WorldWideScience

Sample records for biodeal community generation

  1. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  2. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrentine, Tameka C.; Kennedy, Bryan C.; Saba, Anthony W.; Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Julia Teresa; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Baldonado, Esther

    2008-03-01

    In 2004, the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment department embarked upon a partnership with the Systems Engineering and Analysis knowledge management (KM) team to develop knowledge management systems for the neutron generator (NG) community. This partnership continues today. The most recent challenge was to improve the current KM system (KMS) development approach by identifying a process that will allow staff members to capture knowledge as they learn it. This 'as-you-go' approach will lead to a sustainable KM process for the NG community. This paper presents a historical overview of NG KMSs, as well as research conducted to move toward sustainable KM.

  3. Next generation sequencing data of a defined microbial mock community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Esther; Andreopoulos, Bill; Bowers, Robert M.; Lee, Janey; Deshpande, Shweta; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Ciobanu, Doina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zane, Matthew; Daum, Christopher; Clum, Alicia; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Generating sequence data of a defined community composed of organisms with complete reference genomes is indispensable for the benchmarking of new genome sequence analysis methods, including assembly and binning tools. Moreover the validation of new sequencing library protocols and platforms to assess critical components such as sequencing errors and biases relies on such datasets. We here report the next generation metagenomic sequence data of a defined mock community (Mock Bacteria ARchaea Community; MBARC-26), composed of 23 bacterial and 3 archaeal strains with finished genomes. These strains span 10 phyla and 14 classes, a range of GC contents, genome sizes, repeat content and encompass a diverse abundance profile. Short read Illumina and long-read PacBio SMRT sequences of this mock community are described. These data represent a valuable resource for the scientific community, enabling extensive benchmarking and comparative evaluation of bioinformatics tools without the need to simulate data. As such, these data can aid in improving our current sequence data analysis toolkit and spur interest in the development of new tools. PMID:27673566

  4. Building Scientific Community Support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Robeck, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards offer an opportunity to teach Earth and space science in ways that are closer to how scientists practice, and more relevant to students and to societal issues. However, the level of scientific community involvement required to capitalize on this opportunity is high. Building on the results of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level , this presentation proposes a set of mechanisms and practices by which the NGSS Earth and space science community can support NGSS implementation at the national, state and local levels. Based on work with summit attendees, classroom teachers, informal educators and undergraduate faculty, this presentation proposes ways to build a network of practitioners with shared communication, approaches and resources. A set of mechanisms whereby the community can build relationships and share practices will be described, along with an emerging set of strategies for supporting groups as they take the first steps into implementation.

  5. Mining consumer health vocabulary from community-generated text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A; Zheng, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Community-generated text corpora can be a valuable resource to extract consumer health vocabulary (CHV) and link them to professional terminologies and alternative variants. In this research, we propose a pattern-based text-mining approach to identify pairs of CHV and professional terms from Wikipedia, a large text corpus created and maintained by the community. A novel measure, leveraging the ratio of frequency of occurrence, was used to differentiate consumer terms from professional terms. We empirically evaluated the applicability of this approach using a large data sample consisting of MedLine abstracts and all posts from an online health forum, MedHelp. The results show that the proposed approach is able to identify synonymous pairs and label the terms as either consumer or professional term with high accuracy. We conclude that the proposed approach provides great potential to produce a high quality CHV to improve the performance of computational applications in processing consumer-generated health text.

  6. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    with climate change on human health,progress in better understanding wind energy potential through resource assessments and new tools for detailed feasibility and project planning,need for comprehensive monitoring and data analysis, andstate funding requirements and opportunity costs. Conclusion The energy policy choices ahead for Alaska will have important implications for Arctic population health, especially for those villages whose relatively small size and remote locations make energy a key component of subsistence lifestyles and community sustainability. Wind generation can contribute to meeting renewable energy goals and is a particularly important resource for rural and remote Alaskan communities currently dependent on diesel fuel for generating electricity and heat. PMID:23971014

  7. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Konkel

    2013-08-01

    villages, b. impacts associated with climate change on human health, c. progress in better understanding wind energy potential through resource assessments and new tools for detailed feasibility and project planning, d. need for comprehensive monitoring and data analysis, and e. state funding requirements and opportunity costs. Conclusion . The energy policy choices ahead for Alaska will have important implications for Arctic population health, especially for those villages whose relatively small size and remote locations make energy a key component of subsistence lifestyles and community sustainability. Wind generation can contribute to meeting renewable energy goals and is a particularly important resource for rural and remote Alaskan communities currently dependent on diesel fuel for generating electricity and heat.

  8. Quantitative Study of Differences in Leadership Frames of Community College Presidents of the Baby Boomer and Generation X Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Literature has warned of an impending leadership crisis for American community colleges (Amey, Vanderlinden, & Brown, 2002; Shults, 2001). At the present time, the majority of community college president positions are held by members of the Boomer generation. These individuals will soon be retiring and members of the Xer generation will be called…

  9. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    OpenAIRE

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background. In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State’s first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska’s wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012.Method. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in ‘‘Alaska’s Wind Energy Systems; Inv...

  10. Generational Differences in Technology Adoption in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    This research study investigated the technological perceptions and expectations of community college students, faculty, administrators, and Information Technology (IT) staff. The theoretical framework is based upon two assumptions on the process of technological innovation: it can be explained by diffusion of adoption theory, and by studying the…

  11. Generating Social Change through Community-Campus Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Naomi; Gaetz, Stephen; Phipps, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a qualitative case study approach was used to explore the changes that community-campus collaborations stimulate. The authors document the "processes of interaction" (Spaapen & van Drooge, 2011) through which collaborations seek to contribute to positive social change, highlighting the outputs, outcomes, and…

  12. Next-generation studies of microbial biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Scott A; Wuertz, Stefan; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2016-09-01

    As we look into the future of microbial biofilm research, there is clearly an emerging focus on communities rather than populations. This represents an essential change in direction to more accurately understand how and why microorganisms assemble into communities, as well as the functional implications for such a life style. For example, current research studies shows that communities display emergent properties or functions that are not predicted from the individual single species populations, including elevated stress tolerance and resistance to antibiotics. Models for mixed species biofilms can be very simple, comprised only a handful of species or can be extremely species rich, with hundreds or thousands of species present. The future holds much promise for this area of research, where investigators will increasingly be able to resolve, at the molecular and biochemical levels, interspecies relationships and mechanisms of interaction. The outcome of these studies will greatly enhance our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive community function in natural and engineered systems. PMID:27471123

  13. Latina/o Dropouts: Generating Community Cultural Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciaga, Rebeca; Erbstein, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This article builds upon a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) to discuss how strategies for school persistence are articulated, cultivated and employed through individual aspirations and practices. The analysis draws from testimonios of six Latina/o young adults between the ages of 18 and 20 living in California's 9-County…

  14. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  15. Generations at School: Building an Age-Friendly Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Suzette; Buffum, Austin G.; Barth, Roland S.

    2007-01-01

    Today's workforce comprises distinct generational cohorts-Veterans, Baby Boomers, Gen-Xers, and Millennials. "Generations at School" provides educators with the knowledge and tools to create and sustain true collaboration, teamwork, and consensus. Suzette Lovely and Austin G. Buffum introduce the traits and tipping points of these diverse age…

  16. Evaluation of attached periphytical algal communities for biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandefur, H.N.; Matlock, M.D.; Costello, T.A. [Arkansas Univ., Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the feasibility of using algal biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production. Algae has a high lipid content, and with its high rate of production, it can produce more oil on less land than traditional bioenergy crops. In addition, algal communities can remove nutrients from wastewater. Enclosed photobioreactors and open pond systems are among the many different algal growth systems that can be highly productive. However, they can also be difficult to maintain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a pilot scale algal turf scrubber (ATS) to facilitate the growth of attached periphytic algal communities for the production of biomass feedstock and the removal of nutrients from a local stream in Springdale, Arizona. The ATS operated for a 9 month sampling period, during which time the system productivity averaged 26 g per m{sup 2} per day. The removal of total phosphorus and total nitrogen averaged 48 and 13 per cent, respectively.

  17. Generational Differences among Community College Students in Their Evaluation of Academic Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Kathleen E.; Bol, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how community college students (n = 650) vary by generation and other characteristics in their evaluation of academic activities as cheating. A Likert-type instrument was developed based on the literature, pilot tested, and subjected to factor analysis. Results of MANOVA found no difference by generation in the evaluation of…

  18. Community Microgrid Based on Micro-Wind Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Lubna; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy sources (such as solar/wind) are being explored mostly as micro power generation (μGen) or mega power plant system. In recent years, emphasis has been given on Microgrid (μGrid) systems because of their few advantages over μGen systems in terms of power quality, stability, reliability, economics etc. But the commercial installation of the μGrid system is not yet progressing significantly. This paper presents the techno-economic aspects of μGen and μGrid systems...

  19. Giving to Family versus Giving to the Community Within and Across Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Deb; Cagla Okten; Una Okonkwo Osili

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we examine relationship between giving to family, and community institutions, within and across generations, a previously unexplored subject. We investigate the relationship between these two types of transfer networks using new data from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS). From our results, financial transfers to family members are positively correlated with giving to community organizations for both parent or origin households and adult split-offs living outside their ...

  20. Enabling a next generation of synthetic biology community organization and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Megan J; Jewett, Michael C

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology seeks to make engineering of complex biological functions more efficient, reliable, and predictable. Advancing the process of engineering biology requires community organization and leadership. As synthetic biology matures into a globally significant enterprise, the community needs to enable a next generation of leaders to organize the field's responsible advancement. We discuss key points raised at a community meeting on these issues at SB6.0--the Sixth International Meeting on Synthetic Biology--and highlight opportunities to carry forward the conversation. PMID:24617412

  1. Teacher Participation in Online Communities: Why Do Teachers Want to Participate in Self-Generated Online Communities of K-12 Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Brush, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for teacher participation in online communities of K-12 teachers. The authors interviewed 23 teachers from three self-generated online communities and analyzed more than 2,000 postings in those communities. The findings indicated five reasons for participation: (a) sharing emotions, (b) utilizing…

  2. Four Generations of Women's Educational Experience in a Rural Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…

  3. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  4. Use and Perception of Technology: Sex and Generational Differences in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele; Stapley, Janice C.; Malter, Johnna

    2013-01-01

    A community sample of 431 adults (175 men and 256 women) ages 18 to 91 across three generations (young adults, adults, and older adults) were recruited for the current study. Participants completed a demographic and technology use questionnaire that ascertained their attitudes toward, and use of, various types of technology--such as cellular…

  5. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study. Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Tameka B.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Cole, Benjamin Holland, II; Baldonado, Esther

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.

  6. Pioneer Entrepreneurs : Legal Capital and Social Network Changes in a First Generation Mexican Community

    OpenAIRE

    Muse-Orlinoff, Leah

    2014-01-01

    In their efforts to mobilize the resources they need to start and run their businesses, pioneer entrepreneurs from a first-generation, low-resource immigrant community exemplify the interactive relationship between social capital and social networks: the individual social capital entrepreneurs have affects their position within a network, and their network position shapes how much access to latent social capital they have. Throughout this dissertation, I use concepts from social network analy...

  7. Multistep greedy algorithm identifies community structure in real-world and computer-generated networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schuetz, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    We have recently introduced a multistep extension of the greedy algorithm for modularity optimization. The extension is based on the idea that merging l pairs of communities (l>1) at each iteration prevents premature condensation into few large communities. Here, an empirical formula is presented for the choice of the step width l that generates partitions with (close to) optimal modularity for 17 real-world and 1100 computer-generated networks. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the communities of two real-world networks (the metabolic network of the bacterium E. coli and the graph of coappearing words in the titles of papers coauthored by Martin Karplus) provides evidence that the partition obtained by the multistep greedy algorithm is superior to the one generated by the original greedy algorithm not only with respect to modularity but also according to objective criteria. In other words, the multistep extension of the greedy algorithm reduces the danger of getting trapped in local optima of modularity a...

  8. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  9. Making User-Generated Content Communities Work in Higher Education - The Importance of Setting Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Brocke, Jan; White, Cynthia; Walker, Ute; Vom Brocke, Christina

    The concept of User-Generated Content (UGC) offers impressive potential for innovative learning and teaching scenarios in higher education. Examples like Wikipedia and Facebook illustrate the enormous effects of multiple users world-wide contributing to a pool of shared resources, such as videos and pictures and also lexicographical descriptions. Apart from single examples, however, the systematic use of these virtual technologies in higher education still needs further exploration. Only few examples display the successful application of UGC Communities at university scenarios. We argue that a major reason for this can be seen in the fact that the organizational dimension of setting up UGC Communities has widely been neglected so far. In particular, we indicate the need for incentive setting to actively involve students and achieve specific pedagogical objectives. We base our study on organizational theories and derive strategies for incentive setting that have been applied in a practical e-Learning scenario involving students from Germany and New Zealand.

  10. Noise impact on community: A case study for power generation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Chui, Jonathan; Hertil, Salem

    2005-04-01

    Power generation plant will make noise impact on the surrounding communities and cause noise complaints from the residences. Noise mitigation treatment for plant is required to achieve the specified noise regulations. In this paper, a case study of the noise control design for a power generation facility is presented. Major noise sources included five engines and generators, five gas conditioning skids, five radiator coolers, and other accessory equipment. The acoustic modeling software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise contributions from sources and assess the noise impact on the nearby communities. During the acoustic modeling, alternative noise mitigation measures underwent two specific investigations before they were chosen as a noise solution recommendation. The first was to determine the technical feasibility of attenuating the source equipment. The second was to perform a cost benefit analysis, necessary to find the most cost-effective solution. For example, several acoustic wall and roof assemblies were entered into the acoustic model and the acoustic performance of the ventilation system was varied until we were able to achieve the most economical acoustic solution.

  11. A Study of Two Generations of Culturally Diverse Community College Students Views on Leader Attributes in Self and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkowski, Paula Jeanine

    2011-01-01

    One community college mission is preparing students for the expectations and opportunities of the workplace including roles as collaborators and leaders. Increasingly, representatives from "cultures" of generation, gender, and diverse ethnicities are gaining an education in community colleges. Research supports that cultural aspects and views of…

  12. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  13. Right Here, Right Now: Career Advancement of Generation X Female Mid-Level Administrators in Community Colleges in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terri Suzanne Holston

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges in the United States are facing what some researchers are calling a "crisis" (Piland & Wolf, 2003; Shults, 2001). The current generation of community college leaders, those born to the birth cohort known as the Baby Boomers, are eligible to retire early in the 21st century. These retirements will leave a…

  14. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  15. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  16. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  17. The NASA Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) Next Generation Space Weather Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Zheng, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.; Mullinix, R.; Boblitt, J.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Swindell, M. J., IV; Bakshi, S. S.; Mays, M. L.; Shim, J. S.; Hesse, M.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables, supports, and performs research and development for next generation space science and space weather models. The CCMC currently hosts a large and expanding collection of state-or-the-art, physics-based space weather models that have been developed by the international research community. There are many tools and services provided by the CCMC that are currently available world-wide, along with the ongoing development of new innovative systems and software for research, discovery, validation, visualization, and forecasting. Over the history of the CCMC's existence, there has been one constant engineering challenge - describing, managing, and disseminating data. To address the challenges that accompany an ever-expanding number of models to support, along with a growing catalog of simulation output - the CCMC is currently developing a flexible and extensible space weather data warehouse to support both internal and external systems and applications. This paper intends to chronicle the evolution and future of the CCMC's data infrastructure, and the current infrastructure re-engineering activities that seek to leverage existing community data model standards like SPASE and the IMPEx Simulation Data Model.

  18. "Hard to crack": experiences of community integration among first- and second-generation Asian MSM in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nadine; Chan, Elic; Fischer, Benedikt

    2013-07-01

    Asians are the largest racial minority in Canada making up 11% of the population and represented over 60% of new immigrants between 2001 and 2006. We examined the experiences of community integration for first-generation (n = 27) and second-generation (n = 22) Asian Canadian men who have sex with men (MSM) in their ethnic and gay communities. Through focus group interviews, we explored their level of connectedness and the level of discrimination they experienced in the two communities. Findings indicate that Asian MSM in general perceived their ethnic community as homophobic, stemming from a combination of seeing sex as taboo, stereotypes about being gay, and the affiliation with religion. Although the literature indicates that immigrants rely on the support of their ethnic communities, our finding suggest that this is not the case for Asian immigrant MSM, who in our sample reported feeling less connected compared to their second-generation counterparts. For the gay community, our sample reported mixed experiences as some regarded it as welcoming, whereas others described it as racist. However, these experiences did not differ by generational status. Many were aware of explicit messages stating "No Asians" in dating contexts, while at the same time being aware that some older White men were interested in dating Asians exclusively. Barriers to integration in both communities may contribute to feelings of isolation. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23875850

  19. Community level workers: awareness generation for improving children’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine immunisation and Vitamin A supplementation are two of many services offered by Government of India to reduce child mortality and morbidity. The three groups of community level workers (CLWs i.e. Auxiliary Nurse Midwives from health department, Anganwadi Workers from women and child development department and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs are responsible for raising awareness and demand for these services. Objectives: The paper assesses the knowledge and participation of CLWs in generating awareness about the two services namely immunisation and Vitamin A supplementation among eligible mothers; and mother’s knowledge on these two services.  Methods: The study was conducted in 16 villages of two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. Multistage purposive sampling was used for study area selection. Data collection was done using mixed methods-1 observations of 16 Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition days; 2 questionnaire based survey of 46 CLWs; and 3 questionnaire based survey of 321 programme beneficiaries i.e. infant’s mothers. Results: Limited knowledge of CLWs and their participation in awareness generation activities for the two services was noticed, which was also reflected in the poor knowledge among mothers on the two services. Conclusion: The study results may partially explain the poor child immunization in Rajasthan. Initiatives to increase CLWs’ knowledge of child immunization and Vitamin A supplementation; and increasing their participation in awareness generation activities need serious consideration by the healthcare system to improve immunization coverage.

  20. Impact of Celebrity Brand Endorsements on Decision Making of British- Indian Community: An Inter-Generational Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Abhilasha

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Celebrity endorsement is one of the most widely used tools today in marketing. This paper attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumer decision making on the British Indian community in United Kingdom, with an inter- generational comparison done. An interpretive research was done by means of a semi structured interview on a sample of 10 British Indians belonging to first generation immigrants and second generation immigrants. The data was analysed using t...

  1. Thermal adaptation generates a diversity of thermal limits in a rainforest ant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Clay, Natalie A; Lucas, Jane; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Kay, Adam

    2015-03-01

    The Thermal Adaptation Hypothesis posits that the warmer, aseasonal tropics generates populations with higher and narrower thermal limits. It has largely been tested among populations across latitudes. However, considerable thermal heterogeneity exists within ecosystems: across 31 trees in a Panama rainforest, surfaces exposed to sun were 8 °C warmer and varied more in temperature than surfaces in the litter below. Tiny ectotherms are confined to surfaces and are variously submerged in these superheated boundary layer environments. We quantified the surface CTmin and CTmax s (surface temperatures at which individuals grew torpid and lost motor control, respectively) of 88 ant species from this forest; they ranged in average mass from 0.01 to 57 mg. Larger ants had broader thermal tolerances. Then, for 26 of these species we again tested body CTmax s using a thermal dry bath to eliminate boundary layer effects: body size correlations observed previously disappeared. In both experiments, consistent with Thermal Adaptation, CTmax s of canopy ants averaged 3.5-5 °C higher than populations that nested in the shade of the understory. We impaled thermocouples in taxidermy mounts to further quantify the factors shaping operative temperatures for four ant species representing the top third (1-30 mg) of the size distribution. Extrapolations suggest the smallest 2/3rds of species reach thermal equilibrium in ants that walk above the convective superheated surface air also showed more net heating by solar radiation, with operative temperatures up to 4 °C higher than surrounding air. The thermal environments of this Panama rainforest generate a range of CTmax subsuming 74% of those previously recorded for ant populations worldwide. The Thermal Adaptation Hypothesis can be a powerful tool in predicting diversity of thermal limits within communities. Boundary layer temperatures are likely key to predicting the future of Earth's tiny terrestrial ectotherm populations. PMID

  2. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Kelly Elder,; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  3. Cheating in the Community College: Generational Differences among Students and Implications for Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Student cheating has been the subject of much despair and considerable research in higher education. Although cheating is recognized as a concern for community colleges, little research examines cheating specifically in these institutions. Because community colleges typically serve students representing a wide diversity of ages, community college…

  4. Identification of parasitic communities within European ticks using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI) barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit) could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities. PMID:26866802

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Comparison of Experimental Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Vivien

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are a common group of freshwater benthic invertebrates known to be very sensitive to environmental changes and currently used as bioindicators in some countries. However, more extensive application of oligochaetes for assessing the ecological quality of sediments in watercourses and lakes would require overcoming the difficulties related to morphology-based identification of oligochaetes species. This study tested the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS of a standard cytochrome c oxydase I (COI barcode as a tool for the rapid assessment of oligochaete diversity in environmental samples, based on mixed specimen samples. To know the composition of each sample we Sanger sequenced every specimen present in these samples. Our study showed that a large majority of OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit could be detected by NGS analyses. We also observed congruence between the NGS and specimen abundance data for several but not all OTUs. Because the differences in sequence abundance data were consistent across samples, we exploited these variations to empirically design correction factors. We showed that such factors increased the congruence between the values of oligochaetes-based indices inferred from the NGS and the Sanger-sequenced specimen data. The validation of these correction factors by further experimental studies will be needed for the adaptation and use of NGS technology in biomonitoring studies based on oligochaete communities.

  7. Cadmium-induced and trans-generational changes in the cultivable and total seed endophytic community of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truyens, S; Beckers, B; Thijs, S; Weyens, N; Cuypers, A; Vangronsveld, J

    2016-05-01

    Trans-generational adaptation is important to respond rapidly to environmental challenges and increase overall plant fitness. Besides well-known mechanisms such as epigenetic modifications, vertically transmitted endophytic bacteria might contribute to this process. The cultivable and total endophytic communities of several generations of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds harvested from plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) or not exposed were investigated. The diversity and richness of the seed endophytic community decreased with an increasing number of generations. Aeromicrobium and Pseudonocardia were identified as indicator species in seeds from Cd-exposed plants, while Rhizobium was abundantly present in both seed types. Remarkably, Rhizobium was the only genus that was consistently detected in seeds of all generations, which suggests that the phenotypic characteristics were more important as selection criteria for which bacteria are transferred to the next plant generation than the actual genera. Production of IAA was an important trait for endophytes from both seed types, while ACC deaminase activity and Cd tolerance were mainly associated with seed endophytes from Cd-exposed plants. Understanding how different factors influence the seed endophytic community can help us to improve seed quality and plant growth through different biotechnological applications. PMID:26577608

  8. Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-11-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.

  9. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  10. Legacy, legitimacy, and possibility: an exploration of community health worker experience across the generations in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Alison

    2013-06-01

    In South Africa, the response to HIV and TB epidemics is complex, varied, and contextually defined. "Task-shifting" and a movement toward a decentralized model of care have led to an increased reliance on community health workers (CHWs) providing health care services to residents of impoverished, peri-urban areas. Public health policy tends to present CHWs as a homogeneous group, with little attention paid to the nuances of experience, motivation, and understanding, which distinguish these care workers from one another and from other kinds of health workers. An exploration of the layered meanings of providing community health care services under financially, politically, and socially difficult conditions reveals clear distinctions of experience across the generations. Many older CHWs say that ubuntu, a notion of shared African humanity, is being "killed off" by the younger generation, whereas younger CHWs often describe older women as being "jealous" of the opportunities that this younger generation has for education, training, and employment. The structure of the South African health system, past and present responses to disease epidemics, and the legacy of apartheid's structural violence have amplified these generational differences among CHWs. Using ethnographic data collected from approximately 20 CHWS in a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa, I explore how CHWs experience and understand legitimacy in the moral economy of care. A call for closer attention to the experiences of CHWs is critical when designing public health policies for the delivery of health care services in impoverished communities in South Africa.

  11. Community College Succession Planning: Preparing the Next Generation of Women for Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzebetak, Angela Kaysen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies to enable community colleges to develop and cultivate women for leadership roles through succession planning. According to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), the pace of administrative and other key staff retirements exceeds the pace at which these positions are being…

  12. Community Abroad: International Partnerships Generate Revenue, Opportunity for Colleges in Tough Fiscal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Separated by 8,000 miles and untold cultural and economic disparities, the Qatari government and Houston Community College (HCC) in Texas would seem unlikely educational partners. HCC, like many U.S. community colleges, has a reputation for preparing students to meet local employment needs. Qatar, in the midst of an economic transition of its own,…

  13. Learning Nursing in the Workplace Community: The Generation of Professional Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Mary

    This chapter explores the connections between learning, working and professional communities in nursing. It draws on experiences and research in nursing practice and education, where not only do isolated professionals learn as a result of their actions for patients and others, but those professionals are part of a community whose associated networks enable learning to occur. Several characteristics of this professional community are shared with those found in Communities of Practice (CoPs) (Lave and Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), but the balance and importance of many elements can differ. For instance, whilst Lave and Wenger (1991) describe many aspects of situated learning in CoPs that apply to nurses, their model is of little help in understanding the ways in which other professions as well as patients/clients and carers influence the development of nursing practice. Therefore, I shall argue that it is not just the Community of Practice that we need to consider

  14. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  15. Generation Z--striking the balance: healthy doctors for a healthy community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David A

    2008-08-01

    We have a multigenerational workforce. Popular social science has loosely divided the five living generations into the 'builders' (or matures/veterans), 'baby boomers' and the respective generations 'X', 'Y' and 'Z'. Arguably identity is more keenly formed by generation than by either gender or religion. We have three generations currently engaged in the workforce: the baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. Each generation is labelled with their own unique traits. All generations bring their generational traits to the medical profession. The baby boomers have traditionally worked longer hours and seen medicine as a tireless vocation. This has made them the workhorses of the profession. Generation X and Y are defined by an increased grasp on technology, mobility and an ideology that seeks a balance in life. Generation Z (born 1991-2006) is likely to follow in aunty Y's footsteps in terms of behaviour. If the current models of medical education continue we can expect our first Z doctor to begin work as an intern in 2017. PMID:18704218

  16. Generation Z--striking the balance: healthy doctors for a healthy community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David A

    2008-08-01

    We have a multigenerational workforce. Popular social science has loosely divided the five living generations into the 'builders' (or matures/veterans), 'baby boomers' and the respective generations 'X', 'Y' and 'Z'. Arguably identity is more keenly formed by generation than by either gender or religion. We have three generations currently engaged in the workforce: the baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. Each generation is labelled with their own unique traits. All generations bring their generational traits to the medical profession. The baby boomers have traditionally worked longer hours and seen medicine as a tireless vocation. This has made them the workhorses of the profession. Generation X and Y are defined by an increased grasp on technology, mobility and an ideology that seeks a balance in life. Generation Z (born 1991-2006) is likely to follow in aunty Y's footsteps in terms of behaviour. If the current models of medical education continue we can expect our first Z doctor to begin work as an intern in 2017.

  17. 'Who's coming up next to do this work?' Generational tensions in accounts of providing HIV care in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christy E; de Wit, John Bf; Reynolds, Robert H; Canavan, Peter G; Kidd, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Generational change is believed to be transforming the educational and employment preferences of medical trainees. In this article, we examine generational tensions in interviews with policy leaders and clinicians on workforce issues within one subset of the Australian medical profession: general practitioners who provide care to people with HIV in community settings. Integrating the accounts of policy leaders (n = 24) and clinicians representing the 'first generation' (n = 21) and 'next generation' (n = 23) of clinicians to do this work, shared and divergent perspectives on the role of generational change in shaping professional engagement were revealed. While those engaged in the early response to HIV believed younger clinicians to be less interested in the scientific and political dimensions of HIV care and more concerned about financial security and life balance, the next generation both countered and integrated these beliefs into new ways of conceptualising the value and appeal of this field of medicine. Critical appraisal of the assumptions that underpin generational discourse is essential in appreciating the changing views of providers over time, particularly in fields of medicine which have featured significant historical turning points. PMID:25948697

  18. Communities of Sound: Examining Meaningful Engagement with Generative Music Making and Virtual Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Steve; Adkins, Barbara; Brown, Andrew; Hirche, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the affordances of the concept of "network jamming" as a means of facilitating social and cultural interaction, that provides a basis for unified communities that use sound and visual media as their key expressive medium. This article focuses upon the development of a means of measuring social and musical benefit…

  19. Hiring the Next Generation of Faculty. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 152

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejda, Brent D., Ed.; Murray, John P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the following papers: (1) Preparing to Hire the Best in the Perfect Storm (John P. Murray); (2) New Faculty Issues: Fitting In and Figuring It Out (Pamela L. Eddy); (3) An Approach to a Faculty Professional Development Seminar (Mary Bendickson and Karen Griffin); (4) Faculty Issues in Rural Community Colleges (Brent D. Cejda);…

  20. Characterization of a biogas-producing microbial community by short-read next generation DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth Roland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renewable energy production is currently a major issue worldwide. Biogas is a promising renewable energy carrier as the technology of its production combines the elimination of organic waste with the formation of a versatile energy carrier, methane. In consequence of the complexity of the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved the biotechnology of the microbiological process leading to biogas production is poorly understood. Metagenomic approaches are suitable means of addressing related questions. In the present work a novel high-throughput technique was tested for its benefits in resolving the functional and taxonomical complexity of such microbial consortia. Results It was demonstrated that the extremely parallel SOLiD™ short-read DNA sequencing platform is capable of providing sufficient useful information to decipher the systematic and functional contexts within a biogas-producing community. Although this technology has not been employed to address such problems previously, the data obtained compare well with those from similar high-throughput approaches such as 454-pyrosequencing GS FLX or Titanium. The predominant microbes contributing to the decomposition of organic matter include members of the Eubacteria, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, family Clostridiaceae. Bacteria belonging in other systematic groups contribute to the diversity of the microbial consortium. Archaea comprise a remarkably small minority in this community, given their crucial role in biogas production. Among the Archaea, the predominant order is the Methanomicrobiales and the most abundant species is Methanoculleus marisnigri. The Methanomicrobiales are hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Besides corroborating earlier findings on the significance of the contribution of the Clostridia to organic substrate decomposition, the results demonstrate the importance of the metabolism of hydrogen within the biogas producing microbial

  1. The next generation Internet and health care: a civics lesson for the informatics community.

    OpenAIRE

    Shortliffe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Internet provides one of the most compelling examples of the way in which government research investments can, in time, lead to innovations of broad social and economic impact. This paper reviews the history of the Internet's evolution, emphasizing in particular its relationship to medical informatics and to the nation's health-care system. Current national research programs are summarized and the need for more involvement by the informatics community and by federal health-care agencies i...

  2. Power generation in an isolated community in the state of Tocantins, Brazil; Geracao de energia em uma comunidade isolada no estado de Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil); Sodre, Layanni Ferreira [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil)], E-mails: weder@gmail.com., zukajr@gmail.com.br, Layanni_sd@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to show a case study of the provision of electricity to an isolated community in the region of Jalapao Good Hope community, municipality of Mateiros, State of Tocantins. It was installed a hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with capacity to generate 9676.80 kWh annually. This energy is intended to improve the production process, for that was installed in the community workshop. Moreover, providing space outside of working hours for social community in the community workshop shed coma availability of firm energy during 24h/day. The results showed that the system can be sustainable provided that the community enjoys the potential to generate energy for the production process. (author)

  3. Electric power generation in isolated communities at Amazon, Brazil, from the sustainable biomass: project ENERMAD; A geracao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas na Amazonia a partir de biomassa sustentavel: projeto ENERMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The ENERMAD project viewed the electric power generation in isolated communities, from the forestalls residues, to attend the productive activities and residences, besides the steam generation for value aggregation to the community product, reaching to transform the social reality of that community and, to stimulate the investment viability in innovator project for those isolated communities.

  4. User-Generated Content, YouTube and Participatory Culture on the Web: Music Learning and Teaching in Two Contrasting Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Janice

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on seminal literature from new media researchers to frame the broader implications that user-generated content (UGC), YouTube, and participatory culture have for music learning and teaching in online communities; to illustrate, I use examples from two contrasting online music communities, the Online Academy of Irish…

  5. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  6. Developing a next-generation community college curriculum forenergy-efficient high-performance building operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, Peter; Kyriakopedi, Nick; Mills, Evan; Haves, Philip; Otto, Roland J.; Piette, Mary Ann; Xu, Peng; Diamond, Rick; Frost, Chuck; Deringer, Joe

    2004-05-01

    The challenges of increased technological demands in today's workplace require virtually all workers to develop higher-order cognitive skills including problem solving and systems thinking in order to be productive. Such ''habits of mind'' are viewed as particularly critical for success in the information-based workplace, which values reduced hierarchy, greater worker independence, teamwork, communications skills, non-routine problem solving, and understanding of complex systems. The need is particularly compelling in the buildings arena. To scope the problem, this paper presents the results of interviews and focus groups--conducted by Oakland California's Peralta Community College District and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory--in which approximately 50 industry stakeholders discussed contemporary needs for building operator education at the community college level. Numerous gaps were identified between the education today received by building operators and technicians and current workplace needs. The participants concurred that many of the problems seen today in achieving and maintaining energy savings in buildings can be traced to inadequacies in building operation and lack of awareness and knowledge about how existing systems are to be used, monitored, and maintained. Participants and others we interviewed affirmed that while these issues are addressed in various graduate-level and continuing education programs, they are virtually absent at the community college level. Based on that assessment of industry needs, we present a new curriculum and innovative simulation-based learning tool to provide technicians with skills necessary to commission and operate high-performance buildings, with particular emphasis on energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in the context of HVAC&R equipment and control systems.

  7. Multiple processes generate productivity-diversity relationships in experimental wood-fall communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P; Eernisse, Douglas; Horton, Tammy; Judge, Jenna; Kakui, Keiichi; Mah, Chris; Warén, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Energy availability has long been recognized as a predictor of community structure, and changes in both terrestrial and marine productivity under climate change necessitate a deeper understanding of this relationship. The productivity-diversity relationship (PDR) is well explored in both empirical and theoretical work in ecology, but numerous questions remain. Here, we test four different theories for PDRs (More-Individuals Hypothesis, Resource-Ratio Theory, More Specialization Theory, and the Connectivity-Diversity Hypothesis) with experimental deep-sea wood falls. We manipulated productivity by altering wood-fall sizes and measured responses after 5 and 7 years. In November 2006, 32 Acacia sp. logs were deployed at 3203 m in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (Station Deadwood: 36.154098 degrees N, 122.40852 degrees W). Overall, we found a significant increase in diversity with increased wood-fall size for these communities. Increases in diversity with wood-fall size occurred because of the addition of rare species and increases of overall abundance, although individual species responses varied. We also found that limited dispersal helped maintain the positive PDR relationship. Our experiment suggests that multiple interacting mechanisms influence PDRs. PMID:27220205

  8. Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and birth defects and infant mortality in nearby communities 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was commissioned to examine whether there were elevated rates of stillbirth, birth defects, or death in the first year of life between 1971 and 1988 among offspring of residents of communities within a 25-kilometre radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study was also to investigate whether there were any statistical associations between the monthly airborne or waterborne tritium emissions from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and the rates of these reproductive outcomes. Overall analysis did not support a hypothesis of increased rates of stillbirths, neonatal mortality or infant mortality near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, or a hypothesis of increased birth prevalence of birth defects for 21 of 22 diagnostic categories. The prevalence of Down Syndrome was elevated in both Pickering and Ajax; however, there was no consistent pattern between tritium release levels and Down Syndrome prevalence, chance could not be ruled out for the associations between Down Syndrome and tritium releases or ground-monitored concentrations, the association was detected in an analysis where multiple testing was done which may turn up significant associations by change, and maternal residence at birth and early in pregnancy needs to be verified. The association between Down Syndrome and low-level radiation remains indeterminate when existing evidence from epidemiological studies is summed. The estimated radiation exposure from the nuclear plant for residents of Pickering and Ajax is lower by a factor of 100 than the normal natural background radiation. Further study is recommended. (21 tabs., 29 figs., 5 maps, 37 refs.)

  9. YOUNG GENERATION OF NOWA HUTA INHABITANTS. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THEIR LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dargiewicz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Author describes phenomenon of local society among young residents of Nowa Huta - postindustrial district of Crakow. Researcher portrays it by considering four elements:1 degree of identification with the society of Nowa Huta;2 social relationships of people;3 the knowledge about neighbourhood (as well as historical as recent;4 social activity (actions targeted at youth of Nowa Huta and activities of young adults themselves.Author analyses every element of the phenomenon of local society based on participant observation and performance of quality research which includes interviews with young people of the district and experts that deal with the youn generation og Nowa Huta. Writer also analysed two newspaper sources, looking for relevant information about the adolescent residents of Nowa Huta.

  10. Dual electricity generation biogas-diesel in the community of Maguey, municipality of San Luis. Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work was developed in the rural community Magueyal, Popular Council Chamarreta of the Municipality San Luis, Santiago de Cuba province, consisting of 198 inhabitants, distributed in 75 of these 64 homes have electricity, also has a primary school and a medical clinic family. Its main activity is livestock to be located in a place where the topography is very steep, leading to not develop infrastructure networks. The electricity was supplied by diesel engine MWM-DITER, Type: D 327-2 and the supply of electricity was only 4 hours a day; it was decided to take him to eight hours using biogas, thus saving fuel. For this purposes and with funding from an international project proceeded to construction of two biogas digesters 83.04 m3 and 91.26 m3 of total volume, respectively, with which the generator feeds two reducing diesel consumption by 75% and increasing the hours of supply electricity for 4-8 hours. (author)

  11. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them

  12. Advanced technology for treating wastewater generated in small communities; Tecnologia avanzada en depuracion de aguas residuales demosticas en pequenos nucleos de poblacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Iglesias, M.; Bobe Vazquez, J.; Simal Campos, P.; Otero Lopez, M.; Alfonsin Solino, G.

    2009-07-01

    public bodies of water management, along with private developers and companies, are faced with a wide range of possibilities for treating wastewater generated in small communities. The economic and demographic environments in small populations determine the choice between different technical solutions in the market. This document introduce a study on characteristics of the wastewater generated in small rural communities in Galicia, and its impact on the installed wastewater treatment systems, as well as possibilities of obtaining a reusable water that can be used in these populations, thereby facilitating water and economical savings. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  14. An Exploration of Social and Educational Sustainability: Conversations from the Lived Experiences of Low-Income and First-Generation Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gregory York

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how low-income and first-generation community college students perceive the notion of social and educational sustainability. The study focused on research participants' understanding of (a) the meaning of social sustainability and its importance in developing human agency; (b) the notion of…

  15. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa B Sharkey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in the Tailings of a Pb-Zn Mine Generating Acidic Drainage ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Nan; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Wan, Cai-Yun; Li, Jie; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to generation of acid mine drainage. PMID:21705549

  17. A first generation African community grappling with urbanisation: the views of Platfontein’s San on water and sanitation service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Tempelhoff, J W N

    2014-01-01

    Since their relocation in 2004 to Platfontein near Kimberley in South Africa’s Northern Cape Province, members of the !Xun and Khwe San, originally from the northern parts of Namibia and southern Angola, became a first generation African community grappling with urbanisation in a rapidly modernising South Africa. The Platfontein area, a number of farms with a settlement housing complex accommodating about 7 000 people, is currently an emergent urban area in which residents have...

  18. Evaluation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using two next-generation sequencing technologies for phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Phillip R; Kim, MinSeok; Freetly, Harvey C; Smith, Timothy P L

    2016-08-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have vastly changed the approach of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for studies in microbial ecology. Three distinct technologies are available for large-scale 16S sequencing. All three are subject to biases introduced by sequencing error rates, amplification primer selection, and read length, which can affect the apparent microbial community. In this study, we compared short read 16S rRNA variable regions, V1-V3, with that of near-full length 16S regions, V1-V8, using highly diverse steer rumen microbial communities, in order to examine the impact of technology selection on phylogenetic profiles. Short paired-end reads from the Illumina MiSeq platform were used to generate V1-V3 sequence, while long "circular consensus" reads from the Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument were used to generate V1-V8 data. The two platforms revealed similar microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as similar species richness, Good's coverage, and Shannon diversity metrics. However, the V1-V8 amplified ruminal community resulted in significant increases in several orders of taxa, such as phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia (P niche-specific database to use in analyzing data from shorter read technologies when budgetary constraints preclude use of near-full length 16S sequencing. PMID:27282101

  19. Research on the Generation Mechanism and Organization of College Knowledge Community%高校知识社群的生成机理与组织研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣

    2013-01-01

      高校知识社群的产生有利于促进高校的持续创新,它具有非知识特质更相近、知识交流更充分、成员学习意愿强烈的特点。由于存在多种非正式的知识交流途径以及知识共享互惠的激励,在依托各种信息化媒介,同时具备知识产权保护的意识、技术和制度的条件下,高校知识社群得以产生。可通过建构成员身份,发展实践社区,挖掘社群知识资源,整合学术知识库,完善社群交往制度,促进知识交流共享来组织和培育高校知识社群。%  College knowledge community helps to promote innovation in colleges . It is characterized by more similarity of non -knowledge characteristics ,more fully knowledge sharing , and stronger desire of members to learn .Since there are several informal ways of knowledge exchange and reciprocity incentives of knowledge sharing , based on a variety of information medias , under the conditions of the availability of awareness , technology , and system of the intellectual property protection , college knowledge community is generated . By constructing membership and developing practice communities , tapping community knowledge resources , integrating teaching and research knowledge base ,improving community communication system , promoting knowledge exchange and sharing of knowledge ,we can organize and cultivate college knowledge community .

  20. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  1. You're a CEO--Now What? Veteran Advice for a New Generation of Community College Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be an effective leader? That's a question 146 first-time community college presidents will be attempting to answer as they take the reins at their respective institutions this fall. Whether it's figuring out how to be a better listener or how to form relationships with trustees and board members and other stakeholders in the…

  2. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

  3. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    With the goal of developing a deterministic understanding of the microbiological and geochemical processes controlling subsurface environments, groundwater bacterial communities were collected from the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Biomass from three temporal acetate-stimulated groundwater samples were collected during a period of dominant Fe(III)-reduction, in a region of the aquifer that had previously received acetate amendment the year prior. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diverse Bacterial community, notably devoid of Archaea with 249 taxa from 9 Bacterial phyla including the dominance of uncultured candidate divisions, BD1-5, OD1, and OP11. We have reconstructed 86 partial to near-complete genomes and have performed a detailed characterization of the underlying metabolic potential of the ecosystem. We assessed the natural variation and redundancy in multi-heme c-type cytochromes, sulfite reductases, and central carbon metabolic pathways. Deep genomic sampling indicated the community contained various metabolic pathways: sulfur oxidation coupled to microaerophilic conditions, nitrate reduction with both acetate and inorganic compounds as donors, carbon and nitrogen fixation, antibiotic warfare, and heavy-metal detoxification. Proteomic investigations using predicted proteins from metagenomics corroborated that acetate oxidation is coupled to reduction of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron across the samples. Of particular interest was the detection of acetate oxidizing and sulfate reducing proteins from a Desulfotalea-like bacterium in all three time points, suggesting that aqueous sulfide produced by active sulfate-reducing bacteria could contribute to abiotic iron reduction during the dominant iron reduction phase. Additionally, proteogenomic analysis verified that a large portion of the community, including members of the uncultivated BD1-5, are obligate fermenters, characterized by the presence of hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases

  4. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wegscheider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1 identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2 bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3 can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk.

    Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  5. Treatment of seafood processing wastewater using upflow microbial fuel cell for power generation and identification of bacterial community in anodic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, C; Tamilarasan, K; Rajkumar, M; Arulazhagan, P; Yogalakshmi, K N; Srikanth, M; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-09-15

    Tubular upflow microbial fuel cell (MFC) utilizing sea food processing wastewater was evaluated for wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.6 g d(-1), the MFC accomplished total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 83 and 95%, respectively. A maximum power density of 105 mW m(-2) (2.21 W m(-3)) was achieved at an OLR of 2.57 g d(-1). The predominant bacterial communities of anode biofilm were identified as RB1A (LC035455), RB1B (LC035456), RB1C (LC035457) and RB1E (LC035458). All the four strains belonged to genera Stenotrophomonas. The results of the study reaffirms that the seafood processing wastewater can be treated in an upflow MFC for simultaneous power generation and wastewater treatment. PMID:27254294

  6. Generation of electric energy in isolated rural communities in the Amazon Region a proposal for the autonomy and sustainability of the local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama [Energy and Environment Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Energy and Environment Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Director of COPPE/UFRJ - Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ, CETS, Predio anexo ao Centro de Tecnologia, Rua Pedro Calmon, s/no. Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is living with the consequences of governance based on predatory extraction of its natural resources, bringing little or no benefit to the local population. The region suffers from socioeconomic inequality and lack of basic infrastructure. The populations of the Amazon Region, if and when supplied with electricity at all, are provided with a low quality service based on energy generation from fossil fuels, subject to difficulties in terms of access and logistics, and negative environmental impacts. There have been programs aimed at the universalization of electricity services, such as the current Programa Luz para Todos (Light for All Program), but they have not succeeded in altering this scenario in the North region of the country. In this paper we present the result of these initiatives and an overview of the Isolated Systems in the Amazon Region. We propose in this paper that the provision of electric energy be effectively considered part of a plan for generating wealth and employment for the region's inhabitants, whilst preserving the environment. The solutions offered to each community should take into account the need to manage renewable energy sources, should be developed together with local populations, and drawing on the lessons learned from other projects. The specific characteristics and needs of the communities should be taken into account and local people should be empowered as citizens by means of their involvement in the development possibilities. (author)

  7. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  8. Possible Interplay Between Hospital and Community Transmission of a Novel Clostridium Difficile Sequence Type 295 Recognized by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Geraldine; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Kelleghan, Maureen; O'Connell, Brian; Hurley, Caroline; Montague, Elizabeth; Conlon, Mary; Murray, Helena; Rogers, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To use next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to enhance epidemiological information to identify and resolve a Clostridium difficile outbreak and to evaluate its effectiveness beyond the capacity of current standard PCR ribotyping. METHODS NGS analysis was performed as part of prospective surveillance of all detected C. difficile isolates at a university hospital. An outbreak of a novel C. difficile sequence type (ST)-295 was identified in a hospital and a community hostel for homeless adults. Phylogenetic analysis was performed of all ST-295 and closest ST-2 isolates. Epidemiological details were obtained from hospital records and the public health review of the community hostel. RESULTS We identified 7 patients with C. difficile ST-295 infections between June 2013 and April 2015. Of these patients, 3 had nosocomial exposure to this infection and 3 had possible hostel exposure. Current Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)- Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) surveillance definitions (2010) were considered in light of our NGS findings. The initial transmission was not detectable using current criteria, because of 16 weeks between ST-295 exposure and symptoms. We included 3 patients with hostel exposure who met surveillance criteria of hospital-acquired infection due to their hospital admissions. CONCLUSION NGS analysis enhanced epidemiological information and helped identify and resolve an outbreak beyond the capacity of standard PCR ribotyping. In this cluster of cases, NGS was used to identify a hostel as the likely source of community-based C. difficile transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:680-684. PMID:27074865

  9. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E

    2016-05-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers to learning and, in turn, connect children to community and school supports aligned with their strengths and needs. By exploiting within-school changes in the implementation of the intervention, the present study revealed statistically and practically significant treatment effects indicating improvements in math and reading achievement at the end of elementary school. In addition, the intervention appears to considerably narrow achievement gaps between English language learners and immigrant children proficient in English. PMID:27028490

  10. UASB followed by Sub-Surface Horizontal Flow Phytodepuration for the Treatment of the Sewage Generated by a Small Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental process designed for the treatment of the sewage generated by a rural community located in the north-east of Brazil. The process consists of a preliminary mechanical treatment adopting coarse screens and grit traps, followed by a biological treatment in a UASB reactor and a sub-surface horizontal flow phytodepuration step. The use of a UASB reactor equipped with a top cover, as well as of the phytodepuration process employing a porous medium, showed to present important health advantages. In particular, there were no significant odor emissions and there was no evidence of the proliferation of insects and other disease vectors. The plant achieved the following mean abatement efficiencies: 92.9% for BOD5, 79.2% for COD and 94% for Suspended Solids. With regard to fecal indicators average efficiencies of 98.8% for fecal coliforms and 97.9% for fecal enterococci were achieved. The UASB reactor showed an important role in achieving this result. The research was also aimed at evaluating the optimal operating conditions for the UASB reactor in terms of hydraulic load and organic volumetric loading. The achieved results hence indicated that the process may be highly effective for small rural communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  11. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2014-08-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Virtual cohorts and face-to-face recruitment: Strategies for cultivating the next generation of the IRIS Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M. E.; Aster, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1998, the IRIS Consortium REU program has facilitated research opportunities and career development for 71 undergraduate students to work with leaders in seismological research, travel to exciting locations for fieldwork, and engage in significant research for presentation and recognition at major professional conferences. A principal program goal is to encourage more students, representing a more diverse population, to choose careers in Earth science. Of the forty-six internship alumni that have completed their undergraduate degrees thus far, 85% have attained or are currently pursuing a graduate degree in a geoscience field and an additional 6% are working in a geoscience career with an undergraduate degree. The IRIS Consortium’s program differs from traditional REUs in that students are hosted at IRIS member institutions that are geographically distributed. To capture the sprit of a traditional REU cohort, IRIS has developed and refined a model that bonds students into a cohort. Key to the model are: a) research projects that have a common focus within seismology, b) a weeklong orientation where students get to know one another, share common experiences and establish a “social presence” with the other interns, c) a cyber infrastructure to maintain their connectedness in a way that enables both learning and collaboration, d) an alumni mentor that supports the interns and serves both as a role model and an unbiased and experienced third-party to the mentor/mentee relationship, and e) an alumni reception, and scientific presentation, at the annual Fall AGU Meeting to reconnect and share experiences. Through their virtual community interns offer each other assistance, share ideas, ask questions, and relate life experiences while conducting their own unique research. In addition to developing a model for encouraging virtual cohorts, IRIS has also carefully examined recruitment strategies to increase and diversify the applicant pool. Based on applicant

  13. Developmental effects of economic and educational change: cognitive representation in three generations across 43 years in a Maya community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E; Greenfield, Patricia M; Childs, Carla P

    2015-02-01

    We studied the implications of social change for cognitive development in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico, over 43 years. The same procedures were used to collect data in 1969-1970, 1991, and 2012-once in each generation. The goal was to understand the implications of weaving, schooling and participation in a commercial economy for the development of visual pattern representation. In 2012, our participants consisted of 133 boys and girls descended from participants in the prior two generations. Procedures consisted of placing colored sticks in a wooden frame to make striped patterns, some familiar (Zinacantec woven patterns) and some novel (created by the investigators). Following Greenfield (2009), we hypothesised that the development of commerce and the expansion of formal schooling would influence children's representations. Her theory postulates that these factors move human development towards cognitive abstraction and skill in dealing with novelty. Furthermore, the theory posits that whatever sociodemographic variable is changing most rapidly functions as the primary motor for developmental change. From 1969 to 1991, the rapid development of a commercial economy drove visual representation in the hypothesised directions. From 1991 to 2012, the rapid expansion of schooling drove visual representation in the hypothesised directions.

  14. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  15. Electricity generation using vegetal oils: the implantation model for the isolated communities in the Amazon Region; Geracao de eletricidade a partir de oleos vegetais: um modelo de implantacao para comunidades isoladas amazonicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G.; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa - CENBIO, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The territorial occupation from the Amazon region is characterized by isolated communities, which makes the conventional electric distribution economically and technically impracticable. To solve the electric problem of these communities, it is necessary for them to produce their own fuel in order to generate electric energy and promote the development. These are the premises that have guided the elaboration of the project PROVEGAM - which has as objective, the installation and performance testing of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' at the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants. The PROVEGAM project installed a diesel generator adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and cleaning possible residues. During the diesel generator installation, diesel oil emissions and performance were compared with the palm oil. Analysing the results, this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in others Amazon region communities. (author)

  16. Implementation and testing of the use of vegetable oils as fuel diesel generators in the Amazon isolated communities; Implantacao e testes de utilizacao de oleo vegetal como combustivel para diesel geradores em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Gonzalez Velaquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo Grassi [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project PROVEGAM 'Implantation and test of a unit demonstration of energetic utilization of vegetable oil', tested in operational conditions of field, the functioning of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' in the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. The Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants and it's located at one hundred kilometers from the city hall by car and more 30 minutes by boat. The electric energy of this community was previously generated, by a conventional diesel engine, obsolete and very expensive to the community, because the fuel price and the transport of the diesel oil from the city to the community. The PROVEGAM project, installed an electric generation group, MWM TD229, manufactured in Brazil, adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil, working 6 hours per day. Because of the viscosity of the palm oil and its combustion point, it was necessary to heat the vegetable oil before its injection into the engine. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and to clean possible residues deposited in the interior of the engine. The use of the palm oil justifies itself for being produced in the region, which means that it doesn't have to be imported. Currently, the generating group is working in the community during 5 hours per day with palm oil, and 1 hour per day with diesel oil and it already has more than 1600 hours of testing. The results of this project, so far, have confirmed the conceived premises, and this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in other communities in the Amazon region. (author)

  17. Evaluation of 16S rRNA Gene Primer Pairs for Monitoring Microbial Community Structures Showed High Reproducibility within and Low Comparability between Datasets Generated with Multiple Archaeal and Bacterial Primer Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin A; Güllert, Simon; Neulinger, Sven C; Streit, Wolfgang R; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    The application of next-generation sequencing technology in microbial community analysis increased our knowledge and understanding of the complexity and diversity of a variety of ecosystems. In contrast to Bacteria, the archaeal domain was often not particularly addressed in the analysis of microbial communities. Consequently, established primers specifically amplifying the archaeal 16S ribosomal gene region are scarce compared to the variety of primers targeting bacterial sequences. In this study, we aimed to validate archaeal primers suitable for high throughput next generation sequencing. Three archaeal 16S primer pairs as well as two bacterial and one general microbial 16S primer pairs were comprehensively tested by in-silico evaluation and performing an experimental analysis of a complex microbial community of a biogas reactor. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that comparability of community profiles established using different primer pairs is difficult. 16S rRNA gene data derived from a shotgun metagenome of the same reactor sample added an additional perspective on the community structure. Furthermore, in-silico evaluation of primers, especially those for amplification of archaeal 16S rRNA gene regions, does not necessarily reflect the results obtained in experimental approaches. In the latter, archaeal primer pair ArchV34 showed the highest similarity to the archaeal community structure compared to observed by the metagenomic approach and thus appears to be the appropriate for analyzing archaeal communities in biogas reactors. However, a disadvantage of this primer pair was its low specificity for the archaeal domain in the experimental application leading to high amounts of bacterial sequences within the dataset. Overall our results indicate a rather limited comparability between community structures investigated and determined using different primer pairs as well as between metagenome and 16S rRNA gene amplicon based community structure analysis

  18. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  19. Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Niveditha Sundar; Ramlal, Shylaja; Urs, Radhika Madan; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-12-01

    Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifically reacted to confirm PVL-S positive strains of S. aureus recovered from clinical samples in Western blot analysis. Similarly all the three MAbs did not show any binding to other tested 14 different pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera and species in Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a simple dot-ELISA method was standardized for the identification of PVL-S toxin containing S. aureus strains. Initially in dot-ELISA, Protein A (Spa) of S. aureus posed background noise problems due to the non-specific binding of antibodies resulting in false positive reactions. With the addition of 10mM diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) along with 5% milk in PBS in the blocking step prevented this non-specific binding of Spa to mouse anti-PVL monoclonal antibodies in dot-ELISA. Once standardized, this simple dot-ELISA was evaluated with nine PVL positive strains recovered from food, environmental and clinical samples and the results were compared with PCR assay for the presence of PVL toxin genes and also with Western blot analysis. A 100% correlation was found between dot-ELISA, PCR assay and Western blot analysis. Collectively our results suggest the newly developed simple dot-ELISA system can be of immense help in providing, rapid detection of the PVL toxin containing S. aureus strains at a relatively low cost and will be a valuable tool for the reliable identification of CA-MRSA.

  20. Student-generated illustrations and written narratives of biological science concepts: The effect on community college life science students' achievement in and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two conceptually based instructional strategies on science achievement and attitudes of community college biological science students. The sample consisted of 277 students enrolled in General Biology 1, Microbiology, and Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Control students were comprised of intact classes from the 2005 Spring semester; treatment students from the 2005 Fall semester were randomly assigned to one of two groups within each course: written narrative (WN) and illustration (IL). WN students prepared in-class written narratives related to cell theory and metabolism, which were taught in all three courses. IL students prepared in-class illustrations of the same concepts. Control students received traditional lecture/lab during the entire class period and neither wrote in-class descriptions nor prepared in-class illustrations of the targeted concepts. All groups were equivalent on age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, and number of college credits earned and were blinded to the study. All interventions occurred in class and no group received more attention or time to complete assignments. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) via multiple regression was the primary statistical strategy used to test the study's hypotheses. The model was valid and statistically significant. Independent follow-up univariate analyses relative to each dependent measure found that no research factor had a significant effect on attitude, but that course-teacher, group membership, and student academic characteristics had a significant effect (p < .05) on achievement: (1) Biology students scored significantly lower in achievement than A&P students; (2) Microbiology students scored significantly higher in achievement than Biology students; (3) Written Narrative students scored significantly higher in achievement than Control students; and (4) GPA had a significant effect on achievement. In addition, given p < .08: (1

  1. The impacts of a community forestry program on forest conditions, management intensity and revenue generation in the Dang district of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan Raj Poudel; Nobuhiko Fuwa; Keijiro Otsuka

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the positive impact of community management on non-timber forest conservation, but not on the management of timber forests which require higher management intensity than do non-timber forests. We find in Nepal that better market access encourages felling of mature timber trees before but not after the community management began and that population pressure leads to deforestation, which would have taken place under government management, but encourages forest man...

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing the Structural Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities During Assisted Phytostabilization of Acid-Generating Mine Tailings: a Mesocosm Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Root, Robert A.; Neilson, Julia W; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Compost-assisted phytostabilization has recently emerged as a robust alternative for reclamation of metalliferous mine tailings. Previous studies suggest that root-associated microbes may be important for facilitating plant establishment on the tailings, yet little is known about the long-term dynamics of microbial communities during reclamation. A mechanistic understanding of microbial community dynamics in tailings ecosystems undergoing remediation is critical because these dynamics profoundly influence both the biogeochemical weathering of tailings and the sustainability of a plant cover. Here we monitor the dynamics of soil microbial communities (i.e. bacteria, fungi, archaea) during a 12-month mesocosm study that included 4 treatments: 2 unplanted controls (unamended and compost-amended tailings) and 2 compost-amended seeded tailings treatments. Bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities responded distinctively to the revegetation process and concurrent changes in environmental conditions and pore water chemistry. Compost addition significantly increased microbial diversity and had an immediate and relatively long-lasting buffering-effect on pH, allowing plants to germinate and thrive during the early stages of the experiment. However, the compost buffering capacity diminished after six months and acidification took over as the major factor affecting plant survival and microbial community structure. Immediate changes in bacterial communities were observed following plant establishment, whereas fungal communities showed a delayed response that apparently correlated with the pH decline. Fluctuations in cobalt pore water concentrations, in particular, had a significant effect on the structure of all three microbial groups, which may be linked to the role of cobalt in metal detoxification pathways. The present study represents, to our knowledge, the first documentation of the dynamics of the three major microbial groups during revegetation of compost

  3. Removing Humanized Factors:New Generation Community Workers’ Community Governance Tendency and “Disembedment” Strategy%去人情化:新一代社区工作者的治理倾向和社区“脱域”策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭友

    2016-01-01

    基于T社区工作人员工作风格与治理倾向的研究发现,与老一辈社区工作者不同,新一代社区工作者倾向于采纳“去人情化”方式处理社区关系和治理社区事务。这种社区“脱域”的工作风格,是社区工作职业化、科学化和行政化的自我认同、现代工作的自我定位和自主意识、对社区工作的短工化期待和女性化片面认知等因素多重效应的结果。新一代社区工作者的“去人情化”实践,既可能在短期内阻隔社区有效治理,进而导致居委会组织的“悬浮”和失去扎根地方的组织优势和动员能力;也可能会对基层社区的民主化建设和事务的合作治理起到倒逼作用,进而推动居民参与和社区自治。“去人情化”治理倾向的效用还有待观察和验证,而社区善治的达成仍需继续加强社区参与、社区信任关系和社区民主化等基础建设。%The research is based on the T community worker’ s work style and governance tendency. Unlike the older generation of community workers, the new generation tends to adopt the“removing humanized fac-tors” approach to deal with community relation and govern community affairs. The disembeding work style is the result of multiple factors:a self identity featuring professionalization, scientific and administrative tend-ency of community work, self-positioning and sense of selfhood of modern work, temporary employment ex-pectation and female-oriented perception of community social work. The new generation community worker’ s practice, may not only obstruct the effective governance of community in the short term, which will lead to dissociation of the neighborhood committee organization and loss of its organizational advantages and mobili-zation ability;but also bring the reversed effect to the cooperative governance and democratic construction of grass-root communities, thereby promoting resident participation and

  4. Participatory Approaches to Program Development and Engaging Youth in Research: The Case of an Inter-Generational Urban Community Gardening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne; Doyle, Rebekah

    2002-01-01

    Community educators in six cities involved youth in documenting ethnic gardening practices with master gardeners. Interviews with 29 educators, 28 participating youth, and 4 gardeners found that youth learned about gardening, developed positive relationships with elders, and enhanced skills. Implementing participatory research required more…

  5. Comparative analysis between two systems to generate electric energy for isolated community in the interior of the Amazon state: fuel cells with natural gas reformer versus diesel generation; Analise comparativa entre dois sistemas de geracao de energia eletrica para a comunidade isolada no interior do estado do Amazonas: celula a combustivel com reformador para gas natural versus gerador diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Paula Duarte; Bergamini, Cristiane Peres; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Esteves, Gheisa Roberta Telles [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas e Estudos Ambientais; Silva, Ennio Peres da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2004-07-01

    Although great part of the domestic territory is already supplied with electric energy, still there are many regions where the system is precarious or nonexistent, generically called isolated communities. In the majority of the cases these communities are supplied with Diesel oil generators and the substitution of this fuel for available alternative energy in the localities has been object of study of some institutions of research spread throughout the country. Currently, the use of fuel cells has been strongly argued in the generation of electric energy associated with the local energy necessity, from the use of a regional fuel and this is due to the high efficiency of allied energy conversion to the low ambient impacts that this equipment offers. Most of the different types of fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel to produce electricity, and it is extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources of energy. Then, the article has the objective of comparing in first analysis the energy efficiency and the cost between the two systems: the ones used currently in the great majority of the isolated communities, constituted of a Diesel engine-generator system, with Natural Gas Reformer System/ Purifier of Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell/ and to analyze if such project presents characteristics that qualifies it to get the carbon credits proposed in the Mechanism of Clean Development. (author)

  6. STANDALONE &LDQUO;GREEN&RDQUO; COMMUNITY-CENTER BUILDINGS: HYDROGEN GENERATION/STORAGE/DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WHEN PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE IS AT CAPACITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, the implementation of a computer-controlled hydrogen generation system and subsequent conversion of small engine equipment for hydrogen use has been surprisingly straightforward from an engineering and technology standpoint. More testing is required to get a better gr...

  7. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere. PMID:18237256

  8. Perspective for the generation of electrical energy in isolated communities in the Amazon: a case study; Perspectivas para a geracao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas na Amazonia: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Valuing men and the environment in the developing process is essential due to the main model nowadays, which does not harmonize economical development and environmental preservation, besides wildly exploring the natural resources, degrading the environment and concentrating income, and being socially excluding. There is the need to create a model developed harmonically with the environment, focusing the attention on the social and environmental effects caused by the human activities and on the actions that must be taken aiming at the sustainability, the overcome of the social exclusion, and human development. This essay presents a Case Study focused on the electricity generation in an isolated community, which was developed due to the social and environmental matters. The isolated communities are located on the Brazilian North and Northeast regions, which concentrate most of the Brazilian communities with no access to the electric energy distribution network, which is the electricity supply model in Brazil. The low population density regions, like the Amazon region, present low indices of electrification because of this model, since the extension of the network for attending few consumers, is usually economically and environmentally impracticable. The insertion of an energy source of local occurrence, in this case, residues from the forest activities, will bring environmental benefits associated to the social benefits. The energy generation linked to economic activities will generate jobs and income, besides promoting the fossil fuels substitution, decreasing the CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere and the environmental impact caused by the inadequate disposal of the residues, which are many times, burned in the open skies or disposed on the rivers. (author)

  9. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  10. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  11. Electric generators: Roesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-04-01

    A new and unique type of electrical generator is described that will provide constant frequency output (within 0.01% or better) regardless of rotational speed variations. It accomplishes this with no added bulk over conventional generators, and with excellent efficiency. The same principle that permits constant frequency output also provides the means for output voltage regulation with varying drive speed and/or varying load. Onsite power generation aspects of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) concept include the requirement to follow community electric loads and the possible use of internal combustion piston engines with waste heat recovery to drive electric generators. The diesel engine is a prime candidate from commercially available technologies for which part-load shaft efficiency is better at reduced speed than for constant-speed operation required by conventional AC generators. The unique characteristics of the Roesel generator allow prime mover speed to decrease with load and offer improved engine-generator system efficiency in ICES applications.

  12. The effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and toolkits onuser participation in User-generated content for video games: : A quantitative study of product development in online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Joakim; Sandström Lindberg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we will discuss the subject of user participation in the development process of products, specifically video games, through a concept called User-generated content. Product development demands speed and flexibility in the development process and it has been suggested that managers should revise the process of product development to become more flexible and integrate the consumer in increasingly more steps of the process. Video games will often be modified after its release. In ...

  13. Cooking up an Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    As museum professionals conceptualize community building, they must now consider the virtual realm. Websites in and of themselves will not generate a community, as it takes sustained communication and interaction by staff to encourage growth. Online communities are complex forces that bring about systematic dualities that in turn stimulate…

  14. Optimal design of a hybrid photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation system, to supply isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon; Dimensionamento otimo de sistemas hibridos, com geracao fotovoltaica e celula a combustivel, para atendimento a comunidades isoladas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Batista da

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electricity in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon has become one of the greatest barrier for the development of the region. Currently, the main technologies that provide electricity to these communities are diesel generators, batteries and dry cells. These non-renewable energy sources may pose serious problems to the environment and human health and have high maintenance and operational costs. Therefore, the search for renewable energy sources, such as water and sunlight, which are highly abundant in the region, has become a great challenge. This thesis presents the studies on application of solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) technologies to supply electric power in an uninterrupted manner. Outlined are the technical and cost issues of a pilot project set up in an environmentally protected area, next to Bananal island, located in the Southwestern region of the state of Tocantins. The pilot project relies on PV solar power as the primary source of energy for the production of electricity. The surplus energy is stored in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of the water supplied locally, which is reconverted into electric power by fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. In this context, the aim of the study was to propose a sizing of a hybrid distributed generation system (HDGS), comprised of a PV system, FC and batteries, that optimizes implementation and operational costs, as a potential source of energy for isolated communities in the Amazon. The work was carried out with the help of simulation software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Simulations and a comparative study were carried out of the technologies and potential configurations that meet the needs of these isolated communities. The results showed an optimal solution of HGDS PV-FC batteries with a reduction in the initial cost of the project in about 60% compared to

  15. Pros and cons of ion-torrent next generation sequencing versus terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism T-RFLP for studying the rumen bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Girwood, Susan E; Pinloche, Eric; Wilkinson, Toby; Newbold, C Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The development of next generation sequencing has challenged the use of other molecular fingerprinting methods used to study microbial diversity. We analysed the bacterial diversity in the rumen of defaunated sheep following the introduction of different protozoal populations, using both next generation sequencing (NGS: Ion Torrent PGM) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Although absolute number differed, there was a high correlation between NGS and T-RFLP in terms of richness and diversity with R values of 0.836 and 0.781 for richness and Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. Dendrograms for both datasets were also highly correlated (Mantel test = 0.742). Eighteen OTUs and ten genera were significantly impacted by the addition of rumen protozoa, with an increase in the relative abundance of Prevotella, Bacteroides and Ruminobacter, related to an increase in free ammonia levels in the rumen. Our findings suggest that classic fingerprinting methods are still valuable tools to study microbial diversity and structure in complex environments but that NGS techniques now provide cost effect alternatives that provide a far greater level of information on the individual members of the microbial population.

  16. Study on the Crime Prevention Mechanism for New Generation of Migrant Workers Based on the Community Education%基于社区教育的新生代农民工犯罪防控机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星; 刘元伟

    2012-01-01

    Up to 2009, the new generation of migrant workers account for more than 60% of total 230 million migrant workers. The crime from new generation of migrant workers has been a major hidden trouble in the process of urbanization. This study analyzes the criminal characteristic of the new generation of migrant workers and the internal and external factors. It is indicated that we should construct ideal community education pattern from the perspectives of culture, training management, mental intervention and legal education so as to realize the social recognitionof new generation of migrant workers and effectively prevent the crime.%截至2009年,新生代农民工的数量占中国农民工总量2.3亿中的六成以上,新生代农民工犯罪问题已成为当前城市化发展的一个重大隐患。研究新生代农民工犯罪的特征,分析犯罪形成的内外因素,从文化融入、培训管理、精神干预和法制教育四个方面建构新生代农民工社区教育的理想模式,实现新生代农民工在制度认可之下的社会认同,从而有效地防控其违法犯罪行为的发生。

  17. Growing community networks with local events

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Xun; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2009-01-01

    The study of community networks has attracted considerable attention recently. In this paper, we propose an evolving community network model based on local processes, the addition of new nodes intra-community and new links intra- or inter-community. Employing growth and preferential attachment mechanisms, we generate networks with a generalized power-law distribution of nodes' degrees.

  18. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  19. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  20. An Analysis of the New Generation of Emotional Harm to the Community of Migrant Workers%新生代农民工社会情绪的危害与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红永

    2012-01-01

    China's new generation of migrant workers groups,industrial workers,an important part of the system due to institutional and other reasons,the new generation of migrant workers to suppress discontent in the heart,the formation of resentment.Resentment caused by the new generation of migrant workers sense for many reasons: from the social stratification theory,the new generation of migrant workers in the lower part of the community;from social identity theory,the new generation of migrant workers are "marginal people";Theory from social interaction,the new generation of migrant workers is still the primary communication-based;see from the level of education,the new generation of migrant workers is generally low educational level.A sense of suppressed resentment will bring a range of social harm: harm to migrant workers,self-soul,and hinder social progress;ideological confusion caused by migrant workers,leading to mass events;reduce the credibility of the government,undermine social integration and mobilization capability.To put forward to resolve the grievances of migrant workers sense of policy proposals: to enhance the social and political status of migrant workers,to strengthen the new generation of migrant workers in the humane care;further improve the wages of migrant workers,to effectively protect their legitimate rights and interests;perfect job training of migrant workers,enhance their social competitiveness.%新生代农民工是我国产业工人群体的重要组成部分,由于体制和制度等原因,新生代农民工不满情绪压抑在内心深处,形成怨恨。造成新生代农民工怨恨感的原因是多方面的:从社会分层理论看,新生代农民工属于社会下层;从社会身份理论看,新生代农民工属于"边缘人";从社会交往理论看,新生代农民工仍是初级交往为主;从受教育程度看,新生代农民工文化水平普遍较低。怨恨感的压抑会带来一系列的社会危害:伤

  1. Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ► This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ► Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ► Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ► The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ► Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

  2. The Campus Community and the Futureless Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoben, Jr., Edward J.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses discontent of students in light of ideological differences concerning Viet Nam, pollution, overpopulation, racial strife. First of two in depth articles, in same issue, on college students. (CJ)

  3. Brand Community.

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Albert M, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the idea of brand community. A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. Grounded in both classic and contemporary sociology and consumer behavior, this article uses ethnographic and computer mediated environment data to explore the characteristics, processes, and particularities of three brand communities (those centered on Ford Bronco, Macintosh, and Saab). These bran...

  4. 高温(70℃)玉米秸秆水解液产氢行为及群落结构%Study on Biological Hydrogen Generation and Microbial Community Structure Using Corn Stover Hydrolysate under High Temperature (70℃)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 任南琪; 曹广丽; 王爱杰

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extreme thermophilic (70 ℃) hydrogen generation by using com stover hydrolysate with four inoculums (cow dung compost, soil, anaerobic sludge, and rotten corn stover). The experimental results indicated that the tests inoculated with cow dung compost presented the optimum biogas (1 355.7 mL/L) and hydrogen yields (608.4 mL/L), and followed by rotten corn stover, anaerobic sludge, and soil. Modified Gompertz equation could well describe the time-course profile of hydrogen accumulation (R2>0.99). The inoculation with cow dung compost reached the highest hydrogen generation potentiality (676.0 mL/L), and the lag time was the lowest (9.8 h) under the inoculation with soil. DCCE profile showed that different inoculums corresponded to different microbial community structure. Bacillus thermozeamaize, Enterobacter sp. JDM-19, and Thernwanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum strain KMTHCJT might be the key hydrogen generation microbes for cow dung compost, anaerobic sludge, and rotten corn stover respectively.%考察了高温条件下( 70℃)牛粪堆肥、土壤、厌氧污泥、腐烂秸秆4种接种物利用玉米秸秆水解液的产氢行为.结果表明:牛粪堆肥接种时达到最大的产气量(1 355.7 mL/L)和氢气产量(608.4 mL/L),随后依次为腐烂秸秆、厌氧污泥和土壤.修改的Gompertz方程可以较好描述产氢量随时间变化趋势(R2>0.99).牛粪堆肥接种时达到最大的产氢潜力( 676.0 mL/L),而土壤接种时的迟滞时间最小(9.8 h).DGGE图谱显示:不同接种物对应不同的微生物群落结构.Bacillus thermozeamaize,Enterobacter sp.JDM-19和Thermoanaerobacterium polysaccharolyticum strain KMTHCJT可能分别是牛粪堆肥,厌氧污泥和腐烂秸秆接种条件下的关键产氢微生物.

  5. It Takes a Community to Create a Library

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth William Williment

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of four years, Working Together Community Development Librarians in Vancouver, Regina, Toronto and Halifax worked in diverse urban neighbourhoods and with diverse communities, traditionally considered marginalized or socially excluded. This practitioner-community based project allowed community voice to drive the projects process, not librarian generated beliefs, literature or other professional discourse. Community members identified barriers which impacted their ability to ...

  6. 微生物降解原油产甲烷气及其群落构成%METHANE GENERATED FROM CRUDE OIL DEGRADATION BY ORGANISMS AND THE COMPOSITION OF THEIR COMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍晓林; 侯兆伟; 金锐; 李蔚; 王蕊

    2012-01-01

    通过微生物对原油充分降解生成甲烷,可将不易开采、含有剩余油的油藏转变为更容易开采的气藏.优化后的产气菌群45℃条件下厌氧培养,2个月后,开始检测到甲烷气体,产气量最大可达到15 mL;12个月累计产气量为81 mL.对产生的气体进行了天然气气相色谱检验,结果表明:在培养2个月后,其中甲烷体积分数为26.156%,二氧化碳体积分数为24.405%;在培养8个月后,甲烷体积分数为72.731%,二氧化碳体积分数为1.443%;随着培养时间的增长,二氧化碳在甲烷菌作用下转化为甲烷.对作用后微生物菌种分析发现,菌群中含有好氧和厌氧降解原油微生物、乙酸盐菌和产甲烷菌.%The generated methane from the complete degradation of crude oil by microorganisms can convert the difficult-to-developed reservoirs with a certain remained oil into more easy ones. The optimized gas-producing bacteria community is cultured at 45 ℃. Two months later, the methane gas can be detected, the max. Production can reach 15 ml. After twelve months, the accumulative gas production is up to 81 ml. The generated natural gas is detected by gas chromatography, the results show that after 2-month cultivation, the volume fraction of the methane is 26. 156% and that of the carbon dioxide is 24. 405%. Trained for eight months, two fractions of the above are respectively 72.731% and 1.443%; with the increase of the cultivation time, the carbon dioxide can be changed into methane by methane bacteria. The analyses of the acted microorganisms find that there are oil-degrading aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, acetonic bacteria and methanogens in the bacteria florae.

  7. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  8. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  9. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  10. Romanian Communities Abroad (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Romanians living abroad, in Europe, North and South America, Australia and Asia does not excede 11 millions. The biggest Romanian communities are in the United States, Canada, Germany, Australia, France, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Ireland, Venezuela and New Zeeland. If in the case of Romanian ethnics living in the United States, Canada, France, Venezuela etc., we can mainly talk about either pre-war migration or political anticommunist exile, in other states as Italy, Germany, Spain, Ireland or New Zeeland, most of the Romanian communities have been generated by the economic exile, especially after December 1989.

  11. Network Generation Model Based on Evolution Dynamics To Generate Benchmark Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pasta, Muhammad Qasim

    2016-01-01

    Network generation models provide an understanding of the dynamics behind the formation and evolution of different networks including social networks, technological networks and biological networks. Two important applications of these models are to study the evolution dynamics of network formation and to generate benchmark networks with known community structures. Research has been conducted in both these directions relatively independent of the other application area. This creates a disjunct between real world networks and the networks generated to study community detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose to study both these application areas together i.e.\\ introduce a network generation model based on evolution dynamics of real world networks and generate networks with community structures that can be used as benchmark graphs to study community detection algorithms. The generated networks possess tunable modular structures which can be used to generate networks with known community structures. We stud...

  12. Building Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    1996-01-01

    Offers 10 attributes of community: (1) wholeness incorporating diversity; (2) shared values; (3) mutual obligations; (4) effective internal communication; (5) participation; (6) continuous reaffirmation; (7) links beyond itself; (8) concern for youth; (9) forward-looking viewpoint; and (10) well-developed community maintenance. (JOW)

  13. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  14. Generating innovation opportunities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a company can generate innovation opportunities by exploring and absorbing customer knowledge. The exploration can be performed via an in-depth or broad search for resources beyond organisational boundaries. Salespeople are an essential channel for an in-depth search...... in the development of integrative practices. This paper demonstrates how a community of practice can enable organisations to move from potential absorptive capacity to realised absorptive capacity....

  15. Implantation of wind power generation unities at rural communities of remote regions - the case of Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brazil; Implantacao de unidades de geracao de energia eolica em comunidades rurais regioes remotas - o caso do Vale do Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mauricfr@int.gov.br; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)], e-mail: szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the simulation of implantation of wind power generation unities for the attendance of small rural communities which are typical at remote regions and not attended by the regional concessionaires distribution networks systems. The simulation applies the Homer software, from NREL, and is applied to a typical rural community of isolated regions, composed by low income families, and situated at Rio Sao Francisco valley, Bahia state, Brazil, considering the incidence of strong and constant winds in the region. In this simulation a comparative analysis of an 40 W aeolian system is performed with other systems: a traditional one based on a diesel generation, an hybrid system, and the interconnection to the electric network.

  16. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  17. Analysis of economic viability in a hybrid solar-wind system in the generation of electrical energy to an Maroon isolated community of Jalapao - TO, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade economica em um sistema hibrido solar-eolico na geracao de energia eletrica para uma comunidade isolada e quilombola do Jalapao - TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Nobrega, Silvestre Lopes da; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano

    2008-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar-aeolian system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao/TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the community workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  18. Economic and financial analysis of hybrid solar-wind power generation system installed in a isolated community in Jalapao-Tocantins, Brazil; Analise economica-financeira do sistema de geracao de energia eletrica hibrido solar-eolico instalado em uma comunidade isolada no Jalapao-TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.F.; Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: zukowski@uft.edu.br, olavo@ulbra-to.br, silvestre@ulbra-to.br

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar wind system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao - TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the communities workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  19. Communication Communities in MOOCs

    OpenAIRE

    Gillani, Nabeel; Eynon, Rebecca; Osborne, Michael; Hjorth, Isis; Roberts, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) bring together thousands of people from different geographies and demographic backgrounds -- but to date, little is known about how they learn or communicate. We introduce a new content-analysed MOOC dataset and use Bayesian Non-negative Matrix Factorization (BNMF) to extract communities of learners based on the nature of their online forum posts. We see that BNMF yields a superior probabilistic generative model for online discussions when compared to other...

  20. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  1. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... increasingly occupied with crime and violence. The paper concludes that this change fundamentally has transformed the political room for manoeuvre among state representatives and township residents alike, and that the onus of blame for the failure to realise a truly non-racial, democratic and developed South...

  2. [Community nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  3. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  4. Generative collectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Osch; M. Avital

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing generative group activities against the backdrop of an increasingly connected world, this theory development paper introduces the concept of "generative collectives" as a new framework for classifying internet-based collectives and a novel theoretical lens for explaining why some internet-

  5. Generative Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  6. 学习与合作:教师学习共同体的生成性意蕴%Learning and Cooperation:the Generative Meaning of the Teacher Learning Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丹红

    2013-01-01

      现代社会是学习型的社会,教师学习共同体的兴起正是应对这一趋势而产生的。本文意在通过探讨“教师学习共同体”内涵及基于合作的学习共同体的构建,使教师明了当下教育视域中学习共同体的最新理念,凭借共同体所产生的知识交流和智慧共享,促进教师高效学习,走上“互助学习”与“合作创新”相结合的专业成长之路。%Modern society is a learning society, the rise of teacher learning community is the product of this trend.This paper intends to discuss the connotation and the construction of learning community based on cooperation , make the teachers and the new concept of education horizon in a learning community, with the community of knowledge communication and sharing wisdom , promote teachers’ effective learning, on the “mutual learning ” and “ collaborative innovation ” road of the combination of professional development .

  7. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  8. TRAINING OF RURAL COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community development might be a solution to reduce delays, and it was implemented by the involved players of the community. It asks to identify the common problems, community response, and network partnership. Sustainable development means to refuse fatality, community entropy and to undertake negentropic actions. Its finality is the respect for the human being, not compromising the capacity of the future generations to live at least as we do, if not better. We can identify on the field the necessary elements for (reconstructing some sustainable developed communities. The author identifies successful experiences, examples of good practices in the context of globalization and communitization, homogenization and heterogenization. Rural community development starts with acknowledging importance of the village and of its capacities to use opportunities to act in a constructive manner. After providing definitions for community development, social and solidary economy and sustainable development, the associations` role, the author dwells on the training, profile and tasks of the rural community development agent.

  9. Romanian communities abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of Romanians living abroad, in Europe, North and South Ame­rica, Australia and Asia does not exceed 11 million. The biggest Romanian communities are in the United States, Canada, Germany, Aus­tralia, France, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Irelan­d, Venezuela and New Zealand. If in case of Romanian ethnics living in the United States, Canada, France, Vene­zu­ela, etc., we can mainly talk about either pre-war migration or anticommunist political exile, in other states such as Italy, Ger­ma­ny, Spain, Ireland or New Zea­­land, most of the Romanian communities have been generated by the economic exile, especially after December 1989.

  10. Construction of a low cost thermoelectric generator coupled to wood stoves for attending isolated communities; Construcao de um gerador termoeletrico de baixo custo acoplado em fogoes a lenha para atendimento de comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Paulo Thiago Arantes de; Souza, Lucas de Oliveira; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pthiagorj@poli.ufrj.br, souzalucas21@hotmail.com; silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    this paper evaluates the technical, economical and environmental viabilities of thermoelectric energy at isolated communities. A system of modules coupled of wood stoves was proposed and dimensioned. It was concluded that, by the benefits of such installation of thermoelectric modules, it is a viable for supplying the lack of conventional sources of electric power and presents the advantages comparative to use either of Diesel or PLG.

  11. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to discussing the future of electronic communication, social networking is the buzzword. The Internet has become a platform where new social networks emerge and the Internet it itself support the more traditional computer supported communication. The way users build and verifies...... different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  12. Community Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Having communities extracted, appropriate knowledge and methods for dynamic analysis may be applied in order to identify changes as well as to predict the future of all or some selected groups. Furthermore, knowing the most probably change of a given group some additional steps may be performed in order to change this predicted future according to specific needs. Such ability would be a powerful tool in the hands of human resource managers, personnel recruitment, marketing, telecommunication companies, etc.

  13. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....

  14. Cloud services in the Guifi.net community network

    OpenAIRE

    Selimi, Mennan; Khan, Muhammad Amin; Dimogerontakis, Emmanouil; Freitag, Fèlix; Pueyo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Internet and communication technologies have lowered the costs to collaborate for communities, leading to new services like user-generated content and social computing and, through collaboration, collectively built infrastructures, such as community networks. Community networks are formed when individuals and local organisations from a geographic area team up to create and run a community-owned IP network to satisfy the community's demand for ICT. Internet access is often considered the main ...

  15. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Jessie [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States); Spaziani, Gina [Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  16. Community College Humanities Review, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, George L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of the Community College Humanities Review contains articles generated by National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institutes, held over several years. The institutes provided opportunities for academics from a variety of humanities disciplines and types of institutions to interact over an extended period of common study of…

  17. Using Community Structure for Complex Network Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    We present a new layout algorithm for complex networks that combines a multi-scale approach for community detection with a standard force-directed design. Since community detection is computationally cheap, we can exploit the multi-scale approach to generate network configurations with close-to-minimal energy very fast. As a further asset, we can use the knowledge of the community structure to facilitate the interpretation of large networks, for example the network defined by protein-protein interactions.

  18. Refugee community organisations: a social capital analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellow, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...

  19. Deweyan Democratic Learning Communities and Student Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Ebie, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges have long been recognized as enrolling a disproportionate share of first-generation college students, low-income students, women, and students of color. Additionally, community colleges have significant enrollments of students who identify as immigrants; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT); and disabled. Many of these…

  20. Martian Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Independent, Internet savvy and with their own Martian language, China’s post-90s generation is rewriting the rules of behavior september 14 was the 18th birth-day of Zhang Zhaoyu from Sichuan Province. He is a new student at Peking University,

  1. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine;

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  2. Community structure in the phonological network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Q. Siew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009. Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008. Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935. The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

  3. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A...

  4. Income generation in the supply chain of acai in the design of electric energy supply in isolated communities in the municipality of Manacapuru, AM; Geracao de renda na cadeia produtiva do acai em projeto de abastecimento de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas no Municipio de Manacapuru-AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas A.; Souza, Rubem C.R.; Xavier, Diogo J.C.; Seye, Omar; Bacellar, Atlas A.; Santos, Eyde C.S.; Freitas, Katriana T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: abacellar@ufam.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Efforts endeavored by the State aiming to universalize the electricity use in Brazil, PRODEEM and Programa Luz Para Todos are examples of it, had have as result high insolvency or interruption. The aim of this work is to analyze the potentialities of increasing incomes in communities at the city of Manacapuru - AM, assisted by the research project 'Model of electric power Businesses in Isolated Communities at the Amazon region'- NERAM, under the responsibility of CDEAM of Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, starting from acai supply chain. The strategy is to implement an industry of acai's pulps with the objectives of adding value to the fruit and to use the pits as biomass to generate power. Cooperative as a legal model of enterprise was adopted in order to be responsible for the industry with the participation of the families that work with the fruit and the community in general. The cooperative plant idealized was based on the report of a socioeconomic research applied at the communities. Three methods were used to analyze the investment: Uniform Annual Value Equivalent, Liquid Present Value and Ratio of Internal Return. The results demonstrated the enterprise's viability since obeying the following premises: 50 tons of minimum production of acai per month; R$ 2.50 as a minimum pulp's sale price; and 0.60 kg of pulp for 1 kg of fruit as minimum productivity, which will create nine new puts of work, warranty of acai's fruit sale, income's increasing for the cooperative and incentive to catch the fruit. (author)

  5. On site sodium hypochlorite generation using electro chlorination. Disinfection of potable waste in small communities; Produccion in situ de NaClO, mediante electrocloracion. Aplicaciona la desinfeccion de agua de consumo en pequenas comunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, F.; Todra, F.; Gomez, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    This works deals with the experience of ATLL in the re chlorination of its distribution system.Besides security problems that present the disinfection using chlorine in local tanks near the houses, in some cases, the irregular consumption leads to new problems related with maintenance and management of the system. To improve the process, ATLL has installed some on site electro chlorination systems to generate sodium hypochlorite (0,8%) from salt, at request. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    of these designed communities: What social life is promoted in such recent architectural visions? And to what extent can the social life and identity of a place actually be designed? The paper discusses these questions based on a fieldwork in three new housing complexes in the Copenhagen Region: The A-house...... by architect Carsten Holgaard, the 8-house by BIG, and Lange Eng (The Long Meadow) by Dorte Mandrup. Rather than taking the perspective of either architect or user, the fieldwork has ethnographically traced the entire process from design to occupancy. The aim is to explore how the social life and identity...... of a place is initially formed through the hands of architects, developers and estate agents, and further shaped and realized by residents, when taken into use. I suggest that by way of branding and iconic architecture these thoroughly designed environments reinforce the notion of residential space...

  7. Embedded generation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Nick; Crossley, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants and renewable energy sources reduces the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere and helps to alleviate the consequent climate change. The policies of many governments suggest that the proportion of electrical energy produced by these sources will increase dramatically over the next two decades. Unlike traditional generating units, these new types of power plant are usually 'embedded' in the distribution system or 'dispersed' around the network. As a result, conventional design and operating practices are no longer applicable; for

  8. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  9. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  10. Shift in the Use of Migrant Community Languages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidakis, Maria; Arunachalam, Dharma

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first explore the trends in the maintenance of migrant community languages among the first generation migrants and then the socio-economic variation in the shift in use of community languages. Our analysis showed that language shift to English among first generation migrants has not been uniform, with some migrant groups adopting…

  11. Project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey report on 'a survey on introduction of industrial wastes composite treatment and power generation system intended for the whole Kagoshima prefectural area'; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo. Kagoshimaken zenken'ikika wo taisho to shita haikibutsu fukugo shori hatsuden system no donyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to reduce environmental load, such as suppression of dioxin generation in Kagoshima Prefecture having a large number of small cities, towns and villages, discussions were given on business feasibility of introducing a high-efficiency industrial wastes power generation system intended for the whole Kagoshima prefectural area. The discussions performed investigations on quantity of wastes generation by districts and kinds and the present treatment conditions, system designs, and optimization of business operation systems. Loads given to the environment in association with the system installation were also investigated (SOx, NOx and CO2 emission, and water quality contamination). The system incinerates and treats RDF, waste plastics and combustible wastes in a gasification melting furnace, and amount of dioxin in the waste gas and ash is reduced to below the regulation values. Quantity of heat obtained from the combustion is turned into high-temperature and high-pressure steam, which is utilized for power generation. As a result of the discussions on business profitability, the industrial wastes power generation system intended for the whole prefectural area was found sufficiently realizable if installed by the public organization and operated by private business organization. However, such mechanism as PFI is thought difficult in the range anticipated at the present time. (NEDO)

  12. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  13. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  14. "Comunidades de Aprendizaje" y "Enlazando Mundos": las bases de una pedagogía dialógica que genera igualdad. Learning Communities and Worlds Entwined: the bases of a dialogic pedagogy which generates equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrada, Donatila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o projeto “Enlazando Mundos”, desenvolvido por um grupo de Investigação em Intervenção para a Promoção da Igualdade Educativa – “Enlazador de Mundos” – e constituído por diferentes agentes sociais e educativos, preocupados e mobilizados frente ao cenário de deterioração da educação pública, verificado em instituições educativas pertencentes a contextos de vulnerabilidade social e econômica no Chile, nas quais um grande número de estudantes sofre exclusão dos processos educativos. O projeto está fundamentado no modelo educativo e social conhecido como Comunidades de Aprendizagem, fundado por Ramón Flecha na Espanha (1998, de caráter inteiramente dialógico, cujo objetivo é a transformação da escola pública, por meio de interações sociais que favoreçam o incremento do capital cultural dos alunos.This article presents the “Enlazando Mundos”, a project developed by a Group of Investigation in Intervention for the Promotion of Education Equality – “Enlazador de Mundos” - and formed by different educational and social agents who are concerned and mobilized when faced with the deterioration of the public education scenery, which affects the educational institutions with vulnerable social and economical backgrounds in Chile, where many students suffer from exclusion of the educational process. The project is based on an educational and social model, entitled Learning Communities, founded by Ramón Flecha in Spain (1998, entirely with a dialogic characteristic that aims the transformation of public school through social interaction, allowing the increment of cultural capital by the students.

  15. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    OpenAIRE

    August John Hoffman; Julie Wallach; Eduardo Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community ...

  16. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  17. Report on a project to support promotion of forming an environmentally friendly energy community. Survey on business feasibility of electric power generation utilizing combustible wastes solidified fuel in the Kishu and Kumano living area; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kishu Kumano seikatsuken'iki ni okeru kanensei haikibutsu kokeika nenryo riyo hatsuden jigyo no jigyoka kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on business feasibility of a wide area RDF power generation system in the Kishu and Kumano living area. The discussions dealt with as wide area as transcending prefectural borders and including the southern parts of Mie and Nara Prefectures with the city of Shingu as the central part. Wastes generation amount is estimated to be about 70,000 tons at the present as wastes that can be turned into RDF, and to be decreased to 67,000 tons in 2018. The manufactured RDF has calorific power of 3500 to 4500 kcal/kg, two to three times greater than that of wastes. The RDF manufacturing facilities installed in cities, towns and villages have capacity of 30 to 50 tons a day, with that in the city of Shingu being the largest at about 78 tons a day. Transportation can be implemented most efficiently when road transportation is used. The RDF power generation system will consist of a fluid bed furnace, a plasma type ash melting furnace, and a bag filter plus activated carbon absorbing tower. The RDF manufacturing cost will be 27,900 yen per ton of wastes in the case of the city of Shingu. In terms of business profitability, the RDF power generation must find sources to pay 21,400 yen per ton of RDF even if the power sale revenue is considered. (NEDO)

  18. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  19. Protestant communities as mission communities / by Hyun Jin Kim

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Huyan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Community is an integrative motif and the central message of the Bible. The divine goal of history is God's establishment of community. The Triune God is the origin of community and community is the mode of existence of God. Christian community is derived from God's community. The church is a community restored by the Triune God, and so the essence of the church is Christian community. The Bible is the history of community involving the beginning of community, the destruction of community, th...

  20. Sustaining community-university partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Northmore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a huge growth in the academic literature on community-university partnership working. However, much of this is practice based and the issue of how such partnerships can be sustained over time is not adequately reflected in the literature. This introductory chapter lays the foundations for the subsequent thirteen articles by first discussing notions of sustainability, in part by providing a brief overview of the Community University Partnership Programme (Cupp at the University of Brighton, UK. After a period of rapid growth, we are increasingly concerned with how to sustain the reciprocal relationships that underpin long-term engagement, a situation exacerbated by potential looming funding cuts. Paradoxically, however, this article suggests that while funding is an important element of sustainability, the current economic challenges may help to generate sustainability as community-university partnerships are forced to examine what other factors contribute to lasting relationships. It is these ‘other factors’ that the articles in this collection fruitfully explore. Coming from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, they examine the core research question that concerns us: how do we address the challenges of building sustainable community-university partnerships, especially with disadvantaged and excluded communities, at a time of diminishing resources? Despite the wide range of community needs and methodological diversity involved, the articles suggest that some common characteristics underpin sustainability. These include: genuine reciprocity; mutual learning; and a creative approach to partnership building that recognises the diverse purposes of partners. This introductory chapter concludes that there is a need to further refine our understanding of community-university partnerships through the development of more theoretical models of sustainability. Keywords: sustainability, partnerships

  1. TURISMO COMUNITARIO Y GENERACIÓN DE RIQUEZA EN PAÍSES EN VÍAS DE DESARROLLO. UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN EL SALVADOR/COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM AND WEALTH GENERATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A STUDY OF CASE IN EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra María SÁNCHEZ CAÑIZARES

    2009-09-01

    community perception that tourist development can generate wealth and can create jobs, although it is necessary previous technical training from public and private institutions, especially from NGOs and universities, to fulfill these objectives. Similarly, it also highlights the important role of women in the various tourism projects.

  2. Local Community Detection Using Link Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jun Wu; Han Huang; Zhi-Feng Hao; Feng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Exploring local community structure is an appealing problem that has drawn much recent attention in the area of social network analysis.As the complete information of network is often difficult to obtain,such as networks of web pages,research papers and Facebook users,people can only detect community structure from a certain source vertex with limited knowledge of the entire graph.The existing approaches do well in measuring the community quality,but they are largely dependent on source vertex and putting too strict policy in agglomerating new vertices.Moreover,they have predefined parameters which are difficult to obtain.This paper proposes a method to find local community structure by analyzing link similarity between the community and the vertex.Inspired by the fact that elements in the same community are more likely to share common links,we explore community structure heuristically by giving priority to vertices which have a high link similarity with the community.A three-phase process is also used for the sake of improving quality of community structure.Experimental results prove that our method performs effectively not only in computer-generated graphs but also in real-world graphs.

  3. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  4. Community Relations for the Transport of TMI-2 Core Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes community relations for the transport of Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris, before and during the first two years of the campaign. The author defines community relations as interactions with groups or individuals to influence public perception. Members of Congress, state and local officials, news media, special interest groups, and private citizens are included in the definition of community. The paper discusses issues of concern to the community, level of interest generated by the transport campaign, events that kept community interest focused on the campaign, and communication techniques employed to provide the community with factual information and to generate public confidence. Finally, the paper describes lessons learned from the community relations effort. (author)

  5. Financing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Community Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Community schools are one of the most efficient and effective strategies to improve outcomes for students as well as families and communities. Community schools leverage public and private investments by generating additional financial resources from partners and other sources. This report looks at how community schools finance their work. It…

  6. International learning communities for global and localcitizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Cervinkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe our ongoing international project in engaged educationalethnography and participatory action research with young adults and consider itsrelevance for a discussion on the community-building role of adult education in aglobalized context. I use the example of our case study to suggest that adult educatorscan generate viable communities by creating learning spaces that nurture criticalconsciousness, a sense of agency, participation and social solidarity amonginternationally and culturally diverse young adult learners. Furthermore, I argue thatparticipation in international learning communities formed through this educationalprocess can potentially help young adults become locally and globally engaged citizens.International learning communities for global citizenship thus present a proposition forconceptualizing the vital role of adult community education in supporting democraticglobal and local citizenship in a world defined in terms of cross-cultural and longdistanceencounters in the formation of culture.

  7. From Community Detection to Community Deception

    CERN Document Server

    Fionda, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The community deception problem is about how to hide a target community C from community detection algorithms. The need for deception emerges whenever a group of entities (e.g., activists, police enforcements) want to cooperate while concealing their existence as a community. In this paper we introduce and formalize the community deception problem. To solve this problem, we describe algorithms that carefully rewire the connections of C's members. We experimentally show how several existing community detection algorithms can be deceived, and quantify the level of deception by introducing a deception score. We believe that our study is intriguing since, while showing how deception can be realized it raises awareness for the design of novel detection algorithms robust to deception techniques.

  8. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  9. Estimating the Number of Communities in a Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-08-01

    Community detection, the division of a network into dense subnetworks with only sparse connections between them, has been a topic of vigorous study in recent years. However, while there exist a range of effective methods for dividing a network into a specified number of communities, it is an open question how to determine exactly how many communities one should use. Here we describe a mathematically principled approach for finding the number of communities in a network by maximizing the integrated likelihood of the observed network structure under an appropriate generative model. We demonstrate the approach on a range of benchmark networks, both real and computer generated.

  10. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  11. 新生代农民工市民化背景下我国城市基层社区文化建设——基于泉州地区外来务工人员精神文化生活调研分析%Research on China's City Community Culture Construction under the Background of The New Generation of Migrant Workers' Citizenization -Based on the Survey Data Analysis of Migrant Workers' Spiritual and Cultural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连伟

    2012-01-01

    新生代农民工作为城市的一个特殊群体,长期以来,被人们忽视,成为城市的边缘群体。他们的精神文化需求没地方倾诉,城市社区文化建设也没有开展一些针对他们的活动。文章主要结合调研数据,真实地反映出当前新生代农民工的精神生活现状、精神诉求和当前社区文化建设存在的问题,探索当前我国城市社区文化建设的有效途径。%The new generation of migrant workers as a special group were neglected by people m me city since tong-term, and become the city's marginalized groups. Their spiritual and cultural needs have no place to talk, city community culture construction is not carried out in their activities. The following is a combination of research data, truly reflect the current generation of migrant workers' spiritual life, spiritual pursuit and the current status of community cultural construction problems, to explore the effective ways of the construction of city community.

  12. In Our Own Words: Service Learning in Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, McClellan

    1992-01-01

    Explains the Cherokee concept of "gadugi," a tradition of interdependency and service which is reflected in the service component of the Native Indian Youth Leadership Project (NYLP). Provides examples of three levels of service in NYLP: (1) traditional community-generated service; (2) program-generated service; and (3) student-generated service.…

  13. Hibbing Community College's Community Computer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper reports on the development of the Community Computer Center (CCC) at Hibbing Community College (HCC) in Minnesota. HCC is located in the largest U.S. iron mining area in the United States. Closures of steel-producing plants are affecting the Hibbing area. Outmigration, particularly of younger workers and their families, has been…

  14. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  15. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  16. Unsewered Communities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The unsewered communities file was originally conceived as a representation of communities without a municipal sewer system or on-site septic systems. The selection...

  17. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  18. Community Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Gordon; Thomson, Peter

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the situation in Leicestershire, England, where a group of users and staff formed The Association for Community Education to oppose severe budget cuts in the community education service. (Editor/SJL)

  19. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    Many networks of scientific interest naturally decompose into clusters or communities with comparatively fewer external than internal links; however, current Bayesian models of network communities do not exert this intuitive notion of communities. We formulate a nonparametric Bayesian model...... for community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...... consistent with ground truth, and on real networks, it outperforms existing approaches in predicting missing links. This suggests that community structure is an important structural property of networks that should be explicitly modeled....

  20. A la Carte Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Brincker, Benedikte

    2010-01-01

    The exchange of open source software is a phenomenon that is becoming in- creasingly significant to IT users. This article presents the results of a study of the TYPO3 community, a community related to an open source CMS software. The article explores the community, identity and values of TYPO3...... and shows that there are high levels of virtual as well as face-to-face interaction among the members. The participants feel that they belong to the community and many also feel that they are recognised as part of the community. However, the members do not share common values neither in relation to software...... pro- duction nor generally. Instead, they stress that you are free to choose your own values. Against this background, the authors introduce the notion of an ‘a la carte community', i.e. a community where individuals pick and choose their degree of participation and integra- tion into the community...

  1. Generational Dynamics and Librarianship: Managing Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie F.; Cooper, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the abilities of Generation X (individuals born 1961 to 1981) librarians to respond to the evolving needs of society. Highlights include age demographics, generational attributes, technology, and the seniority system. (PEN)

  2. Knowledge Communities in fives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern knowledge intensive organisations rely on knowledge sharing communities, often called ‘communities of practice. These communities can be found in many organisations, but their forms and functions appear to be quite diverse. This implies that questions concerning the functioning of commun

  3. Community forestry in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts, L.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Uitleg over de oorsprong en betekenis van het gegrip 'community forestry', en een inventarisatie van de verschillende vormen van community forestry die in Nederland voorkomen en de motieven voor deelname aan community forestry activiteiten. Vooral twee categorieën van bosbeheer worden beschouwd als

  4. Logic in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jeremy; Liu, Fenrong; Girard, Patrick

    Communities consist of individuals bounds together by social relationships and roles. Within communities, individuals reason about each other's beliefs, knowledge and preferences. Knowledge, belief, preferences and even the social relationships are constantly changing, and yet our ability to keep track of these changes is an important part of what it means to belong to a community.

  5. The Community View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBray, Dan

    A community college instructor has incorporated the philosophy of Blaise Pascal into a course on organizational communication by providing community college students with a pragmatic small group exercise that requires them to see what communication skills are necessary to succeed within business and the community. This paper discusses how…

  6. Absences of Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.B. Benammar

    1994-01-01

    Humans always search for a sense of community, in order to transcent their individuality and project themselves as part of a group. This human craving is actually a desire for an absence of community; an "empty place to bury our ineradicable solitude", a form of universal community which is yet to c

  7. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, A. M.; P. E. Artaxo; F. Y. Ishida; Mueller, R. C.; S. R. Saleska; Wiedemann, K.T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated b...

  8. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  9. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  10. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  11. Building a Community of Student Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lida

    2005-01-01

    Complementing the need to leverage resources is the academic community's role in providing both academic and workplace learning opportunities and financial assistance to students--who traditionally work part-time, receive lower salaries, and generate fewer overhead costs than their full-time staff counterparts. It is not surprising, therefore,…

  12. Community orientation in hospitals: an institutional and resource dependence perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Proenca, E J; Rosko, M D; Zinn, J S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conceptualize community orientation-defined as the generation, dissemination, and use of community health-need intelligence-as a strategic response to environmental pressures, and to test a theoretically justified model of the predictors of community orientation in hospitals. DATA SOURCES: The analysis used data for 4,578 hospitals obtained from the 1994 and 1995 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey and the 1994 Medicare Hospital Cost Report data sets. Market-level ...

  13. Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    -cise is to determine the degree to which the concepts of discourse commu-nity and community of practice are suitable for investigating the social and organizational context of text and knowledge production. Finally, the paper examines the explanatory value of the two concepts for analyzing text and knowledge......This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities....

  14. Seizing Community Participation in Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev Clausen, Helene; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ten years of strategic focus on growth through sustainable tourism, few research projects generated understanding of how development policy initiatives contributed to community benefits locally. This article addresses this research gap and explores how the aims of local development...... migrant community in shaping sustainable tourism development as cultural brokers, social entrepreneurs and mediators of market knowledge. The paper criticizes the notion of homogenous local communities as an instrumental condition of sustainable and participatory development....... and cultural sustainability defined in the Mexican national tourism program Pueblos Mágicos are put into practice. The analysis is focused on how citizenship, local participation and democracy are operationalized and what are the local consequences of this governmental program in the community of Álamos...

  15. Community detection in networks: A user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Community detection in networks is one of the most popular topics of modern network science. Communities, or clusters, are usually groups of vertices having higher probability of being connected to each other than to members of other groups, though other patterns are possible. Identifying communities is an ill-defined problem. There are no universal protocols on the fundamental ingredients, like the definition of community itself, nor on other crucial issues, like the validation of algorithms and the comparison of their performances. This has generated a number of confusions and misconceptions, which undermine the progress in the field. We offer a guided tour through the main aspects of the problem. We also point out strengths and weaknesses of popular methods, and give directions to their use.

  16. Circles of Learning in Mississippi: Community Recovery and Democracy Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bonnie; Tucker, Estrus

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, a synchronistic set of events and relationships generated a new kind of experiential learning in communities across Mississippi. Educators based at the University of Mississippi, community-based educators, social justice advocates, and funders collaborated to provide the resources and opportunities for…

  17. Developing a Discourse of the Postmodern Community Development Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Karen; Mansfield, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to promote the generation of a discourse of the postmodern community work professional. A shared discourse will lead, we propose to shared capital. We argue that there is a tension between the modern and postmodern for those of us engaged in the profession of community learning and development (CL&D). We need to value…

  18. Distributed generation induction and permanent magnet generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, L

    2007-01-01

    Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid. Induction generators (IGs) are the cheapest and most commonly used technology, compatible with renewable energy resources. Permanent magnet (PM) generators have traditionally been avoided due to high fabrication costs; however, compared with IGs they are more reliable and productive. Distributed Generation thoroughly examines the principles, possibilities and limitations of creating energy with both IGs and PM generators. It takes an electrical engineering approach in the analysis and testing of these generators, and includes diagrams and extensive case study examples o better demonstrate how the integration of energy sources can be accomplished. The book also provides the ...

  19. Community 21: Digital toolbox for sustainable communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Gant

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will describe the 'Toolbox for the 21st Century Village' action research project and outline the critical research contexts that underpin its development as an online informatics and social engagement tool aimed at facilitating understanding, sharing and planning of integrated sustainability by individual communities. This will include exposing the context of ‘mis-communication’ of sustainability issues in society by visual culture, the media and politics. The article argues that this has served to alienate, demoralise and disenfranchise many individuals and communities. Being rural does not necessarily mean being ‘green’ and the article will describe the ‘green dichotomy’ and how rural behaviours are disproportionately dependent on natural resources and as a consequence are ‘less sustainable’, despite relative autonomy and community potential to make significant gains. The article will also unpack and explore how the loaded term sustainability only serves to divide and detract as a polemic and absolute term; whereas self-sufficiency is a demonstrable concern of vulnerable rural communities; a by-product of which can be genuine and valued, measurable and meaningful sustainable development. The above provides a contextual backdrop and rationale for the formation of a project that enables communities to frame their own concerns and envision themselves and their problems and responses as part of a larger system. The project is developed around an experimental online content management system (CMS platform that will facilitate sustainable development through envisioning, action planning and networking – connecting the ‘knots in the net’ of an active patchwork of ‘multi-local communities’. The platform design will provide methodology, process and capacity to enable reconciliation between the manifold concerns of social, economic and environmental sustainability whilst providing community facilitators with new

  20. Talkin' 'bout My Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickes, Persis C.

    2010-01-01

    The monikers are many: (1) "Generation Y"; (2) "Echo Boomers"; (3) "GenMe"; (4) the "Net Generation"; (5) "RenGen"; and (6) "Generation Next". One name that appears to be gaining currency is "Millennials," perhaps as a way to better differentiate the current generation from its predecessor, Generation X. Millennials are those individuals born…

  1. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening in Rural, African American Communities: The "Science and Art" of Community Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.

    1998-01-01

    Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)

  2. MHD Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  3. Community energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, S. [BC Energy Aware Committee, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The mandate of the BC Energy Aware Committee is to promote and assist in the implementation of community energy planning by working with local governments, developers and utilities to integrate energy into local planning processes and to use local resources in the design and operation of communities. This paper presented the basic concepts of how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community. It was demonstrated that designing for energy supports community livability objectives. Energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, thereby playing an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and slowing down climate change. The paper also provided some practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. The strategies that are related to each of these components were highlighted. The community energy planning program in Kamloops was presented as a case study of a specific initiative to build a community that is socially, environmentally and fiscally sustainable. tabs., figs.

  4. Inductive Pulse Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed power generators are a key component in compact systems for generation of high-power microwaves (HPM). HPM generation by virtual cathode devices such as Vircators put high demands on the source. The rise time and the pulse length of the source voltage are two key issues in the generation of HPM radiation. This thesis describes the construction and tests of several inductive high power pulse generators. The pulse generators were designed with the intent to deliver a pulse with fast rise...

  5. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  6. Conflicting Views of School Community: The Dichotomy Between Administrators and Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barnett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was the second phase of a two-phase study of teachers’ knowledge of community in an urban, private boys’ day school in Canada. The first phase examined a teacher’s perception of her classroom community, and this phase asked teachers and administrators in the same school about their perceptions of school community. We found that the school created and implemented an organizational structure designed to foster and sustain a professional community. However, administrators and teachers conceptualized, understood, and experienced community in different ways. Administrators saw community as a management tool to generate support for the school’s objectives. Teachers experienced community as social support that served as a remedy for professional isolation. Neither group based its view on community as a capacity-building, reflective process leading to a generative professional community.

  7. Ethiopian-Israeli community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah B

    2016-09-02

    The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs. These factors significantly affect the community's health. Governmental and non-governmental organisations have sought to improve the quality of life for Ethiopian Israelis through empowerment and education. Enhancing societal integration, augmenting cross-cultural communication and understanding and instituting community-based health projects are essential in improving the health of this community. Successful healthcare intervention requires a biopsychosocial model of analysis and usage of a culturally appropriate context.

  8. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  9. Learning Community and Nonlearning Community Students in a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanan, Frankie Santos; Jackson, Dimitra Lynette; Stebleton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The research on learning communities has focused primarily on students at four-year colleges and universities. There is a dearth of studies that examine learning communities in community colleges. The purpose of this comparative study was to conduct an analysis of learning community and nonlearning community students in a community college located…

  10. A trait-based approach for examining microbial community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, T. L.; Nemergut, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms regulate all of Earth's major biogeochemical cycles and an understanding of how microbial communities assemble is a key part in evaluating controls over many types of ecosystem processes. Rapid advances in technology and bioinformatics have led to a better appreciation for the variation in microbial community structure in time and space. Yet, advances in theory are necessary to make sense of these data and allow us to generate unifying hypotheses about the causes and consequences of patterns in microbial biodiversity and what they mean for ecosystem function. Here, I will present a metaanalysis of microbial community assembly from a variety of successional and post-disturbance systems. Our analysis shows various distinct patterns in community assembly, and the potential importance of nutrients and dispersal in shaping microbial community beta diversity in these systems. We also used a trait-based approach to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and the implications for function. Our work reveals the importance of rRNA operon copy number as a community aggregated trait in helping to reconcile differences in community dynamics between distinct types of successional and disturbed systems. Specifically, our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number can be a common feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession, supporting a transition from an r-selected to a K-selected community. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, from cells to populations and communities, and has implications for both ecology and evolution. Trait-based approaches are an important next step to generate and test hypotheses about the forces structuring microbial communities and the subsequent consequences for ecosystem function.

  11. Community response to noise

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yano; Truls Gjestland; Soogab Lee

    2012-01-01

    Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI) and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI) were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate co...

  12. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  13. Nuclear Community in network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internet has revolutionized the ways of communication and many companies/ organizations have adapted to the change but others have not, or have done it halfway. This presentation is a review of the main characteristics of virtual communities and their typology. The status of the Nuclear Online Community, both pro nuclear and antinuclear is analysed , and their main similarities and differences are discussed. The Pro nuclear Online Community is formed gradually. This presentation attempts to define some ways to increase the scope of the Community and encourage greater dissemination of the characteristics of nuclear energy. (Author)

  14. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  15. Motivation System of Crowdsourcing Community from a Supply Chain Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses principal-agent theory to study the issue of incentivizing crowdsourcing communities. It proves that enterprises can generate innovation plans of high quality and expected utility using the crowdsourcing community. Outsourcers can encourage high-quality people to join by adopting a linear variable compensation scheme and make the low-quality people quit by requiring them to supply more effort. The paper also shows that enterprises’ participation in crowdsourcing community innovation can effectively improve their innovative ability and that it is necessary for enterprises to construct an effective and cooperative innovative system combining crowdsourcing community innovation and their own internal innovation.

  16. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  17. How do generations support each other in an ageing society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Generations and Gender Programme tries to live up to its name. One of the key areas of research in the GGP community is intergenerational relationships. This area of research examines how people from different generations support and rely on each other. This could be a grandparent taking care of

  18. The Impact of Generational Awareness Training on Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    The problem investigated in this quasi-experimental study was to educate teachers in how to overcome generational differences that arose when educators of different generations were required to work together in a collaborative professional learning community. Perceptions of work environment and performance, collaboration, and professional learning…

  19. The Ambivalence of Community: A Critical Analysis of Rural Education's Oldest Trope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of community has been central to the discourse of rural education for generations. At the same time, community has been and continues to be a deeply problematic concept. I begin this analysis with Raymond Williams's characterization of the idea of community as a uniquely positive concept, arguing that this framing is, as Williams…

  20. Acts of Hospitality: The Community in Community Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article will investigate the notion of "community" within the aspirations of Community Music. Guiding this study are the questions: How is community made manifest through Community Music? What joins the notion of community to that of music? Two distinct sections will frame this research: (1) an etymological consideration of the word…

  1. SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Tiangco, Valentino [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lemes, Marco [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ave, Kathleen [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This report summarizes the completion of four renewable energy installations supported by California Energy Commission (CEC) grant number CEC Grant PIR-11-005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement, DE-EE0003070, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) program. The funding from the DOE, combined with funding from the CEC, supported the construction of a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and anaerobic digestion systems at dairy facilities, all for electricity generation and delivery to SMUD’s distribution system. The deployment of CRED projects shows that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be successfully implemented under favorable economic conditions and business models and through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, the projects also demonstrate that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be readily implemented through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region.

  2. Web 2.0 Technologies: Applications for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Susanne K.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of new students, referred to as the Millennial Generation, brings a new set of challenges to the community college. The influx of these technologically sophisticated students, who interact through the social phenomenon of Web 2.0 technology, bring expectations that may reshape institutions of higher learning. This chapter…

  3. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first-generation

  4. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  5. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  6. A Community Like "Philadelphia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookey, Robert Alan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that applications of "queer theory" must extend beyond questions of sexual representation. Contends that rhetorical theory can contribute to the investigation of sexuality, offering as an example an analysis of mainstream media representations of the homosexual "community." Concludes that the presentation of this community operates…

  7. Community Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Harold

    2005-01-01

    With increasing frequency, communities are seeing the arrival of a new class of noncommercial broadband providers: community wireless networks (CWNs). Utilizing the same wireless technologies that many colleges and universities have used to create wireless networks on campus, CWNs are creating broadband access for free or at costs well below…

  8. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang;

    2014-01-01

    communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution...

  9. Trust, Collegiality, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShaw, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the role of trust, a complex and understudied aspect of working relationships, among teachers in smaller learning communities (SLC). Based on a review of the literature, four kinds of interpersonal professional relationships were defined and described from individualism to community. An…

  10. The Community College Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the community college's mission has been and will be constant with respect to its social role to educate; its responsiveness to community needs; its focus on teaching; its open access philosophy; and its commitment to a comprehensive curriculum. Examines social tensions affecting the mission. (DMM)

  11. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  12. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice......A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice...

  13. A Brief History of Community Colleges and a Personal View of Some Issues (Open Admissions, Occupational Training and Leadership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Harold A.

    This paper reflects on the history of the community college in the United States. The author cites Tillery and Deegan, who refer to five generations of the American community college. The first generation, from 1900-1930, is characterized as being an extension of secondary school. The second generation, from 1930-1950, is characterized as the…

  14. Cylindrical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  15. Implementation of Network Community Profile using Local Spectral algorithm and its application in Community Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav VPrakash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem that is addressed here and being investigated is to empirically review the paper entitled"Empirical comparison of algorithms for network community detection" - Jure Leskovec, Kevin J Langand Michael W Mahoney”wherein we look at the characteristics and specific properties of varioussocial networks used in the public and private domain. The objective of the investigation is to understandcompletely the network community detection using Local Spectral and Metis+MQI algorithms and toanalyse how communities are created and ranked on specific metrics. Five communities have beencompared using the same heuristics of the established functions in the entitled paper and an inference isdrawn based on the graph generated by the same.

  16. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  17. Gaussian Networks Generated by Random Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We propose a random walks based model to generate complex networks. Many authors studied and developed different methods and tools to analyze complex networks by random walk processes. Just to cite a few, random walks have been adopted to perform community detection, exploration tasks and to study temporal networks. Moreover, they have been used also to generate scale-free networks. In this work, we define a random walker that plays the role of "edges-generator". In particular, the random walker generates new connections and uses these ones to visit each node of a network. As result, the proposed model allows to achieve networks provided with a Gaussian degree distribution, and moreover, some features as the clustering coefficient and the assortativity show a critical behavior. Finally, we performed numerical simulations to study the behavior and the properties of the cited model.

  18. A local fuzzy method based on “p-strong” community for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shen; Gang, Ren; Yang, Liu; Jia-Li, Xu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a local fuzzy method based on the idea of “p-strong” community to detect the disjoint and overlapping communities in networks. In the method, a refined agglomeration rule is designed for agglomerating nodes into local communities, and the overlapping nodes are detected based on the idea of making each community strong. We propose a contribution coefficient to measure the contribution of an overlapping node to each of its belonging communities, and the fuzzy coefficients of the overlapping node can be obtained by normalizing the to all its belonging communities. The running time of our method is analyzed and varies linearly with network size. We investigate our method on the computer-generated networks and real networks. The testing results indicate that the accuracy of our method in detecting disjoint communities is higher than those of the existing local methods and our method is efficient for detecting the overlapping nodes with fuzzy coefficients. Furthermore, the local optimizing scheme used in our method allows us to partly solve the resolution problem of the global modularity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278101 and 51578149), the Science and Technology Program of Ministry of Transport of China (Grant No. 2015318J33080), the Jiangsu Provincial Post-doctoral Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1501046B), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. Y0201500219).

  19. Medical waste: reducing its generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, N L

    1993-01-01

    1. Materials that can be recycled have yet to be proven to be a more cost-effective means of reducing medical waste. The literature indicates that the efficacy of reusable textiles is at least equal to that of some disposables--and reusable items reduce the generation of blood-contaminated waste. 2. The perioperative nursing community should consider replacing single-use items with materials intended for multiple uses. 3. "Source reduction" entails the replacement of single-use items with reusable items. Successful source-reduction programs require changes in individual and collective behavior patterns. 4. Recycling of materials renders them suitable for another use in a product similar to that in which they were originally used. On the other hand, reprocessing is an all-descriptive term of what must be done to an item to render it suitable for another identical use.

  20. Distance, dissimilarity index, and network community structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, H

    2003-01-01

    We address the question of finding the community structure of a complex network. In an earlier effort [H. Zhou, {\\em Phys. Rev. E} (2003)], the concept of network random walking is introduced and a distance measure defined. Here we calculate, based on this distance measure, the dissimilarity index between nearest-neighboring vertices of a network and design an algorithm to partition these vertices into communities that are hierarchically organized. Each community is characterized by an upper and a lower dissimilarity threshold. The algorithm is applied to several artificial and real-world networks, and excellent results are obtained. In the case of artificially generated random modular networks, this method outperforms the algorithm based on the concept of edge betweenness centrality. For yeast's protein-protein interaction network, we are able to identify many clusters that have well defined biological functions.

  1. The growth of an OSS community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana

    Departing from an inductive, grounded theory-based field study in an OSS community called TYPO3, this paper investigates how community growth is addressed. It adopts an organizational life cycle perspective and focuses on intraorganizational conditions. Three major types of consequences of growth...... are generated: (i) weakness in integration of activities and tasks (leading to leadership crisis), (ii) inadequacies in communication among community contributors and subgroups (leading to coordination crisis), and (iii) tension between autonomous contributors and formal authority (leading to authority crisis......). Furthermore, the results suggest that TYPO3 overcomes these consequences owing to three closely related mechanisms: (i) coordination of project-related activities and tasks, (ii) member retention measures, and (iii) the structuring that emerged in the process of the project's adjustment to growth. Finally...

  2. Community Detection Using Multilayer Edge Mixture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Han; Lai, Jian-Huang; Yu, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of complex systems can be modeled as networks with corresponding constraints on the edges and nodes, which have been extensively studied in recent years. Nowadays, with the progress of information technology, systems that contain the information collected from multiple perspectives have been generated. The conventional models designed for single perspective networks fail to depict the diverse topological properties of such systems, so multilayer network models aiming at describing the structure of these networks emerge. As a major concern in network science, decomposing the networks into communities, which usually refers to closely interconnected node groups, extracts valuable information about the structure and interactions of the network. Unlike the contention of dozens of models and methods in conventional single-layer networks, methods aiming at discovering the communities in the multilayer networks are still limited. In order to help explore the community structure in multilayer networks, we...

  3. Meet the Millennial Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Brian

    2000-01-01

    The "Millennial Generation" has grown up with prosperity, working parents, the Internet, divorce, and Columbine. They are fundamentally different in outlook and ambition from preceding generations and have their own ideas about how they want to live and work. (JOW)

  4. Diversity and Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S K

    2001-09-01

    Managing Generation X (1965-1980) to be of better service to patients and organizations is a challenge for nurse managers. This article provides action scenarios that assist in understanding diversity and generations.

  5. Quantum random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  6. 信息质量和社区地位对用户创造产品评论的感知有用性影响机制——基于Tobit模型回归%The Impact Mechanism of Information Quality and Community Status on Perceived Usefulness for User-Generated Product Reviews——Tobit Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爽

    2013-01-01

    用户创造的在线产品评论是消费者购买决策时重要的参考信息来源,也是企业吸引和维持消费者忠诚的必不可少的营销工具,以往的学者主要关注产品评论的市场效应,如消费者对产品的态度与选择,销售额以及新产品扩散等内容,却缺乏对在线产品评论感知有用性的影响因素及作用机理方面的研究.本文从评论的内容特征、评论者特征以及产品类型三个因素构建了评论感知有用性的理论模型,并搜集在线零售商网站中产品评论的文本数据,利用Tobit模型进行回归分析,实证结果表明信息质量和社区地位对感知有用性有正向影响,高低涉入度的产品类型在其中起到调节作用.%User-generated product review is an important information reference source during consumers' purchasing decisions,and is also an essential marketing tool for companies to attract consumers and maintain loyalty.However,previous studies mainly focus on the impact of product reviews on consumers' product attitude,product selection and sales,and ignore what factors can cause cognition and evaluation of product reviews usefulness.This paper builds a model containing three factors:content characteristics,reviewer characteristics and product type.From an online retailer website,more than 1000 product reviews data are downloaded and analyzed using Tobit regression.The empirical results show that information quality and community status are positive to perceived usefulness,and product type is a moderator.

  7. The socio-economic and cultural structures of the fisherfolk communities

    OpenAIRE

    Namisi, P; Kyangwa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fishing communities that have exploited the resource for generations constitute the main stakeholder groups in the fisheries of Lake Victoria. Several studies have examined Uganda's Lake Victoria fishing communities and characterised key stakeholders at community level over the last decade (SEDAWOG 1999a and b; Geheb 1997; FeSEP 1997; Kitakule 1991). The communities are made up of scattered settlements at the shores and on islands. The categories of people living in th...

  8. Techniques Enabling Generator Refactoring

    OpenAIRE

    Krahn, Holger; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents our approach to use refactoring techniques together with code generation. Refactoring is particularly useful if not only the generated classes but also the generator itself can be adapted in an automatic fashion. We have developed a simple demonstration prototype to illustrate this. The demonstration is based on a special technique where the template for the code generation is defined as compilable source code. The directives to ll out this template prototype to the actual...

  9. Community response to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate combined noise model. Furthermore, not only negative, but also positive aspects of sound were discussed as soundscape studies. Finally, seven items were listed as future team activities.

  10. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive.

  11. Synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for small arid communities

    KAUST Repository

    Elnakar, H.

    2012-06-04

    A model was developed to predict synthetic socioeconomic based domestic wastewater hydrographs for the small arid communities. The model predicts the flow hydrograph for random weekdays and weekends based on the specific socioeconomic characteristics of the community. The main socioeconomic characteristics are the composition of the community, the different user behaviours in using water appliances, and the unit discharges of such appliances. Use patterns of water appliances are assumed to vary for the various members of the community and the type of day. Each community is composed of several social categories such as the employee, working woman, stay home woman, stay home child, students etc. The use patterns account for the stochastic nature of use in terms of number of uses, duration of the use and times of use in the day. Randomly generated hydrographs are generated for weekdays and weekends along with synthetic hydrographs of non-exceedance. The model was verified for a small residential compound in Sharm El Shiekh - Egypt using 11 days of flow measurements performed in summer. The synthetic hydrographs based on assumed water use patterns of the various members of the community compared reasonably with the measured hydrographs. Synthetic hydrographs can be derived for a community under consideration to reflect its socioeconomic conditions and thus can be used to generate probability based peaking factors to be used in the design of sewerage systems pumping facilities, and treatment plants. © 201 WIT Press.

  12. Healthy communities must also be sustainable communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, T.

    2000-01-01

    The author contends that healthy communities must be both environmentally and socially sustainable, given that health depends on the quality of the built and natural environments, and that global change resulting from the industrial economy is affecting the web of life. He argues that suburban sprawl wastes scarce resources and disproportionately places those resources in the hands of suburban dwellers. Urban areas can be made more environmentally sustainable, especially with respect to energ...

  13. Neuro Language Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dinadayalan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Neuro Language Generator using Finite State Machine’ is based on neural network and finite state machine. The fundamental properties of neural network along with the power of Turing machine prove how it can be implemented for formal language processing. This paper elaborates the conventional dynamical language generators, limitations of the conventional dynamical language generators and proposes a new architecture for formal language processing. Theconventional dynamical language generators used for neurallanguage generators is feedforward RNN. It expresses dynamical language generator using finite automaton and dynamical language generator using pushdown automaton. Conventional dynamical generators tend to have stability problem, incapable of network training and lack of memory. It is proposed that the new method ‘Neuro Language Generator using Finite State Machine’ solves most of the problems, which the traditional methods fail to do. The approach employs finitestate technology for a RNN in the task of learning to achieve stability in network structure. RNN architecture performs the same computation as a Turing machine. The RNN architecture acts as a language generator, which accepts formal language. Neuro Language Generator is a RNN that uses feedback connections. NLG can be used to solve more complicated problems compared to traditional dynamical generator.

  14. Event generators at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Rong-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief remark and introduction to event generators for tau-charm physics currently used at BESⅢ,including KKMC,BesEvtGen,Bhlumi,Bhwide,Babayaga and inclusive Monte-Carlo event generators.This paper provides basic information on event generators for BESⅢ users.

  15. Understanding Generation X employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupperschmidt, B R

    1998-12-01

    Understanding Generation X employees--those born between 1961 and 1981--is essential if they are to be recruited into and retained in nursing and their potential maximized. The author discusses the times, characteristics, and work values and demands of Generation X. Armed with an enhanced understanding, nurse administrators are better prepared to maximize the potential of Generation X employees.

  16. REMARKS ON NETWORK COMMUNITY PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a popular community definition in complex network research in terms of the conditions under which a community is minimal,that is,the community cannot be split into several smaller communities or split and reorganized with other network elements into new communities.The result provides a base on which further optimization computation of the quantitative measure for community identification can be realized.

  17. Closed walks for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Peng Gang; Hu, Xia; Li, Zhou Jun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel measure that integrates both the concept of closed walks and clustering coefficients to replace the edge betweenness in the well-known divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm, the Girvan and Newman method (GN). The edges with the lowest value are removed iteratively until the network is degenerated into isolated nodes. The experimental results on computer generated networks and real-world networks showed that our method makes a better tradeoff of accuracy and runtime. Based on the analysis of the results, we observe that the nontrivial closed walks of order three and four can be considered as the basic elements in constructing community structures. Meanwhile, we discover that those nontrivial closed walks outperform trivial closed walks in the task of analyzing the structure of networks. The double peak structure problem is mentioned in the last part of the article. We find that our proposed method is a novel way to solve the double peak structure problem. Our work can provide us with a new perspective for understanding community structure in complex networks.

  18. Next generation tools for genomic data generation, distribution, and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix David A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapidly falling cost and availability of high throughput sequencing and microarray technologies, the bottleneck for effectively using genomic analysis in the laboratory and clinic is shifting to one of effectively managing, analyzing, and sharing genomic data. Results Here we present three open-source, platform independent, software tools for generating, analyzing, distributing, and visualizing genomic data. These include a next generation sequencing/microarray LIMS and analysis project center (GNomEx; an application for annotating and programmatically distributing genomic data using the community vetted DAS/2 data exchange protocol (GenoPub; and a standalone Java Swing application (GWrap that makes cutting edge command line analysis tools available to those who prefer graphical user interfaces. Both GNomEx and GenoPub use the rich client Flex/Flash web browser interface to interact with Java classes and a relational database on a remote server. Both employ a public-private user-group security model enabling controlled distribution of patient and unpublished data alongside public resources. As such, they function as genomic data repositories that can be accessed manually or programmatically through DAS/2-enabled client applications such as the Integrated Genome Browser. Conclusions These tools have gained wide use in our core facilities, research laboratories and clinics and are freely available for non-profit use. See http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnomex/, http://sourceforge.net/projects/genoviz/, and http://sourceforge.net/projects/useq.

  19. Ohio Community College Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides information on student characteristics, success and progress rates, cost of attendance, degrees awarded, class size, faculty characteristics, and employment outcomes at each of Ohio's twenty-three community college.

  20. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  1. FEMA DFIRM Community Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table is a lookup table that contains community map repository details and map history information that is shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) legend...

  2. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that...

  3. NOOSPHERE HUMAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilova Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology. Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to nature. This interrelation is regarded as a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community [1]. Results: A number of characteristic features of this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale, major role of information in making up social wealth, creation of living matter. Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.

  4. Validation of community robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Carissimo, Annamaria; Defeis, Italia

    2016-01-01

    The large amount of work on community detection and its applications leaves unaddressed one important question: the statistical validation of the results. In this paper we present a methodology able to clearly detect if the community structure found by some algorithms is statistically significant or is a result of chance, merely due to edge positions in the network. Given a community detection method and a network of interest, our proposal examines the stability of the partition recovered against random perturbations of the original graph structure. To address this issue, we specify a perturbation strategy and a null model to build a set of procedures based on a special measure of clustering distance, namely Variation of Information, using tools set up for functional data analysis. The procedures determine whether the obtained clustering departs significantly from the null model. This strongly supports the robustness against perturbation of the algorithm used to identify the community structure. We show the r...

  5. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  6. Tribes Communities Success Stories

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data describes successful EPA projects and partnerships which are restoring local communities and watersheds within the San Francisco Bay Delta Watershed.

  7. New marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

  8. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  9. Community radio in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Ed; Hidayat, Dedy Nur; Haenens, Leen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which efforts aimed at democratising the media system and empowering communities in Indonesia in three discursive periods (the 1998 "Revolution Movement", the "Reform Era" follow-up, and the 2002 Broadcasting Act up till the present time) have ebbed and flowed. The main result of the changing winds so far has been the liberalisation of the market, in line with global media trends. The Government has tried to frustrate the prospects of community media. Hence, t...

  10. Crafting the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Crafting the Community is a volunteering project run by the Textiles Department at the University of Huddersfield to promote and deliver textile craft activities to the wider community. The purpose of this paper is to explore how volunteering can be a powerful tool for enriching peoples’lives while deepening students’ textile-related competencies through placing their learning in social and communal settings. Design/methodology/approach – Initially the paper will articulate ...

  11. Community Involvement - Health / Service

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Andress: Partnerships Produce a National Center for Home Food Preservation. Diana Friedman: National 4-H Healthy Lifestyles Grant. H. Wallace Goddard: Big Surprises on the Road to Happiness. Nancy Kershaw: Connecting the 4-H Clothing Project and Community. Jane A. Landis: NEAFCS Living Well Public Service Campaign. Rhea Lanting: The Healthy Diabetes Plate. Phyllis B. Lewis: Product Look-Alikes. Anna Martin: Raising Diabetes Awareness in Latino Communities. Earl Mcalexander: Youth Fi...

  12. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The concept of “communities of practice” is of relatively recent date. The concept gained momentum with Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger’s book from 1991, Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Since then, the notion of “communities of practice” has been a focus of attention, not least...... in debates about learning, teaching, and education but also in debates about organizational theory, knowledge management, and work-life studies....

  13. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  14. Solar thermoelectric generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  15. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm;

    2011-01-01

    Both small and medium-size entrepreneurial firms face liabilities such as resource scarcity and scale diseconomies, making it difficult for them to innovate on a continuous basis. In response, experimentation with new ways of organizing for innovation has increased. One successful result is an or...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....... is an organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another...... and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...

  16. Creating one planet communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed low carbon communities that used a variety of sustainable energy technologies to reduce energy consumption and waste. The presentation was given by a company who has adopted a One Planet framework to ensure the development of zero carbon, zero waste, sustainable communities.The Dockside Green project was awarded North America's highest leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) score. The community includes a waste biomass plant and an on-site wastewater treatment plant. Excess heat produced by the community's greenhouse gas (GHG) neutral biomass district heating system is sold to neighbouring communities. The BedZED project in the United Kingdom uses a high-density format to support a community living and workspace environment that uses rainwater harvesting, passive solar heating, high performance envelopes, and green roofs. The site includes 40 electric car charging stations. A combined heat and power (CHP) biomass plant provides electricity and hot water to all buildings. Neighbourhood-scale sustainable development is expected to have a significant impact on the ecological footprint of North American cities. Carbon neutral projects in Canada were also listed. tabs., figs.

  17. Ethiopian-Israeli community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah B

    2016-01-01

    The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs. These factors significantly affect the community's health. Governmental and non-governmental organisations have sought to improve the quality of life for Ethiopian Israelis through empowerment and education. Enhancing societal integration, augmenting cross-cultural communication and understanding and instituting community-based health projects are essential in improving the health of this community. Successful healthcare intervention requires a biopsychosocial model of analysis and usage of a culturally appropriate context. PMID:27591035

  18. Nursing care community health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Acosta-Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Process Nursing Care (PAE is a systematic tool that facilitates the scientificity of care in community practice nurse, the application of scientific method in community practice, allows nursing to provide care in logical, systematic and comprehensive reassessing interventions to achieve the proposed results. It began with the valuation of Marjory Gordon Functional Patterns and then at the stage of diagnosis and planning North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA, Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC is interrelate. It is a descriptive and prospective study. Diagnosis was made by applying the instruments measuring scale of the socio-demographic characteristics, symptom questionnaire for early detection of mental disorders in the community and appreciation for functional patterns. The PAE includes more frequent diagnoses, criteria outcomes, indicators, interventions and activities to manage community issues. alteration was evidenced in patterns: Adaptation and Stress Tolerance, Self-perception-Self-concept-, Role-Relationships, sleep and rest and Perception and Health Management. A standardized NANDA-NIC-NOC can provide inter care holistic care from the perspective of community mental health with a degree of scientific nature that frames the professional work projecting the individual, family and community care.

  19. Designing for Communities

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Mark Boulton's small design firm won the project to redesign drupal.org home to the Drupal open source content management project and its community of over 400,000 users and developers. Designing for open source communities has its challenges: it is a developer-centric environment where discussion, debate and consensus rules and where design processes are often viewed sceptically. To help dispel some misconceptions behind the design process, Mark's team worked completely openly with the Drupal community - and broader the web design community - throughout the project. This talk will walk through some of the challenges and solutions for designing for large communities. Mark will share the successes - and the horror stories - of how a traditional design process was challenged every step of the way and how the Drupal community became an integral part of that new process. Mark and his team will be working with the Communication Group on an open project to r...

  20. Building Community Linkages: Some Thoughts on Community Based Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juana

    An original goal of Chicano Studies was to promote improvement of social and economic conditions in the community, with Chicana and Chicano scholars at the forefront of community struggles. Within this perspective, research is problem-based and part of the community action process. Chicano community groups want to work with researchers and…

  1. Scaling up Learning Communities: The Experience of Six Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Mary G.; Schneider, Emily; Wathington, Heather; Collado, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The Learning Communities Demonstration is a large-scale, random assignment evaluation of learning community programs at six community colleges. During the first year of the demonstration, all six colleges expanded their learning community programs and, in the process, faced similar challenges in selecting courses to link, recruiting and supporting…

  2. Community Involvement in School: Social Relationships in a Bedroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…

  3. Community College and Community Leader Expectations of the "Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    A level of consistency between community college leaders and community leaders is necessary to demonstrate behaviors, actions, and beliefs that shape, represent, and support expected community values. Likewise, communities, which are collectives of suborganizations, play an important role in aiding individual development, especially related to…

  4. Interaction between community pharmacists and community nurses in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Veronica M

    2016-04-01

    There has been little research that explores the interaction between community pharmacists and community nurses and how this interaction could benefit people affected by dementia. Using information taken from a larger study, this article presents the views of community pharmacists and one community nurse on how their communication, information sharing and team integration may improve care for this patient group. The community pharmacists reported positive attitudes to supporting people affected by dementia, but they highlighted barriers to integrated team working. In contrast, the community nurse conveyed the belief that the community pharmacist was an integrated member of the community health team. Community pharmacists and community nurses are keen to interact with each other to support people affected by dementia, but this interaction stops short of collaborative, integrated team working. Further research is needed to address this issue.

  5. Generating Brand Equity through Corporate Social Responsibility to Key Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Torres; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Tribó, Josep A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue that socially responsible policies have a positive impact on a firm’s brand equity in the short-term as well as in the long-term. Moreover, once we distinguish between different stakeholders, we posit that secondary stakeholders such as community are even more important than primary stakeholders (customers, shareholders, workers and suppliers) in generating brand equity. Policies aimed at satisfied community interests act as a mechanism to reinforce trust that gives fur...

  6. Implications of the results of community intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Emmons, K; Hunt, M K; Johnston, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the results of population-level interventions conducted in three settings: entire communities, worksites, and schools. Four major conclusions are discussed: (a) Directions for the next generation of community-based interventions include targeting multiple levels of influence; addressing social inequalities in disease risk; involving communities in program planning and implementation; incorporating approaches for "tailoring" interventions; and utilizing rigorous process evaluation. (b) In addition to randomized controlled trials, it is time to use the full range of research phases available, from hypothesis generation and methods development to dissemination research. (c) The public health research agenda may have contributed to observed secular trends by placing behavioral risk factors on the social and media agendas. (d) The magnitude of the results of community intervention trials must be judged according to their potential public health or population-level effects. Small changes at the individual level may result in large benefits at the population level. PMID:9611625

  7. On a new concept of community: social networks, personal communities and collective intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério da Costa

    2006-01-01

    This text essentially deals with the transmutation of the concept of "community" into "social networks". This change is due largely to the boom of virtual communities in cyberspace, a fact that has generated a number of studies not only on this new way of weaving a society, but also on the dynamic structure of communication networks. At the core of this transformation, concepts such as social capital, trust and partial sympathy are called upon, to enable us to think about the new forms of ass...

  8. On a new concept of community: social networks, personal communities and collective intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This text essentially deals with the transmutation of the concept of "community" into "social networks". This change is due largely to the boom of virtual communities in cyberspace, a fact that has generated a number of studies not only on this new way of weaving a society, but also on the dynamic structure of communication networks. At the core of this transformation, concepts such as social capital, trust and partial sympathy are called upon, to enable us to think about the new forms of association that regulate human activity in our time.

  9. SPONSORSHIP, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIAL CAPITAL RESOURCES IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    JANE SWINNEY

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in heavily indigenous communities was undertaken to investigate entrepreneurial perceptions of community (sense of place, image, and positioning) and social capital (reciprocity, shared vision, and density of networks) resources present in rural communities, and the sponsorship involvement of the entrepreneurs in community activities. The uniqueness of the study was its focus on indigenous communities with a higher than state average Native-American population...

  10. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  11. Community Education: Developing a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, N. G.

    1980-01-01

    Community education is concerned with the development of the individual and the development of the community to improve the quality of life. Community colleges act as catalysts by coordinating citizen and agency participation and community resources to improve educational opportunities for all. (SK)

  12. Mutation of Auslander generators

    CERN Document Server

    Lada, Magdalini

    2009-01-01

    Let $\\Lambda$ be an artin algebra with representation dimension equal to three and $M$ an Auslander generator of $\\Lambda$. We show how, under certain assumptions, we can mutate $M$ to get a new Auslander generator whose endomorphism ring is derived equivalent to the endomorphism ring of $M$. We apply our results to selfinjective algebras with radical cube zero of infinite representation type, where we construct an infinite set of Auslander generators.

  13. Solar fuels generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  14. Quantum Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...

  15. Distributed generation systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  16. Developing a derivatives generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Petic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to highlight the particularities of the derivational morphology mechanisms that will help in lexical resources extension. Some computing approaches for derivational morphology are given for several languages, inclusively for Romanian. This paper deals with some preprocessing particularities, that are needed in the process of automatic generation. Then, generative mechanisms are presented in the form of derivational formal rules separately for prefixation and suffixation. The article ends with several approaches in automatic new generated words validation.

  17. Nesilsel Hesaplama = Generational Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlter ÜNLÜKAPLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the theoretical background of generational accounting, the importance of the concept of “generational account” and “fiscal balance rule” have been explained by putting forward that budget deficit is not a suitable indicator to assess intergenerational effects of the fiscal and debt policy. The last part of the study contains presentation of generational accounting studies for selected countries.

  18. Marketing to Millennials in Virtual Community - SME Perspective Applied

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomela, Satu

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to find out how Millennials, new generation of internet users perceive social media marketing conducted in virtual communities. Additionally, this study focuses on providing SMEs guidelines on how to apply marketing for this specific group of consumers. Theoretical framework has been conducted after approaching theories from three perspectives: social media, transition in marketing and consumer behavior and virtual communities. Quantitative research methods have been chose...

  19. A Learning Dashboard to Monitor an Open Networked Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, Francesca; Secundo, Giustina; de Maggio, Marco

    This chapter proposes an operational model to monitor and assess an Open Networked Learning Community. Specifically, the model is based on the Intellectual Capital framework, along the Human, Structural and Social dimensions. It relies on the social network analysis to map several and complementary perspectives of a learning network. Its application allows to observe and monitor the cognitive behaviour of a learning community, in the final perspective of tracking and obtaining precious insights for value generation.

  20. A stochastic model for detecting overlapping and hierarchical community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Cao

    Full Text Available Community detection is a fundamental problem in the analysis of complex networks. Recently, many researchers have concentrated on the detection of overlapping communities, where a vertex may belong to more than one community. However, most current methods require the number (or the size of the communities as a priori information, which is usually unavailable in real-world networks. Thus, a practical algorithm should not only find the overlapping community structure, but also automatically determine the number of communities. Furthermore, it is preferable if this method is able to reveal the hierarchical structure of networks as well. In this work, we firstly propose a generative model that employs a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF formulization with a l(2,1 norm regularization term, balanced by a resolution parameter. The NMF has the nature that provides overlapping community structure by assigning soft membership variables to each vertex; the l(2,1 regularization term is a technique of group sparsity which can automatically determine the number of communities by penalizing too many nonempty communities; and hence the resolution parameter enables us to explore the hierarchical structure of networks. Thereafter, we derive the multiplicative update rule to learn the model parameters, and offer the proof of its correctness. Finally, we test our approach on a variety of synthetic and real-world networks, and compare it with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The results validate the superior performance of our new method.

  1. Subdivision for Generating Quadrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guofu; Feng Yuyu; Chen Falai

    2002-01-01

    Quadrics are of basic importance in Computer Graphics and Computer Aided Design. In this paper,we design a subdivision scheme based on the method suggested by G. Morin and J. Warren to generate conics and quadrics conveniently. Given the control polygon(poly-hedron),the corresponding ellipse (ellipsoid)can be generated. The hyperbolas and hyperboloids are generated based on the generation of ellipses and ellipsoids by a simple transformation. The method in this paper is much simpler and easier to apply than those given by Eugenia Montiel et al.

  2. Generational Accounting in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi; Mahdi Behnameh; Monireh Najayian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991) on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds) is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1...

  3. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  4. Nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear steam generator has a blowdown pump arranged to pump water from the blowdown line through a filter for return to the steam generator. The piping is arranged so that the pump may operate to reverse the direction of pumping through the blowdown line whereby reverse circulation may be established during wet lay up of the steam generator. A blower is arranged to withdraw nitrogen from an upper elevation in the steam generator and inject the nitrogen into the blowdown line in combination with the pumped reverse circulation during wet lay up. (author)

  5. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  6. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  7. Innovative revenue generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Deber, R B; Lavoie, J N; Aserlind, E

    1991-01-01

    Innovative revenue generation by Canadian hospitals is drawing increasing attention. After a critical examination of the literature, we classified these into six areas: clinical/diagnostic insured services, clinical/diagnostic non-insured services, hotel services, retail services, administrative services and financial activities. We concluded that many Canadian hospitals are engaging in innovative revenue generation activities, the success of such activities has been mixed, there are many factors to consider when selecting revenue generation activities, many aspects of innovative revenue generation involve sophisticated business and risk management skills not traditionally required in hospital management, and implementation of many such activities requires support from the hospital board, hospital staff and medical staff.

  8. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  9. Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist, and connectivist pedagogy are examined, using the familiar community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000 with its focus on social, cognitive, and teaching presences. Although this typology of pedagogies could also be usefully applied to campus-based education, the need for and practice of openness and explicitness in distance education content and process makes the work especially relevant to distance education designers, teachers, and developers. The article concludes that high-quality distance education exploits all three generations as determined by the learning content, context, and learning expectations.

  10. Next Generation Sequencing Demands Next Generation Phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Hennekam, Raoul CM; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2012-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is the most powerful diagnostic tool since the roentgenogram. NGS will facilitate diagnosis on a massive scale –allowing interrogation of all genes in a single assay. It has been suggested that NGS will decrease the need for phenotyping in general, and medical geneticists in particular. We argue that NGS will shift focus and approach of phenotyping. We predict that NGS performed for diagnostic purposes will yield variants in several genes, and consequences of ...

  11. Entanglement generation in continuously coupled parametric generators

    OpenAIRE

    Herec, Jiri; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista Jr., Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a compact source of entanglement. This device is composed of a pair of linearly coupled nonlinear waveguides operating by means of degenerate parametric downconversion. For the vacuum state at the input the generalized squeeze variance and logarithmic negativity are used to quantify the amount of nonclassicality and entanglement of output beams. Squeezing and entanglement generation for various dynamical regimes of the device are discussed.

  12. A benchmark model to assess community structure in evolving networks

    CERN Document Server

    Granell, Clara; Arenas, Alex; Fortunato, Santo; Gómez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Detecting the time evolution of the community structure of networks is crucial to identify major changes in the internal organization of many complex systems, which may undergo important endogenous or exogenous events. This analysis can be done in two ways: considering each snapshot as an independent community detection problem or taking into account the whole evolution of the network. In the first case, one can apply static methods on the temporal snapshots, which correspond to configurations of the system in short time windows, and match afterwards the communities across layers. Alternatively, one can develop dedicated dynamic procedures, so that multiple snapshots are simultaneously taken into account while detecting communities, which allows to keep memory of the flow. To check how well a method of any kind could capture the evolution of communities, suitable benchmarks are needed. Here we propose a model for generating simple dynamic benchmark graphs, based on stochastic block models. In them, the time e...

  13. Exploring the limits of community detection strategies in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of network community structure has profound implications in several scientific areas. Therefore, testing the algorithms developed to establish the optimal division of a network into communities is a fundamental problem in the field. We performed here a highly detailed evaluation of community detection algorithms, which has two main novelties: 1) using complex closed benchmarks, which provide precise ways to assess whether the solutions generated by the algorithms are optimal; and, 2) A novel type of analysis, based on hierarchically clustering the solutions suggested by multiple community detection algorithms, which allows to easily visualize how different are those solutions. Surprise, a global parameter that evaluates the quality of a partition, confirms the power of these analyses. We show that none of the community detection algorithms tested provide consistently optimal results in all networks and that Surprise maximization, obtained by combining multiple algorithms, obtains quasi-op...

  14. Laboratory and community studies of aircraft noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.; Powell, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    The noise effects programs objective is to develop aircraft noise criteria and noise reduction methods for achieving greater community and passenger acceptance of air transportation systems. The approach consists of laboratory tests to subjectively evaluate the properties of aircraft-generated noise that are responsible for causing annoyance and field surveys to study the broader problems of community and passenger acceptability. The program is organized into two major thrusts: community acceptance and passenger acceptance. The community acceptance includes subjective response studies of single and multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term community noise exposure. Emphasis is on the development of units and indices which accurately quantify annoyance. The passenger acceptance program includes studies to determine acceptably levels of interior noise and vibration for speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. Selected results from several recent studies are presented to indicate the nature, scope, and methods of the research program.

  15. Locality Development Through Community Organization

    OpenAIRE

    V.V.Kulkarni; Niyati Vaishnav

    2013-01-01

    The term Community Organization and locality development are interrelated and inter dependent. Unless community is organized community development is not possible. Locality development is the part and parcel of community development. In this paper conceptual clarity about locality development and its relationship with community organization is explained. The need of locality development its various stages, processes and implications to the social development is explained in detail. How the pr...

  16. Marketing of the online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pražan, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "Marketing of the online communities" is devoted to online virtual communities, one of the phenomena of the current Internet. Goal of this thesis is to determine the factors that predispose the successful operation of online communities. The thesis defines the essentials features of social media, characterized by online communities and their role in marketing. It deals with strategic and tactical aspects of building and maintaining successful online communities. Based on t...

  17. Corporate-community partnerships: making CSR mutually beneficial for business and community development in the Dominican republic

    OpenAIRE

    Rogan, Dyveke

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the role of a corporate-community partnership in making Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) a mechanism that creates shared value for both business and society. The investigation seeks to generate knowledge about how a partnership can ensure “business benefits” in terms of satisfied CSR objectives for a company, as well as beneficial outcomes in terms of development in the host-communities. The concept of CSR has caused businesses world wide to pay increas...

  18. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Local-level participatory communication practices have enabled the opening of new democratic spaces in which decisions on water policies are taken. Through their resistance to water privatisation policies, many Colombian community aqueducts have made use of a transformed political and social role. Citizens from community aqueduct associations are generating new forms of political participation and citizenship, capable of challenging the widespread political apathy in the country. This arti...

  19. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  20. Community detection based on "clumpiness" matrix in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Faqeeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The "clumpiness" matrix of a network is used to develop a method to identify its community structure. A "projection space" is constructed from the eigenvectors of the clumpiness matrix and a border line is defined using some kind of angular distance in this space. The community structure of the network is identified using this borderline and/or the hierarchical clustering method. The performance of our algorithm is tested on some computer-generated and real-world networks. The accuracy of the results is checked using normalized mutual information. The effect of community size heterogeneity on the accuracy of the method is also discussed.

  1. Caresharlng: Hiding frailty in a Florida retirement community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Krassen Covan, PhD

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings generated from a study of the structure of a caresharing system for the elderly who reside in a Florida retirement community during the last decade of the twentieth century. A caresharing system is a combination of strategies employed in order to maximize pleasure and minimize losses that might otherwise be associated with communal and individual aging processes. In this instance, the caresharing system entailed a series of conscious efforts to hide frailty in the community. Consequences of such caresharing systems and implications for future retirement communities are discussed.

  2. Caresharing: hiding frailty in a Florida retirement community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covan, E K

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents research findings generated from a study of the structure of a "caresharing system" for the elderly who reside in a Florida retirement community during the last decade of the twentieth century. A caresharing system is a combination of strategies employed in order to maximize pleasure and minimize losses that might otherwise be associated with communal and individual aging processes. In this instance, the caresharing system entailed a series of conscious efforts to hide frailty in the community. Consequences of such caresharing systems and implications for future retirement communities are discussed. PMID:9849190

  3. Homophyly/kinship hypothesis: Natural communities, and predicting in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Li, Jiankou; Pan, Yicheng

    2015-02-01

    It has been a longstanding challenge to understand natural communities in real world networks. We proposed a community finding algorithm based on fitness of networks, two algorithms for prediction, accurate prediction and confirmation of keywords for papers in the citation network Arxiv HEP-TH (high energy physics theory), and the measures of internal centrality, external de-centrality, internal and external slopes to characterize the structures of communities. We implemented our algorithms on 2 citation and 5 cooperation graphs. Our experiments explored and validated a homophyly/kinship principle of real world networks. The homophyly/kinship principle includes: (1) homophyly is the natural selection in real world networks, similar to Darwin's kinship selection in nature, (2) real world networks consist of natural communities generated by the natural selection of homophyly, (3) most individuals in a natural community share a short list of common attributes, (4) natural communities have an internal centrality (or internal heterogeneity) that a natural community has a few nodes dominating most of the individuals in the community, (5) natural communities have an external de-centrality (or external homogeneity) that external links of a natural community homogeneously distributed in different communities, and (6) natural communities of a given network have typical structures determined by the internal slopes, and have typical patterns of outgoing links determined by external slopes, etc. Our homophyly/kinship principle perfectly matches Darwin's observation that animals from ants to people form social groups in which most individuals work for the common good, and that kinship could encourage altruistic behavior. Our homophyly/kinship principle is the network version of Darwinian theory, and builds a bridge between Darwinian evolution and network science.

  4. A community assessment model appropriate for the Iranian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Holakouie Naieni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Community assessment is one of the core competencies for public health professionals; mainly because it gives them a better understanding of the strengths and drawbacks of their jurisdictions. We planned to recognize an appropriate model that provides a conceptual framework for the Iranian community.This study was conducted in Tehran, during 2009-2010 and consisted of two parts: a review of the literature and qualitative interview with selected experts as well as focus group discussion with health field staff. These steps were done to develop a conceptual framework: planning for a steering committee, forming a working committee, re-viewing community assessment models and projects, preparing the proposed model draft, in-depth interview and focused group discussions with national experts, finalizing the draft, and preparing the final model.Three different models published and applied routinely in different contexts. The 2008 North Carolina Community Assessment model was used as a reference. Ten national and 18 international projects were compared to the reference and one and six projects were completely compatible with this model, respectively.Our final proposed model takes communities through eight steps to complete a collaborative community assessment: form a community assessment team, solicit community participation and gain inter-sectoral collaboration, establish a working committee, empower the community, collect and analyze community's primary and secondary statistics, solicit community input to select health priorities, evaluate the community assessment and develop the community assessment document, an develop the community action plans.

  5. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  6. Spatial Process Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, Dirk P.; Botev, Zdravko I.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of random spatial data on a computer is an important tool for understanding the behavior of spatial processes. In this paper we describe how to generate realizations from the main types of spatial processes, including Gaussian and Markov random fields, point processes, spatial Wiener processes, and Levy fields. Concrete MATLAB code is provided.

  7. Code Generation = A* + BURS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nymeyer, A.; Katoen, J.P.; Westra, Y.; Alblas, H.; Gyimóthy, T.

    1996-01-01

    A system called BURS that is based on term rewrite systems and a search algorithm A* are combined to produce a code generator that generates optimal code. The theory underlying BURS is re-developed, formalised and explained in this work. The search algorithm uses a cost heuristic that is derived fro

  8. Generativity and Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  9. Replacement nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews past and current practices in the replacement of nuclear steam generators. Plants where steam generator replacement has occurred are reviewed to see what changes have been made, and how the evolving technology has significantly reduced outage time and man-rem exposures. Current preferences in design and material are reviewed. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Generative Processes: Thick Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article presents techniques and theories of generative drawing as a means for developing complex content in architecture design studios. Appending the word "generative" to drawing adds specificity to the most common representation tool and clarifies that such drawings are not singularly about communication or documentation but are also…

  11. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  12. The Last Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Mommy,"said the little boy,"do you know the beauliful vase inthe dining room that has been handed down from generation to genera-tion?""Yes,"said his mother."What about it?""Well,the last generation just dropped it."

  13. When Generations Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    When four generations converge in the academic workplace, it can create serious culture clashes. It is happening across college campuses--in offices as diverse as admissions, student affairs, legal affairs, and technology. It is especially striking in the faculty ranks, where generational challenges have extra significance amid recruiting efforts,…

  14. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  15. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    data from Infogroup (2011), including 168,565 employees (2 percent of the 20-county labor force) at 15,335 businesses that generate approximately $30 billion in annual sales. Although the regional percentage of at-risk employees is low, certain communities, such as Belvedere, Alameda, and Crescent City, have high percentages of their local workforce in the tsunami-inundation zone. Employees in the tsunami-inundation zone are primarily in businesses associated with tourism (for example, accommodations, food services, and retail trade) and shipping (for example, transportation and warehousing, manufacturing, and wholesale trade), although the dominance of these sectors varies substantially among the 94 cities. Although the number of occupants is not known for each site, the tsunami-inundation zone contains numerous dependent-population facilities, such as schools and child daycare centers, which may have individuals with limited mobility. The tsunami-inundation zone includes a substantial number of facilities that provide community services, such as banks, religious organizations, and grocery stores, where local residents may be unaware of evacuation procedures if previous awareness efforts focused on home preparedness. There are also numerous recreational areas in the tsunami-inundation zone, such as amusement parks, marinas, city and county beaches, and State and national parks, which attract visitors who may not be aware of tsunami hazards or evacuation procedures. During peak summer months, estimated daily attendance at city and county beaches can be approximately six times larger than the total number of residents in the tsunami-inundation zone. Community exposure to tsunamis in California varies considerably—some communities may experience great losses that reflect only a small part of their community and others may experience relatively small losses that devastate them. Among 94 incorporated communities and the remaining unincorporated areas of the 20 coastal

  16. Ecological Communities by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-06-25

    In synthetic ecology, a nascent offshoot of synthetic biology, scientists aim to design and construct microbial communities with desirable properties. Such mixed populations of microorganisms can simultaneously perform otherwise incompatible functions. Compared with individual organisms, they can also better resist losses in function as a result of environmental perturbation or invasion by other species. Synthetic ecology may thus be a promising approach for developing robust, stable biotechnological processes, such as the conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. However, achieving this will require detailed knowledge of the principles that guide the structure and function of microbial communities.

  17. Communities and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    to communities (understood as a specific kind of group), he suggests a – within social ontology so far relatively unexplored – principle of constitution: instead of looking for the internal and subjective conditions that regulate the group’s constitution, he rather stresses an external one, i.e., the “virtus...... approach to the ontology of groups put forward by Dietrich von Hildebrand in his book on the Metaphysics of Community. First, von Hildebrand argues that there are different kinds of social groups and that, accordingly, individuals can be ‘together’ in radically different ways. In particular, he...

  18. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...... of the natural that could better accommodate women and nonmarital children. Her attempts were futile, however, and in 1793 she was sentenced to death according to a newly written law meant to prosecute enemies of the Republic’s natural community....

  19. Experience and Its Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Youqing

    2006-01-01

    Experience iS an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound compreh ension.It iS emotional,meaningful,and personal,playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one'S qualities.The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things,arousing emotions,promoting comprehension and association,generating insights and meanings,and deepening emotional responses.Undergoing things personally by means of direct sensation,taking part in activities,and living life are the most important preconditions of experience generation.Emotional influence,situational edification,and arts edification ale extemal factors that induce experience generation.

  20. Development of compact D-D neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, due to specific features of compact neutron generators, their demand in elemental analysis and detection of the illicit materials has been increased in scientific community. Compact is size, controlled operation and radiation safety like features of neutron generator is suitable for research work with illicit materials. An accelerator based neutron generator can be operated in steady mode as well as in pulse mode. The main embodiment of this type of generator includes ion source, ion acceleration system and target. We are developing such type of neutron generator. This consists of one-in-house developed penning ion source, a single electrode acceleration gap and one deuterated titanium target or virgin titanium target. In this report, we will discuss various physics and technical issues related to the important components of this generator, operation of the generator and neutron detection. (author)

  1. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  2. Flexible Community Structure Correlates with Stable Community Function in Methanogenic Bioreactor Communities Perturbed by Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDR...

  3. Barriers to adaptive reasoning in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Recent high-profile calls for a more trait-focused approach to community ecology have the potential to open up novel research areas, generate new insights and to transform community ecology into a more predictive science. However, a renewed emphasis on function and phenotype also requires a fundamental shift in approach and research philosophy within community ecology to more fully embrace evolutionary reasoning. Such a subject-wise transformation will be difficult due to at least four factors: (1) the historical development of the academic discipline of ecology and its roots as a descriptive science; (2) the dominating role of the ecosystem concept in the driving of contemporary ecological thought; (3) the practical difficulties associated with defining and identifying (phenotypic) adaptations, and; (4) scaling effects in ecology; the difficulty of teasing apart the overlapping and shifting hierarchical processes that generate the observed environment-trait correlations in nature. We argue that the ability to predict future ecological conditions through a sufficient understanding of ecological processes will not be achieved without the placement of the concept of adaptation at the centre of ecology, with influence radiating outwards through all the related (and rapidly specializing) sub-disciplines.

  4. Spin hydrodynamic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.

  5. VOLTAGE REGULATORS ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A promising is currently the use of asynchronous generators with capacitive excitation as a source of electricity in stand-alone power systems. Drive asynchronous generators may exercise as a thermal engine and wind wheel wind power plant or turbines of small hydropower plants. The article discusses the structural and schematics of voltage stabilizers and frequency of asynchronous generators with improved operational and technical specifications. Technical novelty of design solutions of the magnetic system and stabilizers asynchronous generator of electricity parameters confirmed by the patents for the invention of the Russian Federation. The proposed technical solution voltage stabilizer asynchronous generators, can reduce the weight of the block capacitors excitation and reactive power compensation, as well as to simplify the control system power circuit which has less power electronic devices. For wind power plants it is an important issue not only to stabilize the voltage of the generator, but also the frequency of the current. Recommend functionality stabilizer schemes parameters of electric power made for direct frequency converters with artificial and natural switching power electronic devices. It is also proposed as part of stabilization systems use single-phase voltage, three-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, reduce the level of electromagnetic interference generated by power electronic devices for switching, enhance the efficiency and reliability of the stabilizer.

  6. Moodle Community in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Sulcic

    2007-01-01

    In the paper the course management system Moodle supporting a learning and collaborative work at the faculty is presented. In addition to a brief Moodle history and the Moodle application, the activity of Moodle community in Slovenia is presented. The first MoodleMoot organized in Koper in May 2007 gathered 66 fans of this Open Source online learning environment.

  7. Community Supported Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Emily

    2009-01-01

    A report on the definition, history, production, membership and local benefits of community supported agriculture. Editor's note: the following article was written as a class assignment for Dr. Greg Welbaum's Vegetable Production course at Virginia Tech. Emily provides some good history and information on the CSA marketing option for specialty crop growers." "Originally printed in Virginia Vegetable, Small Fruit and Specialty Crops, June 2002

  8. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  9. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  10. Innovations in Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1997-01-01

    Decentralization and budget reduction in the public sector, and globalization and downsizing in the private sector have placed more responsibility on localities to address challenges to the health of their economies, ecosystems, and people. Community development theory and practice are also changing, evidenced by changes in vocabulary. Community…

  11. For Community Sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether religious education plays a role in the promotion of harmonious international relations, arguing that a broad religious education with a dialogical approach goes to the heart of what it means to be a citizen in a global community. Christian theologian Hans Kung argues in his book "Judaism: Between Yesterday and…

  12. SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Richard. 2005. Seagrass Rhizosphere Microbial Communities. In: Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments. E. Kristense, J.E. Kostka and R.H. Haese, Editors. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. p199-216. (ERL,GB 1213). Seagrasses ...

  13. Linking Families, Building Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, R. Clarke; Corley, Kathy Klebs

    1996-01-01

    A year-round magnet elementary school in Salem, Massachusetts, has increased its family involvement by borrowing elements from many models. The school has mixed-age groupings, integrated social services, and community outreach strategies such as a parent center, business-sponsored Friday clubs, and celebrations of learning. (MLH)

  14. Community detection in graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo

    2010-02-01

    The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i.e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of the same cluster and comparatively few edges joining vertices of different clusters. Such clusters, or communities, can be considered as fairly independent compartments of a graph, playing a similar role like, e.g., the tissues or the organs in the human body. Detecting communities is of great importance in sociology, biology and computer science, disciplines where systems are often represented as graphs. This problem is very hard and not yet satisfactorily solved, despite the huge effort of a large interdisciplinary community of scientists working on it over the past few years. We will attempt a thorough exposition of the topic, from the definition of the main elements of the problem, to the presentation of most methods developed, with a special focus on techniques designed by statistical physicists, from the discussion of crucial issues like the significance of clustering and how methods should be tested and compared against each other, to the description of applications to real networks.

  15. One Community Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    In the city of San Jose, more than half of all public school students tested are not proficient in their grade-level skills. This article discusses how school, civic and community leaders have joined forces with the goal of eliminating the achievement gap in San Jose by 2020. This wide and highly inclusive collaboration is made possible by an…

  16. Community Profiles Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH)

    2014-01-01

    The Community Profiles Tool can be used to develop local health and wellbeing profiles from over 200 health-related indicators compiled from a range of data sources. Users can create tables, maps and charts of health-related indicators, and integrate this with key public health documents from the Health Well website such as relevant interventions, policies, and evidence related to each indicator.

  17. NOOSPHERE HUMAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Олеговна Новожилова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology.Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to  nature. This interrelation is regarded as  a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community [1].Results: A number of characteristic features of  this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale,  major role of information in making  up social wealth, creation of living matter.Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-30

  18. The Forest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on plant and animal relationships in forest communities; (2) four activities dealing with these relationships; and (3) five ready-to-copy pages for students. Activities include objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  19. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peironcely Julio E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG, which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  20. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  1. Building Community and Collaboration Applications for MMOGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supporting collaborative activities among the online players are one of the major challenges in the area of Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG, since they increase the richness of gaming experience and create more engaged communities. To this direction, our study has focused on the provision of services supporting and enhancing the players' in-game community and collaboration activities. We have designed and implemented innovative tools exploiting a game adaptation technology, namely, the In-game Graphical Insertion Technology (IGIT, which permits the addition of web-based applications without any need from the game developers to modify the game at all, nor from the game players to change their game installation. The developed tools follow a design adapted to the MMOG players' needs and are based on the latest advances on Web 2.0 technology. Their provision is performed through the core element of our system, which is the so-called Community Network Game (CNG Server. One of the important features provided by the implemented system's underlying framework is the utilization of enhanced Peer-to-Peer (P2P technology for the distribution of user-generated live video streams. In this paper, we focus on the architecture of the CNG Server as well as on the design and implementation of the online community and collaboration tools.

  2. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  3. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  4. Definition of distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, power systems in many countries are restructured and deregulated and it is expected the small scale generators or Distributed Generations (DG), such as Micro turbines, PV, fuel cells, wind turbines and so on will play important role in power system. So it is necessary to be well defined and described. Generally, DGs are defined as electric power generators that are connected to distribution networks or on the customer side of networks. This paper presents a definition of DGs with considering some important aspects, and after that introduces some different type of DGs

  5. Graph Generator Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Powers, Sarah S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Baker, Matthew B [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  6. Third generation coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Third generation coaching unfolds a new universe for coaching and coaching psychology in the framework of current social research, new learning theories and discourses about personal leadership. Third generation coaching views coaching in a societal perspective. Coaching has become important...... as a form of dialogue because the (hyper)complexity of our society. Today, knowledge has to be shaped and applied in specific contexts and situations, and both in our personal lives and in the public space we have to learn to negotiate. Coaching can help us generate new knowledge and manage social...

  7. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  8. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  9. Handling Pressures of Community Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral;

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...

  10. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link

  11. Together we work, together we grow old: life, work and community in a coal mining town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, P.

    1986-01-01

    A critical aspect of generational continuity is the passing on of a legacy to one's heirs. What happens to elders in a community when this process is disrupted through outmigration. The authors explores how the residents of Decker's Creek, a small former coal mining community in northern West Virginia, have responded to such social change in their community. An understanding of the notions of generation and community are important to her argument. She begins with Arensberg's enduring article about the relationship between community and industry as a basis for thinking about communities. Mannheim's ideas about generation organize her sense of how involvement in a major technological change wrought by the industrial resolution (the mechanization of the mines) served to cement the older mining families into a generation. The remainder of Chapter I reviews the relevant discussions about ethnography in the US, old age, work, and economy. Chapter II, describes the historical, industrial , and cultural changes that have been taking place in Appalachia since it was first subject to mining. The remaining 4 chapters discuss, respectively: the shift from handloading to mechanization in the 1920s and 1930s; community shift from a company town to a bedroom suburb; two dramatic crises by the retired miners in the 1970s; and reassessment of the issue of generational process and community change.

  12. Competition between Intra-community and Inter-community Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Ming; Lü, Jinhu; Lai, Choy Heng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the effects of external links on the synchronization performance of community networks, especially on the competition between individual community and the whole network, are studied in detail. The study is organized from two aspects: the number or portion of external links and the connecting strategy of external links between different communities. It is found that increasing the number of external links will enhance the global synchronizability but degrade the ynchronization performance of individual community before some critical point. After that the individual community will synchronize better and better as part of the whole network because the community structure is not so prominent. Among various connection strategies, connecting nodes belonging to different communities randomly rather than connecting nodes with larger degrees is the most efficient way to enhance global synchronization of the network. However, a preferential connection scheme linking most of the hubs from the communities w...

  13. The new district energy : building blocks for sustainable community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The price of energy is expected to rise as world demand for fossil fuels increases and energy supplies become harder to access. Governments and businesses are interested in the role of energy in the design, development and operation of buildings and whole communities. In addition to contributing to community economic development, district energy (DE) systems can assist communities in meeting their goals for sustainable growth and in managing the changing nature of risk in the generation and delivery of energy. This handbook was developed in order to encourage information sharing and provide ideas on how to advance district energy development in communities across Canada. The handbook identified those who could use DE and listed the benefits provided by DE. These included community, environmental, and business benefits. The handbook also offered suggestions for overcoming common challenges experienced by communities initiating a DE system and provided a checklist to help accelerate the uptake of DE systems in a community. These challenges included working with the community; using integrated design; building knowledge, know-how and technical skills; and partnering to improve project financing and reducing development risk. 50 refs., 8 tabs., 11 figs

  14. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  15. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  16. Standard Firebrand Generator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, has been constructed to generate a controlled and repeatable size and mass distribution of glowing firebrands. The purpose of NIST...

  17. Third Generation Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Third Generation Coaching entfaltet ein neues Universum für Coaching und Coaching-Psychologie auf der Grundlage veränderter Gesellschaftsbedingungen. Wir leben in hyperkomplexen sozialen und ökonomischen Kontexten. Coaching muss sich deshalb zu einer Dialogform weiterentwickeln, die dem Einzelnen......, Gruppen oder Teams neue Orientierung auf einer tieferen Sinnebene ermöglicht. Im Gegensatz zum Coaching der ersten Generation, bei dem das Erreichen bestimmter, festgeschriebener Ziele im Vordergrund steht, und im Gegensatz zum Coaching der zweiten Generation, in dem wünschenswerte zukünftige...... Möglichkeiten untersucht werden, ist das Coaching der dritten Generation ein Reflexionsraum, in dem Sinnfragen und eigene Werte reflektiert werden, die das eigene Selbstverständnis und damit auch das Handeln des Einzelnen beeinflussen. Coaching wird zu einer narrativen und partnerschaftlichen Aktivität, in der...

  18. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  19. Liquid propellant gas generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design of gas generators intended to provide hot gases for turbine drive is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design and operation of bipropellant gas generators because of their wider use. Problems and limitations involved in turbine operation due to temperature effects are analyzed. Methods of temperature control of gas turbines and combustion products are examined. Drawings of critical sections of gas turbines to show their operation and areas of stress are included.

  20. Future generations in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks whether the genuine representation of future generations brings any added value that could not be achieved by institutions or procedures installed to supplement and support ordinary representative democracy. On this background, it reviews some arguments for genuine representation...... of future generations within current democracy. It is concluded that what really matters in terms of the democratic ideal is to ensure an impartial deliberation which takes the interests of all affected parties sufficiently into account....

  1. Full scale biogas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    In Israel, a generator of fuel gas from organic waste materials was recently inaugurated and it may be the world's largest generator. The plant, which has a design output of 500 litres of liquid fuel per day, is based on the anaerobic digestion of manure and other wastes from kibbutz cattle sheds. Laboratory tests indicate that up to sixty cubic feet of high quality methane can be obtained from each cubic foot of manure.

  2. Dynamically Generated $\\Xi (1690)$

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu

    2016-01-01

    We show that the $\\Xi (1690)$ resonance can be dynamically generated in the $s$-wave $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$-$\\bar{K} \\Lambda$-$\\pi \\Xi$-$\\eta \\Xi$ coupled-channels chiral unitary approach. In our model, the $\\Xi (1690)$ resonance appears near the $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$ threshold as a $\\bar{K} \\Sigma$ molecular state and the experimental data are reproduced well. We discuss properties of the dynamically generated $\\Xi (1690)$.

  3. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  4. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  5. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  6. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  7. Concentrated solar thermoelectric generators

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Toberer, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. In this paper, we develop a novel detailed balance model for STEGs and apply this model to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. This model uses thermoelectric compatibility theory to provide analytic solutions to device efficiency in idealized materials with temperature-dependent properties. The results of this modeling allow us to predict maximum theoretical ST...

  8. Examining Electronic Learning Communities through the Communities of Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Jayme N.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative interpretive case study used Wenger's (1998) communities of practice (CoP) framework to analyze how the electronic learning community (eLC) process at an established state virtual high school operated like a community of practice. Components of the eLC process were analyzed according to elements of the CoP framework, which…

  9. Professionalising Community Work and Its Implications for Radical Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article adopts a radical lens and examines the relationship between community development, adult education and professionalism. It draws from research on one specific community- university partnership and presents the professionalisation of community work as detrimental to radical practice because of its encouragement of individual vertical…

  10. Values conflicts in professional-community collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James E

    2010-01-01

    GAP/I and INP+ represent markedly divergent cultures and therefore highlight the opportunities and strains associated with professional-community collaborations. I believe, however, that the factors that emerge from studying GAP/I-INP+ are not idiosyncratic and are relevant for other professional-community dyads. Every such partnership is likely to require some form of bridging mechanism to serve the same purposes as Mr Varghese's role did. The task of creating a zone of optimal tension may be less familiar than the need to build bridges but it is no less important. Tension between partners with significantly different cultural backgrounds has tremendous potential for generating misunderstanding and distrust. Avoiding tension-laden issues is likely to entail significant cost, whether in the form of resentment, distrust, withdrawal, or settling for a lesser outcome than could be achieved. Finally, creating and sustaining the potential for constructive tension typically requires the humble virtues associated with servant-leadership: patience, persistence and understanding.

  11. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    From small clone libraries to large next-generation sequencing datasets – the field of community genomics or metagenomics has developed tremendously within the last years. This chapter will summarize some of these developments and will also highlight pitfalls of current metagenomic analyses....... It will illustrate the general workflow of a metagenomic study and introduce the three different metagenomic approaches: (1) the random shotgun approach that focuses on the metagenome as a whole, (2) the targeted approach that focuses on metagenomic amplicon sequences, and (3) the function-driven approach that uses...... heterologous expression of metagenomic DNA fragments to discover novel metabolic functions. Lastly, the chapter will shortly discuss the meta-analysis of gene expression of microbial communities, more precisely metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics....

  12. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  13. Fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber

  14. PDF Marksheet Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srushti Shimpi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Marksheet Generator is flexible for generating progress mark sheet of students. This system is mainly based in the database technology and the credit based grading system (CBGS. The system is targeted to small enterprises, schools, colleges and universities. It can produce sophisticated ready-to-use mark sheet, which could be created and will be ready to print. The development of a marksheet and gadget sheet is focusing at describing tables with columns/rows and sub-column sub-rows, rules of data selection and summarizing for report, particular table or column/row, and formatting the report in destination document. The adjustable data interface will be popular data sources (SQL Server and report destinations (PDF file. Marksheet generation system can be used in universities to automate the distribution of digitally verifiable mark-sheets of students. The system accesses the students’ exam information from the university database and generates the gadget-sheet Gadget sheet keeps the track of student information in properly listed manner. The project aims at developing a marksheet generation system which can be used in universities to automate the distribution of digitally verifiable student result mark sheets. The system accesses the students’ results information from the institute student database and generates the mark sheets in Portable Document Format which is tamper proof which provides the authenticity of the document. Authenticity of the document can also be verified easily.

  15. Pediatric obesity community programs: barriers & facilitators toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Gesell, Sabina B; Lynne Caples, T; Escarfuller, Juan; Barkin, Shari L

    2010-08-01

    Our current generation of young people could become the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents. Families need resources in their community to address this issue. Identifying barriers and facilitators of community organizations to offer obesity-related services is a first step in understanding sustainable community programs. The objective of this study is to identify common barriers and facilitators in community organizational programs designed to prevent or reduce pediatric obesity. We conducted an exploratory qualitative research study based on grounded theory. Thirty-six community organizations were identified based on self-descriptions of goals involving pediatric obesity. Semi-structured, systematic, face-to-face interviews among program directors (n = 24) were recorded, transcribed, and coded for recurrent themes. Relevant themes were abstracted from interviews by a standardized iterative process by two independent reviewers between December 2007 and November 2008. Theme discordance was reconciled by a third reviewer. Seventy percent of organizations indicated that obesity prevention/treatment was their explicit goal with remaining groups indicating healthy lifestyles as a more general goal. Facilitators to provision of these programs included: programmatic enhancements such as improved curriculums (73%), community involvement such as volunteers (62.5%), and partnerships with other programs (54.2%). Barriers that threatened sustainability included lack of consistent funding (43.8%), lack of consistent participation from the target population (41.7%) and lack of support staff (20.8%). New approaches in fostering partnerships between organizations need to be developed. Building coalitions and engaging community members in developing community based programs may be a helpful strategy to strengthen community-based programs to address the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  16. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  17. Hlatlolanang: a community project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, P

    1993-01-01

    Sekekhuneland, which is in the northern Transvaal in South Africa, has suffered from a 2-year drought which has led to a shortage of basic food in the villages and a 50-60% incidence of kwashiorkor among the village children. The natural resources of the area have been eliminated by over population and its attendant deforestation, land erosion, and wildlife decimation. The situation has been exacerbated by a political climate rife with corruption and incompetence. The most pressing problem is a shortage of water which prevents agricultural development and limits food production. Some dangerous traditional beliefs persist, such as believing that sickness is caused by curses which modern medicine cannot affect. In response to this situation, Hlatlolanang ("we share the burden"), a community-based development program has been put into place. The director of the center, Rose Mazibuko, is a nurse who believes that primary health care in its broadest sense is a human right. This involves not only the health sector but also agriculture, industrial development, education, housing, and public works. The first problem tackled was kwashiorkor. Other groups had failed to reduce the incidence of the condition in the area. Hlatlolanang recognized that mothers of affected children were being stigmatized by hospital personnel. Thus, the mothers would often go to the hospital only as a last resort and would avoid the training necessary to help their children. The community requested that Hlatlolanang become a training center where all members of the community could learn how to combat kwashiorkor and where inappropriate attitudes could undergo the necessary changes. Thus, the Hlatlolanang Health and Education Center was born with funding from the Kaiser Family Foundation, an architect who participated in the development workshop and knew exactly what the community wanted, an elected planning committee, and 4 local builders. People were carefully screened and hired to run the center

  18. A Professional Learning Community Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maliszewski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four teachers (three classroom teachers and a teacher-librarian explain how their school applied a professional learning community framework to its operational practices. They discuss the process, the benefits, and the challenges of professional learning communities.

  19. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  20. Integrated utilisation chains of second generation pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.; Oasmaa, A.; Onarheim, K.; Soimakallio, S.; Kaelli, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: yrjo.solantausta@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    A new liquid biofuel concept is being developed, which is based on integrating a fluidised-bed boiler and fast pyrolysis. Bio-oil may be used in producing heat both for industry and communities. Improving product quality should make it possible later on also higher value uses. An emphasis in the work is placed in quality control of bio-oil production and fuel quality improvement. The work is carried out in three tasks: quality improvement, on-line measurements and markets for next generation bio-oils. The project supports industrial developments. (orig.)

  1. Social Norms for Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Park, Jaeok; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Sustaining cooperation among self-interested agents is critical for the proliferation of emerging online social communities, such as online communities formed through social networking services. Providing incentives for cooperation in social communities is particularly challenging because of their unique features: a large population of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, having asymmetric interests, and dynamically joining and leaving the community; operation errors; and low-cost reput...

  2. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  3. University Community Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Cooper

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available University-Community Partnerships have been recognized as a valuable contribution to both the academic community and our cities and towns. In the words of Henry Cisneros, former U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Design secretary, “The long-term futures of both the city and the university in this country are so intertwined that one cannot—or perhaps will not—survive without the other.” Increasingly, colleges and university are bringing their time, energy and resources to bear on local problems. They are using their other physical, financial and intellectual capital to facilitate economic development, provide social services, technical assistance and create opportunities for applied research.

  4. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  5. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  6. Community-Engaged Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester; Parker, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    of essays operating against the traditional colonizing methodologies that have been the hallmarks of social/science research for centuries (Smith, 1999). In organization studies, this tradition includes Kurt Lewin’s 20th century research studies that laid the groundwork for participatory approaches......We are pleased to offer this special issue on community-engaged scholarship. As scholar-activists working for social justice alongside youth of color (Pat) and critical arts activists engaging with stigmatized communities (Ester), we began this project with the intent of gathering a collection...... to system change, but which offered no critique or analysis of the broader societal structures of power that embed such change (Adelman, 1993). For this special issue, we called for essays that would attend to issues of power in the participative research process, and with a conscious aim toward...

  7. Community Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Marinos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenge...

  8. Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, V M; Kamuya, D K; Parker, M J; Molyneux, C S

    2011-04-01

    The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term 'community' and its specific normative contribution. We argue that 'community' is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that taking individual informed consent seriously involves understanding and addressing the influence of communities in which individuals' lives are embedded; (ii) that individual participation can generate risks and benefits for communities as part of the wider implications of research. We further argue that the contingent nature of a community means that defining boundaries is generally a normative process itself, with ethical implications. Community engagement supports the enactment of normative roles; building mutual understanding and trust between researchers and community members have been important goals in Kilifi, requiring a broad range of approaches. Ethical dilemmas are continuously generated as part of these engagement activities, including the risks of perverse outcomes related to existing social relations in communities and conditions of 'half knowing' intrinsic to processes of developing new understandings. PMID:21416064

  9. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Womack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughout DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces, suggesting that inputs of fungi to the atmosphere are from local, rather than distant, sources. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  10. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  11. Distributed Pedagogical Leadership and Generative Dialogue in Educational Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina; Sarja, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The article presents practices of distributed pedagogical leadership and generative dialogue as a tool with which management and personnel can better operate in the increasingly turbulent world of education. Distributed pedagogical leadership includes common characteristics of a professional learning community when the educational actors…

  12. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  13. Triangles as basis to detect communities: an appication to Twitter's network

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelsadek, Youcef; Herrmann, Francine; Kacem, Imed; Otjacques, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the interest given by the scientific community to the investigation of the data generated by social networks is increasing as much as the exponential increasing of social network data. The data structure complexity is one among the snags, which slowdown their understanding. On the other hand, community detection in social networks helps the analyzers to reveal the structure and the underlying semantic within communities. In this paper we propose an interactive visualization approach relying on our application NLCOMS, which uses synchronous and related views for graph and community visualization. Additionally, we present our algorithm for community detection in networks. A computation study is conducted on instances generated with the LFR [9]-[10] benchmark. Finally, in order to assess our approach on real-world data, we consider the data of the ANR-Info-RSN project. The latter addresses community detection in Twitter.

  14. Design Democratization with Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper;

    2012-01-01

    The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....

  15. Empowering Human Connected Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, Stefano A.

    2012-01-01

    International audience The keynote's goal is to reflect on emergent opportunities for human Discovery (in science), Creativity (in art & industry), and Learning (in education) as processes often occurring serendipitously in individuals and in communities empowered by dynamic Web connections in the global village. These reflections seem to fit best with the mandate of the CBIE Conference: sustainable education. Having been influenced by the pioneering work of the late ecologist Francesco Di...

  16. Auditing Community Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mészáros Gergely

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development ...

  17. Architectural Adventures in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to architecture's complexity, it can be challenging to develop lessons for the students, and consequently, the teaching of architecture is frequently overlooked. Every community has an architectural history. For example, the community in which the author's students live has a variety of historic houses from when the community originated (the…

  18. Community tree nursery, Meru, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is a photograph of a community tree nursery, Meru, Kenya. In this nursery a community group has started a nursery to provide seedlings for their own forest reforestation projects as well as for sale. This shows that use of common pool resources and shows community forestry activities that also do private tree planting on homesteads.

  19. Community gardening and social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational desi

  20. Eight Great Community Relations Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bete, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Presents eight winners of School Planning & Management's Community Relations Contest that produced ideas that other school districts can use to strengthen community/school coexistence. Papers cover such topics as improving communication between stakeholders, connecting with parents, and keeping the community informed during construction projects.…

  1. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  2. Community forestry - participatie in beheer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Verbij, E.E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Verslag van de conferentie 'Community Forestry - a change for the better' (7-9 december 1999, Londen). De nadruk lag op de sociale aspecten van community forestry: gezondheid, verbondenheid met het bos, samenwerking, rol van de overheid. Verder aandacht voor community forestry projecten in Engeland

  3. Choosing a Senior Living Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that be an independent living community, assisted living community or nursing home. However, there are numerous signs that a ... Download the Guide to Choosing an Assisted Living Community checklist. ... living, assisted living, nursing homes, etc.-it's important to assess your or ...

  4. Lesbian and Queer Generations in Vancouver: An Intergenerational Oral History Project

    OpenAIRE

    Boulay, Nadine Martine

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities of cross-generational oral history interviewing as a pedagogical tool for intergenerational conversation and broader historical understanding in queer communities. Through an analysis of the experiences of five younger queer women ages 19-30 who interviewed 15 older lesbians active in the lesbian feminist community in Vancouver during the 1970s and 80s, this research examines differences in identity formation and community building between these two ‘ge...

  5. Report to the community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braungart, S. [Petro-Canada, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Ripley, M. [Perspectives MGM Inc. (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs.

  6. Modern community care program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Going into the next millennium do we see nuclear energy? Yes we will see an expanding nuclear sector in the modem community. he modem community that cares for people, health and environment needs nuclear. Energy saves lives. Electricity is efficient use of energy. Energy will be the key to a sustainable society, energy is life. Nuclear energy protects the environment. Nuclear is an integral part of the modern community caring for people, health and environment. The dynamics of the public opinion-forming process and its effects on the nuclear industry are a challenge of the global nuclear industry. Current communications strategy and its consequences are on of the key issues. The nuclear industry must be perceived in certain ways in order to move towards achieving the vision and avoiding the harassment scenario. Each perception goal does not bear the same function within the communications process. As the nuclear industry is oe of the keys to a sustainable society, it must achieve legitimacy in its capacity as an interesting agenda-setter for tackling problems and as an expert. We have to build our communication activities on an open and honest attitude and we have to establish trust and confidence. The nuclear industry must also prove its ability and performance. If this could be achieved there will be an option for the future

  7. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs

  9. Women's health is a community issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, A

    1997-01-01

    When a member of the Community Life Project in Nigeria led a group of women in a discussion about HIV/AIDS, the women reported that they understood that condom use is the best means of protection but that they were unable to negotiate condom use with their husbands. Even if the women were economically independent, they would rather face the risk of HIV/AIDS than divorce. Thus, efforts to improve women's health have not generated much change on the local level. This can also be seen by the facts that current programs have failed to reduce the numbers of women dying from pregnancy-related causes each year, nearly 3000 women die from tuberculosis each day, women suffer occupational health risks, and domestic violence is an important determinant of health problems for women. Because women lack power in many societies, efforts to effect individual change may be blocked by a woman's particular circumstances. Thus, the involvement of entire communities is necessary to improve the conditions affecting women's health. Community-level discussions may open the door for couples to discuss sexuality and gender-based issues as well as safer sex behavior. Despite the important role they can play, women's community health groups face stiff challenges because of a lack of knowledge or training and because of the difficulty in overcoming gender-based discrimination. The Hesperian Foundation's publication, "Where Women Have No Doctor," is an excellent resource for understanding how poverty and gender issues affect women's health. The book contains practical information, promotes a model of community-based responses to problems with social origins, and shares experiences of grassroots groups world-wide. PMID:12292725

  10. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Noah A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  12. Next-generation phylogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Cheong Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thanks to advances in next-generation technologies, genome sequences are now being generated at breadth (e.g. across environments and depth (thousands of closely related strains, individuals or samples unimaginable only a few years ago. Phylogenomics – the study of evolutionary relationships based on comparative analysis of genome-scale data – has so far been developed as industrial-scale molecular phylogenetics, proceeding in the two classical steps: multiple alignment of homologous sequences, followed by inference of a tree (or multiple trees. However, the algorithms typically employed for these steps scale poorly with number of sequences, such that for an increasing number of problems, high-quality phylogenomic analysis is (or soon will be computationally infeasible. Moreover, next-generation data are often incomplete and error-prone, and analysis may be further complicated by genome rearrangement, gene fusion and deletion, lateral genetic transfer, and transcript variation. Here we argue that next-generation data require next-generation phylogenomics, including so-called alignment-free approaches. Reviewers Reviewed by Mr Alexander Panchin (nominated by Dr Mikhail Gelfand, Dr Eugene Koonin and Prof Peter Gogarten. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers’ comments section.

  13. MHD Generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix

    1980-01-01

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  14. Epigenetics and Future Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo; Loi, Michele; Stupka, Elia

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence of intergenerational epigenetic programming of disease risk broadens the scope of public health preventive interventions to future generations, i.e. non existing people. Due to the transmission of epigenetic predispositions, lifestyles such as smoking or unhealthy diet might affect the health of populations across several generations. While public policy for the health of future generations can be justified through impersonal considerations, such as maximizing aggregate well-being, in this article we explore whether there are rights-based obligations supervening on intergenerational epigenetic programming despite the non-identity argument, which challenges this rationale in case of policies that affect the number and identity of future people. We propose that rights based obligations grounded in the interests of non-existing people might fall upon existing people when generations overlap. In particular, if environmental exposure in F0 (i.e. existing people) will affect the health of F2 (i.e. non-existing people) through epigenetic programming, then F1 (i.e. existing and overlapping with both F0 and F2) might face increased costs to address F2's condition in the future: this might generate obligations upon F0 from various distributive principles, such as the principle of equal opportunity for well being. PMID:25644664

  15. Generative Benchmark Models for Mesoscale Structures in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzi, Marya; Arenas, Alex; Howison, Sam D; Porter, Mason A

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks allow one to represent diverse and interdependent connectivity patterns --- e.g., time-dependence, multiple subsystems, or both --- that arise in many applications and which are difficult or awkward to incorporate into standard network representations. In the study of multilayer networks, it is important to investigate "mesoscale" (i.e., intermediate-scale) structures, such as dense sets of nodes known as "communities" that are connected sparsely to each other, to discover network features that are not apparent at the microscale or the macroscale. A variety of methods and algorithms are available to identify communities in multilayer networks, but they differ in their definitions and/or assumptions of what constitutes a community, and many scalable algorithms provide approximate solutions with little or no theoretical guarantee on the quality of their approximations. Consequently, it is crucial to develop generative models of networks to use as a common test of community-detection tools. I...

  16. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  17. Capabilities of the Amateur-Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Devoted non-professional astronomers can offer useful service to researchers by collecting data that can’t be fit into funded observing programs, pursuing low-probability-of-success projects, stretching the limits of commercial technology, and mentoring the next generation of scientists. These individuals are performing photometry of stars and asteroids, astrometry of visual binary systems, and spectroscopy of variable stars. This report will illustrate some of the activities being done by the small-telescope research community-of-practice, and offer suggestions on how to take advantage of their capabilities and enthusiasm.

  18. Metastable Chimera States in Community-Structured Oscillator Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shanahan, Murray

    2010-01-01

    A system of symmetrically coupled identical oscillators with phase lag is presented, which is capable of generating a large repertoire of transient (metastable) "chimera" states in which synchronisation and desynchronisation co-exist. The oscillators are organised into communities, such that each oscillator is connected to all its peers in the same community and to a subset of the oscillators in other communities. Measures are introduced for quantifying metastability, the prevalence of chimera states, and the variety of such states a system generates. By simulation, it is shown that each of these measures is maximised when the phase lag of the model is close, but not equal, to pi/2. The relevance of the model to a number of fields is briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on brain dynamics.

  19. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  20. Teacher Learning Communities: The Landscape of Subject Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alice W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher learning communities (TLCs) formed within subject departments are conceptualized as reform platform for facilitating school improvement and teacher development. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which three TLCs were structured and managed for generating change capability in secondary schools in Hong Kong.…

  1. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ...

  2. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Dougill; Lindsay C. Stringer; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Butt, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural re...

  3. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Richard D. Evans; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish ...

  4. Building Effective Community Participation and Stakeholder Partnerships to Promote Positive Change in the Southern Ethiopian Rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew; Tezera, Seyoum; Amosha, Dadi

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been increased recognition that authentic community participation and creating strong inter-institutional partnerships are both important in the process of capacity building, generating innovation, and sustaining development achievements in rural Africa. Here we summarize a process of community participation and formation of institutional partnerships in support of pastoral risk-management interventions over the past seven years on the Borana Plateau. Community involvement ...

  5. Automatic Building Information Model Query Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yufei; Yu, Nan; Ming, Jiang; Lee, Sanghoon; DeGraw, Jason; Yen, John; Messner, John I.; Wu, Dinghao

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficient building design and construction calls for extensive collaboration between different subfields of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) community. Performing building design and construction engineering raises challenges on data integration and software interoperability. Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data hub to host and integrate building models is a promising solution to address those challenges, which can ease building design information management. However, the partial model query mechanism of current BIM data hub collaboration model has several limitations, which prevents designers and engineers to take advantage of BIM. To address this problem, we propose a general and effective approach to generate query code based on a Model View Definition (MVD). This approach is demonstrated through a software prototype called QueryGenerator. By demonstrating a case study using multi-zone air flow analysis, we show how our approach and tool can help domain experts to use BIM to drive building design with less labour and lower overhead cost.

  6. Sustainable, Extensible Documentation Generation Using inlinedocs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Dylan Hocking

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents inlinedocs, an R package for generating documentation from comments. The concept of structured, interwoven code and documentation has existed for many years, but existing systems that implement this for the R programming language do not tightly integrate with R code, leading to several drawbacks. This article attempts to address these issues and presents 2 contributions for documentation generation for the R community. First, we propose a new syntax for inline documentation of R code within comments adjacent to the relevant code, which allows for highly readable and maintainable code and documentation. Second, we propose an extensible system for parsing these comments, which allows the syntax to be easily augmented.

  7. Under used technetium-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health care reform truly has become a global issue and it will undoubtedly have a dramatic impact on the future of nuclear medicine business in particular. A bigger concern within the nuclear medicine community is its competitiveness with other modalities and cost effectiveness.Technetium-99m and its generators are playing key role for the majority of diagnostic scans performed in the world today. Availability of ''9''9''mTc can be increased if it is separated from ''9''9Mo after much shorter growth times. After proper planning with the extra ''9''9''mTc, a significant number of scans can be performed or we would be able to order approximately 30% low activity ''9''9Tc generators to fulfill our requirements

  8. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  9. Next generation workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The health care industry has become a very complex business. CQsts are rising and resources such as funding and human capital are diminishing. Human capital resources are about to reach true crisis proportions. The vital workforce we have counted on is expected to begin thinning as large numbers of Boomers retire. Not only does this deplete the workforce from a pure numbers perspective, but it also affects intellectual capital and institutional memory. Generational trends and characteristics have affected the workforce environment and will continue to do so as another generation continues to enter the workforce. Generation Y, also tagged Nexter, offers core values that can bring positive changes to the health care workforce. Technology continues to change at lightning speed. Embracing new technology and using it to refine the way we do business will help deliver success. Meaningful strategic plans are needed to change the model of business delivery and employee care in our future workforce. PMID:18389847

  10. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  11. Third Generation Coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    German abstract: Auf der Grundlage aktueller Sozialforschung, neuer Lerntheorien und Diskurse der Personalführung entfaltet sich ein neues Verständnis von Coaching und Coaching-Psychologie. In der dritten Generation wird Coaching aus gesellschaftlicher Perspektive betrachtet. Wenn sich die...... Gesellschaft verändert, muss sich auch Coaching als spezifische Form der Interaktion weiterentwickeln: Die Mission des Third Generation Coaching ist die Entwicklung von Nachhaltigkeit in der Anwendung, indem sich der Dialog stärker auf Werte und Sinn-Schaffen ausrichtet, weg vom einengenden Zielfokus hin zur...... Betonung von Aspirationen, Leidenschaften und Werten. In diesem Sinne trägt Third Generation Coaching zur Entfaltung und Weiterentwicklung persönlicher Identität bei – ein entscheidender Faktor für die menschliche Entwicklung in unserer Zeit. Auf der Basis kollaborativer Zusammenarbeit dieses Ansatzes...

  12. The future of community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Feiner, Joel S; Huffine, Charles; Moffic, H Steven; Thompson, Kenneth S

    2003-10-01

    Leaders of national groups that have focused on issues of community and social psychiatry present their ideas about the future of psychiatry. They identify five areas: theory development; the relevance of community psychiatry in the 21st century; education and training; the relationship between community psychiatry and health maintenance organizations; and role of community psychiatry in bridging medical science with humanism. The unifying theme for these topics is that community psychiatry can be a vehicle for modifying general psychiatry's propensity towards individualism and reductionism by offering a more holistic and integrative approach to illness and well-being.

  13. Imbalance problem in community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2016-09-01

    Community detection gives us a simple way to understand complex networks' structures. However, there is an imbalance problem in community detection. This paper first introduces the imbalance problem and then proposes a new measure to alleviate the imbalance problem. In addition, we study two variants of the measure and further analyze the resolution scale of community detection. Finally, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on random networks as well as real-world networks for community detection. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that our approach achieves better performance for community detection. We also find that our approach tends to separate densely connected subgroups preferentially.

  14. Dirichlet multinomial mixtures: generative models for microbial metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Holmes

    Full Text Available We introduce Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM for the probabilistic modelling of microbial metagenomics data. This data can be represented as a frequency matrix giving the number of times each taxa is observed in each sample. The samples have different size, and the matrix is sparse, as communities are diverse and skewed to rare taxa. Most methods used previously to classify or cluster samples have ignored these features. We describe each community by a vector of taxa probabilities. These vectors are generated from one of a finite number of Dirichlet mixture components each with different hyperparameters. Observed samples are generated through multinomial sampling. The mixture components cluster communities into distinct 'metacommunities', and, hence, determine envirotypes or enterotypes, groups of communities with a similar composition. The model can also deduce the impact of a treatment and be used for classification. We wrote software for the fitting of DMM models using the 'evidence framework' (http://code.google.com/p/microbedmm/. This includes the Laplace approximation of the model evidence. We applied the DMM model to human gut microbe genera frequencies from Obese and Lean twins. From the model evidence four clusters fit this data best. Two clusters were dominated by Bacteroides and were homogenous; two had a more variable community composition. We could not find a significant impact of body mass on community structure. However, Obese twins were more likely to derive from the high variance clusters. We propose that obesity is not associated with a distinct microbiota but increases the chance that an individual derives from a disturbed enterotype. This is an example of the 'Anna Karenina principle (AKP' applied to microbial communities: disturbed states having many more configurations than undisturbed. We verify this by showing that in a study of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD phenotypes, ileal Crohn's disease (ICD is associated with

  15. Dirichlet multinomial mixtures: generative models for microbial metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ian; Harris, Keith; Quince, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) for the probabilistic modelling of microbial metagenomics data. This data can be represented as a frequency matrix giving the number of times each taxa is observed in each sample. The samples have different size, and the matrix is sparse, as communities are diverse and skewed to rare taxa. Most methods used previously to classify or cluster samples have ignored these features. We describe each community by a vector of taxa probabilities. These vectors are generated from one of a finite number of Dirichlet mixture components each with different hyperparameters. Observed samples are generated through multinomial sampling. The mixture components cluster communities into distinct 'metacommunities', and, hence, determine envirotypes or enterotypes, groups of communities with a similar composition. The model can also deduce the impact of a treatment and be used for classification. We wrote software for the fitting of DMM models using the 'evidence framework' (http://code.google.com/p/microbedmm/). This includes the Laplace approximation of the model evidence. We applied the DMM model to human gut microbe genera frequencies from Obese and Lean twins. From the model evidence four clusters fit this data best. Two clusters were dominated by Bacteroides and were homogenous; two had a more variable community composition. We could not find a significant impact of body mass on community structure. However, Obese twins were more likely to derive from the high variance clusters. We propose that obesity is not associated with a distinct microbiota but increases the chance that an individual derives from a disturbed enterotype. This is an example of the 'Anna Karenina principle (AKP)' applied to microbial communities: disturbed states having many more configurations than undisturbed. We verify this by showing that in a study of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes, ileal Crohn's disease (ICD) is associated with a more variable

  16. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however, is...

  17. Three Generations Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Florya, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Tourism plays a magnificent role nowadays in people’s life. Now when there are fewer borders and more oppor-tunities to travel, people want to see and explore the world by themselves, together with their families and rela-tives. The thesis focuses on activities for three generation extended family travelers who are staying in Saimaa Holi-day Oravi cottages. The overall purpose is providing real activities for three generation travelers. The objective was to create brand-new activities, to...

  18. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists.......This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...

  19. Hacking the next generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanjani, Nitesh; Hardin, Brett

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of rich Internet applications, the explosion of social media, and the increased use of powerful cloud computing infrastructures, a new generation of attackers has added cunning new techniques to its arsenal. For anyone involved in defending an application or a network of systems, Hacking: The Next Generation is one of the few books to identify a variety of emerging attack vectors. You'll not only find valuable information on new hacks that attempt to exploit technical flaws, you'll also learn how attackers take advantage of individuals via social networking sites, and abuse

  20. The Generation of Fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Gunnar; Goedgebeur, Jan; McKay, Brendan D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an efficient new algorithm for the generation of fullerenes. Our implementation of this algorithm is more than 3.5 times faster than the previously fastest generator for fullerenes -- fullgen -- and the first program since fullgen to be useful for more than 100 vertices. We also note a programming error in fullgen that caused problems for 136 or more vertices. We tabulate the numbers of fullerenes and IPR fullerenes up to 400 vertices. We also check up to 316 vertices a conjecture...

  1. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  2. Community Entrepreneurship in Deprived Neighbourhoods: Comparing UK Community Enterprises with US Community Development Corporations (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varady, D.P.; Kleinhans, R.J.; Van Ham, M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a review of the recent American community development literature, this paper tests the assertion that British community enterprises (CEs) are fundamentally similar to American community development corporations (CDCs), and therefore, that CEs can learn from CDCs. In the context of the curren

  3. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  4. Community Disaster and Sustainability Teams for Civil Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, I.; Cordonnier, B.

    2009-04-01

    Many examples of community-based teams for civil protection and disaster risk reduction exist. Turkey has a Community Disaster Volunteer Training Program while the USA has Community Emergency Response Teams which have been extended into secondary schools as Teen School Emergency Response Training. The principles and practices of these teams further apply directly to other development and sustainability endeavours, all of which are intricately linked to disaster risk reduction and civil protection. An example is keeping local water courses and storm drains clear from rubbish. That improves community health and cleanliness while assisting rainfall drainage to reduce flood risk. The "community teams" concept, as implemented for civil protection and disaster risk reduction, therefore connects with day-to-day living, such as ensuring that all community members have adequate access to water, food, waste management, shelter, health care, education, and energy. Community teams should be based on the best science and pedagogy available to ensure that concepts, training, skills, and implementation are effective and are maintained over the long-term. That entails going beyond the interest that is commonly generated by highlighting high-profile events, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, or high-profile concerns, such as climate change or terrorism. When community teams are focused on high-profile challenges, maintaining interest can be difficult without specific manifestations of the perceived "number one threat". Incorporating day-to-day concerns into civil protection can overcome that. For example, the community teams' talents and energy could be used for picking up rubbish, for educating about health and waste disposal, and for conducting vulnerability assessments in order to inspire action for continual vulnerability reduction. In addition to the examples given above, Japan's Jishu-bosai-soshiki community activities and Asia's "Townwatch" initiative adopt wider and deeper

  5. To Enliven Virtual Communities of Practice through Gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities of practice are meant to generate knowledge through voluntary interaction between their members. With the expansion of electronic communication means these communities became virtual, in the sense that most of the innercommunication and collaboration are supported by synchronous and asynchronous electronic tools. However, research data shows that most of these virtual communities have great difficulty in reaching and maintaining healthy levels of activity. Gamification proposes to transfer the kind of intrinsic motivation found in games to increase the likeability and engagement in non-game contexts. Therefore it can be an approach to increase the member participation in communities of practice and, therefore, their chance to survive. Nevertheless, although gamification has proven useful in a number of cases, its implementation has to be carefully designed according to the intended audience to be effective.

  6. Construction of Community Web Directories based on Web usage Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sandhyarani, Ramancha; Gyani, Jayadev; 10.5121/acij.2012.3205

    2012-01-01

    This paper support the concept of a community Web directory, as a Web directory that is constructed according to the needs and interests of particular user communities. Furthermore, it presents the complete method for the construction of such directories by using web usage data. User community models take the form of thematic hierarchies and are constructed by employing clustering approach. We applied our methodology to the ODP directory and also to an artificial Web directory, which was generated by clustering Web pages that appear in the access log of an Internet Service Provider. For the discovery of the community models, we introduced a new criterion that combines a priori thematic informativeness of the Web directory categories with the level of interest observed in the usage data. In this context, we introduced and evaluated new clustering method. We have tested the methodology using access log files which are collected from the proxy servers of an Internet Service Provider and provided results that ind...

  7. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  8. The Impacts of Free Public Internet Access on Public Library Patrons and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Public libraries have evolved into a primary source of Internet access in many communities, generating wide-ranging impacts in the communities that public libraries serve. Based on the findings of the 2007 Public Libraries and the Internet study, this article examines the ways in which the Internet access delivered by public libraries affects…

  9. Community Colleges and Teacher Preparation: Roles, Issues and Opportunities. Issue Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Tricia; Vandal, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The role of community colleges in preparing the next generation of teachers in U.S. classrooms continues to evolve. In many states, community colleges are no longer playing an informal or tangential role in teacher preparation and instead are becoming critical leaders in efforts to develop a pool of highly effective teachers for states and regions…

  10. Succession Planning: A Doctoral Program Partnership for Emerging Community College Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gaye

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a doctoral program partnership between a university and a community college district that addresses the need of employment-planning strategies for building leadership capacity in the community college system. Succession planning information is provided as a foundational framework to plan for the next generation of community…

  11. School Contribution to Rural Communities: Leadership Issues. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Susan; Kilpatrick, Sue; Falk, Ian; Mulford, Bill

    A case study exploring the relationship between local leadership and the school-community partnership was conducted in a small, isolated Australian mining town. Data were generated from written materials such as the local newspaper and interviews with 8 school staff members and 11 community members involved with the schools or representing…

  12. Schools and Religious Communities' Contributions to the Religious Formation of Christian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the implications of tribal forms of religious socialization for (religious) schools' and communities' contributions to the religious formation of Christian youth. It clarifies that the religious education of a new generation of young Christians requires authorities and communities to connect in a worldwide pedagogical space…

  13. Renewing the American Community College. The Jossey-Bass Higher Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    A framework for examining the future development of the community college and specific policy and program proposals is provided by the 13 essays in this collection. Part one, "The Community College in Perspective," includes "The Evolution of Two-Year Colleges Through Four Generations," by Dale Tillery and William L. Deegan; and "Determining…

  14. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  15. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  16. The Technological Expansion of Sociability: Virtual Communities as Imagined Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Grădinaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reception of Benedict Anderson’s ideas was very fruitful in many disciplines, and his work provided key concepts that can now throw a clarifying light in some blurry matters. The expression “imagined community” has known a remarkable proliferation, a situation that led to both the formation of a research direction and to the perpetuation of a cliché. In this respect, my article pointed out some suggestive characteristics of virtual communities, explaining why the imagined community is a valuable subject for the theorists of new media. The impossibility to know in person all the members of a big community is just one factor that determines its imagined face. Moreover, the set of values and inner presuppositions that guide the members are important bricks in the construction of community. In my opinion, the virtual community is imagined as a multi-layered experience (technological, conversational, relational etc.. The dynamic of a virtual community contains the tension amongst these layers and the degree of its imagined side depends on multiple factors. In order to illustrate these aspects, I gave a brief example by analysing a Romanian virtual community, using the triad common language – temporality – high centers. In spite of its limitations, the perspectives offered by this concept are still useful for understanding the nature of online communities. Thus, the imagined community is a valuable set of beliefs and practices that underlie and bolster the effective meaning and functioning of the virtual communities.

  17. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  18. Hyperquarks and generation number

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, Alfons J

    2013-01-01

    In a model in which quarks and leptons are built up from two spin 1/2 preons as fundamental entities, a new class of fermionic bound states (hyperquarks) arises. It turns out that these hyperquarks are necessary to fulfill the 't Hooft anomaly constraint, which then links the number of fermionic generations to the number of colors and hypercolors.

  19. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  20. Generating Multimodal References

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions, based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer et al. (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing.