerization with PEG. Molecular weight (Mw and CL block lengths optimization in a series of synthesized PCEC copolymers was the main purpose of this study. Methods: The composition of copolymers was designed using full factorial methodology. Molecular weight of used PEG (4 levels and weight ratio of epsilon-caprolactone/PEG (3 levels were selected as independent variables. The PCEC copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization. Formation of copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as H-NMR. The Mn of PCEC copolymers was calculated from HNMR spectra. The thermal behavior of copolymers was characterized on differential scanning calorimeter. Results: Molecular weight of twelve synthesized copolymers was ranged from 1782 to 9264. In order to evaluate the effect of selected variables on the copolymers composition and Mw, a mathematical model for each response parameter with p-value less than 0.001were obtained. Average percent error for prediction of total Mn of copolymers and Mn of CL blocks were 13.81% and 14.88% respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, the proposed model is significantly valid due to obtained low percent error in Mn prediction of test sets.

  18. 微球/温敏凝胶复合植入给药系统的释药特征及模型%Characterizing the drug release from the hydrogel drug delivery system incorporated with biodegradable microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国强; 林莹; 孙佳丽; 丁富新

    2012-01-01

    The injectable gelling drug delivery system incorporated with biodegradable microspheres has great potential in implanted drug delivery for long-term controlled drug release. We investigated drug release in vitro in a model system which was composed by naltrexone-loaded PLGA microspheres and thermosensitive hydrogel consisted of methylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium citrate and sodium alginate. In the microspheres-hydrogel composite system, drug release was dominated by drug diffusion in microspheres. The hydrogel affected the porosity, erosion and degradation of the microspheres, which resulted in the smaller drug diffusion coefficient, lower erosion rate and prolonged period to reach the maximal erosion rate. Therefore, it reduced and stabilized the drug release rate. These impacts of hydrogel were presented in the drug release model based on drug release from biodegradable polymeric micmspheres, and the developed model was well consistent with the experiment. The microspheres-hydrogel composite system realized the over 60-day steady release of naltrexone by opfLrnizing the molecular weight and hyhydrophilicity of PLGA.%将载药微球分散在温敏凝胶中构成的复合埋植给药系统,可实现长期稳定给药。以载有纳曲酮的乳酸-乙醇酸共聚物(PLGA)微球与甲基纤维素温敏凝胶构成的释药系统为例,研究了药物在该系统中的释放动力学特征和模型。结果表明复合系统中的释药主要受药物在微球中的释放控制;水凝胶改变了微球的存在环境,增加了水的扩散阻力,使药物扩散系数减小,微球溶蚀速率降低,达到最大溶蚀速率的时间推迟,从而使释药速率降低并更加平稳。将上述影响引入微球释药模型,建立了微球-凝胶系统释药模型,模拟结果和实验数据吻合较好。通过调整微球材料的相对分子量和亲疏水性,实现了纳曲酮超过60 d的恒速释放。

  19. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and

  20. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  1. Lubricant Biodegradation Enhancers:Designed Chemistry and Engineered Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Boshui; Gao Lingyue; Fang Jianhua; Zhang Nan; Wu Jiang; Wang Jiu

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a growing worldwide trend of developing the biodegradable lubricants has been prevailing to form a speciifc ifeld of green chemistry and green engineering. Enhancement of biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable petroleum-based lubricants has as such become an urgent must. For over a decade the authors have been focusing on the im-provement of biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable lubricants such as petroleum-based lubricating oils and greases. A new idea of lubricant biodegradation enhancer was put forward by the authors with the aim to stimulate the biodegradation of unreadily biodegradable lubricants by incorporating the enhancer into the lubricants in order to turn the lubricants into greener biodegradable ones and to help in situ bioremediation of lubricant-contaminated environment. This manuscript sum-marizes our recent efforts relating to the chemistry and technology of biodegradation enhancers for lubricants. Firstly, the chemistry of lubricant biodegradation enhancers was designed based on the principles of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Secondly, the ability of the designed biodegradation enhancers for increasing the biodegradability of unreadily biodegradable industrial lubricants was investigated through biodegradability evaluation tests, microbial population analysis, and biodegradation kinetics modeling. Finally, the impact of biodegradation enhancers on some crucial performance characteristics of lubricants such as lubricity and oxidation stability was tested via tribological evaluation and oxidation determinations. Our results have shown that the designed chemistry of nitrogenous and/or phos-phorous compounds such as lauroyl glutamine, oleoyl glycine, oleic diethanolamide phosphate and lauric diethanolamide borate was outstanding in boosting biodegradation of petroleum-based lubricants which was ascribed to increase the micro-bial population and decrease the oil-water interfacial

  2. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  3. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Nussbaumer, Martin G.; Schwertz, Geoffrey; Schwab, Anatol; Witschel, Matthias C.; Schäfer, Anja; Diederich, François; Rottmann, Matthias; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous solubility, high systemic toxicity, and metabolic instability. Smart nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems provide means of solving these problems at once. Herein, we present such a smart nanoparticle platform based on self-assembled, reduction-responsive amphiphilic graft copolymers, which were successfully synthesized through thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between thiolated hydrophilic block and pyridyl disulfide functionalized hydrophobic block. These amphiphilic graft copolymers self-assembled into nanoparticles with mean diameters of about 30-50 nm and readily incorporated hydrophobic guest molecules. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to study nanoparticle stability and triggered release of a model compound in detail. Long-term colloidal stability and model compound retention within the nanoparticles was found when analyzed in cell media at body temperature. In contrast, rapid, complete reduction-triggered disassembly and model compound release was achieved within a physiological reducing environment. The synthesized copolymers revealed no intrinsic cellular toxicity up to 1 mg mL-1. Drug-loaded reduction-sensitive nanoparticles delivered a hydrophobic model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to cancer cells (HeLa cells) and an experimental, metabolically unstable antimalarial drug (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) inhibitor (+/-)-1) to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), with higher efficacy compared to similar, non-sensitive drug-loaded nanoparticles. These responsive copolymer-based nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as smart nanocarrier platform for various drugs to be applied to different diseases, due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrophobic block, and the protein-repellent hydrophilic block.Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-g-poly(D, L-lactic acid) Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YANG; Shao Bing ZHOU; Xian Mo DENG

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradable chitosan-g-poly (D, L-lactic acid) copolymers were prepared via two methods. (1) The lactide was grafted onto hydroxyl groups of chitosan by using macromolecular initiator sodium of trimethylsilyl-chitosan, (2) poly (D,L-lactic acid)(PLA) with low molecular weight can be linked to the amino group by coupling activated PLA to trimethylsilyl-chitosan. Two graft copolymers had hydrophilic-hydrophobic character and can be applied as carriers for drug delivery.

  5. Novel Pentablock Copolymer-Based Nanoparticulate Systems for Sustained Protein Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sulabh P.; Vaishya, Ravi; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and application of novel biodegradable and biocompatible pentablock (PB) copolymers, i.e., polyglycolic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polyglycolic acid (PGA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PGA) and polylactic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polylactic acid (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) for sustained protein delivery, are reported. The PB copolymers can be engineered to generate sustained delivery of protein therapeutics to the posterior segme...

  6. Tailor-Made Pentablock Copolymer Based Formulation for Sustained Ocular Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sulabh P.; Ravi Vaishya; Gyan Prakash Mishra; Viral Tamboli; Dhananjay Pal; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research article is to report the synthesis and evaluation of novel pentablock copolymers for controlled delivery of macromolecules in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Novel biodegradable PB copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization. Various ratios and molecular weights of each block (polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone) were selected for synthesis and to optimize release profile of FITC-BS...

  7. Multifunctional Electrospun Nanofibers Incorporated with an Anti-infection Drug and Immobilized with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shufei

    Electrospinning has been used to fabricate ultrafine fibers with sizes ranging from nano to micrometers. Nanofibers electrospun from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have been extensively investigated for their potential applications in wound healing and tissue regeneration. These nanofiber materials can be modified to incorporate bioactive molecules, such as antibacterial agents that provide infection control, or functional proteins which promote cell proliferation and tissue reconstruction. Despite the numerous studies on the development and design of nanofibers for biomedical applications, there has been little research on multifunctional nanofibers that are incorporated with both antibacterial drug(s) and bioactive proteins. The objective of the current study is, therefore, to develop nanofibers that are functionalized by several bioactive molecules. In this study, electrospinning was utilized to fabricate nanofibers from biodegradable polymers PLLA (Poly-L-lactide) and the copolymer PLLA-PEG (Polyethylene glycol)-NH2.A water soluble antibiotic drug, Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TCH), was incorporated into the electrospun nanofibers via emulsion electrospinning. The TCH-loaded nanofibers were surface modified to produce functional groups that can be further conjugated with a model protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).Drug releasing profiles of the medicated nanofibers were monitored and their antimicrobial properties were evaluated. Proteins (BSAs) immobilized on the fiber surface were verified by ATR-FTIR. The number of immobilized BSAs was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results of the study suggested that this multifunctional nanofibrous material could be a promising material for wound dressing or scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  8. Ion and temperature sensitive polypeptide block copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jae Hee; Ko, Du Young; Moon, Hyo Jung; Shinde, Usha Pramod; Park, Min Hee; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2014-10-13

    A poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(L-alanine) multiblock copolymer incorporating ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ([PA-PEG-PA-EDTA(m)) was synthesized as an ion/temperature dual stimuli-sensitive polymer, where the effect of different metal ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Ca(2+)) on the thermogelation of the polymer aqueous solution was investigated. The dissociation constants between the metal ions and the multiblock copolymer were calculated to be 1.2 × 10(-7), 6.6 × 10(-6), and 1.2 × 10(-4) M for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Ca(2+), respectively, implying that the binding affinity of the multiblock copolymer for Cu(2+) is much greater than that for Zn(2+) or Ca(2+). Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering of the multiblock copolymer containing metal ions suggested micelle formation at low temperature, which aggregated as the temperature increased. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that changes in the α-helical secondary structure of the multiblock copolymer were more pronounced by adding Cu(2+) than other metal ions. The thermogelation of the multiblock copolymer aqueous solution containing Cu(2+) was observed at a lower temperature, and the modulus of the gel was significantly higher than that of the system containing Ca(2+) or Zn(2+), in spite of the same concentration of the metal ions and their same ionic valence of +2. The above results suggested that strong ionic complexes between Cu(2+) and the multiblock copolymer not only affected the secondary structure of the polymer but also facilitated the thermogelation of the polymer aqueous solution through effective salt-bridge formation even in a millimolar range of the metal ion concentration. Therefore, binding affinity of metal ions for polymers should be considered first in designing an effective ion/temperature dual stimuli-sensitive polymer. PMID:25178662

  9. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  10. Phase Behavior and Significantly Enhanced Toughness in Polylactide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan; Theryo, Grayce; Jing, Feng; Hillmyer, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Polylactide (PLA), a biodegradable polyester derived from plant sugars, is commercially available and used in a variety of applications ranging from serviceware to resorbable sutures. One limitation to diversifying the applications of the material is its inherent brittleness. Graft copolymers containing PLA arms and a rubbery aliphatic polymer backbone were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening metathesis and ring-opening transesterification polymerizations. The high degree of incompatibility between the arms and backbone resulted in microphase separation of the graft copolymer at increasingly low fractions of the backbone polymer, as evidenced by small-angle x-ray scattering. In graft copolymers with a rubbery content of only 5 wt percent, the tensile strain at break was observed to be as high as twenty times that of neat PLA. Studies are underway to provide insight into the critical polymer molecular parameters for enhanced toughness and the deformation mechanisms.

  11. Biodegradation of polyester. Polyester no bunkai sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Fermentation Research Inst.)

    1991-09-10

    Penicillium sp. 14-3 and penicillium sp. 26-1 can degrade various kinds of polyester. The results of studies made on hydrolysis of polyester by enzyme, hydrolysis of polyester by various kinds of lipase, and degradation of ester type polyurethane by microbes and lipase are introduced. For the improvement of physical properties of aliphatic polyester, aromatic-aliphatic polyester copolymers (CPE) have been synthesized to study the biodegradability. Copolymer in which a number of polyamide (nylon) are alternately introduced (CPAE) to aliphatic polyester has been developed. The result of studies made on the degradability of a blended body of PCL and natural high polymer, and on the collapsibility by lipase of high polymer materials including aliphatic polyamide are introduced. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Block and Graft Copolymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchessault, Robert H.; Ravenelle, François; Kawada, Jumpei

    2004-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were modified for diblock copolymer and graft polymer by catalyzed transesterification in the melt and by chemical synthesis to extend the side chains of the PHAs, and the polymers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Catalyzed transesterification in the melt is used to produce diblock copolymers of poly[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and monomethoxy poly[ethylene glycol] (mPEG) in a one-step process. The resulting diblock copolymers are amphiphilic and self-assemble into sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions of PHB crystalline lamellae. Graft polymer was synthesized in a two-step chemical synthesis from biosynthesized poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate] (PHOU) containing ca. 25 mol chains. 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid reacts with the side chain alkenes of PHOU by the radical addition creating thioether linkage with terminal carboxyl functionalities. The latter groups were subsequently transformed into the amide or ester linkage by tridecylamine or octadecanol, respectively, producing new graft polymers. The polymers have different physical properties than poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate] (PHO) which is the main component of the PHOU, such as non-stickiness and higher thermal stability. The combination of biosynthesis and chemical synthesis produces a hybrid thermoplastic elastomer with partial biodegradability.

  13. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the chlorinated polymers is not compromised until a relatively high lactam content in the copolymer is attained. The incorporation of segmental interaction parameters, derived from separate studies involving pol...

  14. Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, Ruxandra; Minamitake, Yoshiharu; Peracchia, Maria Teresa; Trubetskoy, Vladimir; Torchilin, Vladimir; Langer, Robert

    1994-03-01

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  15. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  16. Proceedings of biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of Biodegradation. Topics include:biodegradation using the tools of biotechnology, basic science aspects of biodegradation, the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, the use of selective techniques that enhance the process of microbial evolution of biodegradative genes in nature, the genetic characteristics of microorganisms allowing them to biodegrade both natural and synthetic toxic chemicals, the molecular techniques that allow selective assembly of genetic segments form a variety of bacterial strains to a single strain, and methods needed to advance biodegradation research as well as the high-priority chemical problems important to the Department of Defense or to the chemical industry

  17. Antimicrobial Graft Copolymer Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda C; Madsen, Jeppe; Douglas, C W Ian; MacNeil, Sheila; Armes, Steven P

    2016-08-01

    In view of the growing worldwide rise in microbial resistance, there is considerable interest in designing new antimicrobial copolymers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial activity and copolymer composition/architecture to gain a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Specifically, the antibacterial activity of several copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC] and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) toward Staphylococcus aureus was examined. Both block and graft copolymers were synthesized using either atom transfer radical polymerization or reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and characterized via (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, rheology, and surface tensiometry. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using a range of well-known assays, including direct contact, live/dead staining, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the bacteria before and after the addition of various copolymers. As expected, PMPC homopolymer was biocompatible but possessed no discernible antimicrobial activity. PMPC-based graft copolymers comprising PHPMA side chains (i.e. PMPC-g-PHPMA) significantly reduced both bacterial growth and viability. In contrast, a PMPC-PHPMA diblock copolymer comprising a PMPC stabilizer block and a hydrophobic core-forming PHPMA block did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity, although it did form a biocompatible worm gel. Surface tensiometry studies and LDH release assays suggest that the PMPC-g-PHPMA graft copolymer exhibits surfactant-like activity. Thus, the observed antimicrobial activity is likely to be the result of the weakly hydrophobic PHPMA chains penetrating (and hence rupturing) the bacterial membrane. PMID:27409712

  18. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible blo

  19. Polyester-Based (Biodegradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rydz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (biodegradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (biodegradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

  20. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rydz; Wanda Sikorska; Mariya Kyulavska; Darinka Christova

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in vie...

  1. Biodegradation of Polypropylene Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Brandi Nechelle

    The primary aim of the current research is to document the biodegradation of polypropylene nonwovens and filament under composting environments. To accelerate the biodegradat ion, pre-treatments and additives were incorporated into polypropylene filaments and nonwovens. The initial phase (Chapter 2) of the project studied the biodegradation of untreated polypropylene with/without pro-oxidants in two types of composting systems. Normal composting, which involved incubation of samples in food waste, had little effect on the mechanical properties of additive-free spunbond nonwovens in to comparison prooxidant containing spunbond nonwovens which were affected significantly. Modified composting which includes the burial of samples with food and compressed air, the polypropylene spunbond nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants displayed an extreme loss in mechanical properties and cracking on the surface cracking. Because the untreated spunbond nonwovens did not completely decompose, the next phase of the project examined the pre-treatment of gamma-irradiation or thermal aging prior to composting. After exposure to gamma-irradiation and thermal aging, polypropylene is subjected to oxidative degradation in the presence of air and during storage after irradiat ion. Similar to photo-oxidation, the mechanism of gamma radiation and thermal oxidative degradation is fundamentally free radical in nature. In Chapter 3, the compostability of thermal aged spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidant additives. The FTIR spectrum confirmed oxidat ion of the polypropylene nonwovens with/without additives. Cracking on both the pro-oxidant and control spunbond nonwovens was showed by SEM imaging. Spunbond polypropylene nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were also preirradiated by gamma rays followed by composting. Nonwovens with/without pro-oxidants were severely degraded by gamma-irradiation after up to 20 kGy exposure as explained in Chapter 4. Furthermore (Chapter 5), gamma

  2. STUDY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF Si-CONTAINING POLYESTER-POLYETHER MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhenyi; ZHU Jin

    1997-01-01

    Some physical properties of the polyester-polyether multiblock copolymers with Si-containing hard segment were further examined by a series of physical methods. The hydrophobicity of the copolymers was improved with the incorporation of increasing amount of orgauosilicone, XPS test proved that silicon element was enriched at the surface of the Si-containing polyester-polyether copolymers. It was also found that their heat resistance and gas permeability for O2 and N2 were greatly improved. The study on semipermeability of films made of the Si-containing copolymers was also followed with interest.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of ABBA Block Copolymer of Glycolide and ε-Caprolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Xue-si; DENG Ming-xiao; JING Xia-bin

    2005-01-01

    A biodegradable ABBA block copolymer was synthesized via the ring-opening co-polymerization of ε-caprolactone(CL, B) and glycolide(A) by means of step polymerization in the presence of ethylene glycol as an initiator and stannous octanoate as a catalyst at 110 ℃ for 48 h. The molecular length of the PCL pre-polymer(BB) could be adjusted by controlling the molar ratio of the ethylene glycol initiator to ε-caprolactone monomer. The structure and the composition of the block copolymer were determined by the weight ratio of the monomer glycolide(A) to PCL pre-polymer(BB). The block copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, GPC, DSC and X-ray. The results confirm the successful synthesis of an ABBA block copolymer.

  4. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  5. Comparative Performance and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Thermoplastics and Nanobiocomposites versus PET for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, D.; Giménez, E.; Gavara, R.; Lagaron, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on preliminary studies of several comparative packaging properties between polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging films and biodegradable biopolymers such as polycarpolactone (PCL), polylacticacid (PLA), amorphous PLA (aPLA), and polyhydroxyalcanoates copolymer with 8 mol% valeriate (PHBV) and of some nanobiocomposites, in terms of thermal and retorting resistance ...

  6. Molecular Design of Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers as Cell Scaffold Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shen-guo; WAN Yu-qing; CAI Qing; HE Bin; CHEN Wen-na

    2004-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers are regarded as the most useful biomaterials. The good biocompatibility, biodegradability and mechanical properties of them make the synthetic biodegradable polymers have primary application to tissue engineering. The advantages and disadvantages of the synthetic biodegradable polymers as cell scaffold materials are evaluated. This article reviews the modification of polylactide-family aliphatic polymers to improve the cell affinity when the polymers are used as cell scaffolds. We have developed four main approaches: to modify polyester cell scaffolds in combination of plasma treating and collagen coating; to introduce hydrophilic segments into aliphatic polyester backbones; to introduce pendant functional groups into polyester chains; to modify polyester with dextran. The results of the cell cultures prove that the approaches mentioned above have improved the cell affinity of the polyesters and have modulated cell function such as adhesion, proliferation and migration.

  7. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  8. Neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic diblock copolymers featuring poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) hydrophobic segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers incorporating hydrophobic poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and hydrophilic neutral poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG), anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), cationic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA...

  9. Block coordination copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  10. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  11. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  12. Electrosynthesis and characterization of viologen cross linked thiophene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrochemical copolymerization of OOT and HOT-CNP. • Further reductive coupling of cyanopyridine from HOT-CNP into viologen during cathodic scan. • Redox response of copolymer along with spectral studies confirms formation of viologen. • Spectroelectrochemical analysis of copolymer film indicates its future incorporation into practically usable electrochromic devices. -- Abstract: Electrochemical copolymerization of 3-octyloxy-4-methylthiophene (OOT) and 1-[6-[(4-methyl-3-thienyl) oxy] hexyl]-4-cyanopyridinium bromide (HOT-CNP) was carried out using tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate and acetonitrile (TBAPF6/ACN) as electrolyte. The cyanopyridine functionalized HOT-CNP undergoes further electrochemical reductive coupling to viologen. Both polymer (POOT) and copolymer P(OOT-co-HOT-CNP) were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in situ UV–vis spectroscopy. The effect of the monomer concentration ratio and the scan rate on the electrochemical properties of the copolymer was studied by the CV technique. The electrochemical redox response of the copolymer together with FTIR analysis further confirms the formation of viologen. The surface morphology was studied using SEM analysis. The polymer POOT revealed color changes between violet and bright blue, whereas the copolymer showed the most vivid change of color between purple and greenish blue in its fully reduced and oxidized states respectively. The results showed that copolymerization is a valuable approach in order to achieve desired electrochromic and redox properties

  13. Meter-long multiblock copolymer microfibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han; Remy, Roddel A; Deng, Fei; Mackay, Michael E; Fox, Joseph M; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-05-01

    High-molecular-weight multiblock copolymers are synthesized as robust polymer fibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization employing the rapid cycloaddition of s-tetrazines with strained trans-cyclooctenes. When cell-adhesive peptide is incorporated in the tetrazine monomer, the resulting protein-mimetic polymer fibers provide guidance cues for cell attachment and elongation.

  14. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  15. Novel pH-sensitive polyacetal-based block copolymers for controlled drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Ki; Garripelli, Vivek Kumar; Jeong, Ui-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Sook; Repka, Michael A.; Jo, Seongbong

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize pH-sensitive biodegradable triblock copolymers containing a hydrophobic polyacetal segment for controlled drug delivery. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethyl glyoxylate)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PEtG-PEG) triblock copolymers with PEG molecular weights 500 (PEtG-PEG500) and 750 (PEtG-PEG750) were synthesized by PEtG end-capping with methoxy PEG via a carbamate linkage. Synthesized amphiphilic PEG-PEtG-PEG was characterized by 1H-...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer of Dextran and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane Sulphonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Azmeera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biodegradable graft copolymer of dextran (Dx and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS was synthesized by grafting poly-AMPS chains onto dextran backbone by free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as an initiator. Different amounts of AMPS were used to synthesize four different grades of graft copolymers with different side chain lengths. These grafted polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, rheological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. They exhibited efficient flocculation performance in kaolin suspension.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)-POLYCAPROLACTONE BLOCK COPOLYMER BY DIRECT COPOLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-guo Wang; Kai Tang

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-polycaprolactone block copolymer (PCL-b-PET) is a polyester with improved biodegradability. In the present paper, a new direct copolymerization method of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and bishydroxyethylene terephthalate (BHET) in the presence of Ti(OBu)4 was proposed for the synthesis of PCL-b-PET. The PCL-b-PET copolymer was characterized by IR, GPC and 1H-NMR techniques, and the effects of synthesis conditions, such as temperature, reaction time and concentration of catalyst on the copolymerization were discussed.

  18. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  19. STUDY ON PET-PA66 COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rongrui; SHI Weitong

    1992-01-01

    In this work the PET-PA66 copolymers are obtained. The characterization of chemical structure of copolymer chain by NMR method is also given . It is shown that when the 66 Nylon salt is added in the copolycondensation, the adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine reacted mainly by itself and the obtained copolymer is a random copolymer, and when the Nylon 66 oligomer is added, the obtained copolymer is a block copolymer. The result of NMR analysis is demonstrated by properties investigation.

  20. Rheological and Mechanical behaviour of Block copolymers, Multigraft copolymers and Block copolymer Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Thunga, Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    Block copolymers are commercially significant and fundamentally interesting class of polymeric materials. The ability to undergo interfacial thermodynamics-controlled microphase separation from a completely disordered state in the melt to a specifically defined ordered structure through self-organization makes the block copolymers based materials unique. Block copolymer are strongly replacing many of the commercially available polymers due to their unique microstructure and properties. The mo...

  1. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively. PMID:20658309

  2. Comparative study on the biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Ławniczak, Łukasz; Materna, Katarzyna; Framski, Grzegorz; Szulc, Alicja; Syguda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on evaluating the toxicity as well as primary and ultimate biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which incorporated MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-D or Dicamba anions. The studied HILs were also subjected to determination of surface active properties in order to assess their influence on toxicity and biodegradability. The study was carried out with microbiota isolated from different environmental niches: sediments from river channel, garden soil, drainage trenc...

  3. Biodegradable Nanocomposite Films Based on Sodium Alginate and Cellulose Nanofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    B. Deepa; Eldho Abraham; Pothan, Laly A; Nereida Cordeiro; Marisa Faria; Sabu Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into alginate biopolymer using the solution casting method. The effects of CNF content (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 wt %) on mechanical, biodegradability and swelling behavior of the nanocomposite films were determined. The results showed that the tensile modulus value of the nanocomposite films increased from 308 to 1403 MPa with increasing CNF content from 0% to 10%; however, it decreased with further...

  4. Synthesis of morpholine-2,5-dione derivative copolymer and its degradation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yanchao; CHENG Shujun; CHEN Jianding

    2007-01-01

    In this experiment we prepared the copolymer of L-lactide (L-LA) and (3s)-[(benzyloxycarbonyl) methyl] morpholine-2,5-dione (BMD) using tin(Ⅱ)-octanoate initiat-ed ring-opening copolymerization. The maximum relative number-average molecular weight (Mn) of copolymer was over 8.0×104. The degradation study proceeded in vitro and poly(L-lactide-co-glycollide) used as the control sample.Changes in mass and molecular weight were studied during the immersion in buffer solutions [phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS), pH = 7.4] at 37℃. The hydrolytic degrada-tion of both the morpholine-2,5-dione derivative copolymer and the control sample were completed in 3 months. A palladium on charcoal catalyst [Pd/C (5%)] was used as the catalyzer for hydrogenolysis.1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to investigate the degree of the hydroge-nolysis of the copolymer with different Mn. The contact angle showed that the biodegradable copolymer had good hydro- philicity. These findings suggested that this copolymer would have a high potential application for pharmaceutical products.

  5. Understanding the ordering mechanisms of self-assembled nanostructures of block copolymers during zone annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhinan; Zhang, Liangshun; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping

    2016-03-21

    A theoretical method based on dynamic version of self-consistent field theory is extended to investigate directed self-assembly behaviors of block copolymers subjected to zone annealing. The ordering mechanisms and orientation modulation of microphase-separated nanostructures of block copolymers are discussed in terms of sweep velocity, wall preference, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated results demonstrate that the long-range ordered nanopatterns are achieved by lowering the sweep velocity of zone annealing due to the incorporation of templated ordering of block copolymers. The surface enrichment by one of the two polymer species induces the orientation modulation of defect-free nanostructures through finely tuning the composition of block copolymers and the preference of walls. Additionally, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters of block copolymers in the distinct regions are main factors to design the zone annealing process for creating the highly ordered nanostructures with single orientation. PMID:27004895

  6. Environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Lin-Ping; Hou, Jing; Chen, Jun-Yu; Han, Jing; Xiang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) copolymers produced by haloarchaea are excellent candidate biomaterials. However, there is no report hitherto focusing on the biodegradation of PHBHV synthesized by haloarchaea. In this study, an environmental biodegradation of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films, with 10~60 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) composition and different microchemical structures, was studied in nutrition-depleted activated sludge. The changes in mass, molar mass, chemical composition, thermal properties, and surface morphology were monitored. The mass and molar mass of each film decreased significantly, while the PHA monomer composition remained unchanged with time. Interestingly, the sample of random copolymer PHBHV-2 (R-PHBHV-2) (3HV, 30 mol%) had the lowest crystallinity and was degraded faster than R-PHBHV-3 containing the highest 3HV content or the higher-order copolymer PHBHV-1 (O-PHBHV-1) possessing the highest surface roughness. The order of biodegradation rate was in the opposite trend to the degree of crystallizability of the films. Meanwhile, thermal degradation temperature of most films decreased after biodegradation. Additionally, the surface erosion of films was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The dominant bacteria probably responsible for the degradation process were identified in the activated sludge. It was inferred that the degradation rate of haloarchaea-produced PHBHV films mainly depended on sample crystallinity, which was determined by monomer composition and microchemical structure and in turn strongly influenced surface morphology. PMID:27098259

  7. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  8. Nanostructured Amphiphilic Star-Hyperbranched Block Copolymers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleci, Muharrem; Seleci, Didem Ag; Ciftci, Mustafa; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Stahl, Frank; Timur, Suna; Scheper, Thomas; Yagci, Yusuf

    2015-04-21

    A robust drug delivery system based on nanosized amphiphilic star-hyperbranched block copolymer, namely, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-poly(hydroxylethyl methacrylate) (PMMA-b-PHEMA) is described. PMMA-b-PHEMA was prepared by sequential visible light induced self-condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP) and conventional vinyl polymerization. All of the synthesis and characterization details of the conjugates are reported. To accomplish tumor cell targeting property, initially cell-targeting (arginylglycylaspactic acid; RGD) and penetrating peptides (Cys-TAT) were binding to each other via the well-known EDC/NHS chemistry. Then, the resulting peptide was further incorporated to the surface of the amphiphilic hyperbranched copolymer via a coupling reaction between the thiol (-SH) group of the peptide and the hydroxyl group of copolymer by using N-(p-maleinimidophenyl) isocyanate as a heterolinker. The drug release property and targeting effect of the anticancer drug (doxorobucin; DOX) loaded nanostructures to two different cell lines were evaluated in vitro. U87 and MCF-7 were chosen as integrin αvβ3 receptor positive and negative cells for the comparison of the targeting efficiency, respectively. The data showed that drug-loaded copolymers exhibited enhanced cell inhibition toward U87 cells in compared to MCF-7 cells because targeting increased the cytotoxicity of drug-loaded copolymers against integrin αvβ3 receptor expressing tumor cells. PMID:25816726

  9. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes. PMID:11404101

  10. Biodegradable polyesters reinforced with triclosan loaded polylactide micro/nanofibers: Properties, release and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. del Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties and drug release behavior were studied for three biodegradable polyester matrices (polycaprolactone, poly(nonamethylene azelate and the copolymer derived from 1,9-nonanediol and an equimolar mixture of azelaic and pimelic acids reinforced with polylactide (PLA fibers. Electrospinning was used to produce suitable mats constituted by fibers of different diameters (i.e. from micro- to nanoscale and a homogeneous dispersion of a representative hydrophobic drug (i.e. triclosan. Fabrics were prepared by a molding process, which allowed cold crystallization of PLA micro/nanofibers and hot crystallization of the polyester matrices. The orientation of PLA molecules during electrospinning favored the crystallization process, which was slightly enhanced when the diameter decreased. Incorporation of PLA micro/nanofibers led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus and tensile strength, and in general to a decrease in the strain at break. The brittle fracture was clearer when high molecular weight samples with high plastic deformation were employed. Large differences in the release behavior were detected depending on the loading process, fiber diameter size and hydrophobicity of the polyester matrix. The release of samples with the drug only loaded into the reinforcing fibers was initially fast and then became slow and sustained, resulting in longer lasting antimicrobial activity. Biocompatibility of all samples studied was demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays using HEp-2 cell cultures.

  11. Indirect rapid prototyping of antibacterial acid anhydride copolymer microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microneedles are needle-like projections with microscale features that may be used for transdermal delivery of a variety of pharmacologic agents, including antibacterial agents. In the study described in this paper, an indirect rapid prototyping approach involving a combination of visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography and micromolding was used to prepare microneedle arrays out of a biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer, Gantrez® AN 169 BF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and nanoindentation studies were performed to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the Gantrez® AN 169 BF material. Agar plating studies were used to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial performance of these arrays against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Large zones of growth inhibition were noted for Escherichia coli, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and B. subtilis. The performance of Gantrez® AN 169 BF against several bacteria suggests that biodegradable acid anhydride copolymer microneedle arrays prepared using visible light dynamic mask micro-stereolithography micromolding may be useful for treating a variety of skin infections. (communication)

  12. Preferential Incorporation of Azelaic Acid Units into the Crystalline Phase of the Copoly(Alkylene Dicarboxylate Derived from 1,9-Nonanediol and an Equimolar Mixture of Pimelic and Azelaic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystalline structure of two biodegradable odd-odd polyesters (i.e., poly(nonamethylene pimelate (PES 9,7 and poly(nonamethylene azelate (PES 9,9 was investigated by means of electron and X-ray diffraction of single crystals and oriented fibers, respectively. Truncated rhombic crystals were obtained with an aspect ratio that was strongly depended on the supercooling degree. The crystalline structure of both homopolyesters was defined by an orthorhombic P21ab space group and a large unit cell containing four molecular segments with an all-trans conformation. Nevertheless, the structure in the chain axis projection was equivalent to a simpler cell containing only two segments. Crystalline lamellae were effectively degraded by lipases, starting the enzymatic attack on the lamellar surfaces. The random copolymer constituted by an equimolar amount of pimelate and azelate units (COPES 9,7/9 crystallized according to regular lamellae with a similar molecular arrangement in the chain axis projection. The structure of this copolymer was preferably conditioned by the azelate component as could be deduced from both, diffraction and spectroscopic data. Analysis of small angle X-ray scattering patterns pointed out that less crystalline lamellae with higher amorphous thickness had developed in the copolymer. This feature was interpreted as a consequence of the preferential incorporation of pimelate comonomer units in the folding surface.

  13. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalin Inthanon; Donraporn Daranarong; Pimwalan Techaikool; Winita Punyodom; Vorathep Khaniyao; Audrey M Bernstein; Weerah Wongkham

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited q...

  14. Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(lactide)-based Triblock and Multiblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Tessie Rose

    Replacing petroleum-based plastics with alternatives that are degradable and synthesized from annually renewable feedstocks is a critical goal for the polymer industry. Achieving this goal requires the development of sustainable analogs to commodity plastics which have equivalent or superior properties (e.g. mechanical, thermal, optical etc.) compared to their petroleum-based counterparts. This work focuses on improving and modulating the properties of a specific sustainable polymer, poly(lactide) (PLA), by incorporating it into triblock and multiblock copolymer architectures. The multiblock copolymers in this work are synthesized directly from dihydroxy-terminated triblock copolymers by a simple step-growth approach: the triblock copolymer serves as a macromonomer and addition of stoichiometric quantities of either an acid chloride or diisocyanate results in a multiblock copolymer. This work shows that over wide range of compositions, PLA-based multiblock copolymers have superior mechanical properties compared to triblock copolymers with equivalent chemical compositions and morphologies. The connectivity of the blocks within the multiblock copolymers has other interesting consequences on properties. For example, when crystallizable poly(L-lactide)-based triblock and multiblock copolymers are investigated, it is found that the multiblock copolymers have much slower crystallization kinetics. Additionally, the total number of blocks connected together is found to effect the linear viscoelastic properties as well as the alignment of lamellar domains under uniaxial extension. Finally, the synthesis and characterization of pressure-sensitive adhesives based upon renewable PLA-containing triblock copolymers and a renewable tackifier is detailed. Together, the results give insight into the effect of chain architecture, composition, and morphology on the mechanical behavior, thermal properties, and rheological properties of PLA-based materials.

  15. 3D structuring of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers via stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew A; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The production of user-defined 3D microstructures from biocompatible and biodegradable materials via free-form fabrication is an important step to create off-the-shelf technologies to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds. One method of achieving this is the microstereolithography of block copolymers, allowing high resolution microstructuring of materials with tuneable physical properties. A versatile protocol for the production and photofunctionalisation of pre-polymers for microstereolithography is presented along with a discussion of the possible microstereolithography set-ups and previous work in the field.

  16. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the addition of an ionic liquid affects the thermodynamic self-assembly of block copolymers, and how the confinement of ionic liquids to block copolymer nanodomains affects their ion-conducting properties is essential for predictable structure-property control. The lyotropic phase behavior of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures is shown to be reminiscent of mixtures of block copolymers with selective molecular solvents. A variety of ordered microstructures corresponding to lamellae, hexagonally close-packed cylinders, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic oriented micelles are observed in a model system composed of mixtures of imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene- b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). In contrast to block copolymer/molecular solvent mixtures, the interfacial area occupied by each PS-b-P2VP chain decreases upon the addition of [Im][TFSI], indicating a considerable increase in the effective segregation strength of the PS-b-P2VP copolymer with ionic liquid addition. The relationship between membrane structure and ionic conductivity is illuminated through the development of scaling relationships that describe the ionic conductivity of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures as a function of membrane composition and temperature. It is shown that the dominant variable influencing conductivity is the overall volume fraction of ionic liquid in the mixture, which means there is incredible freedom in designing the block copolymer architecture

  17. Block copolymer mixtures as antimicrobial hydrogels for biofilm eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashlynn L Z; Ng, Victor W L; Wang, Weixin; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2013-12-01

    Current antimicrobial strategies have mostly been developed to manage infections due to planktonic cells. However, microbes in their nature state will tend to exist by attaching to and growing on living and inanimate surfaces that result in the formation of biofilms. Conventional therapies for treating biofilm-related infections are likely to be insufficient due to the lower susceptibility of microbes that are embedded in the biofilm matrix. In this study, we report the development of biodegradable hydrogels from vitamin E-functionalized polycarbonates for antimicrobial applications. These hydrogels were formed by incorporating positively-charged polycarbonates containing propyl and benzyl side chains with vitamin E moiety into physically cross-linked networks of "ABA"-type polycarbonate and poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymers. Investigations of the mechanical properties of the hydrogels showed that the G' values ranged from 1400 to 1600 Pa and the presence of cationic polycarbonate did not affect the stiffness of the hydrogels. Shear-thinning behavior was observed as the hydrogels displayed high viscosity at low shear rates that dramatically decreased as the shear rate increased. In vitro antimicrobial studies revealed that the more hydrophobic VE/BnCl(1:30)-loaded hydrogels generally exhibited better antimicrobial/antifungal effects compared to the VE/PrBr(1:30) counterpart as lower minimum biocidal concentrations (MBC) were observed in Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Candida albicans (fungus) (156.2, 312.5, 312.5 mg/L for VE/BnCl(1:30) and 312.5, 2500 and 625 mg/L for VE/PrBr(1:30) respectively). Similar trends were observed for the treatment of biofilms where VE/BnCl(1:30)-loaded hydrogels displayed better efficiency with regards to eradication of biomass and reduction of microbe viability of the biofilms. Furthermore, a high degree of synergistic antimicrobial effects was also observed through the co

  18. Morphology, Crystallization and Melting Behavior of Propylene-Ethylene Statistical Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Uan-Zo-li, Julie Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In this work the morphology, crystallization and melting behavior of novel Dow Chemical propylene-ethylene copolymers were investigated. The incorporation of ethylene units into a polypropylene chain resulted in the decrease in crystallization, melting and glass transition temperatures and overall crystallinity. Based on the shape of heat capacity curves and the dependence of the melting temperature offset on ethylene content, it was concluded that copolymers prepared using different ca...

  19. Biomimetic triblock copolymer membrane arrays: a stable template for functional membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Vissing, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that biomimetic stable triblock copolymer membrane arrays can be prepared using a scaffold containing 64 apertures of 300 μm diameter each. The membranes were made from a stock solution of block copolymers with decane as a solvent using a new deposition method. By using decane,...... to what is observed in black lipid membranes. The ion-channel gramicidin A was successfully incorporated into the membrane in a functional form....

  20. Methacrylated monosaccharides as the modifiers for carbochain polymers: Synthesis, mechanical/thermal properties and biodegradability of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, P.; Bershtein, V.; Bukowska-Śluz, I.; Sobiesiak, M.; Gawdzik, B.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylated derivatives of glucose (MGLU) and galactose (MGAL) were synthesized by the procedure described by Vogel, and their copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and MMA/N-vinyl pyrrolidone (MMA/NVP) (1:1) mixture were obtained with the aim to modify some properties of carbochain polymers, in particular to generate their biodegradability. These hybrids of synthetic and natural products, with 10, 20 or 30 wt. % modifiers, were characterized by DMA and TGA methods and in the biodegradation tests. Increasing Tg values by 20-30°C was registered in all cases whereas thermal stability was improved only for PMMA due to modification. On the contrary, only for hybrids based on hygroscopic MMA/NVP copolymer the essential biodegradability could be generated.

  1. Block copolymer patterns and templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Li

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the chemical and physical aspects of patternable block copolymers and their use for nanostructure fabrication. The patternability of block copolymers results from their ability to self-assemble into microdomains and the manipulation of these patterns by a variety of physical and chemical means. Procedures for achieving long-range lateral order, as well as orientation order of microdomain patterns, are discussed. The level of control that these strategies afford has enabled block copolymers to be used as templates for fabricating a variety of nanostructures.

  2. Morphological, mechanical properties and biodegradability of biocomposite thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone reinforced with sisal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incorporation of fibers as reinforcements in polymer composites has increased due to their renewability, low cost and biodegradability. In this study, sisal fibers were added to a polymer matrix of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone, both biodegradable polymers. Sisal fibers (5% and 10%) ...

  3. Thermoresponsive physical hydrogels of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) stereoblock copolymers tuned by stereostructure and hydrophobic block sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hailiang; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong; Wu, Zi Liang; Pan, Pengju

    2016-05-18

    CBABC-type poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) pentablock copolymers composed of a central PEG block (A) and enantiomeric poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA, B), poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA, C) blocks were synthesized. Such pentablock copolymers form physical hydrogels at high concentrations in an aqueous solution, which stem from the aggregation and physical bridging of copolymer micelles. These gels are thermoresponsive and turn into sols upon heating. Physical gelation, gel-to-sol transition, crystalline state, microstructure, rheological behavior, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of PLA/PEG pentablock copolymers and their gels were investigated; they were also compared with PLA-PEG-PLA triblock copolymers containing the isotactic PLLA or atactic poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) endblocks and PLLA-PEG-PLLA/PDLA-PEG-PDLA enantiomeric mixtures. PLA hydrophobic domains in pentablock copolymer gels changed from a homocrystalline to stereocomplexed structure as the PLLA/PDLA block length ratio approached 1/1. The gel of symmetric pentablock copolymer exhibited a wider gelation region, higher gel-to-sol transition temperature, higher hydrophobic domain crystallinity, larger intermicellar distance, higher storage modulus, and slower degradation and drug release rate compared to those of the asymmetric PLA/PEG pentablock copolymers or triblock copolymers. SAXS results indicated that the PLLA/PDLA blocks stereocomplexation in pentablock copolymers facilitated the intermicellar aggregation and bridging. Cylindrical ordered structures were observed in all the gels formed from the PLA/PEG pentablock and triblock copolymers. The stereocomplexation degree and intermicellar distance of the pentablock copolymer gels increased with heating. PMID:27121732

  4. PREPARATION AND CELL COMPATIBILITY OF FUNCTIONALIZED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(DL-LACTIDE-CO-RS-Β-MALIC ACID)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui-lin Lai; Bin He; Zhong-wei Gu

    2008-01-01

    In order to create a functionalized biodegradable polymer for vascular tissue engineering application, poly(DL-lactide-co-RS-β-malic acid) (PDLLMAc) was synthesized. PDLLMAc was obtained after hydrogenolysis of poly(DL-lactide-co-RS-β-benzyl malolactonate) (PDLLMA), which was from the ring-opening polymerization of DL-lactide (DLLA)and RS-β-benzyl malolactonate (MA) using stannous octoate as catalyst. The copolymers were characterized by 1H-NMR,FTIR, GPC and DSC. The tensile strength and water uptake of the copolymers were measured. In copolymerization, theproportion of MA in the derived copolymers was lower than that in the feeding dose, a consequence of its lower reactivity.The molecular weight of the copolymers decreased with increasing MA content. The protective benzyl groups werecompletely removed in hydrogenolysis. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the protected copolymers decreased withincreasing MA content. The mechanical strength test showed that the tensile strength of PDLLMA decreased whileelongation increased with MA content increasing, and the tensile strength increased and elongation decreased with increasingmalic acid content in PDLLMAc for the formation of hydrogen bonding. The water uptake showed that more hydrophilicmalic acid adsorbed more water in PDLLMAc. In order to test the reactivity of functional pendant groups, bioactive RGDpeptide was immobilized on the functionalized polymer film surface and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were cultured on it.The results showed that the functionalized copolymer was biocompatible and could be potentially applied in vascular tissueengineering.

  5. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  6. Editorial: Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Schaschke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue “Biodegradable Materials” features research and review papers concerning recent advances on the development, synthesis, testing and characterisation of biomaterials. These biomaterials, derived from natural and renewable sources, offer a potential alternative to existing non-biodegradable materials with application to the food and biomedical industries amongst many others. In this Special Issue, the work is expanded to include the combined use of fillers that can enhance the properties of biomaterials prepared as films. The future application of these biomaterials could have an impact not only at the economic level, but also for the improvement of the environment.

  7. Controlling sub-microdomain structure in microphase-ordered block copolymers and their nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Michelle Kathleen

    Block copolymers exhibit a wealth of morphologies that continue to find ubiquitous use in a diverse variety of mature and emergent (nano)technologies, such as photonic crystals, integrated circuits, pharmaceutical encapsulents, fuel cells and separation membranes. While numerous studies have explored the effects of molecular confinement on such copolymers, relatively few have examined the sub-microdomain structure that develops upon modification of copolymer molecular architecture or physical incorporation of nanoscale objects. This work will address two relevant topics in this vein: (i) bidisperse brushes formed by single block copolymer molecules and (ii) copolymer nanocomposites formed by addition of molecular or nanoscale additives. In the first case, an isomorphic series of asymmetric poly(styrene-b -isoprene-b-styrene) (S1IS2) triblock copolymers of systematically varied chain length has been synthesized from a parent SI diblock copolymer. Small-angle x-ray scattering, coupled with dynamic rheology and self-consistent field theory (SCFT), reveals that the progressively grown S2 block initially resides in the I-rich matrix and effectively reduces the copolymer incompatibility until a critical length is reached. At this length, the S2 block co-locates with the S1 block so that the two blocks generate a bidisperse brush (insofar as the S1 and S2 lengths differ). This single-molecule analog to binary block copolymer blends affords unique opportunities for materials design at sub-microdomain length scales and provides insight into the transition from diblock to triblock copolymer (and thermoplastic elastomeric nature). In the second case, I explore the distribution of molecular and nanoscale additives in microphase-ordered block copolymers and demonstrate via SCFT that an interfacial excess, which depends strongly on additive concentration, selectivity and relative size, develops. These predictions are in agreement with experimental findings. Moreover, using a

  8. In vitro evaluation of sustained drug release from biodegradable elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, R; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Ikada, Y

    1991-10-01

    Poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and their copolymers (PLA-CL) with various monomer compositions were synthesized, and their properties as matrix for the sustained release of drugs were evaluated. The copolymerization technique produced very soft films which incorporated the drugs without deterioration of the elastic properties. Cisplatin and MD-805 were loaded in the films by casting the polymer solution containing the drugs. Fractions of the drugs released from the PLA-CL films were governed by the initial loading, the film thickness, and the polymer molecular weight. The drug release profiles obeyed the classical Fickian diffusion equation at least in the early stage, but significant hydrolytic degradation of the matrix polymers occurred in the later stage, influencing the kinetics of drug release. The monomer composition of copolymer affected the release profile more strongly than the initial molecular weight of the copolymer. PMID:1796048

  9. Synthesis and biocompatibility of a biodegradable and functionalizable thermo-sensitive hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Mantosh K.; Gao, Jin; Stowell, Chelsea E. T.; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Injectable thermal gels are a useful tool for drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, most thermal gels do not solidify rapidly at body temperature (37°C). We addressed this by synthesizing a thermo-sensitive, rapidly biodegrading hydrogel. Our hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(propanol serinate hexamethylene urethane) (EPSHU), is an ABA block copolymer comprising A, methoxy poly ethylene glycol group and B, poly (propanol L-serinate hexamethylene urethane). EPSHU was characteriz...

  10. Novel pentablock copolymer-based nanoparticulate systems for sustained protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sulabh P; Vaishya, Ravi; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-04-01

    The design, synthesis, and application of novel biodegradable and biocompatible pentablock (PB) copolymers, i.e., polyglycolic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polyglycolic acid (PGA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PGA) and polylactic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polylactic acid (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) for sustained protein delivery, are reported. The PB copolymers can be engineered to generate sustained delivery of protein therapeutics to the posterior segment of the eye. PB copolymers with different block arrangements and molecular weights were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was selected as a model protein due to its structural similarity to bevacizumab. The influence of polymer molecular weight, composition, and isomerism on formulation parameters such as entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and in vitro release profile was delineated. Crystallinity and molecular weight of copolymers exhibited a substantial effect on formulation parameters. A secondary structure of released IgG was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity, cell viability, and biocompatibility studies performed on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and/or macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) demonstrated PB copolymers to be excellent biomaterials. Novel PB polymers may be the answer to the unmet need of a sustained release protein formulation. PMID:25319053

  11. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different condi

  12. Orthopaedic applications for PLA-PGA biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, K A; Agrawal, C M; Barber, F A; Burkhart, S S

    1998-10-01

    Biodegradable polymers, especially those belonging to the family of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA), play an increasingly important role in orthopaedics. These polymers degrade by hydrolysis and enzymatic activity and have a range of mechanical and physical properties that can be engineered appropriately to suit a particular application. Their degradation characteristics depend on several parameters including their molecular structure, crystallinity, and copolymer ratio. These biomaterials are also rapidly gaining recognition in the fledging field of tissue engineering because they can be fashioned into porous scaffolds or carriers of cells, extracellular matrix components, and bioactive agents. Although their future appears to be bright, several questions regarding the biocompatibility of these materials linger and should be addressed before their wide-scale use. In the context of musculoskeletal tissue, this report provides a comprehensive review of properties and applications of biodegradable PLA/PGA polymers and their copolymers. Of special interest are orthopaedic applications, biocompatibility studies, and issues of sterilization and storage of these versatile biomaterials. Also discussed is the fact that terms such as PLA, PGA, or PLA-PGA do not denote one material, but rather a large family of materials that have a wide range of differing bioengineering properties and concomitant biological responses. An analysis of some misconceptions, problems, and potential solutions is also provided. PMID:9788368

  13. Synthesis and properties of acrylic copolymers for ocular implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Adam C.

    There is a need for flexible polymers with higher refractive index and extended UV absorbing properties for improved intraocular lenses (IOLs). This research was devoted to the synthesis of new acrylic copolymers for foldable IOLs and to studies concerning IOL polymer properties. New polymers were synthesized from phenylated acrylates copolymerized with N-vinyl carbazole derivatives using bulk free radical addition methods. The copolymers had low Tg values, high refractive index, and were flexible. The N-vinyl carbazole derivatives were characterized by NMR and copolymers were characterized by DSC, UV-Vis, and refractometry. New phenothiazine based UV absorbers with high extinction coefficients were also synthesized for incorporation into ocular materials. Patent disclosures on UV absorbers and high refractive index polymers were prepared. A so called "glistening" phenomenon that occurs in all foldable intraocular lenses currently in clinical use is poorly understood and was studied. Research on this microvoid forming behavior included studies and development of methods to inhibit glistening in low Tg acrylic based copolymers. Glistenings were characterized using SEM and optical microscopy. A novel technique for inhibiting glistening was found and a patent disclosure was prepared.

  14. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  15. Gyroid Membranes made from Nanoporous Blck Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Plzemystaw; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Ndoni, Sokol;

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous materials are interesting and exciting materials in view of their many potential applications, especially as ultrafiltration membranes. One way of preparing nanoporous polymeric materials is to use block copolymers. Block copolymers have the great advantage that they organize them...

  16. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    conductivity. The combination of soft chainextended PDMS-PEG block copolymers and conductive MWCNTs results in a soft and conductive block copolymer composite which potentially can be used as a compliant and highly stretchable electrode for dielectric elastomers. The addition of MWCNTs into the PDMS-PEG matrix......Conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymers (Mn = 3 – 5 kg/mol) were chain-extended (Mn = 30 – 45 kg/mol) using hydrosilylation reaction as presented in figure 1. Subsequently, the extended copolymers were added to a conductive nano-filler (multi-walled carbon nanotubes – MWCNTs) in order to enhance...... not only increases the conductivity, but also increases mechanical strength by reinforcing the network1. However, incorporating MWCNTs into the PDMS-PEG matrix is challenging due to strong van der Waals forces between the MWCNTs2. In the present study, MWCNTs were dispersed in organic solvent (N...

  17. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H. (Delaware); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  18. 21 CFR 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.65 Divinylbenzene copolymer. Divinylbenzene copolymer may be used for the removal of organic substances from aqueous foods under the following... contacting the polymer is maintained at 79.4 °C (175 °F) or less. (d) The copolymer may be used in...

  19. Development and characterization of biodegradable polymer blends - PHBV/PCL irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Paulo Souza; Casarin, S.A.; Agnelli, J.A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Souza Junior, O.F. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop PHBV biodegradable polymer blends, in a major concentration with PCL, irradiate the pure polymers and blends in two doses of gamma radiation and to analyze the changes in chemical and mechanical properties. The blends used in this study were from natural biodegradable copolymer poly (hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV) and synthetic biodegradable polymer poly (caprolactone) (PCL 2201) with low molar mass (2,000 g/mol). Several samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and afterwards, the tensile specimens were injected for the irradiation treatment with 50 kGy to 100 kGy doses and for the mechanical tests. The characterization of the samples before and after the irradiation treatments was performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical tensile tests. (author)

  20. Development and characterization of biodegradable polymer blends - PHBV/PCL irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop PHBV biodegradable polymer blends, in a major concentration with PCL, irradiate the pure polymers and blends in two doses of gamma radiation and to analyze the changes in chemical and mechanical properties. The blends used in this study were from natural biodegradable copolymer poly (hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV) and synthetic biodegradable polymer poly (caprolactone) (PCL 2201) with low molar mass (2,000 g/mol). Several samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and afterwards, the tensile specimens were injected for the irradiation treatment with 50 kGy to 100 kGy doses and for the mechanical tests. The characterization of the samples before and after the irradiation treatments was performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical tensile tests. (author)

  1. Preparation of biodegradable PLA/PLGA membranes with PGA mesh and their application for periodontal guided tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Suk Joon [Department of Biology, Sookmyung Women' s University, Hyochangwongil 52, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Guw-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min, E-mail: ikkang@knu.ac.k [Samyang Central R and D Center, 63-2 Hwaam-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA)/poly(glycolide-co-lactide) copolymer (PLGA) membrane with polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was prepared to aid the effective regeneration of defective periodontal tissues. The microporous membrane used in this study consists of biodegradable polymers, and seems to have a structure to provide appropriate properties for periodontal tissue regeneration. Based on the albumin permeation test, it is known that the biodegradable membrane exhibits the suitable permeability of nutrients. The membrane maintained its physical integrity for 6-8 weeks, which could be sufficient to retain space in the periodontal pocket. Cell attachment and cytotoxicity tests were performed with respect to the evaluation of biocompatibility of the membrane. As a result, the membrane did not show any cytotoxicity. The safety and therapeutic efficacies of the biodegradable membranes were confirmed in animal tests.

  2. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  3. Synthesis and click chemistry of a new class of biodegradable polylactide towards tunable thermo-responsive biomaterials†

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanxuan; Ren, Hong; Baker, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of clickable and biodegradable polylactide was designed and prepared via bulk polymerization of 3,6-dipropargyloxymethyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione (1) which was synthesized from easily accessible propargyloxylactic acid (5). A homopolymer of 1 and random copolymer of 1 with l-lactide were obtained as amorphous materials and exhibit low Tg of 8.5 and 34 °C, respectively, indicating their promising potentials for biomedical applications. The statistical nature of random copolymers was i...

  4. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  5. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block length...... copolymer mixtures, and evidence in favor of a multi-equilibria unimer-micelle model will be presented. Results obtained by liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect...

  6. Poly(amino carbonate urethane)-based biodegradable, temperature and pH-sensitive injectable hydrogels for sustained human growth hormone delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, V. H. Giang; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Lee, Doo Sung

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new pH-/temperature-sensitive, biocompatible, biodegradable, and injectable hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(amino carbonate urethane) (PEG-PACU) copolymers has been developed for the sustained delivery of human growth hormone (hGH). In aqueous solutions, PEG-PACU-based copolymers existed as sols at low pH and temperature (pH 6.0, 23 °C), whereas they formed gels in the physiological condition (pH 7.4, 37 °C). The physicochemical characteristics, including gelation rate, mechanical strength and viscosity, of the PEG-PACU hydrogels could be finely tuned by varying the polymer weight, pH and temperature of the copolymer. An in vivo injectable study in the back of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats indicated that the copolymer could form an in situ gel, which exhibited a homogenous porous structure. In addition, an in vivo biodegradation study of the PEG-PACU hydrogels showed controlled degradation of the gel matrix without inflammation at the injection site and the surrounding tissue. The hGH-loaded PEG-PACU copolymer solution readily formed a hydrogel in SD rats, which subsequently inhibited the initial hGH burst and led to the sustained release of hGH. Overall, the PEG-PACU-based copolymers prepared in this study are expected to be useful biomaterials for the sustained delivery of hGH.

  7. Soil Quality and Colloid Transport under Biodegradable Mulches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintim, Henry; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Ghimire, Shuresh; Flury, Markus; Bary, Andy; Schaeffer, Sean; DeBruyn, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Polyethylene (PE) mulch is commonly used in agriculture to increase water use efficiency, to control weeds, manage plant diseases, and maintain a favorable micro-climate for plant growth. However, producers need to retrieve and safely dispose PE mulch after usage, which creates enormous amounts of plastic waste. Substituting PE mulch with biodegradable plastic mulches could alleviate disposal needs. However, repeated applications of biodegradable mulches, which are incorporated into the soil after the growing season, may cause deterioration of soil quality through breakdown of mulches into colloidal fragments, which can be transported through soil. Findings from year 1 of a 5-year field experiment will be presented.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyimide copolymers containing ladder-like polysiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linqian

    self-assembly methods. Subsequently, LPS was incorporated into PUI copolymer followed by imidization. It was shown that full imidization can be achieved at a relatively low temperature of 150°C. It was also shown that the presence of LPS in the copolymer significantly decreased the surface energy, improved the damping ability and thermal dimensional stability of the thin films.

  9. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(l-lactide-b-poly (l-phenylalanine Hybrid Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Planellas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials constituted by peptides and synthetic polymers have nowadays a great interest since they can combine the properties and functions of each constitutive block, being also possible to modify the final characteristics by using different topologies. Poly(l-lactide-b-l-phenylalanine copolymers with various block lengths were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide and the N-carboxyanhydride of l-phenylalanine. The resulting block copolymers were characterized by NMR spectrometry, IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, MALDI-TOF and UV-vis, revealing the successful incorporation of the polyphenylalanine (PPhe peptide into the previously formed poly(l-lactide (PLLA polymer chain. X-ray diffraction and DSC data also suggested that the copolymers were phase-separated in domains containing either crystalline PLLA or PPhe phases. A peculiar thermal behavior was also found by thermogravimetric analysis when polyphenylalanine blocks were incorporated into polylactide.

  10. Adsorption dynamics of L-glutamic acid copolymers at a heptane/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverung, C J; Radke, C J; Blanch, H W

    1998-02-16

    Random copolymers of glutamic acid (glu-ala, glu-leu, glu-phe, glu-tyr) were employed to investigate the relationship between side chain structure and peptide charge on adsorption behavior at an oil/water boundary. Adsorption of a series of glutamate copolymers at a heptane/water interface was examined by the dynamic pendant-drop method to determine interfacial tension. Incorporation of leucine or phenylalanine into a glutamate copolymer results in greater tension reduction than incorporation of alanine or tyrosine. These effects are amplified at pH values near the isoelectric point of glutamate, where macroscopic adsorbed films of glu-leu and glu-phe exhibit gel-like properties in response to interfacial area compression. Differences in interfacial tension behavior of glu-tyr and glu-phe indicate the importance of the tyrosine p-hydroxyl group on adsorption and aggregation at the oil/water interface. PMID:9540205

  11. Characterization of biodegradation intermediates of nonionic surfactants by MALDI-MS. 2. Oxidative biodegradation profiles of uniform octylphenol polyethoxylate in 18O-labeled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Shibata, Atsushi; Wang, Yang; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the biodegradation intermediates of octylphenol octaethoxylate (OP(8)EO) by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The biodegradation test study was carried out in a pure culture (Pseudomonas putida S-5) under aerobic conditions using OP(8)EO as the sole carbon source and (18)O-labeled water as an incubation medium. In the MALDI-MS spectra of biodegraded samples, a series of OP(n)EO molecules with n = 2-8 EO units and their corresponding carboxylic acid products (OP(n)EC) were observed. The use of purified OP(8)EO enabled one to distinguish the shortened OPEO molecules as biodegradation intermediates. Furthermore, the formation of OP(8)EC (the oxidized product of OP(8)EO) supported the notion that terminal oxidation is a step in the biodegradation process. When biodegradation study was carried out in (18)O-labeled water, incorporation of (18)O atoms into the carboxyl group was observed for OPEC, while no incorporation was observed for the shortened OPEO products. These results could provide some rationale to the biodegradation mechanism of alkylphenol polyethoxylates. PMID:12523845

  12. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  13. Syntheses and Surface Properties of Polyacrylonitrile-based Copolymer Membranes Containing Sugar Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-jun; WAN Ling-shu; DAI Zheng-wei; KOU Rui-qiang; XU Zhi-kang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes, sugar moieties were incorporated into acrylonitrile-based copolymers via the radical copolymerization of α-allyl glucoside(AG) with acrylonitrile(AN) with 2,2'-azobis-iso-butyronitrile(AIBN) as the initiator in dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO). It was found that the yield increased with the increase of the initiator concentration and reaction time, while it decreased with the increase of the monomer molar ratio of AG to AN. Raising the AG proportion in the monomer mixture resulted in the increase of the AG content in the copolymer. Mv of the copolymers decreased with increasing the AG monomer fraction in feed. The copolymers were fabricated into dense membranes and their surface properties were studied by means of the water contact angle measurement and platelet adhesion tests. It was found that the static water contact angle on the membrane decreased significantly from 70° to 33° with the increase of the AG content. The adhesive number of platelets on the membrane surface also decreased significantly with increasing AG content in the copolymers. These results demonstrate that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the acrylonitrile-based copolymer membranes could be improved efficiently by the copolymerization of acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  14. Impacts of Repeat Unit Structure and Copolymer Architecture on Thermal and Solution Properties in Homopolymers, Copolymers, and Copolymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrou, Stephen Raye

    Gradient copolymers are a relatively new type of copolymer architecture in which the distribution of comonomers gradually varies over the length of the copolymer chain, resulting in a number of unusual properties derived from the arrangement of repeat units. For example, nanophase-segregated gradient copolymers exhibit extremely broad glass transition temperatures (Tgs) resulting from the wide range of compositions present in the nanostructure. This dissertation presents a number of studies on how repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture dictate bulk and solution properties, specifically taking inspiration from the gradient copolymer architecture and comparing the response from this compositionally heterogeneous material to other more conventional materials. The glass transition behavior of a range of common homopolymers was studied to determine the effects of subunit structure on Tg breadth, observing a significant increase in T g breadth with increasing side chain length in methacrylate-based homopolymers and random copolymers. Additionally, increasing the composition distribution of copolymers, either by blending individual random copolymers of different overall composition or synthesizing random copolymers to high conversion, resulted in significant increases to Tg breadth. Plasticization of homopolymers and random copolymers with low molecular weight additives also served to increase the Tg breadth; the most dramatic effect was observed in the selective plasticization of a styrene/4-vinylpyridine gradient copolymer with increases in T g breadth to values above 100 °C. In addition, the effects of repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture on other polymer properties besides Tg were also investigated. The intrinsic fluorescence of styrene units in styrene-containing copolymers was studied, noting the impact of repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture on the resulting fluorescence spectra in solution. The impact of repeat unit structure on

  15. Gas Permeation through Polystyrene-Poly(ethylene oxide) Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel, Jr.; Minelli, Matteo; Giacinti-Baschetti, Marco; Balsara, Nitash

    2013-03-01

    Lithium air batteries are a potential technology for affordable energy storage. They consist of a lithium metal anode and a porous air cathode separated by a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, such as PEO/LiTFSI (PEO = poly(ethylene oxide), LiTFSI = lithium bis-trifluoromethane sulfonimide). For extended operation of such a battery, the polymer electrolyte must conduct lithium ions while blocking electrons and gases present in air. In order to maintain a pressure difference the membrane must be mechanically robust, which can be achieved by incorporating the PEO into a block copolymer with a glassy block such as PS (PS = polystyrene). To protect the lithium electrode, the membrane must have low permeability to gases in air such as CO2, N2, and O2. We have therefore studied the permeation of pure gases through a PS-PEO block copolymer. A high molecular weight, symmetric block copolymer with a lamellar morphology was used to cast free-standing membranes. Gas permeability was measured through these membranes with a standard, pressure-based technique. A model was developed to account for transport through the polymer membrane consisting of semi-crystalline PEO lamellae and amorphous PS lamellae. PEO crystallinity was extracted from the permeation model and compares well with values from differential scanning calorimetry measurements.

  16. Kinking mechanisms in block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Daniel L.; Winey, Karen I.

    1998-03-01

    Two of the primary models proposed for kink formation are fixed hinge rotation and boundary migration. Our results regarding steady shear induced kink bands in an aligned lamellar poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) diblock copolymer are consistent with a fixed hinge rotation mechanism. When the shear strain is above a critical strain, a range of kink widths and kink angles are produced at each shear rate studied. Moreover, the kink widths are independent of rate and strain, having a characteristic size similar to that of remaining defects in the initially aligned block copolymer. Rounded folds, similar in size, shape, and orientation to kink bands, are produced at these residual defects at shear strains below the critical stain. These rounded folds may sharpen into angular folds or kink bands with additional strain.

  17. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kuwayama; Eri Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt). BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp ...

  18. The influence of chain stretching on the phase behavior of multiblock copolymer and comb copolymer melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angerman, HJ; ten Brinke, G

    2003-01-01

    The subject of this paper is inspired by microphase-separated copolymer melts in which a small-scale structure is present inside one of the phases of a large-scale structure. Such a situation can arise in a diblock copolymer melt, if one of the blocks of the diblock is in itself a multiblock copolym

  19. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 w

  20. Characterization and micellization of a poloxamer block copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, S.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    2007-01-01

    Several poloxamers that are symmetrical EPE block copolymers (E and P are ethylene and propylene oxide, respectively) have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography on Superose columns in water. The poloxamers contain between 12 and 26 wt% of smaller-size UV-absorbing impurities....... Poloxamer P94 (E28P48E28) forms micelles with increasing temperature, and micellization was investigated by eluent gel permeation chromatography (EGPC). EGPC results demonstrate that P94 impurities are not incorporated into the micelles up to 38°C. The importance of poloxamer heterogeneity for thermodynamic...

  1. A new biodegradable and biocompatible gadolinium (III) -polymer for liver magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Xue, Rong; You, Tianyan; Li, Xiaojing; Pei, Fengkui

    2015-07-01

    A new biodegradable and biocompatible gadolinium (III) -copolymer (ACL-A2-DOTA-Gd) has been developed as a potential liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. ACL-A2-DOTA-Gd consisted of a poly (aspartic acid-co-leucine) unit bound with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-gadolinium (Gd-DOTA) via the linkage of ethylenediamine. In vitro, the biodegradable experiment and cytotoxicity assay showed the biodegradability and biocompatibility of this gadolinium-polymer. ACL-A2-DOTA-Gd presented an increase in relaxivity of 2.4 times than the clinical Gd-DOTA. In vivo, gadolinium (III)-copolymer was mainly accumulated in the liver, and it could be excreted via the renal and hepatobiliary mechanism. The average enhancement of ACL-A2-DOTA-Gd (60.71±5.93%, 50-80 min) in liver was 2.62-fold greater than that of Gd-DOTA (23.16±3.55%, 10-30 min). ACL-A2-DOTA-Gd could be as a potential liver MRI contrast agent with a long time-window.

  2. Graphene oxide-enhanced sol-gel transition sensitivity and drug release performance of an amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huawen; Wang, Xiaowen; Lee, Ka I.; Ma, Kaikai; Hu, Hong; Xin, John H.

    2016-08-01

    We report the fabrication of a highly sensitive amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite incorporating with graphene oxide (GO), which exhibited a low-intensity UV light-triggered sol-gel transition. Non-cytotoxicity was observed for the composite gels after the GO incorporation. Of particular interest were the microchannels that were formed spontaneously within the GO-incorporated UV-gel, which expedited sustained drug release. Therefore, the present highly UV-sensitive, non-cytotoxic amphiphilic copolymer-based composites is expected to provide enhanced photothermal therapy and chemotherapy by means of GO’s unique photothermal properties, as well as through efficient passive targeting resulting from the sol-gel transition characteristic of the copolymer-based system with improved sensitivity, which thus promises the enhanced treatment of patients with cancer and other diseases.

  3. Graphene oxide-enhanced sol-gel transition sensitivity and drug release performance of an amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huawen; Wang, Xiaowen; Lee, Ka I; Ma, Kaikai; Hu, Hong; Xin, John H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a highly sensitive amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite incorporating with graphene oxide (GO), which exhibited a low-intensity UV light-triggered sol-gel transition. Non-cytotoxicity was observed for the composite gels after the GO incorporation. Of particular interest were the microchannels that were formed spontaneously within the GO-incorporated UV-gel, which expedited sustained drug release. Therefore, the present highly UV-sensitive, non-cytotoxic amphiphilic copolymer-based composites is expected to provide enhanced photothermal therapy and chemotherapy by means of GO’s unique photothermal properties, as well as through efficient passive targeting resulting from the sol-gel transition characteristic of the copolymer-based system with improved sensitivity, which thus promises the enhanced treatment of patients with cancer and other diseases. PMID:27539298

  4. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  5. Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogel based on PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for sustained delivery of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Gharechahi, Marzieh; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khashyarmanesh, Bibi Zahra; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thermosensitive, water-soluble, and biodegradable triblock copolymer PCL600-PEG6000-PCL600 was used to form supramolecular hydrogel (SMGel) by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The prepared SMGel was investigated as a carrier for sustained release of dexamethasone. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL [where PCL = polycaprolactone, PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)] was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization method using microwave irradiation. The polymerization reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). SMGel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. The sol-to-gel transition time was measured at various concentrations of copolymer and γ-CD. As-prepared SMGel was used to prepare a sustained, controllable drug delivery system of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The SMGel was also characterized in terms of rheological, morphological, and structural properties. Results obtained from proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( (1)H-NMR) and GPC demonstrated that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PEG-PCL copolymer. The SMGel with excellent syringability was prepared by mixing of 20% wt γ-CD and 10% wt of copolymer within 4 s. The SMGel containing 10% wt copolymer, 20% wt γ-CD, and 0.5% or 0.1% wt dexamethasone released approximately 100% and 45% of drug over up to 23 days, respectively. It could be concluded that SMGel based on self-assembly of inclusion complexes between PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-CD could be used as a basis for injectable drug delivery systems that provide sustained and controlled release of macromolecular drugs such as dexamethasone. PMID:27051627

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical characterization of side-chain copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Robert A.; Sounik, James R.; Popolo, J.; Holcomb, Douglas P.

    1991-12-01

    Third order nonlinear optical properties of side-chain methacrylate copolymers incorporating 4-amino-4'-nitrostilbene, 4-oxy-4'nitrostilbene, and functionalized silicon phthalocyanine chromophores are measured by picosecond degenerate four wave mixing at 598 nm. The nonresonant stilbene system exhibits a pulse limited ultrafast response, while the resonant phthalocyanine system has a large excited state nonlinearity. Comparison of silicon phthalocyanine copolymers with solubilized guest/host systems dispersed in polymethylmethacrylate illustrate the importance of aggregation and phthalocyanine ring interaction in determining the linear optical properties and the magnitude and speed of the nonlinear optical response.

  7. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and its copolymers: A review of recent advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Anbreen; Zuber, Mohammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Tabasum, Shazia

    2016-08-01

    Traditional mineral oil based plastics are important commodity to enhance the comfort and quality of life but the accumulation of these plastics in the environment has become a major universal problem due to their low biodegradation. Solution to the plastic waste management includes incineration, recycling and landfill disposal methods. These processes are very time consuming and expensive. Biopolymers are important alternatives to the petroleum-based plastics due to environment friendly manufacturing processes, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore use of novel biopolymers, such as polylactide, polysaccharides, aliphatic polyesters and polyhydroxyalkanoates is of interest. PHAs are biodegradable polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HA) produced from renewable resources by using microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds. Even though PHAs are promising candidate for biodegradable polymers, however, the production cost limit their application on an industrial scale. This article provides an overview of various substrates, microorganisms for the economical production of PHAs and its copolymers. Recent advances in PHAs to reduce the cost and to improve the performance of PHAs have also been discussed. PMID:27126172

  8. Biodegradable micromechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Greve, Anders; Schmid, Silvan;

    The development of biopolymers for food packaging, medical engineering or drug delivery is a growing field of research [1]. At the same time, the interest in methods for detailed analysis of biopolymers is increasing. Micromechanical sensors are versatile tools for the characterization of mechani......The development of biopolymers for food packaging, medical engineering or drug delivery is a growing field of research [1]. At the same time, the interest in methods for detailed analysis of biopolymers is increasing. Micromechanical sensors are versatile tools for the characterization...... of biopolymers to microfabrication is challenging, as these polymers are affected by common processes such as photolithography or wet etching. Here, we present two methods for fabrication of biodegradable micromechanical sensors. First, we fabricated bulk biopolymer microcantilevers using nanoimprint lithography...

  9. Lung toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, Elias; Grabowski, Nadége; Mura, Simona; Vergnaud, Juliette; Tsapis, Nicolas; Hillaireau, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable nanoparticles exhibit high potentialities for local or systemic drug delivery through lung administration making them attractive as nanomedicine carriers. However, since particulate matter or some inorganic manufactured nanoparticles exposed to lung cells have provoked cytotoxic effects, inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, it becomes important to investigate nanomedicine toxicity towards the lungs. This is the reason why, in the present review, the behavior of biodegradable nanoparticles towards the different parts of the respiratory tract as well as the toxicological consequences, measured on several models in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo, are described. Taken all together, the different studies carried out so far conclude on no or slight toxicity of biodegradable nanoparticles.

  10. Silk fibroin/copolymer composite hydrogels for the controlled and sustained release of hydrophobic/hydrophilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tianyi; Jiang, Zhijuan; Wang, Peng; Bie, Shiyu; Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi

    2015-10-15

    In the present study, a composite system for the controlled and sustained release of hydrophobic/hydrophilic drugs is described. Composite hydrogels were prepared by blending silk fibroin (SF) with PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer under mild aqueous condition. Aspirin and indomethacin were incorporated into SF/Copolymer hydrogels as two model drugs with different water-solubility. The degradation of composite hydrogels during the drug release was mainly caused by the hydrolysis of copolymers. SF with stable β-sheet-rich structure was not easily degraded which maintained the mechanical integrity of composite hydrogel. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of copolymers with model drugs would significantly alter the morphological features of composite hydrogels. Various parameters such as drug load, concentration ratio, and composition of copolymer were considered in vitro drug release. Aspirin as a hydrophilic drug could be controlled release from composite hydrogel at a constant rate for 5 days. Its release was mainly driven by diffusion-based mechanism. Hydrophobic indomethacin could be encapsulated in copolymer nanoparticles distributing in the composite hydrogel. Its sustained release was mainly degradation controlled which could last up to two weeks. SF/Copolymer hydrogel has potential as a useful composite system widely applying for controlled and sustained release of various drugs.

  11. Obtaining nanofibers from sisal to reinforce nanocomposites biodegradable matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose nanofibers have been extracted by acid hydrolysis from sisal fibers. They are seen a good source material due to availability and low cost. The nanofibers was evaluated by thermal degradation behavior using thermogravimetry (TG), crystallinity by X-ray diffraction and morphological structure was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. The resulting nanofibers was shown high crystallinity and a network of rodlike cellulose elements. The nanofibers will be incorporated as reinforcement in a biodegradable matrix and evaluated. (author)

  12. Biodegradable Polycaprolactone-Titania Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla; Cerrada, María L.; Marta Fernández-García; Anna Kubacka; Manuel Ferrer; Marcos Fernández-García

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites obtained from the incorporation of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (≈10 nm average primary particle size) in different amounts, ranging from 0.5 to 5 wt.%, into a biodegradable polycaprolactone matrix are achieved via a straightforward and commercial melting processing. The resulting nanocomposites have been structurally and thermally characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide/small angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS/SAXS, respectively) and differential scanning ca...

  13. A study on fabrication of polyester copolymers(IV): Physical properties of PET/BPA copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, E.J.; Lee, S.H. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea); Gal, Y.S. [Kyungil Univeristy, Kyongsan (Korea); Jang, S.H. [Kumi College, Kumi (Korea); Choi, H.K. [Sangju National University, Sangju (Korea); Shin, B.Y.; Sur, G.S.; Kim, B.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    PET/BPA copolymer of terephthalic acid, bisphenol-A and ethylene glycol was melt-pressed and quenched in ice water. This copolymer film was drawn by capillary rheometer. Shrinkage, crystallinity, morphology, thermal, dynamic mechanical, and mechanical properties of these copolymer films were investigated. The PET/BPA copolymer film exhibited T{sub m} lower than that of PET film. The crystallinity and density of these drawn copolymer films increased with draw ratio and draw rate but decreased with draw temperature. The tensile strength and tensile modulus of the copolymer films increased with draw ratio but decreased with draw temperature. Shrinkage of the drawn copolymer film decreased with draw ratio and draw rate. (author). 32 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Long-term evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a thin-walled biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, using walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the long-term functional nerve recovery after reconstruction of a IO-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, with a thin-walled nerve guide, composed of a biodegradable copolymer of DL-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon-CL)]. To evaluate both motor

  15. PHASE STRUCTURE AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MULTI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS,POLY[1,6-BIS(4-OXYBENZOYL-OXY)HEXANE TEREPHTHALATE]-b-BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Zhang; Xiong-yan Zhao; De-shan Liu; Qi-xiang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Liquid crystalline multi-block copolymers poly[1,6-bis(4-oxybenzoyl-oxy)hexane terephthalate]-b-bisphenol A polycarbonate (PHTH-6-b-PC) with different segments of polycarbonate (PC) and thermotropic polyester PHTH-6 were synthesized in tetrachloroethane at 144~146℃. The influence of segment length on the resulting phase structure and thermal behavior of block copolymers was also discussed. It is demonstrated by TEM and DMA that the resulting block copolymers show a considerable microphase separation. The degree of phase separation and the thermal behavior of the block copolymers are strongly dependent on the molecular weight of the segments incorporated.

  16. Thermochemical characteristics of chitosan-polylactide copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goruynova, P. E.; Larina, V. N.; Smirnova, N. N.; Tsverova, N. E.; Smirnova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    The energies of combustion of chitosan and its block-copolymers with different polylactide contents are determined in a static bomb calorimeter. Standard enthalpies of combustion and formation are calculated for these substances. The dependences of the thermochemical characteristics on block-copolymer composition are determined and discussed.

  17. Copolymers at the solid-liquid interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copolymers consisting of both adsorbing and nonadsorbing segments can show an adsorption behaviour which is very different from that of homopolymers. We have mainly investigated the adsorption of AB diblock copolymers, which have one adsorbing block (anchor) and one nonadsorbing block (buoy). The an

  18. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...

  19. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  20. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS wi...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers.......Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... with molecular weight around 20 – 30 kg mol-1. MWCNTs were treated with surfactant and sonicated for better dispersion in the polymer matrix. The conductivity and mechanical properties of conducting elastomers were thoroughly investigated including stress and strain at break. The developed conducting elastomers...

  1. Influence of copolymer composition on the phase behavior of solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Kleetz, Tobias; Korf, Marcel; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into excipients (e.g., polymers) to formulate an amorphous solid dispersion is a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of the API. The application of copolymer excipients allows access to combinations of different monomers and thus to the design of excipients to improve solid-dispersion properties. In this work, the thermodynamic phase behavior of solid dispersions was investigated as a function of the API, type of monomer, and copolymer composition. The glass-transition temperatures and API solubilities in the solid dispersions of naproxen and indomethacin in polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, and copolymers with different weight fractions of vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl actetate were investigated. It is shown that the thermodynamic phase behavior of API/copolymer solid dispersions is a function of monomer type and copolymer composition. This effect was also predicted by using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The glass-transition temperature of the solid dispersions was calculated with the Gordon-Taylor equation. PMID:25295846

  2. Study on the crystallization of segmented GL-b-[GL-co-TMC-co-CL]-b-GL copolymer with application as monofilar suture

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Lobato, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the kinetics of both, isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization, of a biodegradable monofilar suture commercialized as MonosynTM. This polymer is constituted by hard blocks of polyglycolide and soft segments derived from glycolide, ε- caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate. Specifically, the segmented nature in copolymers improves their properties and allows their use in biomedical area as a surgical suture. First of all, the polymer was characterized b...

  3. Copolymer Melts in Disordered Media

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanow, S.; Dobrynin, A.; Vilgis, T.; Binder, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have considered a symmetric AB block copolymer melt in a gel matrix with preferential adsorption of A monomers on the gel. Near the point of the microphase separation transition such a system can be described by the random field Landau-Brazovskii model, where randomness is built into the system during the polymerization of the gel matrix. By using the technique of the 2-nd Legendre transform, the phase diagram of the system is calculated. We found that preferential adsorption of the copoly...

  4. Gas foamed open porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek Kyoung; Yoon, Jun Jin; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Tae Gwan

    2006-01-01

    Highly open porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres were fabricated for use as injectable scaffold microcarriers for cell delivery. A modified water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsion solvent evaporation method was employed for producing the microspheres. The incorporation of an effervescent salt, ammonium bicarbonate, in the primary W1 droplets spontaneously produced carbon dioxide and ammonia gas bubbles during the solvent evaporation process, which not only stabilized the primary emulsion, but also created well inter-connected pores in the resultant microspheres. The porous microspheres fabricated under various gas foaming conditions were characterized. The surface pores became as large as 20 microm in diameter with increasing the concentration of ammonium bicarbonate, being sufficient enough for cell infiltration and seeding. These porous scaffold microspheres could be potentially utilized for cultivating cells in a suspension manner and for delivering the seeded cells to the tissue defect site in an injectable manner. PMID:16023197

  5. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafang Li; Yufeng Zheng; Ling Qin

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable metals (BMs) are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompat-ibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  6. Progress of biodegradable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals (BMs are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs. Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompatibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.

  7. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan

    -b-PS. The incorporation of the hydrophilic polymer allows for an investigation of the effect of hydration on ionic conductivity, resulting in the increase in membrane water affinity, enhancement of conductivity and reduced dependence of conductivity on relative humidity. A study of crosslinking of block copolymers was done wherein the crosslinking occurs in the non-matrix phase in order to maintain mechanical properties. The formation of a cationic crosslinked structure improves the mechanical integrity of the membrane in water while showing little deleterious effect on ionic conductivity and mechanical properties.

  8. Coating of poly(p-xylylene) by PLA-PEO-PLA triblock copolymers with excellent polymer-polymer adhesion for stent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Phillip; Westedt, Ullrich; Wombacher, Ralf; Kissel, Thomas; Schaper, Andreas; Wendorff, Joachim H; Greiner, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) was deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on stainless steel substrates. These PPX films were coated by solution casting of poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(lactide) triblock copolymers (PLA-PEO-PLA) loaded with 14C-labeled paclitaxel. Adhesion of PLA-PEO-PLA on PPX substrate coatings was measured using the blister test method. Excellent adhesion of the block copolymers on PPX substrates was found. Stress behavior and film integrity of PLA-PEO-PLA was compared to pure PLA on unexpanded and expanded stent bodies and was found to be superior for the block copolymers. The release of paclitaxel from the biodegradable coatings was studied under physiological conditions using the scintillation counter method. Burst release of paclitaxel was observed from PLA-PEO-PLA layers regardless of composition, but an increase in paclitaxel loading was observed with increasing content of PEO. PMID:16827574

  9. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  10. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Pei; Liu, Peifeng; Gong, Tao; Li, Suming; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-02-01

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA-CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA-CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA-CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA-CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. PMID:24448591

  11. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA–CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA–CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA–CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA–CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. (paper)

  12. Tailor-made pentablock copolymer based formulation for sustained ocular delivery of protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sulabh P; Vaishya, Ravi; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Tamboli, Viral; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research article is to report the synthesis and evaluation of novel pentablock copolymers for controlled delivery of macromolecules in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Novel biodegradable PB copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization. Various ratios and molecular weights of each block (polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone) were selected for synthesis and to optimize release profile of FITC-BSA, IgG, and bevacizumab from nanoparticles (NPs) and thermosensitive gel. NPs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading. In vitro release study of proteins from NPs alone and composite formulation (NPs suspended in thermosensitive gel) was performed. Composite formulations demonstrated no or negligible burst release with continuous near zero-order release in contrast to NPs alone. Hydrodynamic diameter of protein therapeutics and hydrophobicity of PB copolymer exhibited significant effect on entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profile. CD spectroscopy confirmed retention of structural conformation of released protein. Biological activity of released bevacizumab was confirmed by in vitro cell proliferation and cell migration assays. It can be concluded that novel PB polymers can serve a platform for sustained delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:25045540

  13. Tailor-Made Pentablock Copolymer Based Formulation for Sustained Ocular Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh P. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research article is to report the synthesis and evaluation of novel pentablock copolymers for controlled delivery of macromolecules in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Novel biodegradable PB copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization. Various ratios and molecular weights of each block (polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone were selected for synthesis and to optimize release profile of FITC-BSA, IgG, and bevacizumab from nanoparticles (NPs and thermosensitive gel. NPs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading. In vitro release study of proteins from NPs alone and composite formulation (NPs suspended in thermosensitive gel was performed. Composite formulations demonstrated no or negligible burst release with continuous near zero-order release in contrast to NPs alone. Hydrodynamic diameter of protein therapeutics and hydrophobicity of PB copolymer exhibited significant effect on entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profile. CD spectroscopy confirmed retention of structural conformation of released protein. Biological activity of released bevacizumab was confirmed by in vitro cell proliferation and cell migration assays. It can be concluded that novel PB polymers can serve a platform for sustained delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  14. Amphiphilic Spider Silk-Like Block Copolymers with Tunable Physical Properties and Morphology for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen; Krishnaji, Sreevidhya; Kaplan, David; Cebe, Peggy

    2013-03-01

    Silk-based materials are important candidates for biomedical applications because of their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. To generate silk amphiphilic biopolymers with potential use in guided tissue repair and drug delivery, a novel family of spider silk-like block copolymers was synthesized by recombinant DNA technology. Block copolymer thermal properties, structural conformations, protein-water interactions, and self-assembly morphologies were studied with respect to well controlled protein amino acid sequences. A theoretical model was used to predict the heat capacity of the protein and protein-water complex. Using thermal analysis, two glass transitions were observed: Tg1 is related to conformational changes caused by bound water removal, while Tg2 (>Tg1) is the glass transition of dry protein. Real-time infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that different secondary structural changes occur during the two Tg relaxations. Using scanning electron microscopy, fibrillar networks and hollow vesicles are observed, depending on protein block copolymer sequence. This study provides a deeper understanding of the relationship between protein physical properties and amino acid sequence, with implications for design of other protein-based materials. Support was provided from the NSF CBET-0828028 and the MRI Program under DMR-0520655 for thermal analysis instrumentation.

  15. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  16. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  17. Adhesion of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.S.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Souza, E.J.; Schick, B.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of pillar dimensions and stiffness of biocompatible and biodegradable micropatterned surfaces on adhesion on different compliant substrates. The micropatterned adhesives were based on biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PL

  18. Poly (3-Hydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Jain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 1920’s, a polyester called poly (3-hydroxybutyrate was discovered in bacterial cells. This compound, otherwise known as PHB, is part of a polyester family called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are used as an energy and carbon sto rage compound within certain bacterial cells. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are thermoplastic, biodegradable polyesters synthesized by some bacteria from renewable carbon sources. However, their application is limited by high production cost. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs have attracted research and commercial interests worldwide because they can be used as biodegradable thermoplastics and also because they can be produced from renewable resources. This review will present an overview on synthesis and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, development as biodegradable plastics and its potential production from renewable resources such as palm oil products.

  19. Testing biodegradability with standardized methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagga, U

    1997-12-01

    Laboratory test methods are used by industry laboratories to determine biodegradability, an important parameter for the evaluation of the ecological behaviour of substances. Biodegradability has a key role due to the simple fact that a degradable substance will cause no long term risk in the environment. The great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants for treating waste water and solid wastes gave rise to a rather large number of test methods based on different test principles. To guarantee the acceptance of the test results by authorities and customers internationally standardized methods (ISO, OECD) and established quality criteria (GLP, EN 45,000, ISO 9000) are used. PMID:9415981

  20. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  1. The effect of chromophores concentration on the nonlinear optical activity of methacrylic copolymers with azochromophores in the side chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadratic nonlinear-optical characteristics of thin films based on methacrylic copolymers with of chromophore-containing monomers incorporated at various concentrations are measured by Second Harmonic Generation technique. Optimal chromophores content is obtained to be about 17 mol%, rather high values of nonlinear-optical coefficient, d33, up to 60 pm/V, are determined

  2. Treatment of critically sized femoral defects with recombinant BMP-2 delivered by a modified mPEG-PLGA biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Kuo-Ti; Hsieh, Meng-Yow; Lin, Carl T.; Chen, Chin-Fu; Lee, Mel S.; Huang, Yi-You; CHANG, PEY-JIUM

    2016-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of a segmental fracture with massive bone loss is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The aim of our study was to develop a suitable biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel system as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 delivery in the treatment of critical-sized femoral defects. Methods A block copolymer composed of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and 2, 2’-Bis (2-oxazolin) (Box) was synthesized by rin...

  3. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong...... scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from...

  4. TRANSITION IN THE MELT OF FEP COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guanyi; YUE Junshi

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the transition in molten FEP copolymer was examined in relation to the enthalpy change, mechanical damping and melt viscosity. For a pre-heat-treated FEP copolymer sample a small endothermic peak appeared at 309-312 ℃ in DSC trace with enthalpy change 0.03-0.05cal/g. A peak was also detected in damping versus temperature curve at the same temperature range.The rheological property of FEP copolymer melt was similar to that of liquid crystal, but no birefrigence was viewed in the melt. Therefore the transition was explained as the melting of small crystallites which persist in typical copolymer beyond its melting temperature. These crystallites can act as nuclei for crystallization upon cooling.

  5. Kinetics of biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Hsien, Tzu-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model to describe the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates diffusive mass transport and Haldane kinetics mechanisms. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A laboratory-scale column reactor was employed to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine biokinetic parameters for the model simulation with the initial biofilm thickness assumed. The model simulated the phenol effluent concentration results well. Removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 94-96.5% for different hydraulic retention times at a steady-state condition. Model simulations results are in agreement with experimental results. The approaches of model and experiments presented in this paper could be used to design a pilot-scale or full-scale fixed-biofilm reactor system for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater from petrochemical and oil refining plants.

  6. Biodegradable congress 2012; Bioschmierstoff-Kongress 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Within the Guelzower expert discussions at 5th and 6th June, 2012 in Oberhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Promotion of biodegradable lubricants by means of research and development as well as public relations (Steffen Daebeler); (2) Biodegradable lubricants - An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the engaged product groups (Hubertus Murrenhoff); (3) Standardization of biodegradable lubricants - CEN/DIN standard committees - state of the art (Rolf Luther); (4) Market research for the utilization of biodegradable lubricants and means of proof of sustainability (Norbert Schmitz); (5) Fields of application for high performance lubricants and requirements upon the products (Gunther Kraft); (6) Investigations of biodegradable lubricants in rolling bearings and gears (Christoph Hentschke); (7) Biodegradable lubricants in central lubrication systems Development of gears and bearings of offshore wind power installations (Reiner Wagner); (8) Investigations towards environmental compatibility of biodegradable lubricants used in offshore wind power installations (Tolf Schneider); (9) Development of glycerine based lubricants for the industrial metalworking (Harald Draeger); (10) Investigations and utilization of biodegradable oils as electroinsulation oils in transformers (Stefan Tenbohlen); (11) Operational behaviour of lubricant oils in vegetable oil operation and Biodiesel operation (Horst Hamdorf); (12) Lubrication effect of lubricating oil of the third generation (Stefan Heitzig); (13) Actual market development from the view of a producer of biodegradable lubricants (Frank Lewen); (14) Utilization of biodegradable lubricants in forestry harvesters (Guenther Weise); (15) New biodegradable lubricants based on high oleic sunflower oil (Otto Botz); (16) Integrated fluid concept - optimized technology and service package for users of biodegradable lubricants (Juergen Baer); (17) Utilization of a bio oil sensor to control

  7. Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yılgör, Emel; Yılgör, İskender

    2013-01-01

    Accepted Manuscript Title: Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties and applications Author: Emel Yilgor Iskender Yilgor PII: S0079-6700(13)00141-X DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2013.11.003 Reference: JPPS 848 To appear in: Progress in Polymer Science Received date: 1-8-2013 Revised date: 4-11-2013 Accepted date: 8-11-2013 Please cite this article as: Yilgor E, Yilgor I, Silicone containing copolymers: Synthesis, properties ...

  8. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fengxiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and...

  9. Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    2001-02-27

    The objectives of this work was to: synthesize responsive copolymer systems; characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; measure rheological properties of aqueous fluids in fixed geometry flow profiles; and to tailor final polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated conditions. This report focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli responsive copolymers, the investigation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow and the design of a rheometer capable of measuring very dilute aqueous polymer solutions at low torque.

  10. Melittin-grafted HPMA-Oligolysine Based Copolymers for Improved Gene Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Schellinger, Joan G.; Pahang, Joshuel A.; Johnson, Russell N.; CHU, DAVID S.H.; Sellers, Drew L.; Maris, Don O.; Convertine, Anthony J; Stayton, Patrick S; Horner, Philip J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery systems capable of transfecting cells in the brain are critical in realizing the potential impact of nucleic acid therapeutics for diseases of the central nervous system. In this study, the membrane-lytic peptide melittin was incorporated into block copolymers synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first block, designed for melittin conjugation, was composed of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and pyridyl disu...

  11. Structure and Mechanical Response of Protein Hydrogels Reinforced by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Glassman, Matthew J.; Olsen, Bradley D.

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for responsively toughening an injectable protein hydrogel has been implemented by incorporating an associative protein as the midblock in triblock copolymers with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) endblocks, producing materials with a low yield stress necessary for injectability and durability required for load-bearing applications post-injection. Responsive reinforcement triggered by PNIPAM association leads to significant increases in the gel’s elastic modulu...

  12. Aggregate of Amphiphilic Block Copolymer as a Pseudo-Stationary Phase in Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Tohru; OHKI, Akira; Mishiro, Masaki; Tsuyashima, Osamu; Maeda, Shigeru; ナカムラ, トオル; オオキ, アキラ; ミシロ, マサキ; ツヤシマ, オサム; マエダ, シゲル; 中村, 透; 大木, 章; 艶島, 修; 前田, 滋

    1999-01-01

    The use of an aggregate of amphiphilic block copolymer 1, which consists of poly[(N-acetylimino)ethylene] and poly[(N-pentanoylimino)ethylene], for a pseudo-stationary phase in capillary electrophoresis has been examined. From gel-filtration chromatography, the aggregate from 1 (1-AG) was found to incorporate phenol. When the running solution contains 1-AG and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the electrophoretic mobility becomes nearly zero. Thus, it is found that when 1-AG and SDS are added to ...

  13. Precise Control over the Rheological Behavior of Associating Stimuli-Responsive Block Copolymer Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Jérémy Brassinne; Flanco Zhuge; Charles-André Fustin; Jean-François Gohy

    2015-01-01

    “Smart” materials have considerably evolved over the last few years for specific applications. They rely on intelligent macromolecules or (supra-)molecular motifs to adapt their structure and properties in response to external triggers. Here, a supramolecular stimuli-responsive polymer gel is constructed from heterotelechelic double hydrophilic block copolymers that incorporate thermo-responsive sequences. These macromolecular building units are synthesized via a three-step controlled radical...

  14. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  15. Biodegradation kinetics at low concentrations (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toräng, Lars; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in groundwater added sediment fines. At concentrations at or below 1 mu g/L of 2,4-D degradation kinetic was of true first order without significant growth of specific degraders and with half-life for mineralization...

  16. PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FLAX SHIVE CELLULOSE-BASED SUPERABSORBENT POLYMER UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent polymer was prepared by graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto the chain of cellulose from flax shive by using potassium persulfate (KPS as an initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as a crosslinker under microwave irradiation. SEM photographs were also studied for more information about the shive, cellulose from shive, and the superabsorbent polymer. The structure of the graft copolymer was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The biodegradability in soil was measured at 32 and 40 oC. The polymer was porous, and thermal stability of the polymer was observed up to approximately 200 oC. FT-IR analysis indicated that acrylic acid in polymer was successfully grafted onto the cellulose. The graft copolymer was found to be an effective superabsorbent resin, rapidly absorbing water to almost 1000 times its own dry weight at pH around 7.3. The water absorbency in 0.9% NaCl, KCl, FeCl3 solutions and urine were 56.47 g/g, 54.71g/g, 9.89g/g and 797.21g/g, respectively. The product biologically degraded up to 40% at 40 oC in 54 days, which shows good biodegradability.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyester copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiaomingzhou@tust.edu.cn

    2012-12-01

    A series of polyester copolymers was synthesized from 1,4-succinic acid with 1,4-butanediol and poly(ethylene glycol) through a two-step process of esterification and polycondensation in this article. The composition and physical properties of copolyesters were investigated via GPC, {sup 1}HNMR, DSC and PLM. The copolymer composition was in good agreement with that expected from the feed composition of the reactants. The melting temperature (T{sub m}), crystallization temperature (T{sub c}), and crystallinity (X{sub c}) of these copolyesters decreased gradually as the content of PEG unit increased. Otherwise, experimental results also showed that the contents of PEG in copolymers had an effect on the molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, hydrolysis degradation properties, and crystalline morphology of polyester copolymers. - Graphical abstract: The composition of polyester copolymer was determined from the {sup 1}H NMR spectra using the relative intensities of the proton peaks. As a sample, the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of polyester copolymer with 10 mol% of PEG is shown in Fig. 2: CO-(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}-CO; O-CH{sub 2}- and C-(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}-C from the SA and BD unit at {delta}2.59; {delta} 4.08 and {delta}1.67; O-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}-O from the PEG unit at {delta} 3.61. The molar composition of polyester copolymer was measured as the area ratio of {delta}3.61/({delta}4.08 + {delta}1.67) peak. The PEG unit is incorporated into the copolymers in an amount of about 9.12mol% less than that of the feed proportion. These results showed that the composition of the copolymers is in good agreement with that expected from the feed proportion. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The introduction of PEG unit changed the flexibility of PBS main chain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG unit did not alter the crystal form of PBS in copolymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG unit hindered the formation of ring-banded spherulite morphology in copolymers

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyester copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of polyester copolymers was synthesized from 1,4-succinic acid with 1,4-butanediol and poly(ethylene glycol) through a two-step process of esterification and polycondensation in this article. The composition and physical properties of copolyesters were investigated via GPC, 1HNMR, DSC and PLM. The copolymer composition was in good agreement with that expected from the feed composition of the reactants. The melting temperature (Tm), crystallization temperature (Tc), and crystallinity (Xc) of these copolyesters decreased gradually as the content of PEG unit increased. Otherwise, experimental results also showed that the contents of PEG in copolymers had an effect on the molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, hydrolysis degradation properties, and crystalline morphology of polyester copolymers. - Graphical abstract: The composition of polyester copolymer was determined from the 1H NMR spectra using the relative intensities of the proton peaks. As a sample, the 1H NMR spectrum of polyester copolymer with 10 mol% of PEG is shown in Fig. 2: CO-(CH2)2-CO; O-CH2- and C-(CH2)2-C from the SA and BD unit at δ2.59; δ 4.08 and δ1.67; O-(CH2CH2)n-O from the PEG unit at δ 3.61. The molar composition of polyester copolymer was measured as the area ratio of δ3.61/(δ4.08 + δ1.67) peak. The PEG unit is incorporated into the copolymers in an amount of about 9.12mol% less than that of the feed proportion. These results showed that the composition of the copolymers is in good agreement with that expected from the feed proportion. Highlights: ► The introduction of PEG unit changed the flexibility of PBS main chain. ► PEG unit did not alter the crystal form of PBS in copolymers. ► PEG unit hindered the formation of ring-banded spherulite morphology in copolymers. ► The copolyesters had good in vitro degradation performance. ► The composition ratio of PEG unit can adjust the in vitro degradation performance.

  19. A kinetic model for predicting biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, S; Pavlov, T; Nedelcheva, D; Reuschenbach, P; Silvani, M; Bias, R; Comber, M; Low, L; Lee, C; Parkerton, T; Mekenyan, O

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation plays a key role in the environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals. The need to assess biodegradability of a chemical for regulatory purposes supports the development of a model for predicting the extent of biodegradation at different time frames, in particular the extent of ultimate biodegradation within a '10 day window' criterion as well as estimating biodegradation half-lives. Conceptually this implies expressing the rate of catabolic transformations as a function of time. An attempt to correlate the kinetics of biodegradation with molecular structure of chemicals is presented. A simplified biodegradation kinetic model was formulated by combining the probabilistic approach of the original formulation of the CATABOL model with the assumption of first order kinetics of catabolic transformations. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to fit the model parameters to OECD 301F biodegradation kinetic data for a set of 208 chemicals. The new model allows the prediction of biodegradation multi-pathways, primary and ultimate half-lives and simulation of related kinetic biodegradation parameters such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), carbon dioxide production, and the nature and amount of metabolites as a function of time. The model may also be used for evaluating the OECD ready biodegradability potential of a chemical within the '10-day window' criterion.

  20. Biodegradable poly lactone-family polymer and their applications in medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly lactone-family polymers such as poly lactide, poly glycolide and polycaprolactone are kind aliphatic polyester. Since they can degrade by hydrolysis reaction under all the ph condition and possess biocompatibility, biodegradability and other good properties, especially they included not peptide bond in their molecules, they are non-antigen and non-immunization, as well as have no-toxicity and no-stimulation. So they are interested biomaterials and very useful in medical field. However the properties of all of the homo-poly lactones can not be changed in a large range, the limited properties result in limited applications of these homo-poly lactones. Based on macromolecular design, a series of copolylactones such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(glycolide-co-lactide-co-caprolactone) tri- component copolymer (PGLC), tri- and multi-block poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (TPLE and BPLE), as well as polycaprolactone/poly lactide/poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (PCEL) et al were synthesized by copolymerization among various lactone monomers or lactone monomers with poly(ethylene glycol). These copolylactones have wide range of degradation life from several months to years and different mechanical properties. After plasma treatment the surface property of the copolylactones were improved further and cell affinity of the copolylactones was improved obviously. The applications of these poly lactone-family polymers in medical field for used as drug carrier in drug delivery system, and as cell scaffold in tissue engineering were discussed

  1. TPS/PCL composite reinforced with treated sisal fibers: property, biodegradation and water-absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisal fibers bleached with sodium-hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide treatment were incorporated in a thermoplastic starch;-polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blend via extrusion processing and examined for their property, biodegradability and water-absorption. Scanning electron microscopy revealed wel...

  2. Biodegradable polylactic acid polymer with nisin for use in antimicrobial food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) polymer was evaluated for its application as a material for antimicrobial food packaging. PLA films were incorporated with nisin to provide slow release of the encapsulated antimicrobial for control of foodborne pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of PLA/nisin films...

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Copolymer Micelles Formed by Poly(ethylene glycol)-Polylactide Block Copolymers as Novel Drug Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜维; 王运东; 甘泉; 张建铮; 赵秀文; 费维扬; 贝建中; 王身国

    2006-01-01

    Diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-polylactide (MePEG-PLA) micelles were prepared by dialysis against water. Indomethacin (IMC) as a model drug was entrapped into the micelles by dialysis method. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the prepared micelles in distilled water investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy was 0.0051mg/mL which is lower than that of common low molecular weight surfactants. The diameters of MePEG-PLA micelles and IMC loaded MePEG-PLA micelles in a number-averaged scale measured by dynamic light scattering were 52.4 and 53.7 nm respectively. The observation with transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that the appearance of MePEG-PLA micelles was in a spherical shape. The content of IMC incorporated in the core portion of the micelles was 18% (ω). The effects of the synthesis method of the copolymer on the polydispersity of the micelles and the yield of the micelles formation were discussed.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Copolymer Microspheres Based on Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide/Fe3O4 by Suspension Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic copolymer based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide microspheres was prepared by 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone- (DMPP- photo initiated and poly(vinyl alcohol- (PVA- stabilized single step suspension photopolymerization. The effect of chemical interaction, morphology, and thermal properties by adding 0.1% w/v Fe3O4 in the copolymer was investigated. Infrared analysis (FTIR showed that (C=C band disappeared after copolymerization, indicating that the magnetic copolymer microspheres were successfully synthesized and two important bands at 908 cm−1 and 1550 cm−1 appear. These are associated with the epoxy group stretching of GMA and secondary amide (N–H/C–H deformation vibration of NIPAAm in magnetic microspheres. The X-ray diffraction (XRD result proved the incorporation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with copolymer microspheres as peak of Fe3O4 was observed. Morphology study revealed that magnetic copolymer exhibited uniform spheres and smoother appearance when entrapped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The lowest percentage of Fe3O4 nanoparticles leached from the copolymer microspheres was obtained at pH 7. Finally, thermal property of the copolymer microspheres was improved by adding a small amount of Fe3O4 nanoparticles that has been shown from the thermogram.

  5. Aluminum nanoparticle/acrylate copolymer nanocomposites for dielectric elastomers with high dielectric constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Suki N.; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are useful for large-strain actuation and energy harvesting. Their application has been limited by their low dielectric constants and consequently high driving voltage. Various fillers with high dielectric constants have been incorporated into different elastomer systems to improve the actuation strain, force output and energy density of the compliant actuators and generators. However, agglomeration may happen in these nanocomposites, resulting in a decrease of dielectric strength, an increase of leakage current, and in many instances the degree of enhancement of the dielectric constant. In this work, we investigated aluminum nanoparticles as nanofillers for acrylate copolymers. This metallic nanoparticle was chosen because the availability of free electrons could potentially provide an infinite value of dielectric constant as opposed to dielectric materials including ferroelectric nanocrystals. Moreover, aluminum nanoparticles have a self-passivated oxide shell effectively preventing the formation of conductive path. The surfaces of the aluminum nanoparticles were functionalized with methacrylate groups to assist the uniform dispersion in organic solutions and additionally enable copolymerization with acrylate copolymer matrix during bulk polymerization, and thus to suppress large range drifting of the nanoparticles. The resulting Al nanoparticle-acrylate copolymer nanocomposites were found to exhibit higher dielectric constant and increased stiffness. The leakage current under high electric fields were significantly lower than nanocomposites synthesized without proper nanoparticle surface modification. The dielectric strengths of the composites were comparable with the pristine polymers. In dielectric actuation evaluation, the actuation force output and energy specific work density were enhanced in the nanocomposites compared to the pristine copolymer.

  6. BODIPY-Based Donor-Acceptor Pi-Conjugated Alternating Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popere, Bhooshan C.; Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2011-06-28

    Four novel π-conjugated copolymers incorporating 4,4-difluoro-4-borata-3a-azonia-4a-aza-s-indacene (BODIPY) core as the “donor” and quinoxaline (Qx), 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BzT), N,N'-di(2'-ethyl)hexyl-3,4,7,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDI), and N,N'-di(2'-ethyl)hexyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as acceptors were designed and synthesized via Sonogashira polymerization. The polymers were characterized by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on polymer repeat units, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were estimated from the optimized geometry using B3LYP functional and 6-311g(d,p) basis set. Copolymers with Qx and BzT possessed HOMO and LUMO energy levels comparable to those of BODIPY homopolymer, while PDI stabilized both HOMO and LUMO levels. Semiconductor behavior of these polymers was estimated in organic thin-film transistors (OTFT). While the homopolymer, Qx, and BzT-based copolymers showed only p-type semiconductor behavior, copolymers with PDI and NDI showed only n-type behavior.

  7. Reversible Micro- and Nano- Phase Programming of Anthraquinone Thermochromism Using Blended Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-12-22

    Here, we present an approach to generate materials with programmable thermochromic transition temperatures (TTTs), based on the reversible microcrystallization of anthraquinone dyes with the assistance of blended Pluronic block copolymers. At temperatures above block copolymer critical micellization temperature (CMT), hydrophobic anthraquinone dyes, including Sudan blue II, were dispersed in copolymer micelles, whereas at lower temperature, the dyes formed microcrystals driven by dye-dye and dye-Pluronic molecular interactions. The crystallization process altered the optical properties of the dye with bathochromatic shifts detectable by eye and the thermochromic process was fully reversible. Not only could Pluronic reversibly incorporate the anthraquinone dyes into micelles at elevated temperatures, but it also modulated the crystallization process and resulting morphology of microcrystals via tuning the molecular interactions when the temperature was lowered. Crystal melting transition points (and TTTs) were in agreement with the CMTs, demonstrating that the thermochromism was dependent on block copolymer micellization. Thermochromism could be readily programmed over a broad range of temperatures by changing the CMT by using different types and concentrations of Pluronics and combinations thereof. PMID:26626998

  8. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand." PMID:27000789

  9. Microstructural organization of polydimethylsiloxane based polyurethane block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebeca; Weksler, Jadwiga; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Runt, James

    2007-03-01

    Microphase separation was investigated for polyurethane block copolymers synthesized from MDI and 1,4 butanediol as the hard segments, and poly(hexamethyleneoxide) (MW ˜ 700) and bis(6-hydroxyethoxypropyl) poly(dimethylsiloxane) as soft segments (MW ˜ 1000). The neat PDMS-based diol presents two segmental relaxations corresponding to the principle siloxane repeat unit and to the hydroxyethoxypropyl end group segments, respectively. When incorporated in the polyurethane, the siloxane units form a phase without intermixing with hard segments and the polyether end group segments are mixed with the second macrodiol and some short hard segment sequences. The microdomain morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and the scattering data were analyzed using an approach based on a modified core-shell model. The model includes core hard segment particles (MDI-BDO), surrounded by a mixed polyether shell (PHMO and hydroxyethoxypropyl end group segments), and a matrix composed of the siloxane units.

  10. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gisele [Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, School of Pharmacy, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva-Cunha, Armando da [Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Pharmacy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Behar-Cohen, Francine [INSERM, Physiopathology of ocular diseases: Therapeutic innovations, Institut des Cordeliers, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Innovations Therapeutiques, Fondation Rothschild, Paris (France); Universite Rene Descartes, Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Paris (France); Ayres, Eliane [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L., E-mail: rorefice@demet.ufmg.br [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  11. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructured systems obtained by self-assembly of block-copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Chieffi, Gianpaolo

    2013-01-01

    An amphiphilic polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene-oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer (BCP) was used as template for the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles, namely TiO2 or Nb2O5 using the sol-gel method. This study was aimed to the preparation of neat BCP and hybrid thin films by spin-coating. The hydrophilic sol–gel precursor of the metal oxides was selectively incorporated into hydrophilic PEO domains of BCP organized in a hexagonal array of vertical cylinders embedded in the PS matrix. Re...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight unless it is blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in...

  14. BIODEGRADABLE COATING FROM AGATHIS ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORYAWATI MULYONO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  15. Thermoreversible copolymer gels for extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Kim, S W; Bae, Y H

    2000-07-01

    To improve the properties of a reversible synthetic extracellular matrix based on a thermally reversible polymer, copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid were prepared in benzene with varying contents of acrylic acid (0 to 3%) and the thermal properties were evaluated. The poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and copolymers made with acrylic acid had molecular weights from 0.8 to 1.7 x10(6) D. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed the high-molecular-weight acrylic acid copolymers had similar onset temperatures to the homopolymers, but the peak width was considerably increased with increasing acrylic acid content. DSC and cloud point measurements showed that polymers with 0 to 3% acrylic acid exhibit a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition between 30 degrees and 37 degrees C. In swelling studies, the homopolymer showed significant syneresis at temperatures above 31 degrees C. Copolymers with 1 and 1.5% showed syneresis beginning at 32 degrees and 37 degrees C, respectively. At 37 degrees C the copolymers with 1.5-3% acrylic acid showed little or no syneresis. Due to the high water content and a transition near physiologic conditions (below 37 degrees C), the polymers with 1.5-2.0% acrylic acid exhibited properties that would be useful in the development of a refillable synthetic extracellular matrix. Such a matrix could be applied to several cell types, including islets of Langerhans, for a biohybrid artificial pancreas.

  16. Chain exchange in block copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer micelles are aggregates formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers dispersed in a selective solvent, driven by unfavorable interactions between the solvent and the core-forming block. Due to the relatively long chains being subject to additional thermodynamic and dynamic constraints (e.g., entanglements, crystallinity, vitrification), block copolymer micelles exhibit significantly slower equilibration kinetics than small molecule surfactants. As a result, details of the mechanism(s) of equilibration in block copolymer micelles remain unclear. This present works focuses on the chain exchange kinetics of poly(styrene-b-ethylenepropylene) block copolymers in squalane (C30H62) using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). A mixture of h-squalane and d-squalane is chosen so that it contrast matches a mixed 50/50 h/d polystyrene micelle core. When the temperature is appropriate and isotopically labeled chains undergo mixing, the mean core contrast with respect to the solvent decreases, and the scattering intensity is therefore reduced. This strategy allows direct probing of chain exchange rate from the time dependent scattering intensity I(q, t).

  17. Dynamic Processes in Diblock Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan; Singh, Avantika

    2013-03-01

    Diblock copolymers, which form micelle structures in selective solvents, offer advantages of robustness and tunability of micelle characteristics as compared to small molecule surfactants. Diblock copolymer micelles in water have been a subject of great interest in drug delivery applications based on their high loading capacity and targeted drug delivery. The aim of this work is to understand the dynamic processes which underlie the self-assembly of diblock copolymer micelle systems which have a semi-crystalline core. Due to the large size of the molecules, the self-assembly of block copolymer micelles occurs on significantly longer time scales than small molecule analogues. The present work focuses on amphiphilic diblock copolymers containing blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (a hydrophilic polymer) and polycaprolactone (a hydrophobic, semi-crystalline polymer), which spontaneously self-assemble into spherical micelles in water. A variety of experimental techniques are used to probe the kinetic processes relevant to micelle self-assembly, including time-resolved neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments.

  18. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  19. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymers : from synthesis to smart nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Guillet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years for the search of new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers have seen important progresses since the last five years. In this thesis, a library of metallo-supramolecular amphiphilic block copolymers containing a hydrophilic block, linked to a hydrophobic block, through a metal-ligand complex has been investigated. The micelles formed in water from these copolymers...

  20. Biodegradation of vapor phase contaminants in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation of a contaminated vapor stream involves overcoming at least three external mass transfer resistances in order to supply the contaminant to a biofilm where further diffusion and biodegradation occur. This paper reports on a process model incorporating these phenomena which has been developed, and several experimental systems are in use for its validation and calibration. Salient features of the model and system performance data will be presented in support of a rational basis for design and operation of vapor phase bioremediation systems for industrial and environmental applications

  1. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, İsmail; DEMİRBAĞ, Zihni

    1999-01-01

    Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as petroleum and petroleum derivatives, are widespread organic pollutants entering the environment, chiefly, through oil spills and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Since most PAHs are persist in the environment for a long period of time and bioaccumulate, they cause environmental pollution and effect biological equilibrium dramatically. Biodegradation of some PAHs by microorganisms has been biochemically and genetically investigated. Ge...

  2. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  3. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  4. Adsorption of graft copolymers onto silica and titania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.D.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Fleer, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption of graft copolymers of poly(acrylamide) (PAAm, backbone) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, side chains) from aqueous solution onto silica and titania was studied with reflectometry. Two high-molar-mass copolymers were used with different PEO graft densities (10 and 18% w/w PEO in copolym

  5. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers. 177.1211... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1211 Cross-linked...

  6. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  7. SCATTERING BY CYCLIC POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS AT LARGE SCATTERING VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSMAS, M; BENOIT, H; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    1994-01-01

    General formulae allowing the evaluation of the form factors of cyclic block copolymers are established and graphs for cyclic copolymers of the form (A-B)(N) are shown. When N is large, the linear and the cyclic copolymer have the same behaviour. It is possible to extend at large angle an analytical

  8. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  9. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and depots for controlled drug delivery. The development of nanoporous polymers with well controlled pore wall...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...

  10. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes...... depending on block length ratios and temperature. The micellization process with increasing temperature or concentration has been followed by a number of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry and surface tension measurements. The detailed micellar mechanism is not well understood and...... different models have been proposed. Results obtained by a range of liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect the presence of impurities....

  11. Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide and acrylonitrile and the new copolymer of poly- (hexanlactam-co-block-poly-(delta-valerolactone with aliphatic polyester. It is investigated the technical characteristics of biosensor like, response time, linear range and operating stability. The factors affecting the inhibition and reactivation processes were investigated too.

  12. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 wt.-%, respectively) in the two kinds of used PS-co-MA samples afforded a good compatibility between the PS phases of the two polymers. On the other hand, the presence of polar anhydride groups allo...

  13. Novel polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers produced in Pseudomonas putida by metagenomic polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterially produced biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with versatile properties can be achieved using different PHA synthases (PhaCs). This work aims to expand the diversity of known PhaCs via functional metagenomics and demonstrates the use of these novel enzymes in PHA production. Complementation of a PHA synthesis-deficient Pseudomonas putida strain with a soil metagenomic cosmid library retrieved 27 clones expressing either class I, class II, or unclassified PHA synthases, and many did not have close sequence matches to known PhaCs. The composition of PHA produced by these clones was dependent on both the supplied growth substrates and the nature of the PHA synthase, with various combinations of short-chain-length (SCL) and medium-chain-length (MCL) PHA. These data demonstrate the ability to isolate diverse genes for PHA synthesis by functional metagenomics and their use for the production of a variety of PHA polymer and copolymer mixtures. PMID:27333909

  14. Graft Copolymers of Maleic Anhydride and Its Isostructural Analogues: High Performance Engineering Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rzayev, Zakir M O

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the main advances published over the last 15 years outlining the different methods of grafting, including reactive extruder systems, surface modification, grafting and graft copolymerization of synthetic and natural polymers with maleic anhydride and its isostructural analogues such as maleimides and maleates, and anhydrides, esters and imides of citraconic and itaconic acids, derivatives of fumaric acid, etc. Special attention is spared to the grafting of conventional and non-conventional synthetic and natural polymers, including biodegradable polymers, mechanism of grafting and graft copolymerization, in situ grafting reactions in melt by reactive extrusion systems, in solutions and solid state (photo- and plasma-induced graftings), and H-bonding effect in the reactive blend processing. The structural phenomena, unique properties and application areas of these copolymers and their various modifications and composites as high performance engineering materials have been also described.

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. John R.; Knott, Robert; Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat; Holden, Peter J.

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate- block-diethylene glycol (PHO- b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q∼0.12 Å -1. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 Å. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  16. Stable material modication with polymers incorporation for broad application in microfabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mednova, Olga

    The aim of this thesis is to improve SU-8 fracture resistance in order to eliminate micro crack formation during fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS). An amphiphilic block copolymer incorporation, as an efficient method of material toughening without changing its original propertie...

  17. Zinc Composite Layers, Incorporating Polymeric Nano-aggregates: Surface Analysis and Electrochemical Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Zhang, X.; Petrov, P.; Boshkov, N.; Van Breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Mol, J.M.C.; Tsvetkova, N.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on a comparative investigation of the corrosion behavior of zinc (Zn) and nano-composite zinc (ZnC) galvanic layers in 5% NaCl solution. The metallic matrix of the ZnC layers incorporates nano-sized, stabilized polymeric aggregates, formed from the amphiphilic tri-block co-polymer

  18. A kind of novel biodegradable hydrogel made from copolymerization of gelatin with polypseudorotaxanes based on {alpha}-CDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Dandan; Tong Xinming; Yu Huaiqing; Zhang Aiying; Feng Zengguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2007-09-15

    A kind of novel biodegradable supramolecular hydrogel was synthesized via copolymerization of gelatin methacrylamide with photocurable and biodegradable polypseudorotaxanes under UV irradiation. These polypseudorotaxanes were prepared by supramolecular self-assemblies of {alpha}-cyclodextrins threaded onto amphiphilic LA-PEG-LA copolymers end-capped with methacryloyl groups. The hydrogels are injectable, and their structure was characterized in detail with FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, XRD, TG and DSC techniques. Their swelling behaviour and morphologies were also examined. The analytical results demonstrated that the channel-type crystalline structure of the polypseudorotaxanes remains in the as-obtained hydrogels. Moreover, the SEM pictures showed that the hydrogels having gelatin methacrylamide are more suitable for cell seeding and proliferation than those without gelatin added.

  19. [Hydrodynamic properties of exopolysaccharide-acrylamide copolymer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votselko, S K

    2000-01-01

    The method for producing copolymer EPAA of exopolysaccharide (EPS)--polyacrylamide (PAA) has been presented which was based on microbial exopolysaccharides (enposane, xampane), their mixture and model EPS (xanthane sigma, rodopol P-23). The copolymer was produced by acrylamide polymerization in 1-2% water solutions of polysaccharides, the concentration of acrylamide in the reaction mixture being 4.7-2% and that of polysaccharides 0.1-1% of the weight. Hydrodynamic parameters of the studied polymers have been determined, their heterogenity as to molecular-weight characteristics has been demonstrated. Molecular-weight distribution of copolymers showed that the content of low-molecular fractions decreased, thus the Mw values were (0.08-0.2) x 10(6) Da in contrast to that of exopolysaccharides possessing Mw (1.2-0.4) x 10(6) Da and of polyacrylamide possessing Mw within (2-30) x 10(6) Da. The value of efficient viscosity of copolymers ranged from 120 to 131 mPa.s that was lower than that of polyacrylamide (500 mPa.s), and higher than that of exopolysaccharides (42 mPa.s), and it depended on the sample, raw material, production conditions. A possibility has been shown to produce a new copolymer based on microbial polysaccharides enposane and xampane in the process of acrylamide polymerization. It has been found out that the studied copolymers EPAA differ from initial ones as to their hydrodynamical properties, which determines their preference: better solubility, good glueing properties, prolonged term of preservation, resistance to bacterial pollution. PMID:11300081

  20. Synthesis and characterization of novel triblock copolymers comprising poly(tetrahydrofuran) as a central block and poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate)s as outer blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-bin LI; Zhen TIAN; Meng WANG; Ai-ying ZHANG; Zeng-guo FENG

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioactive and biodegrad-able polyurethanes (BDPUs) have drawn much attention in recent years. As part of the research program to search for novel prepolymers for BDPUs, a study was carried out on the synthesis and characterization of triblock copoly-mers comprising poly(tetrahydrofuran) as a central block and poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate)s as outer blocks. RESULTS: A new macroinitiator terminated with pheny-lalanine was first prepared from the condensation of a distal hydroxy poly(tetrahydrofuran) with N-tert-butox-ycarbonyl L-phenylalanine in the presence of dicyclohex-ylcarbodiimide, followed by removing the protecting group. Then, it was employed to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of γ-benzyl L-glutamate N-carboxyanhy-dride in varying feeding ratios to give rise to the targeted triblock copolymers. CONCLUSIONS: The length of the outer poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) blocks was well tailored by varying the monomers to macroinitiator feeding ratio. All the triblock copolymers exhibited a nearly symmet-rical and unimodal molecular weight distribution while only one distinct glass transition temperature was evi-denced from -10℃ to 25℃.

  1. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10-19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

  2. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10−19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

  3. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E;

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-P...

  4. A review of plastic waste biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Yanful, Ernest K; Bassi, Amarjeet S

    2005-01-01

    With more and more plastics being employed in human lives and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. This review looks at the technological advancement made in the development of more easily biodegradable plastics and the biodegradation of conventional plastics by microorganisms. Additives, such as pro-oxidants and starch, are applied in synthetic materials to modify and make plastics biodegradable. Recent research has shown that thermoplastics derived from polyolefins, traditionally considered resistant to biodegradation in ambient environment, are biodegraded following photo-degradation and chemical degradation. Thermoset plastics, such as aliphatic polyester and polyester polyurethane, are easily attacked by microorganisms directly because of the potential hydrolytic cleavage of ester or urethane bonds in their structures. Some microorganisms have been isolated to utilize polyurethane as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen source. Aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have active commercial applications because of their good mechanical properties and biodegradability. Reviewing published and ongoing studies on plastic biodegradation, this paper attempts to make conclusions on potentially viable methods to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment. PMID:16419620

  5. Study of the properties and biodegradability of polyester/starch blends submitted to microbial attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the biodegradation of blends of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate)/starch and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate)/ starch. The blends were obtained by evaporation of the solvent in the mixture of the polymers in chloroform. Tests were carried out in presence of micro-organisms which acted as biodegradation agents. The blends were consumed as carbon substrate and the production of CO2 was evaluated in the process. In addition, the polyesters' mechanical properties were reduced by the incorporation of starch in its structure. (1H) NMR and infrared spectroscopy detected some characteristic polyester degradation groups in the polyesters' chemical structure, thus confirming the alteration suffered by it. (author)

  6. Co-polymer Films for Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Homer, Margie L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor); Kisor, Adam (Inventor); Jewell, April D. (Inventor); Shevade, Abhijit V. (Inventor); Manatt, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Taylor, Charles (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor); Goddard, William A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments include a sensor comprising a co-polymer, the co-polymer comprising a first monomer and a second monomer. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is polystyrene and the second monomer is poly-2-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium benzylamine chloride. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  7. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly sim...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....... simplifies the main stream BC lithography process, showing a broad substrate tolerance and allowing for efficient pattern transfer over wafer scale. PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are directly applied on substrates including polymers, silicon and graphene. A single oxygen...

  8. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  9. Generation of Microcellular Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Foams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qun; Ren Xian-wen; Chang Yu-ning; Yu Long; Wang Jing-wu

    2004-01-01

    Present now the application of microcellular polymeric materials in biomedical field is growing rapidly, as that of guided tissue regeneration and cell transplantation. As far as guided tissue regeneration is concerned, porous implants are used as size selective membrane to promote the growth of a special tissue in a healing site. Ideally, the implant should be inherently biocompatible,have well-defined cell size and be resorbable with appropriate biodegradation rates.Poly(a-caprolactone) (PCL) is a kind of materials suit for the demands above. PCL is biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyester which is nontoxic for living organisms and bioresorbable after a period of implantation. Because of its unique combination of biocompatibility, permeability and biodegradability, PCL and some of its copolymer with lactides and glycolide have been widely applied in medicine as artificial skin, artificial bone and containers for sustained drug release.Goel and Beckman have reported a new method to generate microcellular poly(methy l methacrylate) foams in which the samples are saturated with CO2 under a series of supercritical (SC)conditions, and then the system is rapidly depressurized to atmospheric pressure at constant temperature. Unlike traditional methods, it reduces glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the mixture to below the experimental temperature rather than directly heat the system above Tg. In this process of nucleation, no phase separation occurs as well as no phase boundary meets, so the cellular structure of the foam can be retained better.In this work, we have generated PCL foams by using supercritical CO2. Because of the low glass transition temperature (Tg = -60 ℃) of PCL far below the ice point, the experimental temperature in our study is much higher than Tg, which is different from the studies by others before. A series of variable factors on the foam structure as saturation temperature, saturation pressure, saturation time and depressurization

  10. Positively charged co-polymers for use as antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a positively charged co-polymer for use as an antimicrobial agent, wherein said positively charged co-polymer is composed of amino acids and/or derivatives thereof and wherein at least 75 molar percent of said amino acids are selected from the group consisting...... of alanine, lysine, glutamate, arginine and tyrosine and/or derivatives thereof. The present invention also provides methods for treating, preventing or ameliorating a microbial infection comprising administration of positively charged random co-polymers as well as a pharmaceutical composition comprising...... said co-polymer. The invention further provides a kit of parts comprising the positively charged random co-polymer....

  11. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE/METHYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; PAN Zuren

    1997-01-01

    A series of vinylidene dichloride (VDC) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) as comonomer (3-12 wt%), was prepared by free-radical suspension copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at1.0 MPa and at 30℃, and those to water vapor were measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the VDC/MA copolymers studied are semicrystalline. As the MA content increases, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor are progressively increased, caused by decrease in crystalline fraction and increase in free volume of VDC/MA copolymers.

  12. Block Copolymers of Ethylene Oxide and Styrene Oxide.New Copolymer Surfactants(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Yang; David Attwood; Colin Booth

    2003-01-01

    @@ 3.2. Association Number Figure 5 shows the dependence of the weight-average association number (Nw,measured by static light scattering, solution temperature 30 °C) on hydrophobe block length for ES and ESEblock copolymers.

  13. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  14. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  15. Preparation and properties of proton conducting blending polymers with fluorous block copolymers as compatibilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, K. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation; Murphy, J.; Sieb, N.; Holdcroft, S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry]|[National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented the results of an experiment in which 3 series of membranes were prepared by blending polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF/HFP)) with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (S-PEEK), sulfonated polysulfone (SPU), or sulfonated polystyrene in order to develop novel Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs) suitable for melt processing. The incorporation of fluorine-containing block copolymer into the blended system resulted in the preparation of acceptable proton conductivity and low water containing PEM materials. The effect of sulfonated poly([vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene]-b-styrene block copolymers as compatibilizers was also investigated. It was observed that conductivity was enhanced for S-PEEK/fluoropolymer blends. Microstructures for the blends were examined by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope.

  16. Genome-engineered Sinorhizobium meliloti for the production of poly(lactic-co-3-hydroxybutyric) acid copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam T; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-02-01

    Economically competitive commercial production of biodegradable bioplastics with desirable properties is an important goal. In this study, we demonstrate the use of chromosome engineering of an alternative bacterial host, Sinorhizobium meliloti, for production of the copolymer, poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate). Codon-optimized genes for 2 previously engineered enzymes, Clostridium propionicum propionate CoA transferase (Pct532Cp) and Pseudomonas sp. strain MBEL 6-19 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 (PhaC1400Ps6-19), were introduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 by chromosome integration, replacing the native phbC gene. On the basis of phenotypic analysis and detection of polymer product by gas chromatography analysis, synthesis and accumulation of the copolymer was confirmed. The chromosome integrant strain, with the introduced genes under the control of the native phbC promoter, is able to produce over 15% cell dry mass of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate), containing 30 mol% lactate, from growth on mannitol. We were also able to purify the polymer from the culture and confirm the structure by NMR and GC-MS. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of production of this copolymer in the Alphaproteobacteria. Further optimization of this system may eventually yield strains that are able to produce economically viable commercial product. PMID:26639519

  17. Synthesis of polysaccharide-block-polypeptide copolymer for potential co-delivery of drug and plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianqian; Liu, Wenya; Dai, Jian; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    A pH-sensitive, biodegradable, and biocompatible polysaccharide-block-polypeptide Copolymer derivative {Ac-Dex-b-PAsp(DET)} is synthetized from acetal-modified dextran (Ac-Dex) and diethylenetriamine (DET) grafted poly(L-aspartic acid) {PAsp(DET)} by using click and aminolysis reaction. The copolymer can self-assemble into cationic nanopaticles for potential co-delivery of plasmid DNA (pEGFP-N3) and anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX), by using water/oil/water (w/o/w) emulsion method. Gel retardation assay reveals that pDNA can be effectively complexed into cationic nanoparticles at N/P ratio = 12. In vitro drug release behavior of DOX-NPs and DOX/pDNA-NPs is achieved by using fluorescence spectra and UV-Vis spectra and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). And, pEGFP-N3-NPs at N/P ratio = 42 presents the considerable potential in cell transfection. Cell viability assay shows that nanoparticles exhibit low cell cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the copolymer has excellent performance and potential for the co-delivery of gene and drugs. PMID:25761094

  18. 多元氨基酸共聚物的合成及性能表征%Synthesis and Properties of Multi-(Amino Acid) Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝军; 李鸿; 张刚; 龙盛如; 杨杰; 严永刚

    2011-01-01

    以本体聚合方法合成了可生物降解的多元氨基酸共聚物,并采用差示扫描量热分析(DSC)、热重(TGA)和X射线衍射(XRD)等手段对所合成的共聚物进行了表征.结果表明,所合成的多元氨基酸共聚物在常温下可微溶于某些非质子有机溶剂及质子强酸,提高温度可明显提高其溶解性;所合成共聚物为一种半结晶性聚合物,其结晶部分主要为6-氨基己酸的均聚分子链段;共聚物玻璃化转变温度(Tg)为110.0℃,熔点(Tm)为173.3℃,最大分解温度(Td)为416.6℃;由于在本体聚合过程中有低分子量物质和微量水分的残留,材料的热稳定性并不理想,其经熔融加工后分子量有明显下降.%A kind of biodegradable multi-(amino acid) copolymer was synthesized via the mass polymerization.The copolymer was then characterized by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). According to the experimental results, the multi-(amino acid)copolymer is slight soluble in some aprotic solvent and some proton acid, the solubility of the copolymer can be improved by increasing temperature. The copolymer is a semi-crystalline polymer, in whicl the crystalline domain is mainly formed by 6-aminocaproic acid homopolymer chain segments. Glass temperature (Tg), melt temperature (Tm) and maximum therrno-degredation temperature( Td)of the copolymer is 110.0 ℃, 173.3 ℃ and 416.6 ℃,respectively. The remained low molecular weight substances in the copolymer matrix dramatically affect the thermo stability of the multi-(amino acid) copolymer. A rigorous purification process is therefore essential for processing of the copolymer.

  19. LEDs based on conjugated PPV block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.J.; Hilberer, A.; Krasnikov, V.V.; Werts, M.; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G.

    1997-01-01

    A way to control the bandgap in semi-conducting polymers is by preparing polymers with a partially conjugated backbone. In our laboratory, three conjugated copolymers containing PPV trimers as light emitting chromophores have been synthesized, which emit in the blue, green and orange wavelength regi

  20. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  1. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  2. Here today, gone tomorrow: biodegradable soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Winfield, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a broken item and then procure a new one. In the 20th century enlightened environmentalists campaigned for recycling and reuse (R and R). R and R has continued to be an important part of new technology development, but there is still a huge problem of non-recyclable materials being dumped into landfill and being discarded in the environment. The challenge is even greater for robotics, a field which will impact on all aspects of our lives, where discards include motors, rigid elements and toxic power supplies and batteries. One novel solution is the biodegradable robot, an active physical machine that is composed of biodegradable materials and which degrades to nothing when released into the environment. In this paper we examine the potential and realities of biodegradable robotics, consider novel solutions to core components such as sensors, actuators and energy scavenging, and give examples of biodegradable robotics fabricated from everyday, and not so common, biodegradable electroactive materials. The realisation of truly biodegradable robots also brings entirely new deployment, exploration and bio-remediation capabilities: why track and recover a few large non-biodegradable robots when you could speculatively release millions of biodegradable robots instead? We will consider some of these exciting developments and explore the future of this new field.

  3. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation.

  4. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    DEGUCHI, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T.

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively.

  5. Biodegradation and toxicological evaluation of lubricant oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Shodji Tamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare different toxicity levels of lubricant oils. The tests were performed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei, arugula seeds (Eruca sativa and lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa, with three types of contaminants (mineral lubricant oil, synthetic lubricant oil and used lubricant oil for various biodegradation periods in the soil. The toxicity tests indirectly measured the biodegradation of the contaminants. The samples were analyzed at t0, t60, t120 and t180 days of biodegradation. The used lubricant oil was proved very toxic in all the tests and even after biodegradation its toxicity was high. The mineral and synthetic oils were biodegraded efficiently in the soil although their toxicity did not disappear completely after 180 days.

  6. Biodegradable products by lipase biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Y Y; Lämsä, M; Wu, X; Uosukainen, E; Seppälä, J; Linko, P

    1998-11-18

    The interest in the applications of biocatalysis in organic syntheses has rapidly increased. In this context, lipases have recently become one of the most studied groups of enzymes. We have demonstrated that lipases can be used as biocatalyst in the production of useful biodegradable compounds. A number of examples are given. 1-Butyl oleate was produced by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease the viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. Enzymic alcoholysis of vegetable oils without additional organic solvent has been little investigated. We have shown that a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters can be obtained in a good yield by enzymic transesterification from rapeseed oil fatty acids for use as a solvent. Trimethylolpropane esters were also similarly synthesized as lubricants. Finally, the discovery that lipases can also catalyze ester syntheses and transesterification reactions in organic solvent systems has opened up the possibility of enzyme catalyzed production of biodegradable polyesters. In direct polyesterification of 1,4-butanediol and sebacic acid, polyesters with a mass average molar mass of the order of 56,000 g mol-1 or higher, and a maximum molar mass of about 130,000 g mol-1 were also obtained by using lipase as biocatalyst. Finally, we have demonstrated that also aromatic polyesters can be synthesized by lipase biocatalysis, a higher than 50,000 g mol-1 mass average molar mass of poly(1,6-hexanediyl isophthalate) as an example. PMID:9866859

  7. Biodegradability and plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on cassava starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Goyanes, Silvia; Bernal, Celina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-10-20

    Biodegradable and edible cassava starch-glycerol based films with different concentrations of yerba mate extract (0, 5 and 20wt.%) were prepared by casting. The plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract when it was incorporated into the matrix as an antioxidant was investigated. Thermal degradation and biodegradability of the obtained biofilms were also studied. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), water absorbance, stability in different solutions and biodegradability studies were performed. The clear correlation among the results obtained from the different analysis confirmed the plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract on the starch-glycerol matrix. Also, the extract led to a decrease in the degradation time of the films in soil ensuring their complete biodegradability before two weeks and to films stability in acidic and alkaline media. The plasticizing effect of yerba mate extract makes it an attractive additive for starch films which will be used as packaging or coating; and its contribution to an earlier biodegradability will contribute to waste reduction. PMID:27474554

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biodegradable embolic microspheres with tunable anticancer drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lihui; Rostamzadeh, Parinaz; Nooryshokry, Navid; Le, Hung C; Golzarian, Jafar

    2013-06-01

    Natural polymer-derived materials have attracted increasing interest in the biomedical field. Polysaccharides have obvious advantages over other polymers employed for biomedical applications due to their exceptional biocompatibility and biodegradability. None of the spherical embolic agents used clinically is biodegradable. In the current study, microspheres prepared from chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were investigated as a biodegradable embolic agent for arterial embolization applications. Aside from the enzymatic degradability of chitosan units, the cross-linking bonds in the matrix, Schiff bases, are susceptible to hydrolytic cleavage in aqueous conditions, which would overcome the possible shortage of enzymes inside the arteries. The size distribution, morphology, water retention capacity and degradability of the microspheres were found to be affected by the modification degree of CMC. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was successfully incorporated into these microspheres for local release and thus for killing cancerous cells. These microspheres demonstrated controllable degradation time, variable swelling and tunable drug release profiles. Co-culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed non-cytotoxic nature of these microspheres compared to monolayer control (P>0.95). In addition, a preliminary study on the in vivo degradation of the microspheres (100-300μm) was performed in a rabbit renal embolization model, which demonstrated that the microspheres were compatible with microcatheters for delivery, capable of occluding the arteries, and biodegradable inside arteries. These microspheres with biodegradability would be promising for embolization therapies. PMID:23419554

  9. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves Stael

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group.

  10. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13 C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  11. Synthesis and properties of poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) and its copolymers for high temperature membrane electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen;

    2012-01-01

    Poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO2PBI) and its copolymers with poly[2,2′-p-(phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole] (pPBI), termed as Co-SO2PBI, were synthesized with varied feeding ratios of 4,4′-sulfonyldibenzoic acid (SDBA) to terephthalic acid (TPA). Incorporation of the stiff para-phenylene and ......Poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO2PBI) and its copolymers with poly[2,2′-p-(phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole] (pPBI), termed as Co-SO2PBI, were synthesized with varied feeding ratios of 4,4′-sulfonyldibenzoic acid (SDBA) to terephthalic acid (TPA). Incorporation of the stiff para...

  12. Intimately coupling of photolysis accelerates nitrobenzene biodegradation, but sequential coupling slows biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lihui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Yongming, E-mail: zhym@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Bai, Qi; Yan, Ning; Xu, Hua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Rittmann, Bruce E. [Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Intimately coupled UV photolysis accelerated nitrobenzene biodegradation. • NB biodegradation was slowed by accumulation of nitrophenol. • Oxalic acid was a key product of UV photolysis. • Oxalic acid accelerated biodegradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenol by a co-substrate effect. • Intimate coupling of UV and biodegradation accentuated the benefits of oxalic acid. - Abstract: Photo(cata)lysis coupled with biodegradation is superior to photo(cata)lysis or biodegradation alone for removal of recalcitrant organic compounds. The two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously via intimate coupling. We studied nitrobenzene (NB) removal and mineralization to evaluate why intimate coupling of photolysis with biodegradation was superior to sequential coupling. Employing an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor, we compared direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P + B), simultaneous photolysis and biodegradation (P&B), and biodegradation with nitrophenol (NP) and oxalic acid (OA) added individually and simultaneously (B + NP, B + OA, and B + NP + OA); NP and OA were NB’s main UV-photolysis products. Compared with B, the biodegradation rate P + B was lower by 13–29%, but intimately coupling (P&B) had a removal rate that was 10–13% higher; mineralization showed similar trends. B + OA gave results similar to P&B, B + NP gave results similar to P + B, and B + OA + NP gave results between P + B and P&B, depending on the amount of OA and NP added. The photolysis product OA accelerated NB biodegradation through a co-substrate effect, but NP was inhibitory. Although decreasing the UV photolysis time could minimize the inhibition impact of NP in P + B, P&B gave the fastest removal of NB by accentuating the co-substrate effect of OA.

  13. Determination of the specific interaction between sulfonylurea-incorporated polymer and rat islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Hong; Song, Soo Chang; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2002-03-01

    A SU derivative, mimicking glibenclamide in chemical structure, was synthesized to incorporate it into a water-soluble polymeric backbone as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. The ability of insulin secretion was examined with different glucose concentrations (3.3 and 11.6 mM). Although the vinylated SU did not exhibit significant activity compared to the control, the SU-incorporated copolymer could enhance insulin secretion as much as or more than glibenclamide did. In this study, a polymer fluorescence-labeled with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions and we found that the labeled polymer was strongly absorbed to rat islets, probably due to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-incorporated copolymer and rat islets, cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K+ channel opener), before adding the incorporated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on rat islets. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results of this study provided evidence that the SU-incorporated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion through specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with rat islets.

  14. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  15. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, December 22, 1993--March 21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-06-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery. This report summarizes technical progress for the following tasks: advanced copolymer synthesis; and characterization of molecular structure of copolymers.

  16. COMPOSITIONAL HETEROGENEITY OF ETHYLENE OXIDE-BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE SEGMENTED COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-zhu Ma; Dong-sheng Li; Ming-chuan Zhao; Mo-zhen Wang; Ran Ye; Xiao-lie Luo

    1999-01-01

    A series of ethylene oxide-butylene terephthalate (EOBT) segmented copolymers with different soft segment length and hard segment content were synthesized. The compositional heterogeneity was studied by solvent extraction. The results show that the compositional heterogeneity increases when soft segment length and hard segment content increase. The compositional heterogeneity is also reflected in the crystallization behavior and morphology of soft and hard segment in EOBT segmented copolymer. The more compositional heterogeneous the EOBT segmented copolymer is, the more different the morphology and the crystallization behavior between separated fractions. Compared with ethylene oxide-ethylene terephthalate (EOET) segmented copolymer, compositional heterogeneity in EOBT segmented copolymer is weaker. But the compositional heterogeneity in EOBT segmented copolymer with long soft segment and high hard segment content is still obvious.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of New Poly(silole-fluorene) Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ji; Park, Jeong Cheol; Yun, Hui-Jun; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2015-02-01

    New poly(silole-fluorene) copolymers were designed and synthesized. Copolymers were obtained by Suzuki coupling reaction with different ratio of fluorene and silole. The obtained copolymers were characterized by the spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. The resulting copolymers were soluble in common organic solvents such as toluene, tetrahydrofurane, chloroform, chlorobenzene, etc. The obtained copolymers showed thermal stabilities, which were characterized by TGA and DSC. PLEDs with device configurations of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Copolymer I~VI/LiF/AI. The best device performances, with maximum brightness of 231.5 cd/m2 at a current density (J) of 408.3 mA/cm2, and a maximum luminance efficiency of 0.115 cd/A, were achieved in the composition of fluorene and silole moiety (0.9:0.1). PMID:26353724

  18. Biodegradation of surfactant bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear industry, during decontamination of protective wears and contaminated materials, detergents are employed to bring down the level of radioactive contamination within safe limits. However, the surfactant present in these wastes interferes in the chemical treatment process, reducing the decontamination factor. Biodegradation is an efficient and ecologically safe method for surfactant removal. A surfactant degrading culture was isolated and inoculated separately into simulated effluents containing 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 1% yeast extract and 5-100 ppm of commercial detergent respectively. The growth of the bacterial culture and the degradation characteristics of the surfactant in the above effluents were monitored under both dynamic and static conditions. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. PMID:21356588

  20. Engineered biosynthesis of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, Pooja; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-08-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in the rapid development of biobased plastics and the major drivers for this expansion are rising environmental concerns of plastic pollution and the depletion of fossil-fuels. This paper presents a broad view on the recent developments of three promising biobased plastics, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS), well known for their biodegradability. The article discusses the natural and recombinant host organisms used for fermentative production of monomers, alternative carbon feedstocks that have been used to lower production cost, different metabolic engineering strategies used to improve product titers, various fermentation technologies employed to increase productivities and finally, the different downstream processes used for recovery and purification of the monomers and polymers.

  1. Engineered biosynthesis of biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, Pooja; Zhang, Kechun

    2016-08-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in the rapid development of biobased plastics and the major drivers for this expansion are rising environmental concerns of plastic pollution and the depletion of fossil-fuels. This paper presents a broad view on the recent developments of three promising biobased plastics, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polybutylene succinate (PBS), well known for their biodegradability. The article discusses the natural and recombinant host organisms used for fermentative production of monomers, alternative carbon feedstocks that have been used to lower production cost, different metabolic engineering strategies used to improve product titers, various fermentation technologies employed to increase productivities and finally, the different downstream processes used for recovery and purification of the monomers and polymers. PMID:27260524

  2. Biodegradable Metals From Concept to Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hermawan, Hendra

    2012-01-01

    This book in the emerging research field of biomaterials covers biodegradable metals for biomedical applications. The book contains two main parts where each of them consists of three chapters. The first part introduces the readers to the field of metallic biomaterials, exposes the state of the art of biodegradable metals, and reveals its application for cardiovascular implants. It includes some fundamental aspects to give basic understanding on metals for further review on the degradable ones is covered in chapter one. The second chapter introduces the concept of biodegradable metals, it's st

  3. Farnesol-modified biodegradable polyurethanes for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglin, David; Grad, Sibylle; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    A bifunctionalized 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-diaminobutane amide (isoprenoid) was obtained from 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol (farnesol) in a three-step synthesis. The bifunctionalized isoprenoid was characterized using infrared spectroscopy and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and was covalently incorporated (0.12 mmol x g(-1)) into the biodegradable aliphatic polyurethane formed on the polycondensation reaction of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol, 1,4,3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. Although the covalent incorporation of the isoprenoid molecule into the polyurethane chain modified the surface chemistry of the polymer, it did not affect the viability of attached chondrocytes. Porous 3D scaffolds were produced from the modified and unmodified biodegradable segmented polyurethanes by a salt leaching-phase-inverse technique. The scaffolds were seeded with bovine chondrocytes encapsulated in fibrin gel and cultured in vitro for 14 days. The incorporation of bifunctional isoprenoid into the polyurethane affected the morphology of the scaffolds produced, when compared with the morphology of the scaffolds produced using the same technique from the unmodified polyurethane. As a consequence, there was more uniform cell seeding and more homogeneous distribution of the synthesized extracellular matrix throughout the scaffold resulting in a reduced cell/tissue layer at the edges of the constructs. However, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), DNA content, and chondrocytes phenotype in the scaffolds produced from these two polyurethane formulations did not vary significantly. The findings suggest that the change of surface characteristics and the more open pore structure of the scaffolds produced from the isoprenoid-modified polyurethane are beneficial for the seeding efficiency and the homogeneity of the tissue engineered constructs. PMID:19191318

  4. Design of 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering testing a tough polylactide-based graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, R., E-mail: rossella.dorati@unipv.it [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Colonna, C. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Tomasi, C. [C.S.G.I., Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 16 I, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Genta, I. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bruni, G. [C.S.G.I., Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 16 I, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Conti, B. [Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    as biodegradable biomaterial for TE. • The tough PLA graft copolymer resulted to being suitable for the preparation of 2D film and 3D scaffold. • The tough LMP-3055 polymer resulted to being a suitable substrate for cell seeding and proliferation.

  5. Optoelectronic properties of a perylene substituted (cholesteryl)benzoateethynylene co-polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappia, Stefania [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna 140, 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); León, Arxel de [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna 140, 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Alloisio, Marina [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Arias, Eduardo [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna 140, 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Dellepiane, Giovanna; Petrillo, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Moggio, Ivana, E-mail: ivana.moggio@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna 140, 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Thea, Sergio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Gallardo-Vega, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlene [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Boulevard Enrique Reyna 140, 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A perylene cholesteryl-benzoateethynylene co-polymer was synthesized by Sonogashira reaction and characterized by NMR, UV–Vis, static and dynamic fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The optical and electrochemical properties in solution are consistent with photoinduced energy transfer from the electron donor conjugated backbone to the electron acceptor perylene substituent. Photovoltaic properties are indeed found, even if the performance of the solar cells is quite low due to the formation of aggregates. The incorporation of (6,6)-phenyl C61–butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), however, increases by an order of magnitude the efficiency of the prototype (from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −3}%) due to both better phase mixing and improved electrical continuity as supported by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Electrical Force Microscopy (EFM) studies. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a benzoateethynylene backbone co-polymer with perylene substituent. • Optical and electrochemical properties consistent with photoinduced energy transfer. • Enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency when PCBM is added to the co-polymer. • EFM studies of active layers.

  6. Mechanism of Molecular Exchange in Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Compared to thermodynamic structure, much less has been known about the kinetics of block copolymer micelles which should underlay the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium. In this presentation, molecular exchange between spherical micelles formed by isotopically labeled diblock copolymers was investigated using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. Two pairs of structurally matched poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) were synthesized and dispersed in isotopic mixture of squalane, highly selective to PEP block. Each pair includes polymers with fully deuterated (dPS-PEP) and a normal (hPS-PEP) PS blocks. Temperature dependence of the micelle exchange rate R(t) is consistent with melt dynamics for the core polymer. Furthermore, R(t) is significantly sensitive to the core block length N due to the thermodynamic penalty associated with ejecting a core block into the solvent. This hypersensitivity, combined with modest polydispersity in N, leads to an approximately logarithmic decay in R(t).

  7. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...... crystalline lattice with close-packed spheres or with cubic (presumably BCC) equilibrium morphology. The appearance of the latter is never detected in the gels with a stretched conformation of the midblock....

  8. Nanostructured Polysulfone-Based Block Copolymer Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate nanostructured membranes from polysulfone-based block copolymers through self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Block copolymers containing polysulfone are novel materials for this purpose providing better mechanical and thermal stability to membranes than polystyrene-based copolymers, which have been exclusively used now. Firstly, we synthesized a triblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) through polycondensation and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The obtained membrane has a highly porous interconnected skin layer composed of elongated micelles with a flower-like arrangement, on top of the graded finger-like macrovoids. Membrane surface hydrolysis was carried out in a combination with metal complexation to obtain metal-chelated membranes. The copper-containing membrane showed improved antibacterial capability. Secondly, a poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) triblock copolymer obtained by hydrolyzing poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) formed a thin film with cylindrical poly(acrylic acid) microdomains in polysulfone matrix through thermal annealing. A phase inversion membrane was prepared from the same polymer via self-assembly and chelation-assisted non-solvent induced phase separation. The spherical micelles pre-formed in a selective solvent mixture packed into an ordered lattice in aid of metal-poly(acrylic acid) complexation. The space between micelles was filled with poly(acrylic acid)-metal complexes acting as potential water channels. The silver0 nanoparticle-decorated membrane was obtained by surface reduction, having three distinct layers with different particle sizes. Other amphiphilic copolymers containing polysulfone and water-soluble segments such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were also synthesized through coupling reaction and copper0-mediated

  9. Free energy of a copolymer in a micro-emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    den Hollander, F.; Petrelis, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-dimensional model of a copolymer consisting of a random concatenation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, immersed in a micro-emulsion of random droplets of oil and water. The copolymer interacts with the micro-emulsion through an interaction Hamiltonian that favors matches and disfavors mismatches between the monomers and the solvents, in such a way that the interaction with the oil is stronger than with the water. The configurations of the copolymers are...

  10. Reversible geling co-polymer and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowska, Anna

    2005-12-27

    The present invention is a thereapeutic agent carrier having a thermally reversible gel or geling copolymer that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum geling molecular weight cutoff and a therapeutic agent.

  11. Preparation and degradation mechanisms of biodegradable polymer: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S. H.; Duan, P. P.; Shen, M. X.; Xue, Y. J.; Wang, Z. Y.

    2016-07-01

    Polymers are difficult to degrade completely in Nature, and their catabolites may pollute the environment. In recent years, biodegradable polymers have become the hot topic in people's daily life with increasing interest, and a controllable polymer biodegradation is one of the most important directions for future polymer science. This article presents the main preparation methods for biodegradable polymers and discusses their degradation mechanisms, the biodegradable factors, recent researches and their applications. The future researches of biodegradable polymers are also put forward.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  13. Static wetting behaviour of diblock copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ausserre, D.; Raghunathan, V.; Maaloum, M.

    1993-01-01

    Thin liquid films of ordered diblock copolymers deposited on a solid substrate form a multilayer stacking parallel to the solid surface. A multilayer with a finite extend can be stable, metastable, or unstable, depending on the relative values of the surface energies of the various interfaces. The spreading parameter and chemical potential of a n-layer are derived, and used for classifying all possible situations. It is shown that only mono- and bilayers can be stable, and that non-wetting mu...

  14. Comparing Fluid and Elastic Block Copolymer Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Emulsions can be stabilized with the addition of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, resulting in droplets surrounded and protected by a polymer monolayer. Such droplets show considerable promise as advanced cargo carriers in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics due to their strength and responsiveness. Diblock copolymer interfaces remain mostly fluid and may not be able to attain the mechanical performance desired by industry. To strengthen block copolymer emulsion droplets we have developed a novel method for creating thin elastic shells using polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS). Characterization of the fluid filled elastic shells is difficult with traditional means which lead us to develop a new and general method of mechanical measurement. Specifically, we use laser scanning confocal microscopy to achieve a high resolution measure of the deformation of soft spheres under the influence of gravity. To prove the resilience of the technique we examine both a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) stabilized emulsion and the PS-PAA-PS emulsion. The mechanical measurement allows the physics of the polymer at the interface to be examined, which will ultimately lead to the rational development of these technologies.

  15. PREPARATION OF P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt COPOLYMER BY INITIATION OF PRECURSOR CONTAINING ISOPROPYLTHIOXANTHONE RESIDUES AND ITS APPLICATION IN FABRICATING HONEYCOMB STRUCTURED POROUS FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万泰

    2009-01-01

    A novel,facile method to prepare copolymers by virtue of the reinitiation of precursor containing isopropylthioxanthone(ITX) residues(ITXH) was reported.Using poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)(P(MAH-co-VAc)) with incorporated ITX residues as a macroinitiator,polymerization of styrene was performed,and poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)-b-polystyrene(P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt) was produced.Applying the resultant copolymer in a breath figure procedure,honeycomb structure films having pore size around ...

  16. PREPARATION OF P(MAH-co-VAc)-b-PSt COPOLYMER BY INITIATION OF PRECURSOR CONTAINING ISOPROPYLTHIOXANTHONE RESIDUES AND ITS APPLICATION IN FABRICATING HONEYCOMB STRUCTURED POROUS FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Meng; Lian-ying Liu; Wan-tai Yang

    2009-01-01

    A novel, facile method to prepare copolymers by virtue of the reinitiation of precursor containing isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) residues (ITXH) was reported. Using poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate) (P(MAH-co-Vac)) with incorporated ITX residues as a macroinitiator, polymerization of styrene was performed, and poly(maleic anhydride-co-vinyl acetate)-b-polystyrene (P(MAH-co-Vac)-b-PSt) was produced. Applying the resultant copolymer in a breath figure procedure, honeycomb structure films having pore size around 250 nm were prepared under low temperature and relative humidity.

  17. Solubility and self-assembly of amphiphilic gradient and block copolymers in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at demonstrating the interest of gradient copolymers in supercritical CO2 in comparison with block copolymers. Gradient copolymers exhibit a better solubility in supercritical CO2 than block copolymers, as attested by cloud point data. The self-assembly of gradient and block copolymers in dense CO2 has been characterized by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS); and it is shown that it is not fundamentally modified when changing from block copolymers to gradient copolymers. Therefore, gradient copolymers are advantageous thanks to their easier synthesis and their solubility at lower pressure while maintaining a good ability for self-organization in dense CO2. (authors)

  18. Preparation of Mesoporous Carbons from Acrylonitrile-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites Synthesized by in-situ Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yongzhong; ZHAO Wenting; HUANG Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate (AN-MMA) copolymer/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization initiated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride absorbed onto colloidal silica particles,and the mesoporous carbon materials were prepared through carbonization of the obtained AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites,followed by HF etching.Thermogravimetric analysis of AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites showed that the carbon yield of copolymer was slightly decreased as silica particle incorporated.N2 adsorption-desorption,scan electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the mesoporous carbon materials.Both SEM and TEM results showed that disordered mesopores were formed in the obtained carbon material mainly through templating effect of silica nanoparticles.The diameter of mesopores was mainly distributed in the range from 5 nm to 15 nm.The mean pore diameter and total pore volume of the material increased as the mass fraction of silica in the nanocomposites increased from 0 to 24.93%.The significant increase of the mean pore diameter and the decrease of surface area for the carbon material prepared from the nanocomposite with 24.93% silica were caused by partial aggregation of silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  19. Influence of Methacrylic-Acrylic Copolymer Composition on Plasticiser-free Optode Films for pH Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have examined the use of plasticiser-free polymeric films incorporating a proton selective chromoionophore for optical pH sensor. Four types of methacrylic-acrylic copolymers containing different compositions of n-butyl acrylate (nBA and methyl methacrylate (MMA were synthesised for use as optical sensor films. The copolymers were mixed with appropriate amounts of chromoionophore (ETH5294 and a lipophilic salt before spin coated on glass slides to form films for the evaluation of pH response using spectrophotometry. Co-polymer films with high nBA content gave good response and the response time depended on the film thickness. A preliminary evaluation of the optical films of high nBA content with pHs from 2 - 14 showed distinguishable responses from pH 5 - 9. However, the adhesion of the pH sensitive film was good for copolymers with higher content of MMA but not for films with high nBA.

  20. Effect of Small Molecule Osmolytes on the Self-Assembly and Functionality of Globular Protein-Polymer Diblock Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Carla S.; Xu, Liza; Olsen, Bradley D. [MIT

    2013-12-05

    Blending the small molecule osmolytes glycerol and trehalose with the model globular protein–polymer block copolymer mCherry-b-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (mCherry-b-PNIPAM) is demonstrated to improve protein functionality in self-assembled nanostructures. The incorporation of either additive into block copolymers results in functionality retention in the solid state of 80 and 100% for PNIPAM volume fractions of 40 and 55%, respectively. This represents a large improvement over the 50–60% functionality observed in the absence of any additive. Furthermore, glycerol decreases the thermal stability of block copolymer films by 15–20 °C, while trehalose results in an improvement in the thermal stability by 15–20 °C. These results suggest that hydrogen bond replacement is responsible for the retention of protein function but suppression or enhancement of thermal motion based on the glass transition of the osmolyte primarily determines thermal stability. While both osmolytes are observed to have a disordering effect on the nanostructure morphology with increasing concentration, this effect is less pronounced in materials with a larger polymer volume fraction. Glycerol preferentially localizes in the protein domains and swells the nanostructures, inducing disordering or a change in morphology depending on the PNIPAM coil fraction. In contrast, trehalose is observed to macrophase separate from the block copolymer, which results in nanodomains becoming more disordered without changing significantly in size.

  1. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation. PMID:17849431

  2. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K.; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily ...

  3. Biodegradation and toxicological evaluation of lubricant oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Shodji Tamada; Paulo Renato Matos Lopes; Renato Nallin Montagnolli; Ederio Dino Bidoia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different toxicity levels of lubricant oils. The tests were performed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei), arugula seeds (Eruca sativa) and lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa), with three types of contaminants (mineral lubricant oil, synthetic lubricant oil and used lubricant oil) for various biodegradation periods in the soil. The toxicity tests indirectly measured the biodegradation of the contaminants. The samples were analyzed at t0, t60, t120 and t180 days...

  4. Biodegradation of cresol isomers in anoxic aquifers.

    OpenAIRE

    Smolenski, W J; Suflita, J M

    1987-01-01

    The biodegradation of o-, m-, and p-cresol was examined in material obtained from a shallow anaerobic alluvial sand aquifer. The cresol isomers were preferentially metabolized, with p-cresol being the most easily degraded. m-Cresol was more persistent than the para-isomer, and o-cresol persisted for over 90 days. Biodegradation of cresol isomers was favored under sulfate-reducing conditions (SRC) compared with that under methanogenic conditions (MC). Slurries that were acclimated to p-cresol ...

  5. Biodegradability of Chlorinated Anilines in Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO WANG; GUAN-GHUA LU; YAN-JIE ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the bacteria tolerating chlorinated anilines and to study the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline and its coexistent compounds. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicant. Biodegradability of chlorinated anilines was determined using domesticated complex bacteria as an inoculum by shaking-flask test. Results The complex bacteria were identified, consisting of Xanthomonas, Bacillus alcaligenes,Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetaceae nocardia. The obtained complex bacteria were more tolerant to o-chloroaniline than mixture bacteria in natural river waters. The effects of exposure concentration and inoculum size on the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline were analyzed, and the biodegradation characteristics of single o-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichloroaniline were compared with the coexistent compounds. Conclusion The biodegradation rates can be improved by decreasing concentration of compounds and increasing inoculum size of complex bacteria. When o-chloroaniline coexists with aniline, the latter is biodegraded prior to the former, and as a consequence the metabolic efficiency of o-chloroaniline is improved with the increase of aniline concentration. Meanwhile, when o-chloroaniline coexists with 2,4-dichloroaniline, the metabolic efficiency of 2,4-dichloroaniline is markedly improved.

  6. Banana fiber-reinforced biodegradable soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rakesh Kumar; Veena Choudhary; Saroj Mishra; Ik Varma

    2008-01-01

    Banana fiber,a waste product of banana cultivation,has been used to prepare banana fiber reinforced soy protein composites. Alkali modified banana fibers were characterized in terms of density,denier and crystallinity index. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed on the fibers. Soy protein composites were prepared by incorporating different volume fractions of alkali,treated and untreated fibers into soy protein isolate (SPI) with different amounts of glycerol (25%,50%) as plasticizer.Composites thus prepared were characterized in terms of mechanical properties,SEM and water resistance.The results indicate that at 0.3 volume fraction,tensile strength and modulus of alkali treated fiber reinforced soy protein composites increased to 82% and 963%,respectively,compared to soy protein film without fibers.Water resistance of the composites increased significantly with the addition of glutaraldehyde which acts as crosslinking agent. Biodegradability of the composites has also been tested in the contaminated environment and the composites were found to be 100% biodegradable.

  7. Biodegradable polyoxyethylenated pentaerythritol quaternary esters as oil spill dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Abdel-Raouf, Manar [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.

    2012-03-15

    Four polyoxyethylenated pentaerythritol (PE) ester surfactants have been synthesized. The molecular weights of these surfactants were calculated and evaluated experimentally by GPC and confirmed by calculations based on {sup 1}H-NMR. Also, their HLB values were calculated by Griffin formula. The surface tension and thermodynamic properties of the surfactants were obtained from surface tension measurements at different temperatures (298-318 K). It was found that the minimum area/surfactant molecule (A{sub min}) for the investigated surfactants increased with increasing the molecular weight of the incorporated ethylene oxide. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization ({delta}G{sub mic,} {delta}H{sub mic} and {delta}S{sub mic}) and that for adsorption ({delta}G{sub ad,} {delta}H{sub ad} and {delta}S{sub ad}) were also calculated. The more negative Gibbs free energy of adsorption values than those of micellization suggest that these surfactants favor adsorption than micellization. This finding is utilized for monitoring their dispersancy power. It was found that the water solubility of the prepared surfactants is correlated to their HLB values. Furthermore, the biodegradability of the prepared compounds was studied at different conditions in order to investigate their usability as oil spill dispersants. The data revealed that PE200-C12 had maximum dispersion efficiency and it was completely biodegraded after 8 days. (orig.)

  8. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Lipopeptides from Biodegradable Polymers against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Lea H; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Sol, Asaf; Zeharia, Rotem; Shai, Yechiel; Beyth, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J; Bachrach, Gilad; Beyth, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    The development of antibacterial drugs to overcome various pathogenic species, which inhabit the oral cavity, faces several challenges, such as salivary flow and enzymatic activity that restrict dosage retention. Owing to their amphipathic nature, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve as the first line of defense of the innate immune system. The ability to synthesize different types of AMPs enables exploitation of their advantages as alternatives to antibiotics. Sustained release of AMPs incorporated in biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high levels of the peptides. In this study, four potent ultra-short lipopeptides, conjugated to an aliphatic acid chain (16C) were incorporated in two different biodegradable polymers: poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (PLACO) and ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) (P(SA-RA)) for sustained release. The lipopeptide and polymer formulations were tested for antibacterial activity during one week, by turbidometric measurements of bacterial outgrowth, anti-biofilm activity by live/dead staining, biocompatibility by hemolysis and XTT colorimetric assays, mode of action by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and release profile by a fluorometric assay. The results show that an antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect, as well as membrane disruption, can be achieved by the use of a formulation of lipopeptide incorporated in biodegradable polymer. PMID:27606830

  9. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Lipopeptides from Biodegradable Polymers against Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Lea H.; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Sol, Asaf; Zeharia, Rotem; Shai, Yechiel; Beyth, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of antibacterial drugs to overcome various pathogenic species, which inhabit the oral cavity, faces several challenges, such as salivary flow and enzymatic activity that restrict dosage retention. Owing to their amphipathic nature, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve as the first line of defense of the innate immune system. The ability to synthesize different types of AMPs enables exploitation of their advantages as alternatives to antibiotics. Sustained release of AMPs incorporated in biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high levels of the peptides. In this study, four potent ultra-short lipopeptides, conjugated to an aliphatic acid chain (16C) were incorporated in two different biodegradable polymers: poly (lactic acid co castor oil) (PLACO) and ricinoleic acid-based poly (ester-anhydride) (P(SA-RA)) for sustained release. The lipopeptide and polymer formulations were tested for antibacterial activity during one week, by turbidometric measurements of bacterial outgrowth, anti-biofilm activity by live/dead staining, biocompatibility by hemolysis and XTT colorimetric assays, mode of action by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and release profile by a fluorometric assay. The results show that an antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect, as well as membrane disruption, can be achieved by the use of a formulation of lipopeptide incorporated in biodegradable polymer. PMID:27606830

  10. Synthesis and biocompatibility of a biodegradable and functionalizable thermo-sensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mantosh K; Gao, Jin; Stowell, Chelsea E T; Wang, Yadong

    2015-09-01

    Injectable thermal gels are a useful tool for drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, most thermal gels do not solidify rapidly at body temperature (37°C). We addressed this by synthesizing a thermo-sensitive, rapidly biodegrading hydrogel. Our hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(propanol serinate hexamethylene urethane) (EPSHU), is an ABA block copolymer comprising A, methoxy poly ethylene glycol group and B, poly (propanol L-serinate hexamethylene urethane). EPSHU was characterized by gel permeation chromatography for molecular weight and (1)H NMR and Fourier transformed infrared for structure. Rheological studies measured the phase transition temperature. In vitro degradation in cholesterol esterase and in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) was tracked using the average molecular weight measured by gel permeation chromatography. LIVE/DEAD and resazurin reduction assays performed on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to EPSHU extracts demonstrated no cytotoxicity. Subcutaneous implantation into BALB/cJ mice indicated good biocompatibility in vivo. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of EPSHU together make it a promising candidate for drug delivery applications that demand carrier gel degradation within months. PMID:26814023

  11. Tunable, biodegradable gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Ezzibdeh, Rami M; Chhour, Peter; Pulaparthi, Kumidini; Kim, Johoon; Jurcova, Martina; Hsu, Jessica C; Blundell, Cassidy; Litt, Harold I; Ferrari, Victor A; Allcock, Harry R; Sehgal, Chandra M; Cormode, David P

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been proposed for many applications in medicine. Although large AuNP (>5.5 nm) are desirable for their longer blood circulation and accumulation in diseased tissues, small AuNP (nanoparticles (Au-PCPP) can perform their function as contrast agents, then subsequently break down into harmless byproducts and release the AuNP for swift excretion. Homogeneous Au-PCPP were synthesized using a microfluidic device. The size of the Au-PCPP can be controlled by the amount of polyethylene glycol-polylysine (PEG-PLL) block co-polymer in the formulation. Synthesis of Au-PCPP nanoparticles and encapsulation of AuNP in PCPP were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy and their biocompatibility and biodegradability confirmed in vitro. The Au-PCPP nanoparticles were found to produce strong computed tomography contrast. The UV-Vis absorption peak of Au-PCPP can be tuned into the near infrared region via inclusion of varying amounts of AuNP and controlling the nanoparticle size. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of Au-PCPP as contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging. Therefore, Au-PCPP nanoparticles have high potency as contrast agents for two imaging modalities, as well as being biocompatible and biodegradable, and thus represent a platform with potential for translation into the clinic. PMID:27322961

  12. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  13. Processing and characterization of novel biobased and biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Srikanth

    Human society has benefited tremendously from the use of petroleum-based plastics. However, there are growing concerns with their adverse environmental impacts and volatile costs attributed to the skyrocketing oil prices. Additionally most of the petroleum-based polymers are non-biodegradable causing problems about their disposal. Thus, during the last couple of decades, scientists ail over the world have been focusing on developing new polymeric materials that are biobased and biodegradable, also termed as green plastics . This study aims to develop green materials based on polylactide (PLA) biopolymer that can be made from plants. Although PLA can provide important advantages in terms of sustainability and biodegradability, it has its own challenges such as high cost, brittleness, and narrow processing window. These challenges are addressed in this study by investigating both new material formulations and processes. To improve the material properties and control the material costs, PLA was blended with various fillers and modifiers. The types of fillers investigated include carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoparticles and various natural fibers such as pine-wood four, recycled-wood fibers and flax fiber. Using natural fibers as fillers for PLA can result in fully biodegradable and eco-friendly biocomposites. Also due to PLA's sensitivity to moisture and temperature, molecular degradation can occur during processing leading to inferior material properties. To address this issue, one of the approaches adopted by this study was to incorporate a multifunctional chain-extender into PLA, which increased the molecular weight of PLA thereby improving the material properties. To improve the processability and reduce the material cost, both microcellular injection molding and extrusion processes have been studied. The microcellular technology allows the materials to be processed at a lower temperature, which is attractive for thermo- and moisture-sensitive materials like PLA. They

  14. Manufacturing of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds based on polycaprolactone using a phase separation method: physical properties and in vitro assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefnejad A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Azadeh Asefnejad1, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani2, Aliasghar Behnamghader3, Babak Farsadzadeh1, Shahin Bonakdar4 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iran Polymers and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran; 3Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran, Iran; 4National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran Background: Biodegradable polyurethanes have found widespread use in soft tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Methods: In this study, polyurethane samples were synthesized from polycaprolactone, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and a copolymer of 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender. Polyurethane scaffolds were fabricated by a combination of liquid–liquid phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The effect of the NCO:OH ratio on porosity content and pore morphology was investigated. Results: Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the scaffolds had a regular distribution of interconnected pores, with pore diameters of 50–300 µm, and porosities of 64%–83%. It was observed that, by increasing the NCO:OH ratio, the average pore size, compressive strength, and compressive modulus increased. L929 fibroblast and chondrocytes were cultured on the scaffolds, and all samples exhibited suitable cell attachment and growth, with a high level of biocompatibility. Conclusion: These biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds demonstrate potential for soft tissue engineering applications. Keywords: polyurethane, tissue engineering, biodegradable, fibroblast cells

  15. Crystallization Behavior of Copolymer Poly (ethylene terephthalate/isophthalate) (IPET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾书英; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2001-01-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics, isothermal crystallization and the morphology of crystals of the copolymer poly (ethylene terephthalate/ isophthalate )(IPET) were studied by DSC and polarized-light microscopy in this paper. DSC results indicate that the glass transition temperature Tg of IPET is slightly lower than that of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), but the melting temperature Tm and the crystallization temperature Tc of PET and IPET have much difference.The difference of Tc between PET and IPET2 is about 7℃, and the difference of Tm between PET and IPET2 is about 16℃. From the kinetics analysis of the crystallization, the crystallization mechanism of all samples is of three-dimension spherulitic growth from instantaneous nuclei and the incorporation of isophthalate (IPA) decreases the crystallization rate of IPET greatly. The isothermal results indicate that the morphologies of PET and IPET crystals are all spherulite, which is in conformity to the results of nonisothermal dynamic crystallization. At the same time,the spherulite of IPET grows slower and has longer incubation time than the spherulite of PET under the same crystallization condition.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  17. Piezoelectric Properties of Non-Polar Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pester, Christian [RWTH Aachen University; Ruppel, Markus A [ORNL; Schoberth, Heiko [University of Bayreuth; Schmidt, K. [Universitat Bayreuth; Liedel, Clemens [RWTH Aachen University; Van Rijn, Patrick [RWTH Aachen University; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Schindler, Kerstin [RWTH Aachen University; Hiltl, Stephanie [RWTH Aachen University; Czubak, Thomas [RWTH Aachen University; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Boker, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric properties in non-polar block copolymers are a novelty in the field of electroactive polymers. The piezoelectric susceptibility of poly(styrene-b-isoprene) block copolymer lamellae is found to be up to an order of magnitude higher when compared to classic piezoelectric materials. The electroactive response increases with temperature and is found to be strongest in the disordered phase.

  18. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  19. Fast & scalable pattern transfer via block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    A fully scalable and efficient pattern transfer process based on block copolymer (BCP) self-assembling directly on various substrates is demonstrated. PS-rich and PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are used to give monolayer sphere morphology after spin-casting of s...

  20. From Block Copolymers to Nano-porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Ndoni, Sokol; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative etching of the polydimethylsiloxane block in a series of polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-PDMS) block copolymers is reported. Reacting the block copolymer with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) renders a nanoporous material with the remaining PS maintaining the original morphology...

  1. Microphase separation of diblock copolymers with amphiphilic segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriksin, Yury A.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; Erukhimovich, Igor Ya.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a statistical mechanical approach for predicting the self-assembled morphologies of amphiphilic diblock copolymers in the melt. We introduce two conformationally asymmetric linear copolymer models with a local structural asymmetry, one of a "comb-tail'' type and another that we call "cont

  2. Siloxane modified polyurea and polyurethane urea segmented copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Regina H.

    1989-01-01

    High molecular weight polyether urea copolymers were synthesized using perfectly difunctional aromatic amine terminated polypropylene oxide (PPO) (2800 ) prepared via aluminum porphorin initiated coordination polymerization. The resulting segmented copolymer showed much higher tensile strength and better thermal stability than polyureas based on commercial PPO which contains some terminal unsaturation. This was attributed to the achievement of both higher molecular weight and t...

  3. Self-assembled materials from thermosensitive and biohybrid block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this research, several block copolymers were synthesized and characterized with regard to possible pharmaceutical applications. All block copolymers were thermosensitive and self-assembled at 37 °C into structures like micelles and hydrogels, which can be used for innovative drug delivery purpose

  4. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.;

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which ra...

  5. Stereo block copolymers of L- and D-lactides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yui, Nobuhiko; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Sequential diblock copolymers composed of L- and D-lactic acid residues were synthesized through a living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactide initiated by aluminium tris(2-propanolate). The composition of the block copolymers was varied by changing the reaction conditions and monomer ove

  6. Research Progress of Electrospun Biodegradable Synthetic Polymer Fibers%可降解合成高分子静电纺纤维的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江乙逵; 赖明河; 陈向标; 陈海宏

    2012-01-01

    The principle of electrospinning and the research progress of biodegradable synthetic polymer nanofibers prepared by electrospinning were introduced. The research progress of several major electrospun biodegradable synthetic polymer fibers such as poly-carboxylic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone and their copolymers, etc was mainly described. The important application in biomedical field was pointedout.%介绍了静电纺丝的原理及利用静电纺丝方法制备生物可降解合成高分子纳米纤维的最新研究进展,主要讲述聚羧基乙酸、聚乳酸、聚己内酯及其共聚物等几种主要的生物可降解合成高分子电纺纤维的研究进展,并指出它们在生物医学领域的重要应用.

  7. PREPARATION AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING FLUORINATED MONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-jiang Gui; Hao Wei; Ying Zhao; Xiu-lin Wang; Du-jin Wang; Duan-fu Xu

    2006-01-01

    A series of copolymers comprising butylmethacrylate, styrene, butylacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate and perfluoroalkyl methacrylate were synthesized by the free radical polymerization using BPO as an initiator. The surface property of the copolymer films was subsequently characterized. The contact angle measurements and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) show that the length and content ofperfluoroalkyl side chains in the copolymers are crucial for the preparation of the film with low surface energy. At a given content of fluorinated monomers in the copolymers, the longer the perfluoroalkyl side chain, the larger the water contact angle of the copolymer films will be. On the other hand, the higher the content of fluorinated monomers, the lower the surface energy is. The water contact angle increases with the increase of the fluorinated monomer content and reaches a plateau at 3 wt% of fluorinated monomer content.

  8. Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppel, Markus A [ORNL; Pester, Christian W [ORNL; Langner, Karol M [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Sevink, Geert [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Schoberth, Heiko [University of Bayreuth; Schmidt, Kristin [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Boker, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University

    2013-01-01

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

  9. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  10. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene-butene Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The crystallinity of ethylene-butene copolymers prepared by copolymerization of ethylene and butene in the presence of a new highly active catalyst was studied by means of DSC, WAXD and DMA. The results show that the melting temperature, the crystallinity and the crystallite size decreased with increasing the content of butene in the copolymers. The copolymers have a high degree of branching, the butene segments are mainly in the amorphous regions of the copolymers, while the polyethylene sequence forms crystal phase acting as crosslinking bondage between the molecules at room temperature. The ethylene-butene copolymers have a low modulus, a low stress and a high strain analogous to the stress-strain behavior of non-cross thermoplastic elastomer.

  11. Multicompartment Micelles From π-Shaped ABC Block Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; ZHONG Chong-Li

    2007-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics simulations were performed on the morphology and structure of multicompartment micelles formed from n-shaped ABC block copolymers in water. The influences of chain architectures were studied in a systematic way, and a rich variety of morphologies were observed, such as spherical, wormlike,X-shaped, Y-shaped, ribbon-like, layered rod-like, layered disk-like, as well as network morphologies. The simulations show that the distance between the two grafts plays an important role in control of the morphology. Since π-shaped ABC block copolymers can be reduced to linear ABC and star ABC block copolymers, they are good model copolymers for studying the self-assembly of complex block copolymers into micelles. The knowledge obtained in this work as well as the new morphologies identified provide useful information for future rational design and synthesis of novel multicompartment micelles.

  12. Electrospinning of synthesized triblock copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and L-lactide for the application of vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Rongxin; Ye Lin; Zhang Aiying; Feng Zengguo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Chunmin; Dong Jiande; Gu Yongquan, E-mail: sainfeng@bit.edu.c [Department of Vascular Surgery, XuanWu Hospital, The Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Biodegradable triblock copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and L-lactide with varying compositions and molecular weights have been synthesized. They were then used to fabricate compliant small-diameter tissue engineered vascular scaffolds by using an electrospinning technique. The in vitro and in vivo degradation of the ultrafine fabrics was monitored to be faster than their counterpart cast films. A favorable interaction between the scaffolds and the mouse fibroblast L929 cells was demonstrated via MTT assay. A confluent, adherent monolayer of canine mesenchymal stem cells was observed in the tubular scaffold lumen after culture in a bioreactor for 3 days. The scaffold mechanical strength was strong enough to be transplanted into the canine carotid artery.

  13. Boron nitride nanotube reinforced polylactide-polycaprolactone copolymer composite: mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with osteoblasts and macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debrupa; Rouzaud, Francois; Richard, Tanisha; Keshri, Anup K; Bakshi, Srinivasa R; Kos, Lidia; Agarwal, Arvind

    2010-09-01

    Biodegradable polylactide-polycaprolactone copolymer (PLC) has been reinforced with 0, 2 and 5wt.% boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) for orthopedic scaffold application. Elastic modulus of the PLC-5wt.% BNNT composite, evaluated through nanoindentation technique, shows a 1370% increase. The same amount of BNNT addition to PLC enhances the tensile strength by 109%, without any adverse effect on the ductility up to 240% elongation. Interactions of the osteoblasts and macrophages with bare BNNTs prove them to be non-cytotoxic. PLC-BNNT composites displayed increased osteoblast cell viability as compared to the PLC matrix. The addition of BNNTs also resulted in an increase in the expression levels of the Runx2 gene, the main regulator of osteoblast differentiation. These results indicate that BNNT is a potential reinforcement for composites for orthopedic applications. PMID:20226282

  14. Synthesis of Functional Block Copolymers Carrying One Poly( p -phenylenevinylene) and One Nonconjugated Block in a Facile One-Pot Procedure

    KAUST Repository

    Menk, Florian

    2016-02-29

    Block copolymers composed of a MEH-PPV block and a nonconjugated functional block (molecular weights between 5 and 90 kg/mol) were synthesized in a facile one-pot procedure via ROMP. This one-pot procedure permits the synthesis of numerous block copolymers with little effort. Amphiphilic block copolymers were obtained via incorporation of oxanorbornene carrying a PEG side chain as well as via postpolymerization modification of a reactive ester carrying norbornene derivative with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)amine. These amphiphilic block copolymers can be self-assembled into micelles exhibiting different sizes (60-95 nm), morphologies (micelles or fused, caterpillar-like micelles), and optical properties depending on the polymer composition and the micellization procedure. Furthermore, the reactive ester carrying block copolymers enabled the introduction of anchor groups which facilitated the preparation of nanocomposites with CdSe/CdZnS core-shell QDs. The obtained composites were studied using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results revealed an increased interaction based on an accelerated decay of the QD emission for composites as compared to the mixture of the QDs with unfunctionalized polymers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. In-situ crosslinkable and self-assembling elastin-like polypeptide block copolymers for cartilage tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Woo

    bulk hydrogels, which may be useful for in situ tissue supplementation and repair because they show viscoelastic gel-like behaviors upon raising the temperature, and they are composed of biocompatible and biodegradable elements. These results show that the injectable biomaterials based on the ELP block copolymers and the ELP-g-HAs have potential for cartilage tissue repair and supplementation.

  16. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tao

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex  ……

  17. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex

  18. Surface tension of micellar block copolymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface tensions of micellar block copolymers of poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) films are obtained by X-ray diffuse scattering. PS-b-PDMS films on Si substrates with the thicknesses from 36 to 588 nm were investigated at temperatures of 30 - 215 .deg. C. The surface tension reflects the concentration of PDMS micelles which are preferably located at the surface. The molar fraction of PDMS micelles near the surface is estimated by using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Small domain-size multiblock copolymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2016-09-20

    New block polymer electrolytes have been developed which have higher conductivities than previously reported for other block copolymer electrolytes. The new materials are constructed of multiple blocks (>5) of relatively low domain size. The small domain size provides greater protection against formation of dendrites during cycling against lithium in an electrochemical cell, while the large total molecular weight insures poor long range alignment, which leads to higher conductivity. In addition to higher conductivity, these materials can be more easily synthesized because of reduced requirements on the purity level of the reagents.

  20. Nanocomposites of Polyacrylic Acid Nanogels and Biodegradable Polyhydroxybutyrate for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Larsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable cell scaffolds and local drug delivery to stimulate cell response are currently receiving much scientific attention. Here we present a nanocomposite that combines biodegradation with controlled release of lithium, which is known to enhance bone growth. Nanogels of lithium neutralized polyacrylic acid were synthesized by microemulsion-templated polymerization and were incorporated into a biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB matrix. Nanogel size was characterized using dynamic light scattering, and the nanocomposites were characterized with regard to structure using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties using tensile testing, permeability using tritiated water, and lithium release in PBS using a lithium specific electrode. The nanogels were well dispersed in the composites and the mechanical properties were good, with a decrease in elastic modulus being compensated by increased tolerance to strain in the wet state. Approximately half of the lithium was released over about three hours, with the remaining fraction being trapped in the PHB for subsequent slow release during biodegradation. The prepared nanocomposites seem promising for use as dual functional scaffolds for bone regeneration. Here lithium ions were chosen as model drug, but the nanogels could potentially act as carriers for larger and more complex drugs, possibly while still carrying lithium.

  1. Mechano-responsive hydrogels crosslinked by reactive block copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longxi

    Hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric networks that can swell in water without dissolution. Owing to their structural similarity to the native extracelluar matrices, hydrogels have been widely used in biomedical applications. Synthetic hydrogels have been designed to respond to various stimuli, but mechanical signals have not incorporated into hydrogel matrices. Because most tissues in the body are subjected to various types of mechanical forces, and cells within these tissues have sophisticated mechano-transduction machinery, this thesis is focused on developing hydrogel materials with built-in mechano-sensing mechanisms for use as tissue engineering scaffolds or drug release devices. Self-assembled block copolymer micelles (BCMs) with reactive handles were employed as the nanoscopic crosslinkers for the construction of covalently crosslinked networks. BCMs were assembled from amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) partially modified with acrylate. Radical polymerization of acrylamide in the presence of micellar crosslinkers gave rise to elastomeric hydrogels whose mechanical properties can be tuned by varying the BCM composition and concentration. TEM imaging revealed that the covalently integrated BCMs underwent strain-dependent reversible deformation. A model hydrophobic drug, pyrene, loaded into the core of BCMs prior to the hydrogel formation, was dynamically released in response to externally applied mechanical forces, through force-induced reversible micelle deformation and the penetration of water molecules into the micelle core. The mechano-responsive hydrogel has been studied for tissue repair and regeneration purposes. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) was photochemically crosslinked in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded crosslinkable BCMs. The resultant HA gels (HAxBCM) contain covalently integrated micellar compartments with DEX being sequestered in the hydrophobic core. Compared

  2. Self-Assembled Cationic Biodegradable Nanoparticles from pH-Responsive Amino-Acid-Based Poly(Ester Urea Urethane)s and Their Application As a Drug Delivery Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyu; Potuck, Alicia; Kohn, Julie C; Fung, Katharina; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Chu, Chih-Chang

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new family of biodegradable and biologically active copolymers and their subsequent self-assembled cationic nanoparticles as better delivery vehicles for anticancer drugs to achieve the synergism between the cytotoxicity effects of the loaded drugs and the macrophage inflammatory response of the delivery vehicle. This family of cationic nanoparticles was formulated from a new family of amphiphilic cationic Arginine-Leucine (Arg-Leu)-based poly(ester urea urethane) (Arg-Leu PEUU) synthesized from four building blocks (amino acids, diols, glycerol α-monoallyl ether, and 1,6 hexamethylene diisocyanate). The chemical, physical, and biological properties of Arg-Leu PEUU biomaterials can be tuned by controlling the feed ratio of the four building blocks. The Arg-Leu PEUU copolymers have weight-average molecular weights from 13.4 to 16.8 kDa and glass-transition temperatures from -3.4 to -4.6 °C. The self-assembled cationic nanoparticles (Arg-Leu PEUU NPs) were prepared using a facile dialysis method. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs have average diameters ranging from 187 to 272 nm, show good biocompatibility with 3T3 fibroblasts, and they support bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation and adhesion. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs also enhanced the macrophages' production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but produced relatively low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and therefore, the antitumor activity of macrophages might be enhanced. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs were taken up by HeLa cells after 4 h of incubation. The in vitro hemolysis assay showed the cationic Arg-Leu PEUU NPs increased their chance of endosomal escape at a more acidic pH. Doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully incorporated into the Arg-Leu PEUU NPs, and the DOX-loaded Arg-Leu PEUU NPs exhibited a pH-dependent drug release profile with accelerated release kinetics in a mild acidic condition. The DOX-loaded 6-Arg-4-Leu-4 A/L-2/1 NPs showed higher HeLa cell

  3. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  4. Development of mold for biodegradable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japitana, F.H.; Jabrica, A.M. [Metals Industry Research and Develeopment Center, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Science and Technology; Komatsu, M. [Komatsu Consulting Engineer Office, Iwaki City, Fukushima (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The improper disposal of non-biodegradable plastics adversely affect global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology and ecoefficiency. Therefore, a new generation of bio-based polymeric products has been developed. These polylactides (PLA), cellulose esters, starch plastics and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are made from renewable natural resources and are biodegradable. They meet environmental conditions and can compete with their petrochemical counterparts. Among them, PLA is particularly attractive as a sustainable alternative to synthetic polymers and a potential candidate for the fabrication of biocomposites. Certain blends have proved successful in medical implants, sutures and drug delivery systems because of their capacity to dissolve away with time. However, widespread use of PLA is limited because of cost. Biodegradable plastic products are currently 6 to 10 times more expensive than traditional plastics. Environmentalists argue that the cheaper price of traditional plastics does not reflect their true cost when their impact is considered. This paper presented a solution to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics. In particular, it described a newly developed plastic injection mold for biodegradable materials which can produce a scrapless product. The system reduces processing time because it is not necessary to remove any gating or runners after the injection process. Takeout robots ensure that the quality of the product is maintained. 12 figs.

  5. Bio-Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biodegradable polymers and more particularly that of polymers obtained from renewable resources such as the polysaccharides (e.g., starch have long been recognized. However, these biodegradable polymers have been largely used in some applications (e.g., food industry and have not found extensive applications in the packaging industries to replace conventional plastic materials, although they could be an interesting way to overcome the limitation of the petrochemical resources in the future. The fossil fuel and gas could be partially replaced by greener agricultural sources, which should participate in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials based exclusively on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle, especially as it relates to carbon-based polymeric materials such as plastics, water soluble polymers and other carbon based products like lubricants, biodiesel, and detergents. Identification and quantification of bio based content uses radioactive C-14 signature. Biopolymers are generally capable of being utilized by living matter (biodegraded, and so can be disposed in safe and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Single use, short-life, disposable products can be engineered to be bio-based and biodegradable.

  6. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  7. Sustained intravitreal delivery of dexamethasone using an injectable and biodegradable thermogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Shen, Wenjia; Luan, Jiabin; Yang, Dongxiao; Wei, Gang; Yu, Lin; Lu, Weiyue; Ding, Jiandong

    2015-09-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to posterior segment of the eyes is challenging due to the anatomy and physiology of ocular barriers and thus long-acting implantable formulations are much desired. In this study, a thermogelling system composed of two poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers was developed as an injectable matrix for intravitreal drug delivery. The thermogel was prepared by mixing a sol and a precipitate of PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers with different block ratios, among which a hydrophobic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), was incorporated. The DEX-loaded thermogel was a low-viscous liquid at low temperature and formed a non-flowing gel at body temperature. The in vitro release rate of DEX from the thermogel could be conveniently modulated by varying the mixing ratio of the two copolymers. The long-lasting intraocular residence of the thermogel was demonstrated by intravitreal injection of a fluorescence-labeled thermogel to rabbits. Compared with a DEX suspension, the intravitreal retention time of DEX increased from a dozen hours to over 1week when being loaded in the thermogel. Additionally, intravitreal administration of the thermogel did not impair the morphology of retina and cornea. This study reveals that the injectable PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel is a biocompatible carrier for sustained delivery of bioactive agents into the eyes, and provides an alternative approach for treatment of posterior segment diseases. PMID:26004219

  8. Effect of Comonomer Ethylene on Plateau Modulus of Crystalline Ethylene-propylene Random Copolymer with Broad Molecular Weight Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁健; 徐日炜; 丁雪佳; 余鼎声

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene-propylene random copolymer with ultra-high molecular weight (UHPPR) and broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) was prepared with Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The viscoelastic behavior of UHPPR has been investigated by means of oscillatory rheometer at 180, 200 and 220℃. The loss modulus (G"""") curves of 180 and 200℃ present a pronounced maximum at 38.10 and 84.70r/s, respectively, For the first time, this makes it possible to directly determine the plateau modulus ( GN0 ) of crystalline ethylene-propylene random copolymer with broad MWD in a certain experimental temperature G""""(w) curve. The plateau modulus of UHPPR is 4.51×105 and 3.67×105 Paat 180 and 200℃ respectively, increasing with random incorporation of comonomer ethylene into the molecular chains and being independent of molecular weight.

  9. Conjugated Polymer Chains Confined in Vertical Nanocylinders of a Block-Copolymer Film: Preparation, Characterization, and Optoelectronic Function

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Ban Xuan

    2013-01-15

    Hybrid materials composed of phase-separated block copolymer films and conjugated polymers of the phenylenevinylene family (PPV) are prepared. The PPV chains are embedded in vertical cylinders of nanometer diameter in the block-copolymer films. The cylinders span continuously the whole film thickness of 70 nm. Incorporation of the PPV chains into the one-dimensional cylinders leads to modified photoluminescence spectra and to large absorption anisotropy. The hybrid films show electroluminescence from the PPV chains in a simple light-emitting device at minute doping concentrations, and also exhibit a factor of 19 increase in electron transport efficiency along the single PPV chains. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The effects of biodegradation on the compositions of aromatic hydrocarbons and maturity indicators in biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By the aid of GC-MS technique,a series of sequentially biodegraded oils from Liaohe Basin have been analyzed. The results show that the concentrations and relative compositions of various aromatic compounds in the biodegraded crude oils will change with increasing biodegradation degree. The concentrations of alkyl naphthalenes,alkyl phenanthrenes,alkyl dibenzothiophene are decreased,and the concentration of triaromatic steroids will increase with increasing biodegradation degree in biodegraded oils. Those phenomena indicate that various aromatic compounds are more easily biodegraded by bacteria like other kinds of hydrocarbons such as alkanes,but different series of aromatic compounds have a varied ability to resistant to biodegradation. The ratios of dibenzothiophene to phenenthrene(DBTH/P) and methyl dibenzothiophene to methyl phenanthrene(MDBTH/MP) are related to the features of depositional environment for source rocks such as redox and ancient salinity. However,in biodegraded oils,the two ratios increase quickly with the increase of the biodegradation degree,indicating that they have lost their geochemical significance. In this case,they could not be used to evaluate the features of depositional environment. Methyl phenanthrene index,methyl phenanthrene ratio and methyl dibenzoyhiophene ratio are useful aromatic maturity indicators for the crude oils and the source rocks without vitrinite. But for biodegraded oils,those aromatic maturity indicators will be affected by biodegradation and decrease with the increase of the biodegradation degree. Therefore,those aromatic molecular maturity indicators could not be used for biodegraded oils.

  11. Introduction of environmentally degradable parameters to evaluate the biodegradability of biodegradable polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Guo

    Full Text Available Environmentally Degradable Parameter ((EdK is of importance in the describing of biodegradability of environmentally biodegradable polymers (BDPs. In this study, a concept (EdK was introduced. A test procedure of using the ISO 14852 method and detecting the evolved carbon dioxide as an analytical parameter was developed, and the calculated (EdK was used as an indicator for the ultimate biodegradability of materials. Starch and polyethylene used as reference materials were defined as the (EdK values of 100 and 0, respectively. Natural soil samples were inoculated into bioreactors, followed by determining the rates of biodegradation of the reference materials and 15 commercial BDPs over a 2-week test period. Finally, a formula was deduced to calculate the value of (EdK for each material. The (EdK values of the tested materials have a positive correlation to their biodegradation rates in the simulated soil environment, and they indicated the relative biodegradation rate of each material among all the tested materials. Therefore, the (EdK was shown to be a reliable indicator for quantitatively evaluating the potential biodegradability of BDPs in the natural environment.

  12. Chain exchange in triblock copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Lodge, Timothy; Bates, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Block polymer micelles offer a host of technological applications including drug delivery, viscosity modification, toughening of plastics, and colloidal stabilization. Molecular exchange between micelles directly influences the stability, structure and access to an equilibrium state in such systems and this property recently has been shown to be extraordinarily sensitive to the core block molecular weight in diblock copolymers. The dependence of micelle chain exchange dynamics on molecular architecture has not been reported. The present work conclusively addresses this issue using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS) applied to complimentary S-EP-S and EP-S-EP triblock copolymers dissolved in squalane, a selective solvent for the EP blocks, where S and EP refer to poly(styrene) and poly(ethylenepropylene), respectively. Following the overall SANS intensity as a function of time from judiciously deuterium labelled polymer and solvent mixtures directly probes the rate of molecular exchange. Remarkably, the two triblocks display exchange rates that differ by approximately ten orders of magnitude, even though the solvophobic S blocks are of comparable size. This discovery is considered in the context of a model that successfully explains S-EP diblock exchange dynamics.

  13. Block copolymer ion gels for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from light gases (eg. N2, CH4, and H2) is a very important technology for industrial applications such as natural gas sweetening, CO2 capture from coal-fire power plant exhausts and hydrogen production. Current CO2 separation method uses amine-absorption, which is energy-intensive and requires frequent maintenance. Membrane separation is a cost-effective solution to this problem, especially in small-scale applications. Ionic liquids have recently received increasing interest in this area because of their selective solubility for CO2 and non-volatility. However, ionic liquid itself lacks the persistent structure and mechanical integrity to withstand the high pressure for gas separation. Here, we report the development and gas separation performances of physically crosslinked ion gels based on self-assembly of ABA-triblock copolymers in ionic liquids. Three different types of polymers was used to achieve gelation in ionic liquids. Specifically, a triblock copolymer ion gel with a polymerized ionic liquid mid-block shows performances higher than the upper bound of well-known ``Robeson Plot'' for CO2/N2.

  14. Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repairs: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Tan; Xiaoming Yu; Peng Wan; Ke Yang

    2013-01-01

    With attractive research and development of biomaterials,more and more opportunities have been brought to the treatments of human tissue repairs.The implant is usually no need to exist in the body accompanied with the recovery or regeneration of the tissue lesions,and the long-term effect of exotic substance to human body should be reduced as lower as possible.For this purpose,biodegradable materials,including polymers,magnesium alloys and ceramics,have attracted much attention for medical applications due to their biodegradable characters in body environment.This paper in turn introduces these three different types of widely studied biodegradable materials as well as their advantages as implants in applications for bone repairs.Relevant history and research progresses are summarized.

  15. Biodegradable nanoparticles for gene therapy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinkhani@mail.ntust.edu.tw; He, Wen-Jie [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Chiang, Chiao-Hsi [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center (China); Hong, Po-Da [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Yu, Dah-Shyong [Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center (China); Domb, Abraham J. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and The Alex Grass Center for Drug Design and Synthesis (Israel); Ou, Keng-Liang [College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production (China)

    2013-07-15

    Rapid propagations in materials technology together with biology have initiated great hopes in the possibility of treating many diseases by gene therapy technology. Viral and non-viral gene carriers are currently applied for gene delivery. Non-viral technology is safe and effective for the delivery of genetic materials to cells and tissues. Non-viral systems are based on plasmid expression containing a gene encoding a therapeutic protein and synthetic biodegradable nanoparticles as a safe carrier of gene. Biodegradable nanoparticles have shown great interest in drug and gene delivery systems as they are easy to be synthesized and have no side effect in cells and tissues. This review provides a critical view of applications of biodegradable nanoparticles on gene therapy technology to enhance the localization of in vitro and in vivo and improve the function of administered genes.

  16. Biodegradable nanoparticles for gene therapy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid propagations in materials technology together with biology have initiated great hopes in the possibility of treating many diseases by gene therapy technology. Viral and non-viral gene carriers are currently applied for gene delivery. Non-viral technology is safe and effective for the delivery of genetic materials to cells and tissues. Non-viral systems are based on plasmid expression containing a gene encoding a therapeutic protein and synthetic biodegradable nanoparticles as a safe carrier of gene. Biodegradable nanoparticles have shown great interest in drug and gene delivery systems as they are easy to be synthesized and have no side effect in cells and tissues. This review provides a critical view of applications of biodegradable nanoparticles on gene therapy technology to enhance the localization of in vitro and in vivo and improve the function of administered genes

  17. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  18. Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.

  19. Biodegradable Photonic Melanoidin for Theranostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Lee, Changho; Jung, Ho Sang; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Ki Su; Yun, Seok Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2016-01-26

    Light-absorbing nanoparticles for localized heat generation in tissues have various biomedical applications in diagnostic imaging, surgery, and therapies. Although numerous plasmonic and carbon-based nanoparticles with strong optical absorption have been developed, their clearance, potential cytotoxicity, and long-term safety issues remain unresolved. Here, we show that "generally regarded as safe (GRAS)" melanoidins prepared from glucose and amino acid offer a high light-to-heat conversion efficiency, biocompatibility, biodegradability, nonmutagenicity, and efficient renal clearance, as well as a low cost for synthesis. We exhibit a wide range of biomedical photonic applications of melanoidins, including in vivo photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes, photoacoustic tracking of gastrointestinal tracts, photothermal cancer therapy, and photothermal lipolysis. The biodegradation rate and renal clearance of melanoidins are controllable by design. Our results confirm the feasibility of biodegradable melanoidins for various photonic applications to theranostic nanomedicines. PMID:26623481

  20. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(alkylene dicarboxylates constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amides derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

  1. pH-responsive biodegradable micelles based on acid-labile polycarbonate hydrophobe: synthesis and triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Meng, Fenghua; Li, Feng; Ji, Shun-Jun; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2009-07-13

    pH-responsive biodegradable micelles were prepared from block copolymers comprising of a novel acid-labile polycarbonate hydrophobe and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Two new cyclic aliphatic carbonate monomers, mono-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-pentaerythritol carbonate (TMBPEC, 2a) and mono-4-methoxybenzylidene-pentaerythritol carbonate (MBPEC, 2b) were designed and successfully synthesized via a two-step procedure. The ring-opening polymerization of 2a or 2b in the presence of methoxy PEG in dichloromethane at 50 °C using zinc bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amide] as a catalyst yielded the corresponding block copolymers PEG-PTMBPEC (3a) or PEG-PMBPEC (3b) with low polydispersities (PDI 1.03-1.04). The copolymerization of D,L-lactide (DLLA) and 2a under otherwise the same conditions could also proceed smoothly to afford PEG-P(TMBPEC-co-DLLA) (3c) block copolymer. These block copolymers readily formed micelles in water with sizes of about 120 nm as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrolysis of the acetals of the polycarbonate was investigated using UV/vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the acetals of micelles 3a, while stable at pH 7.4 are prone to rapid hydrolysis at mildly acidic pH of 4.0 and 5.0, with a half-life of 1 and 6.5 h, respectively. The acetal hydrolysis resulted in significant swelling of micelles, as a result of change of hydrophobic polycarbonate to hydrophilic polycarbonate. In comparison, the acetals of PMBPEC of micelles 3b displayed obviously slower hydrolysis at the same pH. Both paclitaxel and doxorubicin could be efficiently encapsulated into micelles 3a achieving high drug loading content (13.0 and 11.7 wt %, respectively). The in vitro release studies showed clearly a pH dependent release behavior, that is, significantly faster drug release at mildly acidic pH of 4.0 and 5.0 compared to physiological pH. These pH-responsive biodegradable micelles are promising as smart nanovehicles for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

  2. Amphiphilic star block copolymers as gene carrier Part I: Synthesis via ATRP using calix[4]resorcinarene-based initiators and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Anna; Xue, Yan; Wei, Dafu [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Guan, Yong, E-mail: yguan@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xiao, Huining [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a cationic star polymer [poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA)] was prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), using brominated calix[4]resorcinarene as an initiator. Hydrophobic moieties, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA), were further incorporated via 'one-pot' method. Well-defined eight-armed star block copolymers bearing hydrophilic blocks inside and hydrophobic blocks outside were synthesized. The molecular weight, particle size, electrophoretic mobility and apparent charge density were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), phase analysis light scattering (PALS) and colloidal titration, respectively. The zeta potentials and apparent charge densities of the products exhibited the characteristics of polyelectrolyte. The incorporation of hydrophobic moieties generated electrostatic screening effect. The as-synthesized amphiphilic star copolymer is promising as a thermo-sensitive gene carrier for gene therapy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amphiphilic cationic star block copolymers with well-controlled structures were prepared via ATRP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molecular structures and properties of the initiator and copolymers were systematically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The products exhibited the positive charged character, and hydrophobic moieties generated electrostatic screening effect.

  3. Biodegradation of creosote compounds: Comparison of experiments at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.; Arvin, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the results of biodegradation experiments with creosote compounds performed at different scales. The experiments include field observations, field experiments, large-scale intact laboratory column experiments, model fracture experiments, and batch experiments. Most of the expe...... of the pyrroles on the biodegradation of benzene, and the biodegradation of benzothiophene occurs only in the presence of a primary substrate. The experiments show that some biodegradation processes of organic compounds may be common to different microorganisms....

  4. Nanocomposites of polystyrene-b-poly(isoprene)-b-polystyrene triblock copolymer with clay-carbon nanotube hybrid nanoadditives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enotiadis, Apostolos; Litina, Kiriaki; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rangou, Sofia; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Xidas, Panagiotis; Triantafyllidis, Kostas

    2013-01-24

    Polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (PS-b-PI-b-PS), a widely used linear triblock copolymer of the glassy-rubbery-glassy type, was prepared in this study by anionic polymerization and was further used for the development of novel polymer nanocomposite materials. Hybrid nanoadditives were prepared by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method through which carbon nanotubes were grown on the surface of smectite clay nanolayers. Side-wall chemical organo-functionalization of the nanotubes was performed in order to enhance the chemical compatibilization of the clay-CNT hybrid nanoadditives with the hydrophobic triblock copolymer. The hybrid clay-CNT nanoadditives were incorporated in the copolymer matrix by a simple solution-precipitation method at two nanoadditive to polymer loadings (one low, i.e., 1 wt %, and one high, i.e., 5 wt %). The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by a combination of techniques and compared with more classical nanocomposites prepared using organo-modified clays as nanoadditives. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies verified the presence of the hybrid nanoadditives in the final nanocomposites, while X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy proved the formation of fully exfoliated structures. Viscometry measurements were further used to show the successful incorporation and homogeneous dispersion of the hybrid nanoadditives in the polymer mass. The so prepared nanocomposites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties compared to the pristine polymer and the nanocomposites prepared by conventional organo-clays. Both tensile stress and strain at break were improved probably due to better interfacial adhesion of the clay-CNT hybrid of the flexible rubbery PI middle blocks of the triblock copolymer matrix. PMID:23256576

  5. Manipulating the morphologies of poly(vinyl alcohol) block copolymer surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repollet-Pedrosa, Milton H.

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) are macromolecules containing well-defined hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments that self-assemble into nanoscale aggregates such as spherical and cylindrical micelles and vesicles, when dispersed in block-selective solvents. ABCs possess a miniscule critical micelle concentration, which results in kinetically trapped and persistent assemblies in solution with slow chain exchange between aggregates. This makes them useful as rheological modifiers for personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, and drug delivery formulations. Their utility in many of these applications is crucially dependent on the ability to control the micellar morphologies that they adopt in selective solvents. Triggering ABC micellar morphological transformations, i.e. from spherical to cylindrical micelles, is important for generating "on-demand" stimuli-responsive morphologies that control the aggregate morphology and the bulk solution properties in any given application. In this thesis, we develop the straightforward synthesis of biodegradable and biocompatible ABCs comprised of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), with narrow molecular distributions and variable yet well-defined compositions. These block copolymer amphiphiles readily form spherical micelles in aqueous dispersions. We demonstrate that the addition of a water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) homopolymer to these dispersions results in a rapid transformation of these spherical micelles into cylindrical micelles. Dilution of these cylindrical micelles with water induces their reversion to spherical micelles. Our results indicate that the reversible morphology change depends sensitively on the PEO homopolymer concentration and molecular weight, as well as the length of the PVA corona block of the micelles. Through a series of quantitative 1H NMR studies, we found that the preferential partitioning of PEO homopolymer into the PVAc micellar core drives this morphological

  6. Tribological Behavior of Aqueous Copolymer Lubricant in Mixed Lubrication Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi D; Tieu, A Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Qiang; Kosasih, Prabouno B; Zhang, Jie; Deng, Guanyu

    2016-03-01

    Although a number of experiments have been attempted to investigate the lubrication of aqueous copolymer lubricant, which is applied widely in metalworking operations, a comprehensive theoretical investigation at atomistic level is still lacking. This study addresses the influence of loading pressure and copolymer concentration on the structural properties and tribological performance of aqueous copolymer solution of poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO-PEO-PPO) at mixed lubrication using a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. An effective interfacial potential, which has been derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, was employed for the interactions between the fluid's molecules and iron surface. The simulation results have indicated that the triblock copolymer is physisorption on iron surface. Under confinement by iron surfaces, the copolymer molecules form lamellar structure in aqueous solution and behave differently from its bulk state. The lubrication performance of aqueous copolymer lubricant increases with concentration, but the friction reduction is insignificant at high loading pressure. Additionally, the plastic deformation of asperity is dependent on both copolymer concentration and loading pressure, and the wear behavior shows a linear dependence of friction force on the number of transferred atoms between contacting asperities. PMID:26828119

  7. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  8. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their contributi

  9. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  10. Soluble Eggshell Mebrane Protein:Antibacterial Property and Biodegradability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Feng; YU Jian; LI Qiang; GUO Zhaoxia

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial property and biodegradability of soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP)are reported. Unlike the natural eggshell membrane (ESM), SEP does not possess antibacterial property against E.coli. The biodegradation tests with trypsin show that both ESM and SEP are biodegradable.

  11. Comparative study on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of silicate bioceramic coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy as biodegradable biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, M.; Fathi, M. H.; Savabi, O.; Razavi, S. M.; Hashemibeni, B.; Yazdimamaghani, M.; Vashaee, D.; Tayebi, L.

    2014-03-01

    Many clinical cases as well as in vivo and in vitro assessments have demonstrated that magnesium alloys possess good biocompatibility. Unfortunately, magnesium and its alloys degrade too quickly in physiological media. In order to improve the biodegradation resistance and biocompatibility of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have prepared three types of coating include diopside (CaMgSi2O6), akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O6) and bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. In this research, the biodegradation and biocompatibility behavior of samples were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro analysis was performed by cytocompatibility and MTT-assay and the in vivo test was conducted on the implantation of samples in the greater trochanter of adult rabbits. The results showed that diopside coating has the best bone regeneration and bredigite has the best biodegradation resistance compared to others.

  12. Radiation-induced oxidation of polyethylene, ethylene-butene copolymer, and ethylene-propylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen consumption and yield of oxidation products during ν-irradiation were studied on five types of polyethylene (PE), ethylene-butene copolymer (EB), and ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR) using gas chromatography, mass spectrography, and high-resolution NMR. Samples were irradiated in oxygen under pressure from 0 to 500 torr by 60Co ν-rays up to 20 Mrad at 22-250C. In enough oxygen, oxygen consumption and yield of oxidation products are independent of oxygen pressure for low-density PE, EB, and EPR. The G values of oxygen consumption were 14-18.4 for PE, 11.6 for EB at 1 x 106 rad/h, and 8.3 for EPR at 2 x 105 rad/h. The oxidation products determined were carboxylic acid (-CH2-CO-OH), H2O, CO2, and CO. The oxygen consumption and oxidation products for PE were found to increase with increasing crystallinity

  13. Synthesis and properties of polystyrene/polydimethylsiloxane graft copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ningjing; Huang Likan; Zheng Anna

    2006-01-01

    Polystyrene-graft-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-g-PDMS) copolymers with different PDMS content were synthesized by the radical bulk copolymerization of PDMS macromonomer and styrene.The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR),1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the mechanical properties of the copolymers were also carried out.It was indicated that the notched impact strength and elongation at break of the polymers increased with the increase of PDMS content.The thermal stability of PS-g-PDMS is better than that of PS.

  14. Phase Transition Induced by Small Molecules in Confined Copolymer Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the phase transition induced by small molecules in confined copolymer films by using density functional theory.It is found that the addition of small molecules can effectively promote the phase separation of copolymers.In a symmetric diblock copolymer film,the affinity and concentration of small molecules play an important role in the structure transjtions.The disordered-lamellar transitions lamellar-lamellar transitions and the re-entrant transitions of the same structures are observed.Our results have potential applications in the fabrication of new functional materials.

  15. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  16. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  17. Preparation of Porous Biodegradable Polymer and Its Nanocomposites by Supercritical CO2 Foaming for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as an alternative to conventional methods in the preparation of porous biodegradable polymer and polymer/nanocomposites for tissue engineering has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the absence of using organic solvents and the ability to incorporate thermosensitive biologicals without loss of bioactivity. Additionally, scCO2 can exert a high level of control over porosity and morphology of scaffolds by tuning the processing parameters. This paper describes the newly achievements on the preparation of porous polymer materials using scCO2 foaming technology with focus on the porous biodegradable materials and its nanocomposites relevant to tissue engineering.

  18. Biodegradable polymers in clinical use and clinical development

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Abraham J

    2011-01-01

    The definitive guide to biodegradable polymer science-where we are and what's to come The most comprehensive review of biodegradable polymers already utilized or under development for clinical use, Biodegradable Polymers in Clinical Use and Clinical Development looks at the state of biodegradable polymers now and over the next five years. Implantable molecules that break down within the body over a predetermined period of time, biodegradable polymers have been employed as drug carriers, orthopedic fixation devices, and absorbable sutures. Yet while hundreds of such polymers have been deve

  19. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  20. Natural Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of field data and theoretical approaches is used to assess the natural attenuation and status of a complex plume of phenolic compounds (phenol, cresols, xylenols) in a deep, consolidated, UK Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer. Biodegradation of the phenolic compounds at concentrations up to 12500mg·L-1 is occurring under aerobic, NO-3-reducing, Mn/Fe-reducing, SO2-4-reducing and methanogenic conditions in the aquifer, with the accumulation of inorganic and organic metabolites in the plume. An electron and carbon balance for the plume suggests that only 6% of the source term has been degraded in 50 years. The residual contaminant mass in the plume significantly exceeds estimates of electron acceptor inputs, indicating that the plume will grow. Two detailed vertical profiles through the plume show that contaminant distributions are controlled more by source history than by biodegradation processes. Microbiological and mass balance studies show that biodegradation is greatest at the plume fringe where contaminant concentrations are diluted by transverse mixing. Active bacterial populations exist throughout the plume but biodegradation is inhibited in the plume core by high contaminant concentrations. Stable isotope studies show that SO2-4-reduction is particularly sensitive to contaminant concentration. The aquifer is not oxidant-deficient but natural attenuation of the phenolic compounds in this system is limited by toxicity from the pollutant load and the bioavailability of electron acceptors. Natural attenuation of these contaminants will increase only after increased dilution of the plume.

  1. Phyllosphere yeasts rapidly break down biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Tago, Kanako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Takashi; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Tsushima, Seiya

    2011-01-01

    The use of biodegradable plastics can reduce the accumulation of environmentally persistent plastic wastes. The rate of degradation of biodegradable plastics depends on environmental conditions and is highly variable. Techniques for achieving more consistent degradation are needed. However, only a few microorganisms involved in the degradation process have been isolated so far from the environment. Here, we show that Pseudozyma spp. yeasts, which are common in the phyllosphere and are easily isolated from plant surfaces, displayed strong degradation activity on films made from poly-butylene succinate or poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate. Strains of P. antarctica isolated from leaves and husks of paddy rice displayed strong degradation activity on these films at 30°C. The type strain, P. antarctica JCM 10317, and Pseudozyma spp. strains from phyllosphere secreted a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme with a molecular mass of about 22 kDa. Reliable source of biodegradable plastic-degrading microorganisms are now in our hands. PMID:22126328

  2. Transport of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, H.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport behavior of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers. Such transport occurs during in situ bioremediation which is based on the injection of an electron acceptor or electron donor. The main interests in this thesis are the mutual influences of underlyin

  3. Biodegradable Polymeric Microcapsules: Preparation and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric microcapsules can be produced through different methods of which emulsion solvent-evaporation/extraction is frequently used. In this technique, the polymer (often polylactide) is dissolved in a good solvent and is emulsified together with a poor solvent into a nonsolvent phas

  4. Fabrication of Environmentally Biodegradable Lignin Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangville, C.; Rutkevicius, M.; Richter, A.P.; Velev, O.D.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method for the fabrication of novel biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) from lignin which are apparently non-toxic for microalgae and yeast. We compare two alternative methods for the synthesis of lignin NPs which result in particles of very different stability upon change of pH. The fi

  5. Biodegradable synthetic polymers for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunatillake P. A.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews biodegradable synthetic polymers focusing on their potential in tissue engineering applications. The major classes of polymers are briefly discussed with regard to synthesis, properties and biodegradability, and known degradation modes and products are indicated based on studies reported in the literature. A vast majority of biodegradable polymers studied belongs to the polyester family, which includes polyglycolides and polylactides. Some disadvantages of these polymers in tissue engineering applications are their poor biocompatibility, release of acidic degradation products, poor processability and loss of mechanical properties very early during degradation. Other degradable polymers such as polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides, polyphosphazenes, and polyurethanes are also discussed and their advantages and disadvantages summarised. With advancements in tissue engineering it has become necessary to develop polymers that meet more demanding requirements. Recent work has focused on developing injectable polymer compositions based on poly (propylene fumarate and poly (anhydrides to meet these requirements in orthopaedic tissue engineering. Polyurethanes have received recent attention for development of degradable polymers because of their great potential in tailoring polymer structure to achieve mechanical properties and biodegradability to suit a variety of applications.

  6. Enhancement of 4-chlorophenol biodegradation using glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarighian, Alireza; Hill, Gordon; Headley, John [Division of Environmental Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 105 Maintenance Road, S7N 5C5, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Pedras, Soledad [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, S7N 5C9, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Toxic, xenobiotic chemicals present challenging problems for the environment since they are normally resistant to biodegradation. Sometimes it is possible to induce biodegradation activity by the use of growth cosubstrates. In this study, pure solutions and binary mixtures of glucose, phenol and 4-chlorophenol have been metabolized in batch cultures by a pure strain of Pseudomonas putida. Following a lag period during which slow growth and low production of biomass occurred, phenol was metabolized according to the Monod model. Glucose was also metabolized according to the Monod model but exponential growth commenced immediately after inoculation with no noticeable lag phase. Biokinetic behavior for growth on a mixture of phenol and glucose paralleled the behavior on individual substrates with simultaneous consumption of both substrates. 4-chlorophenol was not consumed as a sole substrate by Pseudomonas putida but was consumed as a cometabolite with either glucose or phenol acting as the primary growth cosubstrate. Surprisingly, glucose was found to be the superior growth cosubstrate, suggesting that inexpensive sugars can be used to enhance the biodegradation of chlorophenol-contaminated sites. Glucose and the excreted metabolic products of the biodegradation process, including a bright yellow pigment, demonstrated negligible toxicity towards Artemia salina, unlike the phenol and 4-chlorophenol substrates. (orig.)

  7. Biodegradability of leathers through anaerobic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, K; Fathima, N Nishad; Gnanamani, A; Rao, J Raghava; Nair, B Unni; Ramasami, T

    2007-01-01

    Leather processing generates huge amounts of both solid and liquid wastes. The management of solid wastes, especially tanned leather waste, is a challenging problem faced by tanners. Hence, studies on biodegradability of leather become imperative. In this present work, biodegradability of untanned, chrome tanned and vegetable tanned leather under anaerobic conditions has been addressed. Two different sources of anaerobes have been used for this purpose. The effect of detanning as a pretreatment method before subjecting the leather to biodegradation has also been studied. It has been found that vegetable tanned leather leads to more gas production than chrome tanned leather. Mixed anaerobic isolates when employed as an inoculum are able to degrade the soluble organics of vegetable tanned material and thus exhibit an increased level of gas production during the initial days, compared to the results of the treatments that received the anaerobic sludge. With chrome tanned materials, there was not much change in the volume of the gas produced from the two different sources. It has been found that detanning tends to improve the biodegradability of both types of leathers. PMID:16740383

  8. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  9. Concentration Dependent Structure of Block Copolymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soohyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2015-03-01

    Addition of solvent molecules into block copolymer can induce additional interactions between the solvent and both blocks, and therefore expands the range of accessible self-assembled morphologies. In particular, the distribution of solvent molecules plays a key role in determining the microstructure and its characteristic domain spacing. In this study, concentration dependent structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) solution in squalane are investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. This reveals that squalane is essentially completely segregated into the PEP domains. In addition, the conformation of the PS block changes from stretched to nearly fully relaxed (i.e., Gaussian conformation) as amounts of squalane increases. NRF

  10. Photophysical characterization of pyrromethene 597 laser dye in cross-linked silicon-containing organic copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A.; Agua, D. del [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Garcia, O.; Sastre, R. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Costela, A.; Garcia-Moreno, I. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-12-06

    Samples of the dipyrromethene-BF{sub 2} dye PM597 incorporated in copolymers of 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (TMSPMA, number of polymerizable CC double bonds: {kappa} = 1) with 2-(2-methylprop-2-enoyloxy)ethyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate (EGDMA, {kappa} = 2), [2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-prop-2-(prop-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl] prop-2-enoate (PETA, {kappa} = 3), and [3-prop-2-enoyloxy-2,2-bis(prop-2-2-enoyloxymethyl)propyl]prop-2-enoate (PETRA, {kappa} = 4) are characterized. The fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, degrees of fluorescence polarization, and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. The radiative lifetimes are calculated from fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield. Absorption coefficient spectra are determined from transmission measurements. Absolute absorption cross-section spectra and dye concentrations are obtained by calibration to the radiative lifetimes and to saturable absorptions. Excited-state absorption cross-sections at 527 nm are determined by saturable absorption measurements. The photo-degradation is studied under cw laser excitation conditions and quantum yields of photo-degradation are extracted. The excited-state absorption cross-sections were found to be rather small, and the photo-stability turned out to be high (up to 3 million excitation cycles before degradation) making this class of dipyrromethene dye-doped polymers attractive active laser media. Structural and thermo-mechanical properties of the materials have been determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, densitometry, and refractometry. They improve with increasing inter-crossing (copolymerization of TMSPMA with PETA and PETRA). The laser properties of the PM597 doped copolymers were evaluated by transverse pumping with 6 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. The best laser materials resulted to be the 7:3 and 9:1 TMSPMA-monomer copolymers.

  11. Immediate implant placement using a biodegradable barrier, polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910. An experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    extracted bilaterally. Each dog had 4 Astra Dental Implants placed directly into the fresh extraction sockets. The top of the fixtures was placed at the same level as the top of the buccal cortical bone. The two implants in the right side were covered with the hydrolyzable polyester material......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a biodegradable membrane of polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate copolymer reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers, as an occlusive barrier over implants placed into fresh extraction sockets. Ten dogs had the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars...... (polyhydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate reinforced with polyglactin 910 fibers; PHB-HV/PG), and the 2 implants in the left side were controls without occlusive membranes. Soft tissue dehiscences were registered for half of the implants in the test side but were not noted in the control side. The histomorphological...

  12. The research and preparation of a bi-layer biodegradable external sheath with directional drug release profiles for vein graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenjie, E-mail: lawson3001@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Guo, Zhenying [Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Si, Yi [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Xiangman; Shi, Zhenyu [Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Feng [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Fu, Weiguo [Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-11-01

    External sheath has been suggested for autologous vein grafts to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and prevent anastomosis stricture. In this study, we prepared a bi-layer biodegradable paclitaxel-loaded sheaths with a synthetic copolymer poly(ethylene carbonate-ε-caprolactone) at room temperature. The bi-layer drug release profiles of the Paclitaxel-loaded (PTX-loaded) sheath significantly slow down the paclitaxel (PTX) release rates and result in a directional drug release way. Moreover, the nanofibrous layer of PTX-loaded poly(EC-CL) sheaths reduced the cytotoxicity and provided a better support for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation than the PTX-loaded layer of the sheaths. Thus, this study demonstrates that the bi-layer PTX-loaded poly(EC-CL) sheath with directional drug release profiles have a promising application for vein graft to against neointimal hyperplasia and anastomotic stricture.

  13. Mechanical properties of weakly segregated block copolymers : 1. Synergism on tensile properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidisch, R.; Michler, G.H.; Fischer, H.; Arnold, M.; Hofmann, S.; Stamm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, with different lengths of the polystyrene block were investigated. The copolymers display a composition range where the tensile strength of the block copolymers exceeds the values of the corresponding homopol

  14. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state {sup 13} C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: stael@on.br; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; D' Almeida, Jose Roberto Morais; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the {sup 13} C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  15. Nanopatterned articles produced using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

    2016-06-07

    Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

  16. Synthesis of Amylose-b-P2 VP Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamlesh; Woortman, Albert J J; Loos, Katja

    2015-12-01

    A new class of rod-coil block copolymers is synthesized by chemoenzymatic polymerization. In the first step, maltoheptaose, which acts as a primer for the synthesis of amylose, is attached to poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2 VP). The enzymatic polymerization of maltoheptaose is carried out by phosphorylase to obtain amylose-b-P2 VP block copolymers. The block copolymer is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. The designed molecules combine the inclusion complexation ability of amylose with the supramolecular complexation ability of P2 VP and therefore this kind of rod-coil block copolymers can be used to generate well-organized novel self-assembled structures. PMID:26437256

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPACT POLYPROPYLENE COPOLYMERS BY SOLVENT FRACTIONATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ying Lu; Jian-jun Yi; Shang-tao Chen; Feng-hua Zu; Rong-bo Li

    2012-01-01

    The compositional heterogeneity of two impact polypropylcne copolymers (IPCs) was studied by a combinatory investigation of temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) and solvent fractionation.The chain structures and composition of fractions obtained from solvent fractionation were examined in detail.The TREF results shows that there are much more E-P segmented copolymer and more uniform distribution of ethylene sequence in IPC-1,which is responsible for its better comprehensive mechanical performance.The fractions from hexane and heptane are ethylene-propylene rubber phase and E-P block copolymers respectively.The result of solvent fractionation method also shows that custom hexane or heptaae extractions can not extract the E-P copolymer completely.

  18. Synthesis and interfacial behavior of polystyrene-polysaccharide diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Ágoston, K.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Linear block copolymers of polystyrene and polysaccharide were synthesized using a block synthesis method with amino-terminated polystyrene and sodium cyanoborohydride as reducing agent. Different types of polysaccharides, dextrans, and maltodextrins with various molecular weights were used. IR spec

  19. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  20. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  1. Synthesis of CO2 Copolymer Based Polyurethane Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    CO2-copolymer based polyurethane foams were synthesized and characterized in this paper. The foams were found to have higher strength and lower heat of combustion than the conventional polyether polyurethane foams. They may find wide applications in many fields.

  2. Thermal Stability of Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WANG Xue-chen

    2008-01-01

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) copolymer was synthesized by water depositing polymerization and has a typical feed ratio of 85/15. And then 1 - 3 wt% lauryl alcohol maleic anhydride (LAM) was adopted as stabilizer to mix with the acrylonitrile based copolymer. The mixtures were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR ), Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), optic microscope and Ubbelohde viscosimetryr etc. The melting point (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the 85/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with LAM all decrease with the increase of stabilizer content. The lowest Tg and Tm were 116.1 ℃ and 209. 1℃ respectively at the heating rate of 100℃/min when the content of LAM is 2 wt%. The 85°/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with 1 - 3 w t% LAM possess good thermal stability up to 30 min at 220 ℃.

  3. Synthesis of Polyacrylate/Polysiloxane Copolymer and Its Damping Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宇正; 石淑先; 焦书科; 李素青

    2003-01-01

    The copolymer of polyacrylate/polysiloxane for vibration damping materials was synthesized through emulsion polymerization. The effects of the amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA),polysiloxane containing vinyl, initiator and emulsifier on the conversion, stability of polyacrylate/polysiloxane emulsion were discussed when the emulsion was prepared by pre-emulsifying half continuous method. The graft copolymer has good vibration damping performance. The widest glass transition region of the copolymer spans 100℃, and the highest value of tanδ reached 2.0. The glass transition of the samples was examined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The vibration damping performance of the graft copolymer was affected by the amount of poly-vinyl dimethylsiloxane (PVMS).

  4. Preparation and modification of itaconic anhydride–methyl methacrylate copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS B. MILOVANOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free radical copolymerisation of itaconic anhydride and methyl methacrylate in solution was studied at 60 °C. The copolymer composition was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and the obtained monomer reactivity ratios were calculated, rITA = 1.35±0.11; rMMA = 0.22±0.22 (by the Fineman–Ross method and rITA = 1.27±0.38; rMMA = 0.10±0.05 (by the Mayo–Lewis method. The synthesised copolymers were modified by reaction with di-n-butyl amine. The copolymer composition after amidation was determined by elemental analysis via the nitrogen content. Amidation of the anhydride units in the copolymers with di-n-butyl amine resulted in complete conversion to itaconamic acid.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering study on the aggregation behaviour of PEO–PPO–PEO copolymers in the presence of a hydrophobic diol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Bharatiya; V K Aswal; P Bahadur

    2008-11-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on aqueous solutions of four polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide block copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic®)F88, P85, F127 and P123 in the presence of hydrophobic C14Diol (also known as Surfynol® 104) reveal information on micellization, micellar size and micellar transitions. While most hydrophilic F88 (with least PPO/PEO ratio) remained unimers in water at 30◦ C, other copolymers formed micellar solutions. Surfynol® 104 is sparingly soluble in water to only about ∼ 0.1 wt%, but on addition to pluronic solution, it gets incorporated in the micellar region of block copolymer which leads to increase in aggregation number and transformation of spherical to ellipsoidal micelles. The added diol-induced micellization in F88, though hydrophilic copolymers F88 and F127 did not show any appreciable micellar growth or shape changes as observed for P85 and P123 (which are comparatively more hydrophobic). The SANS results on copolymer pairs with same molecular weight PPO but different % PEO (viz. F88 and P85, F127 and P123) and with same molecular weight PEO but different PPO (F88 and F127) reveal that the copolymer with large PPO/PEO ratio facilitate micellar transition in the presence of diol. An increase in temperature and presence of added electrolyte (sodium chloride) in the solution further enhances these effects. The micellar parameters for these systems were found out using available software and are reported.

  6. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  7. Development of biodegradable materials; balancing degradability and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.M.; Allen, A.L.; Dell, P.A.; McCassie, J.E.; Shupe, A.E.; Stenhouse, P.J. Stenhouse, Welch, E.A.; Kaplan, D.L. [Army Natick Research Development, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biodegradable materials suitable for packaging must take into consideration various performance criteria such as mechanical and barrier properties, as well as rate of biodegradability in given environments. Individual or blended biopolymer films were obtained commercially or blown into film in the laboratory and tested for tensile strength, ultimate elongation and oxygen barrier. These films were then subjected to accelerated marine biodegradation tests as well as simulated marine respirometry. Starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol films exhibited good mechanical and excellent oxygen barrier properties, but were very slow to biodegrade in the simulated and excellent oxygen barrier properties, but were very slow to biodegrade in the simulated marine environment. Polyhydroxyalkanoates had good mechanical properties, average oxygen barrier and good biodegradability. Data indicate that performance and biodegradability of packaging can be tailored to needs by combining individual biopolymers in different proportions in blends and laminates.

  8. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates

  9. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  10. Water soluble graft copolymer ({kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide): preparation, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.M.; Yadav, M.; Sand, A.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-03-25

    {kappa}-Carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide was synthesized by free radical initiation using the potassium monopersulphate (PMS)/malonic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The effects of variation of different reactant oil grafting parameters have been studied by varying the concentration. Grafting ratio, add on and conversion showed an increasing trend on increasing the concentration of N-vinyl formamide, malonic acid, kappa-carrageenart and the concentration of PMS from 6 x 10{sup -3} to 22 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The optimum temperature and time for grafting of N-vinyl formamide onto {kappa}-carrageenan was found to be 40{sup o}C and 120 min, respectively. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour, flocculation and resistance to biodegradation properties have been studied. Flocculation capability of {kappa}-carrageenart and {kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewalin Inthanon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone-sericin (PLCL-SC copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35–40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS. The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N–H, and C–N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK. On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications.

  12. Biocompatibility Assessment of PLCL-Sericin Copolymer Membranes Using Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthanon, Kewalin; Daranarong, Donraporn; Techaikool, Pimwalan; Punyodom, Winita; Khaniyao, Vorathep; Bernstein, Audrey M; Wongkham, Weerah

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells based tissue engineering requires biocompatible materials, which allow the cells to adhere, expand, and differentiate in a large scale. An ideal biomaterial for clinical application should be free from mammalian products which cause immune reactivities and pathogen infections. We invented a novel biodegradable poly(L-lactic-co-ε-caprolactone)-sericin (PLCL-SC) copolymer membrane which was fabricated by electrospinning. Membranes with concentrations of 2.5 or 5% (w/v) SC exhibited qualified texture characteristics with a noncytotoxic release profile. The hydrophilic properties of the membranes were 35-40% higher than those of a standard PLCL and commercial polystyrene (PS). The improved characteristics of the membranes were due to an addition of new functional amide groups, C=O, N-H, and C-N, onto their surfaces. Degradation of the membranes was controllable, depending on the content proportion of SC. Results of thermogram indicated the superior stability and crystallinity of the membranes. These membranes enhanced human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC) proliferation by increasing cyclin A and also promoted cell adhesion by upregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). On the membranes, hWJMSC differentiated into a neuronal lineage with the occurrence of nestin. These data suggest that PLCL-SC electrospun membrane represents some properties which will be useful for tissue engineering and medical applications. PMID:26839562

  13. Acoustic Droplet Vaporization, Cavitation, and Therapeutic Properties of Copolymer-Stabilized Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Christensen, Douglas A.; Kennedy, Anne M.; Rapoport, Natalya

    2009-04-01

    Acoustic and therapeutic properties of Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions have been investigated in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by two biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers that differed in the structure of the hydrophobic block. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and cavitation parameters were measured as a function of ultrasound frequency, pressure, duty cycles, and temperature. The optimal parameters that induced ADV and inertial cavitation of the formed microbubbles were used in vivo in the experiments on the ultrasound-mediated chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. A combination tumor treatment by intravenous injections of drug-loaded perfluoropentane nanoemulsions and tumor-directed 1-MHz ultrasound resulted in a dramatic decrease of ovarian or breast carcinoma tumor volume and sometimes complete tumor resolution. However, tumors often recurred three to six weeks after the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more aggressive and resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors suggesting selection for the resistant cells during the first treatment.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of HPMA copolymer-5-FU conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yuan; Fu Chen; Qing Yu Xiang; Xuan Qin; Zhi Rong Zhang; Yuan Huang

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-5-fluorouracil (PHPMA-FU)conjugates were synthesized by a novel and simplified synthetic mute,and characterized by UV,FTIR and HPLC analyses.The conjugated content of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)was 3.41 ± 0.07 wt%.The stabilities of PHPMA-FU conjugates under different conditions were studied.The results showed that HPMA copolymer was a potential carrier for tumor-targeting delivery of 5-FU.

  15. Phase diagram for a copolymer in a micro-emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    den Hollander, F.; Petrelis, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study a model describing a copolymer in a micro-emulsion. The copolymer consists of a random concatenation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers, the micro-emulsion consists of large blocks of oil and water arranged in a percolation-type fashion. The interaction Hamiltonian assigns energy $-\\alpha$ to hydrophobic monomers in oil and energy &-\\beta$ to hydrophilic monomers in water, where $\\alpha,\\beta$ are parameters that without loss of generality are taken to lie in the c...

  16. SYNTHESIS OF A NEW SILICONE-CONTAINING BISMALEIMIDE COPOLYMER RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wenfeng; CAI Xingxian; JIANG Luxia

    1997-01-01

    A copolymer of bismaleimide-diallylbisphenol A-diphenylsilandiol was synthesized and the copolymerization was studied by using N-phenylmaleimide, bisphenol A and diphenylsilandiol as model compounds. The copolymer could be well cured around 200 ℃, and the cured resins had good thermal stability. In the range of 170-210 ℃, a higher curing temperature was favorable to obtain more thermal stable resin by reducing the content of diphenylsilandiol cyclo-homopolymer in resin which would spoil its thermal stability.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Magnetite Nanoparticle Block Copolymer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized and complexed with carboxylate-functionalized block copolymers, and aqueous dispersions of the complexes were investigated as functions of their chemical and morphological structures. The block copolymer dispersants possessed either poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide), or poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) outer blocks, and all contained a polyurethane center block with pendant carboxylate functi...

  18. Self-assembled materials from thermosensitive and biohybrid block copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    De Graaf, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this research, several block copolymers were synthesized and characterized with regard to possible pharmaceutical applications. All block copolymers were thermosensitive and self-assembled at 37 °C into structures like micelles and hydrogels, which can be used for innovative drug delivery purposes. Some of the synthesized polymers were biohybrid, in the sense that they contained peptide segments which enabled their cleavage by enzymes that are upregulated in diseased tissues. First, method...

  19. Single-layer electroluminescent devices based on fluorene-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline co-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokladko-Kowar, Monika; Danel, Andrzej; Chacaga, Łukasz

    2013-11-01

    A fluorene based copolymer was synthesized for electroluminescent application. To the main chain of polymer the nitrogen heterocyclic, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline, unit was introduced. The incorporation of this derivative tuned the emission from the blue to yellow-green one. A simple, single layered device was fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT/co-poly-FLU-PQX/Ca/Mg.

  20. MALDI-ToF Analysis of Model Copolymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, David; Arnould, Mark

    2008-03-01

    MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used to determine the composition of a low MW styrene (S) / n-butyl acrylate (nBA) copolymer. Bernoullian chain statistics were used to predict the copolymer distribution and confirm that MALDI-ToF detects the correct composition. The copolymer was blended with a low MW polystyrene homopolymer having the same end group as the copolymer at several levels to determine if MALDI-ToF could be used to calculate the amount of homopolymer by subtracting homopolymer peak areas. It is found that, while MALDI-ToF can be used to monitor the amount of homopolymer blended into the copolymer, the observed increase is always greater than the actual amount added, e.g. up to 13% error. This could be due to the fact that the homopolymer ionizes more efficiently than the low MW copolymer. A model to improve the accuracy of the calculated amount of homopolymer in the blend is discussed.

  1. Complex nanostructured materials from segmented copolymers prepared by ATRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, T; McCullough, R D; Matyjaszewski, K

    2003-01-01

    The development of new controlled/living radical polymerization processes, such as Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and other techniques such as nitroxide mediated polymerization and degenerative transfer processes, including RAFT, opened the way to the use of radical polymerization for the synthesis of well-defined, complex functional nanostructures. The development of such nanostructures is primarily dependent on self-assembly of well-defined segmented copolymers. This article describes the fundamentals of ATRP, relevant to the synthesis of such systems. The self-assembly of block copolymers prepared by ATRP is illustrated by three examples. In the first, block copolymers of poly(butyl acrylate) with polyacrylonitrile phase separate, leading to spherical, cylindrical or lamellar morphologies, depending on the block copolymer composition. At a higher temperature, polyacrylonitrile block converts to nanostructured carbon clusters, whereas poly(butyl acrylate) block serves as a sacrificial block, aiding the development of designed nanostructures. In the second example, conductive nanoribbons of poly(n-hexylthiophene) surrounded by a matrix of organic polymers are formed from block copolymers prepared by ATRP. The third example describes an inorganic-organic hybrid system consisting of hard nanocolloidal silica particles (approximately 20 nm) grafted by ATRP with well-defined polystyrene-poly(benzyl acrylate) block copolymer chains (approximately 1000 chains per particle). Silica cores in this system are surrounded by a rigid polystyrene inner shell and softer polyacrylate outer shell. PMID:15011074

  2. Influence of copolymer composition on the transport properties of conducting copolymers: poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Umare; A D Borkar; M C Gupta

    2002-06-01

    The effect of different compositions of monomers on the transport properties of copolymers by various techniques such as optical, electrical and magnetic has been investigated and compared with the homopolymers. The UV-visible absorption spectra show a hypsochromic shift with an increase in the o-anisidine content in copolymers indicating a decrease in the extent for conjugation (i.e. an increase in the bandgap). From temperature dependence of electrical conductivity the transport parameters such as charge localization length and average hopping distance are calculated and also the effect of the monomeric composition on the coherence length has been discussed. The magnetic studies show the paramagnetic and diamagnetic nature of homopolymers and copolymers. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that the copolymers are of amorphous nature.

  3. Nanostructure controlled sustained delivery of human growth hormone using injectable, biodegradable, pH/temperature responsive nanobiohybrid hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra K.; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Kim, Bong Sup; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-02-01

    The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new protein delivery system by the self-assembly and intercalation of a negatively charged hGH onto a positively charged 2D-layered double hydroxide nanoparticle (LDH). The LDH-hGH ionic complex, with an average particle size of approximately 100 nm, retards hGH diffusion. Nanobiohybrid hydrogels (PAEU/LDH-hGH) were prepared by dispersing the LDH-hGH complex into a cationic pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable PAEU copolymer hydrogel to enhance sustained hGH release by dual ionic interactions. Biodegradable copolymer hydrogels comprising poly(β-amino ester urethane) and triblock poly(ε-caprolactone-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(ε-caprolactone-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) were synthesized and characterized. hGH was self-assembled and intercalated onto layered LDH nanoparticles through an anion exchange technique. X-ray diffraction and zeta potential results showed that the LDH-hGH complex was prepared successfully and that the PAEU/LDH-hGH nanobiohybrid hydrogel had a disordered intercalated nanostructure. The biocompatibility of the nanobiohybrid hydrogel was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test. The in vivo degradation of pure PAEU and its nanobiohybrid hydrogels was investigated and it showed a controlled degradation of the PAEU/LDH nanobiohybrids compared with the pristine PAEU copolymer hydrogel. The LDH-hGH loaded injectable hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period for 13 days in vitro and 5 days in vivo. The developed nanohybrid hydrogel has the potential for application as a protein carrier to improve patient compliance.The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new

  4. Solid protein solder-doped biodegradable polymer membranes for laser-assisted tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Diane E.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2000-05-01

    Solid protein solder-doped polymer membranes have been developed for laser-assisted tissue repair. Biodegradable polymer films of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. The films provided a porous scaffold that readily absorbed the traditional protein solder mix composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and indocyanine green (ICG) dye. In vitro investigations were conducted to assess the influence of various processing parameters on the strength of tissue repairs formed using the new membranes. These parameters included the PLGA copolymer and PLGA/PEG blend ratio, the salt particle size, the initial bovine serum albumin (BSA) weight fraction, and the laser irradiance used to denature the solder. Altering the PLGA copolymer ratio had little effect on repair strength, however, it influenced the membrane degradation rate. Repair strength increased with increased membrane pore size and BSA concentration. The addition of PEG during the film casting stage increased the flexibility of the membranes but not necessarily the repair strength. The repair strength increased with increasing irradiance from 12 W/cm2 to 15 W/cm2. The new solder-doped polymer membranes provide all of the benefits associated with solid protein solders including high repair strength and improved edge coaptation. In addition, the flexible and moldable nature of the new membranes offer the capability of tailoring the membranes to a wide range of tissue geometries, and consequently, improved clinical applicability of laser- assisted tissue repair.

  5. Directed self-assembly of high-chi block copolymer for nano fabrication of bit patterned media via solvent annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shisheng; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Wan, Lei; Gao, He; Li, Xiao; Ruiz, Ricardo; Nealey, Paul F

    2016-10-14

    We report the formation of nanoimprint master templates that can be used for the fabrication of bit patterned media (BPM). The template was formed by directed self-assembly, with solvent annealing, of a symmetric ABA triblock copolymer to form perpendicularly oriented lamellae on chemical patterns. We used a high-χ block copolymer, poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) to achieve smaller feature sizes than are possible with polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). The work shows that triblock copolymers can provide a large processing window in terms of pitch commensurability. Using block-selective infiltration (atomic layer deposition with sequential long soaking/purge cycles), an alumina composite with high etch resistance was specifically incorporated into the polar and hydrophilic P2VP domains. Subsequently, the surface pattern was successfully transferred into underlying Si substrates by etching with a fluorine-containing plasma to create a nanoimprint master. The line/space pattern of the nanoimprint master met the BPM fabrication requirement of defectivity <10(-3). For demonstration purposes, the nanoimprint master was used to imprint a replica pattern of photoresist on a quartz wafer. PMID:27606926

  6. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  7. Development of a nanostructured DNA delivery scaffold via electrospinning of PLGA and PLA-PEG block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Hsiao, B. S.; Chu, B.; Hadjiargyrou, M.; Hadjiargyou, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The present work utilizes electrospinning to fabricate synthetic polymer/DNA composite scaffolds for therapeutic application in gene delivery for tissue engineering. The scaffolds are non-woven, nano-fibered, membranous structures composed predominantly of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) random copolymer and a poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) block copolymer. Release of plasmid DNA from the scaffolds was sustained over a 20-day study period, with maximum release occurring at approximately 2 h. Cumulative release profiles indicated amounts released were approximately 68-80% of the initially loaded DNA. Variations in the PLGA to PLA-PEG block copolymer ratio vastly affected the overall structural morphology, as well as both the rate and efficiency of DNA release. Results indicated that DNA released directly from these electrospun scaffolds was indeed intact, capable of cellular transfection, and successfully encoded the protein beta-galactosidase. When tested under tensile loads, the electrospun polymer/DNA composite scaffolds exhibited tensile moduli of approximately 35 MPa, with approximately 45% strain initially. These values approximate those of skin and cartilage. Taken together, this work represents the first successful demonstration of plasmid DNA incorporation into a polymer scaffold using electrospinning.

  8. Synergistic templated self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals in thin block copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolman, Danielle; Gilman, Jeffrey; Davis, Chelsea; Karim, Alamgir

    2015-03-01

    Nanofillers in thin polymer films offer unique advantage to potentially modify the film's thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical properties due to the high surface area to volume ratio and intrinsic property change at the nanoscale. Nanofilled polymer films have been shown to exhibit unusual film stability to dewetting with a nonmonotonic behavior with nanofiller loading, potentially arising from factors such as competitive phase behavior and filler aggregation, particularly in the high nanofiller concentration limit. In this regard, block copolymer films can act as ideal nanoscale structured templates to selectively sequester and organize nanofillers. In conjunction with incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), we seek to understand how individual anisotropic nanofillers can provide synergistic reinforcement to inherently anisotropic nanostructured block copolymer films. A clear enhancement in the Young's Modulus was observed with increased CNC loading using strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM) for thin films. To this end, we examine the nanoscale to microscale morphology of the blend film through AFM, TEM and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), and CNC dispersion and percolation through high-intensity grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) analysis.

  9. Oligomeric Dithienopyrrole-Thienopyrroledione (DTP-TPD) Donor-Acceptor Copolymer for Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, S. R.; Braunecker, W.; Garcia, A.; Larsen, R.; Owczarczyk, Z.; Olson, D.; Ginley, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new donor-acceptor copolymer system based upon a dithienopyrrole (DTP) donor moiety and a thienopyrrolodione (TPD) accepting moiety has been designed and synthesized for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. The TPD accepting moiety has recently gained significant attention in the OPV community and is being incorporated into a number of different polymer systems. In contrast, the DTP donor moiety has received only limited attention, likely due in part to synthetic difficulties relating to the monomer. In our hands, the bis(trimethyltin)-DTP monomer was indelibly contaminated with {approx}5% of the mono-destannylated DTP, which limited the Stille polymerization with the dibromo-TPD monomer (>;99% pure) to produce material with M{sub n} {approx} 4130 g/mol (PDI = 1.10), corresponding to around eight repeat units. Despite this limitation, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates strong absorption for this material with a band gap of {approx}1.6 eV. Cyclic voltammetry indicates a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.3 eV, which is much lower than calculations predicted. Initial bulk heterojunction OPV devices fabricated with the fullerene acceptor phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit V{sub oc} {approx} 700 mV, which supports the deep HOMO value obtained from CV. These results suggest the promise of this copolymer system.

  10. Tailoring Conformation-Induced Chromism of Polythiophene Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Assay at Resource Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Deepa; Ammanath, Gopal; Cheema, Jamal Ahmed; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Yildiz, Umit Hakan; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Here we report on the design and synthesis of cationic water-soluble thiophene copolymers as reporters for colorimetric detection of microRNA (miRNA) in human plasma. Poly(3-alkoxythiophene) (PT) polyelectrolytes with controlled ratios of pendant groups such as triethylamine/1-methyl imidazole were synthesized for optimizing interaction with target miRNA sequence (Tseq). Incorporation of specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences with the cationic polythiophenes yielded distinguishable responses upon formation of fluorescent PT-PNA-Tseq triplex and weakly fluorescent PT-Tseq duplex, thereby enabling selective detection of target miRNA. Unlike homopolymers of PT (hPT), experimental results indicate the possibility of utilizing copolymers of PT (cPT) with appropriate ratios of pendant groups for miRNA assay in complex matrices such as plasma. As an illustration, colorimetric responses were obtained for lung cancer associated miRNA sequence (mir21) in human plasma, with a detection limit of 10 nM, illustrating the feasibility of proposed methodology for clinical applications without involving sophisticated instrumentation. The described methodology therefore possesses high potential for low-cost nucleic acid assays in resource-limited settings. PMID:26956217

  11. Preparation of novel methyl methacrylate/fluorinated silsesquioxane copolymer film with low surface energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GALY; Jocelyne; GéRARD; Jean-Franois

    2010-01-01

    Random copolymers of methyl methacrylate and fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane(F-POSS) were synthesized and the corresponding thin films were prepared from solvent casting.Their microstructure was confirmed by 1H NMR,elemental analysis and GPC.Separation occurs in the bulk of the film during solvent evaporation which can be evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy,TEM,with POSS-rich nanophase sizes from 20 to 50 nm.Nanostructuration is attributed to the self-assembly of F-POSS due to the cluster-cluster interactions resulting from the nature of their ligands,i.e.,cycloaliphatic ligands and perfluorinated chains.Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate the thermal degradation temperature.It was shown that when F-POSS content is higher than 2.8 mol%,the incorporation of F-POSS could improve the thermal stability of PMMA significantly.In addition,it was shown that these fluorinated POSS-based copolymer surfaces could reduce the surface energy and could be used to design water-repellant nanocomposite coatings.

  12. Oligomeric Dithienopyrrole-Thienopyrrolodione (DTP-TPD) Donor-Acceptor Copolymer for Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, S. R.; Braunecker, W.; Garcia, A.; Larsen, R.; Owczarczyk, Z.; Olson, D.; Ginley, D.

    2011-07-01

    A new donor-acceptor copolymer system based upon a dithienopyrrole (DTP) donor moiety and a thienopyrrolodione (TPD) accepting moiety has been designed and synthesized for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. The TPD accepting moiety has recently gained significant attention in the OPV community and is being incorporated into a number of different polymer systems. In contrast, the DTP donor moiety has received only limited attention, likely due in part to synthetic difficulties relating to the monomer. In our hands, the bis(trimethyltin)-DTP monomer was indelibly contaminated with ~5% of the mono-destannylated DTP, which limited the Stille polymerization with the dibromo-TPD monomer (>99% pure) to produce material with Mn ~ 4130 g/mol (PDI = 1.10), corresponding to around eight repeat units. Despite this limitation, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates strong absorption for this material with a band gap of ~1.6 eV. Cyclic voltammetry indicates a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.3 eV, which is much lower than calculations predicted. Initial bulk heterojunction OPV devices fabricated with the fullerene acceptor phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit Voc ~ 700 mV, which supports the deep HOMO value obtained from CV. These results suggest the promise of this copolymer system.

  13. Novel Injectable Pentablock Copolymer Based Thermoresponsive Hydrogels for Sustained Release Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbala, Sharan; Tamboli, Viral; McDowell, Arlene; Mitra, Ashim K; Hook, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The need for multiple vaccinations to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines may be reduced by delivering the vaccine over an extended period of time. Here, we report two novel injectable pentablock copolymer based thermoresponsive hydrogels made of polyethyleneglycol-polycaprolactone-polylactide-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PEG-PCL-PLA-PCL-PEG) with varying ratios of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA), as single shot sustained release vaccines. Pentablock copolymer hydrogels were loaded with vaccine-encapsulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) or with the soluble vaccine components. Incorporation of PLGA-NP into the thermoresponsive hydrogels increased the complex viscosity of the gels, lowered the gelation temperature, and minimized the burst release of antigen and adjuvants. The two pentablock hydrogels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The addition of PLGA-NP to the hydrogels sustained immune responses for up to 49 days. The polymer with a higher ratio of PCL to PLA formed a more rigid gel, induced stronger immune responses, and stimulated effective anti-tumor responses in a prophylactic melanoma tumor model.

  14. LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES MODIFIED BY ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS: EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONALIZED SEGMENTS ON MORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Xu; Yi-hu Song; Yong-gang ShangGuan; Qiang Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Melt extrusion was used to prepare binary nanocomposites of ethylene copolymers and organoclay and trinary nanocomposites of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), ethylene copolymer and organoclay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the structure of the clay phase and the morphology of the nanocomposites. Influences of the comonomer in the copolymer and the content of the copolymer on the morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were discussed. The binary and the trinary composites may form intercalated or exfoliated structures depending on the interaction between the copolymer and the clay layers and the content of the copolymer.

  15. Real-time monitoring of the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer in leather using a fluorescent copolymer as tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Xia; Shi, Lu; Peng, Bi-Yu

    2015-12-01

    A fluorescent tracer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate-co-3-acryloyl fluorescein) [poly (AA-co-SA-co-Ac-Flu)], used for real-time monitoring the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate) [poly (AA-co-SA)], in leather was synthesized by radical polymerization of acrylic, stearyl acrylate and fluorescent monomer, 3-acryloyl fluorescein (Ac-Flu). The structure, molecular weight, introduced fluorescent group content and fluorescent characteristics of the fluorescent tracer and target copolymer, amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, were also characterized. The results show that the tracer presents the similar structural characteristics to the target and enough fluorescence intensity with 1.68 wt % of the fluorescent monomer introduced amount. The vertical section of the leather treated with the target copolymer mixing with 7% of the tracer exhibits evident fluorescence, and the change of fluorescence intensity along with the vertical section with treating time increasing can reflect the penetration depth of the target copolymer. The introduction of the fluorescent group in polymer structure through copolymerization with a limited amount of fluorescent monomer, Ac-Flu, is an effective way to make a tracer to monitor the penetration of the target in leather, which provides a new thought for the penetration research of syntans such as vinyl copolymer materials in leather manufacture.

  16. Impact Strength and Flexural Properties Enhancement of Methacrylate Silane Treated Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Chern Chiet Eng; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Hidayah Ariffin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composite...

  17. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  18. Preparation of epoxy resin copolymers with low luminous decay%低光衰环氧树脂共聚物的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯钠; 张小扉; 张桂霞; 陈涛; 王旭

    2011-01-01

    Copolymers of epoxy resin grafted by hydroxy-terminated silicone(EP-g-HTPDMS) with low luminous decay were prepared by graft condensation polymerization from EP and HTPDMS. The structure of the EP-g-HTPDMS copolymers was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) and therm ogravimetric(TG) analysis. The EP-g-HTPDMS copolymers were applied to package of light-emitting diode, and its optical properties were studied by luminous decay and refractive index test. The mechanical properties and micro-morphology of the copolymers were analyzed by hardness tester and scanning electron microscope(SEM). The results indicate that HTPDMS is successfully incorporated into EP molecular chain.Adding HTPDMS has unobvious effect on the refractive index of the copolymers. When HTPDMS mass content is less than 9%, the relative light output of the EP-g-HTPDMS copolymers is higher than that of unmodified EP and luminous decay reduces significantly. The hardness of the copolymers decreases with increasing HTPDMS mass content. The introduction of HTPDMS makes the copolymer exhibit the features of tough fracture, lowers the internal stress in the system and improves the resistance to cracking.%采用接枝缩聚的方法,将端羟基硅酮(HTPDMS)与环氧树脂(EP)反应,制备低光衰HTPDMS接枝EP(EP-g-HTPDMS)共聚物.利用傅里叶变换红外光谱和热重分析表征其结构,并将制备的EP-g-HTPDMS共聚物应用于发光二级管封装,通过测试光衰和折射率分析其光学性能,同时利用硬度测试仪和扫描电子显微镜研究其力学性能和微观结构.结果表明:HTPDMS成功接枝在EP分子链中;引入HTPDMS对共聚物折射率的影响并不明显,当w(HTPDMS)小于9%时,共聚物的相对输出功率均高于EP,光衰明显降低;随着w(HTPDMS)增加,共聚物的硬度减小;引入HTPDMS使共聚物断面呈韧性断裂,体系的内应力降低,抗开裂性能得到改善.

  19. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  20. BIODEGRADATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE FILMS BY FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lina; LIU Haiqing; ZHENG Lianshuang; ZHANG Jiayao; DU Yumin; LIU Weili

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradability of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Mucor (M-305) and Trichoderma (T-311) strains on regenerated cellulose films in media was investigated. The results showed that T-311 strain isolated from soil adhered on the cellulose film fragments has stronger degradation effect on the cellulose film than A. niger strain. The weights, molecular weights and tensile strengths of the cellulose films in both shake culture and solid media decreased with incubation time, accompanied by producing CO2 and saccharides. HPLC, IR and released CO2 analysis indicated that the biodegradation products of the regenerated cellulose films mainly contain oligosaccharides, cellobiose, glucose, arabinose, erythrose, glycerose,glycerol, ethanal, formaldehyde and organic acid, the end products were CO2 and water.After a month, the films were completely decomposed by fungi in the media at 30℃.