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Sample records for biocontrol fungus trichoderma

  1. [Improvement of Trichoderma strains for biocontrol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, T; Rey, M; Delgado-Jarana, J; Rincón, A M; Limón, M C

    2000-03-01

    The use of the fungal genus Trichoderma to control fungal plant diseases is a promising alternative to the use of chemical compounds. The aim of this work has been to obtain Trichoderma strains with improved capacity as biological control agents. To do so, the hydrolytic capacity on fungal cell walls of strains of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum has been increased. On one hand, transformation experiments with genes which coded for chitinases and glucanases have been carried out in T. harzianumstra ins. On the other hand, the medium composition has also been modified in order to eliminate proteolytic degradation of some of the overproduced enzymes. Finally, hybrid chitinolytic enzymes with substrate-binding domains have been produced as an alternative to obtain improved biocontrol strains. The transformant strains, when compared with the wild type, showed improved antifungal capacity against the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani, in in vitro experiments. PMID:15762779

  2. Advances in biocontrol mechanism and application of Trichoderma spp. for plant diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caihong; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. is a filamentous soil fungus known as an effective biocontrol agent of a range of important airborne and soilborne pathogens, it has universal distribution and economic importance. This article reviewed the researches on biocontrol mechanism for plant diseases and application of Trichoderma spp., especially Trichoderma harzianum in recent years.

  3. A New Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma Kongii in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Isolation and Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 164 soil and root samples of different plant groups were collected from Abu-Arish governorate , Jazan province South West Saudi Arabia during the period of 2004-2005. Each sample contained feeder roots and approximately 250 g soil, taken from a depth of 20 cm of the soil surface. Samples were analyzed by two different media. Culture fungi on Malt Extract Agar identified by Biolog Systems and culture fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar medium containing chloramphenicol were identified by microscopic characterization. Results showed that, 11 different types of fungi isolated from tested samples, Fusarium spp (40%), Rhizoctonia solani,(12%) Trichoderma spp (12%), Macrophomina phaseoina. (7 %), Aspergillus spp (18 %) were the predominant fungal species. Helminthosporium spp (3%), Alternaria alternate (2%), Pythium spp (2%), Curviularia spp (2%), Cladsporium spp. (1%) and Mucor spp. (1%) were less frequent. (author)

  4. Gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez M Belén

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been shown that the Trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. With a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of Trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (HDO microarray encompassing 14,081 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-based transcripts from eight Trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, and we have used this microarray to examine the gene expression of T. harzianum either alone or in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose. Results Global microarray analysis revealed 1,617 probe sets showing differential expression in T. harzianum mycelia under at least one of the culture conditions tested as compared with one another. Hierarchical clustering and heat map representation showed that the expression patterns obtained in glucose medium clustered separately from the expression patterns observed in the presence of tomato plants and chitin. Annotations using the Blast2GO suite identified 85 of the 257 transcripts whose probe sets afforded up-regulated expression in response to tomato plants. Some of these transcripts were predicted to encode proteins related to Trichoderma-host (fungus or plant associations, such as Sm1/Elp1 protein, proteases P6281 and PRA1, enchochitinase CHIT42, or QID74 protein, although previously uncharacterized genes were also identified, including those responsible for the possible biosynthesis of nitric oxide, xenobiotic detoxification, mycelium development, or those related to the formation of infection structures in plant tissues. Conclusion The effectiveness of the Trichoderma HDO microarray to detect different gene responses under different growth conditions in the fungus T. harzianum strongly indicates that this tool should be useful for further assays that

  5. Trichoderma spp.: a biocontrol agent for sustainable management of plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)

  6. Molecular Characterization and Identification of Biocontrol Isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, M. R.; Grondona, I; Iturriaga, E A; Diaz-Minguez, J. M.; Castro, C.; Monte, E.; Garcia-Acha, I.

    2000-01-01

    The most common biological control agents (BCAs) of the genus Trichoderma have been reported to be strains of Trichoderma virens, T. harzianum, and T. viride. Since Trichoderma BCAs use different mechanisms of biocontrol, it is very important to explore the synergistic effects expressed by different genotypes for their practical use in agriculture. Characterization of 16 biocontrol strains, previously identified as “Trichoderma harzianum” Rifai and one biocontrol strain recognized as T. virid...

  7. Saprotrophic competitiveness and biocontrol fitness of a genetically modified strain of the plant-growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Lauren S; Harris, Beverley D; Soanes, Darren M; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are ubiquitous soil fungi that hold enormous potential for the development of credible alternatives to agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers in sustainable crop production. In this paper, we show that substantial improvements in plant productivity can be met by genetic modification of a plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum, but that these improvements are obtained in the absence of disease pressure only. Using a quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA, we show that an N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase-deficient mutant of T. hamatum, generated by insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding gene, has impaired saprotrophic competitiveness during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Furthermore, its fitness as a biocontrol agent of the pre-emergence damping-off pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is significantly reduced, and its ability to promote plant growth is constrained by the presence of both pathogens. This work shows that while gains in T. hamatum-mediated plant-growth-promotion can be met through genetic manipulation of a single beneficial trait, such a modification has negative impacts on other aspects of its biology and ecology that contribute to its success as a saprotrophic competitor and antagonist of soil-borne pathogens. The work has important implications for fungal morphogenesis, demonstrating a clear link between hyphal architecture and secretory potential. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a holistic approach to the development of genetically modified Trichoderma strains for use as crop stimulants and biocontrol agents in plant agriculture. PMID:21835878

  8. Calcium-mediated perception and defense responses activated in plant cells by metabolite mixtures secreted by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Paola

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium is commonly involved as intracellular messenger in the transduction by plants of a wide range of biotic stimuli, including signals from pathogenic and symbiotic fungi. Trichoderma spp. are largely used in the biological control of plant diseases caused by fungal phytopathogens and are able to colonize plant roots. Early molecular events underlying their association with plants are relatively unknown. Results Here, we investigated the effects on plant cells of metabolite complexes secreted by Trichoderma atroviride wild type P1 and a deletion mutant of this strain on the level of cytosolic free Ca2+ and activation of defense responses. Trichoderma culture filtrates were obtained by growing the fungus alone or in direct antagonism with its fungal host, the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, and then separated in two fractions (>3 and Glycine max L. cell suspension cultures, Trichoderma and Botrytis metabolite mixtures were distinctively perceived and activated transient intracellular Ca2+ elevations with different kinetics, specific patterns of intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of cell death. Both Ca2+ signature and cellular effects were modified by the culture medium from the knock-out mutant of Trichoderma, defective for the production of the secreted 42 kDa endochitinase. Conclusion New insights are provided into the mechanism of interaction between Trichoderma and plants, indicating that secreted fungal molecules are sensed by plant cells through intracellular Ca2+ changes. Plant cells are able to discriminate signals originating in the single or two-fungal partner interaction and modulate defense responses.

  9. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  10. Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kredics, László; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Manczinger, László; Szekeres, András; Kevei, Ferenc; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2003-01-01

    Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some ...

  11. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  12. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Zeilinger; Markus Omann

    2007-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the pla...

  13. Cell wall degrading isoenzyme profiles of Trichoderma biocontrol strains show correlation with rDNA species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanz L; Hermosa M R; González F J; Monte E

    2004-01-01

    @@ Species of the fungus Trichoderma, a genus of Hyphomycetes, are ubiquitous in the environment, but especially in soil. They have been used in a wide range of commercial applications including the production of hydrolases and in the biological control of plant diseases. A fundamental part of the Trichoderma antifungal system consists of a series of genes coding for a surprising variety of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE).Characterisation and identification of strains at the species level is the first step in utilizing the full potential of fungi in specific applications. One aim when isolating Trichoderma strains is to identify those which can be used in new agricultural and industrial applications. In the past it was not uncommon that biocontrol strains were defined as T. harzianum Rifai, due to the limited classification system of the genus Trichoderma. In recent years, several PCR-based molecular techniques have been used to detect and discriminate among microorganisms. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA and gene fragments as those corresponding to tef1 gene have been helpful in the neotypification, description and characterization of species in the genus Trichoderna.Another useful method for the identification of Trichoderma strains is the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique.Isozyme polymorphisms evaluation of five putative extracellular lytic enzymes loci (β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,6-glucanase, cellulase, chitinase and protease antivities) were carried out using representative strains of defined molecular groups. CWDE groupings obtained from biocontrol strains are discussed in relation to their phylogenetic location and antifungal activities.Compiling morphological, biochemical and sequence information data into a common database would provide a useful resource that could be used to accurately name new haplotypes identified in the future and correctly place them within the genus Trichoderma.

  14. Use of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) as a model system for Trichoderma biocontrol of Pythium blight identifies new targets for genetic strain improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seidl V; Schmoll M; Scherm B; Balmas V; Seiboth B; Migheli Q; Kubicek C P

    2004-01-01

    @@ Biocontrol by Trichoderma has been studied mainly with selected isolates of T. harzianum, T.atroviride and T. asperellum, which are members of sections Pachybasium and Trichoderma. In contrast, species from section Longibrachiatum have only rarely been studied. On the other hand, one taxon from this section-Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei)-has been widely used for the production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and recombinant proteins. As far as Trichoderma is concerned, molecular genetic methods and tools are most advanced in H. jecorina,and its genome has recently been fully sequenced, thus making this taxon a model organism for the genus. Here we will demonstrate that H. jecorina is able to antagonize plant pathogenic fungi in plate confrontation tests, and can protect tomato and cucumber plants against Pythium ultimum blight.Using this as a model case, we made use of available H. jecorina mutants to investigate (a) whether carbon catabolite repression via the Cre1-regulator protein has an impact on biocontrol, and (b)whether cellulase gene expression is necessary for biocontrol of P. ultimum. In the first case, plate confrontation tests and in planta experiments yielded opposite results, i.e. while a Cre1 mutant was more active in antagonization of fungi on plates, the survival rates of P. ultimum-inoculated cucumber plants was lower than with the H. jecorina wild-type strain. Mutants of H. jecorina,unable to form cellulases, were still able to antagonize fungi on plates and provided similar protection of tomatos against P. ultimum as the wild type, indicating that the pronounced biocontrol ability of H.jecorina against fungi with cellulose-containing cell-walls is not due to its high cellulolytic activity. A strain disrupted in the light-modulator gene envoy (Schmoll et al., ms submitted) exhibited in planta biocontrol activity strongly exceeding that of the wild-type strain, thereby providing a first link between Trichoderma

  15. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Sp. against plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from cultivated lands around Bangalore andanalyzed for their antagonistic potential against Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium ciceri. The potential ofbiocontrol agents ultimately lies in their capacity to control pathogens in vivo. Bioefficacy studies were henceconducted using chickpea (Cicer argentums c.v. Annigeri as an experimental plant by the roll paper towelmethod. Overall the isolates T40, T35, T30 and T25 showed better antagonistic potential in addition toenhancing plant growth. The production of chitinases to break down the mycelial cell walls of fungal plantpathogens has been implicated as a major cause of biocontrol activity (Inbar and Chet, 1995. In order tostudy the mechanism of biocontrol, ten better performing strains were plated on media, amended withcolloidal chitin and Sclerotium rolfsii cell wall extract. All the isolates showed chitinolytic activity on day threeas well as day five. Production of endochitinase and exochitinase were assayed in liquid media usingcolloidal chitin amended broth. Strains T35 and T6 displayed maximum endochitinase and exochitinaseactivity. Although all strains exhibited cellulase activity, the quantum of enzyme produced was higher in T35and T6. The results also indicate a positive correlation between enzyme production and bioefficacy.

  16. TmkA, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase of Trichoderma virens, Is Involved in Biocontrol Properties and Repression of Conidiation in the Dark

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Latha, Jagannathan; Hadar, Ruthi; Horwitz, Benjamin A.

    2003-01-01

    Trichoderma virens is a mycoparasitic fungus used in biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens. It inhibits or kills plant-pathogenic fungi through production of antifungal antibiotics and parasitism of hyphae and sclerotia. Conidiation, or the production of asexual spores, an inducible process triggered by light or nutrient stress, is an important trait in survival and also development of formulation products. In many fungi, signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...

  17. Trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent against Bipolaris oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Gamal M; Shabana, Yasser M; Ismail, Adel E; Rashad, Younes Mohamed

    2007-08-01

    Rice brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, can be a serious disease causing a considerable yield loss. Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent for a number of plant fungal diseases. Thus, this research was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action by which T. harzianum antagonizes Bipolaris oryzae in vitro, and the efficacy of spray application of a spore suspension of T. harzianum for control of rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, the antagonistic behavior of T. harzianum resulted in the overgrowth of B. oryzae by T. harzianum, while the antifungal metabolites of T. harzianum completely prevented the linear growth of B. oryzae. Light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed no evidence that mycoparasitism contributed to the aggressive nature of the tested isolate of T. harzianum against B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of a spore suspension of T. harzianum at 10(8)spore ml(-1) significantly reduced the disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, and also significantly increased the grain yield, total grain carbohydrate, and protein, and led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves. PMID:17592758

  18. Trichoderma spp.capable of growing at low temperatures with biocontrol potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Szakacs G; Tavaszi A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Though there are successful commercial biocontrol products with Trichoderma spp. In many countries including US, Israel and Europe, their usefulness is limited in cold environments such as mid-and northern part of Europe, US and Canada, especially in the late fall, winter and early spring period.Trichoderma isolates capable of growing at low temperatures (5-10 ℃) and showing good antagonistic properties against plant pathogenic fungi may have therefore both scientific and commercial value.

  19. Enhanced biocontrol activity of Trichoderma through inactivation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Pozo, María J.; Grzegorski, Darlene; Martínez, Pedro; García, Juan M.; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Cortés, Carlos; Kenerley, Charles; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The production of lytic enzymes in Trichoderma is considered determinant in its parasitic response against fungal species. A mitogen-activated protein kinase encoding gene, tvk1, from Trichoderma virens was cloned, and its role during the mycoparasitism, conidiation, and biocontrol was examined in tvk1 null mutants. These mutants showed a clear increase in the level of the expression of mycoparasitism-related genes under simulated mycoparasitism and during direct confrontation with the plant ...

  20. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses. PMID:24813508

  1. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics László; Alcaraz, Luis D; Aerts, Andrea; Antal Zsuzsanna (Szeged)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocl...

  2. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubichek, C.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results: Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Glio...

  3. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the ph

  4. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2009-11-30

    Background: Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are effective mycoparasites an for this reason used as biocontrol agents agents plant pathogenic fungi. The ability to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill the prey are essential skills for this process. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride when being confronted with a potential prey. Results: T. atroviride was confronted with two fungal preys, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and cDNAs prepared from mycelia immediately before getting into physical contact with them (“onset of mycoparasitism”), and compared with such prepared from mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes each, were obtained from each of these three conditions. 65 genes, represented by 439 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof verified by expression analysis. They comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from those including posttranslational processing (159 from 183 ESTs), and amino acid metabolism (70 of 84 ESTs), respectively. Several heat shock factors and tRNA synthases were particularly abundant. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the amino acid biosynthesic and the lipid catabolic capacity. Conclusion: Analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions including strong stress response, sensing of nitrogen shortage and lipid catabolism. The data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for breeding of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  5. Biocontrol of sheath blight by Trichoderma asperellum in tropical lowland rice

    OpenAIRE

    de França, Suenny Kelly Santos; Cardoso, Aline Figueiredo; Lustosa, Denise Castro; Ramos, Edson Marcos Leal Soares; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; da Silva, Gisele Barata

    2015-01-01

    Crop damage by rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, can decrease rice yield by up to 45 %. The classical control method of rice sheath blight in the Amazon region is the application of fungicides. Therefore, we tested here the efficiency of a biocontrol agent, Trichoderma asperellum, and fungicides. Two experiments of rice cultivation were carried out with seven treatments: four isolates of T. asperellum, a mixture of the four isolates, the fungicide pencycuron, and the control. The first ...

  6. Utilization of winery wastes for Trichoderma viride biocontrol agent production by solid state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zhihui; JIN Bo; LI Yuejie; CHEN Jian; LI Zuming

    2008-01-01

    Biocontrol agents are safe and environmental friendly alternatives for pesticides in agriculture application.Trichoderma v/ride WEBL0703 performed a high level of antagonistic activity toward a broad spectrum of phytopathogens and was determined as a biocontrol agent,which was produced by solid state fermentation using grape marc and wine lees.The maximum yield of T.viride conidia was up to 6.65×109 CFU/g initial dry substrate (IDS) after 10 d fermentation.As important enzymes for protecting plants from disease,ehitinase,β-glucanase,and pectinase yields were 47.8 U/g IDS,8.32 U/g IDS and 9.83 U/g IDS,respectively.These results show that it is feasible to convert winery wastes to a value-added and environmental friendly biocontrol agent.

  7. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  8. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. PMID:26774866

  9. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte.

  10. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline S; de Araújo, Welington Luiz; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte. PMID:23110120

  11. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum. PMID:25023078

  12. Improvement of the Fungal Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride To Enhance both Antagonism and Induction of Plant Systemic Disease Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne; Ciliento, Rosalia; Woo, Sheridian L.; Lorito, Matteo; Kubicek, Christian P; Mach, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. We determined whether transgenic strain SJ3-4 of Trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxA, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. The transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxA expression occurred immediat...

  13. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. PMID:25171761

  14. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2010-07-23

    BACKGROUND: Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. RESULTS: We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  15. Nutrient activation of Trichoderma fungal spores for improved biocontrol activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Gordon Hjeljord; Arne Tronsmo

    2004-01-01

    @@ The effect of preliminary nutrient activation on the ability of conidia of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum P1 (ThP1) to suppress Botrytis cinerea was investigated in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Preliminary nutrient activation at 21 ℃ accelerated subsequent germination of the antagonist at temperatures from 9 ℃ to 21 ℃; at ≥ 18 ℃ the germination time of preactivated ThP1conidia did not differ significantly from that of B. cinerea. When coinoculated with B. cinerea,concentrated inocula of preactivated but ungerminated ThP1 conidia reduced in vitro germination of the pathogen by ≥ 87 % at 12 ℃ to 25 ℃; initially-quiescent conidia achieved this level of suppression only at 25 ℃. Application of quiescent ThP1 conidia to detached strawberry flowers in moist chambers reduced infection by B. cinerea by ≥85 % at 24 ℃ , but only by 35 % at 12 ℃. Preactivated conidia reduced infection by ≥60% at 12 ℃. Both quiescent and preactivated conidia significantly reduced latent infection in greenhouse-grown strawberries at a mean temperture of 19 ℃, while only preactivated conidia were effective in the field at a mean temperature of 14 ℃ on the day of treatment application.

  16. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most important industrial production organisms, owing to its highly efficient (hemi-)cellulase synthesis and secretion machineries. These enzymes, which in nature allow the fungus to utilize energy bound in...

  17. Enhanced biocontrol activity of Trichoderma through inactivation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Pozo, María J; Grzegorski, Darlene; Martínez, Pedro; García, Juan M; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Cortés, Carlos; Kenerley, Charles; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2003-12-23

    The production of lytic enzymes in Trichoderma is considered determinant in its parasitic response against fungal species. A mitogen-activated protein kinase encoding gene, tvk1, from Trichoderma virens was cloned, and its role during the mycoparasitism, conidiation, and biocontrol was examined in tvk1 null mutants. These mutants showed a clear increase in the level of the expression of mycoparasitism-related genes under simulated mycoparasitism and during direct confrontation with the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The null mutants displayed an increased protein secretion phenotype as measured by the production of lytic enzymes in culture supernatant compared to the wild type. Consistently, biocontrol assays demonstrated that the null mutants were considerably more effective in disease control than the wild-type strain or a chemical fungicide. In addition, tvk1 gene disruptant strains sporulated abundantly in submerged cultures, a condition that is not conducive to sporulation in the wild type. These data suggest that Tvk1 acts as a negative modulator during host sensing and sporulation in T. virens. PMID:14673101

  18. Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent against Alternaria alternata on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Ziberoski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma fungi are the most popular agents used in a biological control. Therefore, our aim was to determine an impact of Trichoderma harzianum on the fungus Alternaria alternata - a causing agent of the brown spot disease on tobacco. In vitro analyses were made in several variants of double culture, in order to study the effect of difusible and volatile metabolites. There was strong reducing effect on the development of A.alternata with various mechanisms of antagonistic influence. The volatile metabolites have also shown reducing effect. Some abnormalities were observed in the pathogen's morphology both in difusible and volatile metabolites. The strong reducing effect of T.harzianum towards A. alternata can be applied in biological control of this pathogen.

  19. Antioxident activity of the mangrove endophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saravanakumar Kandasamy; Kathiresan Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test antioxidant property of the endophytic Trichoderma species isolated from the leaves of 12 mangroves of Andaman Nicobar Islands. Methods: Eight strains of Trichoderma species were found predominant and their crude extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity by using seven assays.Results:EMFCAS8 and other strains also showed considerable activity. Total antioxidant activity varied with the strains and it was maximum in Trichoderma Conclusions: This work concluded that mangroves are rich in endophytic Trichoderma species with potential for antioxidant activity.

  20. Native isolate of Trichoderma: a biocontrol agent with unique stress tolerance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, N; Khan, S S; Sundari, S Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Species of Trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. Our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate Trichoderma harzianum KSNM (T103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mM); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mM); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100-600 ppb)], along with its ability to support plant growth. In vitro growth promotion assays with T103 treated Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo and Hordeum vulgare confirmed 'non-species specific' growth promotion effects of T103. At lower metal concentration, T103 treatment was found to completely negate the impact of metal stress [60 % increase in radicle length (RL) with no significant decrease in %germination (%G)]. Even at 10 mM metal, T103 inoculation gave 80 % increase in %G and >50 % increase in RL. In vitro experiments confirmed high metal reduction capacity (47 %-Cr, 35 %-Ni and 42 %-Zn) of T103 at concentrations as high as 4 mM. At maximum residual concentrations of malathion (440 ppm) and carbofuran (100 ppb) reported in agricultural soils, T103 maintained 80 and 100 % survivability, respectively. T103 treatment has improved %G and RL in all three hosts challenged with pesticide. Isolate T103 was found to effectively suppress growth of three major root pathogens: Macrophomina phaseolina (65.83 %) followed by Sclerotium rolfsii (19.33 %) and Fusarium oxysporum (19.18 %). In the light of these observations, native T. harzianum (T103) seems to be a competent biocontrol agent for tropical agricultural soils contaminated with residual pesticides and heavy metals. PMID:27339311

  1. The importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma parareesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Esclaudys; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Bettiol, Wagner; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM), a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1), ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2) and pathogenesis

  2. The importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma parareesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esclaudys ePérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM, a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1, ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2 and

  3. Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Komy, Mahmoud H; Saleh, Amgad A; Eranthodi, Anas; Molan, Younes Y

    2015-03-01

    The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their anta- gonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents. PMID:25774110

  4. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50 % of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80 %. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture. PMID:26873560

  5. Evaluation of the enzymatic activity of Trichoderma inhamatum (BOL-12QD as possible biocontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Espejo Cielo Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Trichoderma spp. acts as a natural biocontroller of pathogen fungi, is for this reason, that this research studies the potential of its hydrolytic enzyme activity. In this article, first we determined that the speed of growth of Trichoderma inhamatum cepa BOL-12QD is 9 hours. Later, we proposed a simple and sensitive method based in the use of basal media (BM with coloidal chitin as the only carbon resource and supplemented with bromocresol purple for the qualitative determination of chitinase activi-ty. On the other hand, it was determined the celullolytic and proteolytic activities of Trichoderma in-hamatum cepa BOL-12QD and it was observed that agitation, type and concentration of sustrate are determinant factors in enzymatic production. Then, we evaluated the cellulolytic activity of Trichoderma inhamatum cepa BOL-12QD in agitation and stationary using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC as sustrate, finding that using a 2% of sustrate the highest activity is registered at 8 days of incubation in agitation with a value of 99.23 IU/L. In relation to the results at stationary the optimal value is at the fourth day with a value of 92.76 IU/L. The protease activity it was determined taking in consideration variables of agitation and stationary, using different types and concentration of sustrate at 2%, 4% y 6% (w/v of meat extract, 1%, 3%, 5% (w/v of jelly and 1%, 2%, 4% (w/v of casein. The highest protease activity was obtained at the end of the sev-enth day with an enzymatic activity of 3075.45 IU/L at stationary using a concentration of 6% (w/v of meat extract, and using jelly at 3% (w/v at stationary it was found an activity of 568.36 IU/L on the tenth day and in agitation a value of 547.27 IU/L was reached on the twelveth day, while using casein at 1% (w/v at stationary an activity of 407.06 IU/L is reached in the fifth day, and in agitation at 4% (w/v of casein a value of 547.27 IU/L is obtained on the twelfth day, while using

  6. Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma harzianum Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf;

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in...... plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan......®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these...

  7. Use of Trichoderma spp.for biological control of the livestock feed contaminant fungus Fusarium proliferatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruocco M; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M; Pane F; Ritieni A; Lanzuise S; Ambrosino P; Marra R; Woo S L; Ciliento R; Soriente I

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fusarium spp. are pathogens of many important agricultural crops, and are often strong mycotoxin producers. Fusarium proliferatum, in particular, causes disease in cereals and secretes the toxin Beauvaricin that contaminates livestock feed and cereals, producing a variety of toxicity symptoms ranging from poor weight gain to mortality. Beauvaricin is a cyclodepsipeptide and acts as a potent mycotoxin known to have insecticidal properties. This compound is highly toxic to human cell lines,where it induces apoptosis and specifically inhibits cholesterol acetyltransferase. Nothing is known about the role of this mycotoxin during the interaction of F. proliferatum with other microorganisms, including the fungal antagonists Trichoderma spp. In vitro tests have demonstrated that the antagonistic and mycoparasitic activity of Trichoderma is not inhibited by the presence of Beauvaricin at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg in the substrate. In vivo biocontrol assays on barley and wheat with Trichoderma against F. proliferatum isolates, producing and non-producing Beauvaricin, confirmed the ability of the antagonist to control this pathogen in all cases. Also Trichoderma culture filtrates obtained in conditions that promote _Cell Wall _Degrading Enzyme (CWDE) secretion, were able to inhibit spore germination of different F. proliferatum isolates.These results suggest the possibility of using Trichoderma and/or its metabolites to control contaminants of livestock feed by mycotoxin-producing Fusarium.

  8. Virulence and Experimental Treatment of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, a Fungus Refractory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Katihuska; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Guarro, Josep

    2016-08-01

    Different inocula of Trichoderma longibrachiatum were tested in a murine model, and only the highest one (1 × 10(7) CFU/animal) killed all of the mice at day 15 postinfection, with spleen and liver the most affected organs. The efficacies of amphotericin B deoxycholate, liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, and micafungin were evaluated in the same model, with very poor results. Our study demonstrated the low virulence but high resistance to antifungal compounds of this fungus. PMID:27216056

  9. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus. PMID:27075508

  10. Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma asperellum ZJSX5003 Against the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqian; Sun, Ruiyan; Yu, Jia; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of seven strains of Trichoderma asperellum collected from the fields in Southern China was assessed against Fusarium graminearum (FG) the causal agent of corn stalk rot of maize were in vitro for their antagonistic properties followed by statistical model of principal compound analysis to identify the beneficial antagonist T. asperellum strain. The key factors of antagonist activity were attributed to a total of 13 factors including cell wall degrading enzymes (chitnase, protease and β-glucanases), secondary metabolites and peptaibols and these were analyzed from eight strains of Trichoderma. A linear regression model demonstrated that interaction of enzymes and secondary metabolites of T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 enhanced the antagonist activity against FG. Further, this strain displayed a disease reduction of 71 % in maize plants inoculated with FG compared to negative control. Pointing out that the T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 is a potential source for the development of a biocontrol agent against corn stalk rot. PMID:27407296

  11. Studies on Laccase Activity in the Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Sekme, Semra; Atacı, Neşe; Arısan, İnci

    2014-01-01

    Laccase have been mainly studied in wood rot fungal species of the basidiomycetes family especiallyin white rot fungi. Studies in other fungal families are largely lacking. This study has evaluated laccaseactivity fromTrichoderma reesei in catechol based medium. Results showed that laccase enzyme from T.reesei was active in acidic pH range and that optimum pH was 4.5. The optimum temperature oflaccase from T. reesei was also 270C. Laccase activity in medium containing 10 gL-1 catechol was 1.2...

  12. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals mycoparasitism as the ancestoral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P

    2011-01-01

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.

  13. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals mycoparasitism as the ancestoral life style of Trichoderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl, Verena; Crom, St& #233; phane Le; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, L& #225; szlo; Alcaraz, Luis David; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; D& #246; hren, Hans von; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Fekete, Erzs& #233; bet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hern& #225; ndez-O?ate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; L& #252; beck, Mette; L& #252; beck, Peter Stephensen; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Thon, Michael; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-04-29

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.

  14. The Trichoderma-plant interaction is mediated by avirulence proteins produced by this fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruocco M; Kip N; P J G M de Wit; Lorito M; Lanzuise S; Woo S L; Ambrosino P; Marra R; Turrà D; Gigante S; Formisno E; Scala F

    2004-01-01

    @@ The molecular basis of Trichoderma -plant interaction is very complex and still not completely understood. The colonization of the root system by rhizosphere competent strains of Trichoderma results in increased development of root/aerial systems, in improved yields and in plant disease control.Other beneficial effects, such as the induction of plant systemic resistance, have also been described.To understand the mechanisms involved we are using different approaches, including the making of transformants expressing genes that encode for compounds able to affect plant response to pathogens.Trichoderma transformants carrying the avirulence gene Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters were obtained and tested on tomato plants having the Cf4 resistance gene. Necrosis and suberification zones, similar to the symptoms appearing during Cladosporium-tomato interaction, were found when the roots of the Cf4 plants were treated with Avr4-Trichoderma. This demonstrates that selected Trichoderma strains are able to transfer to the plant molecules that may deeply affect metabolism, disease resistance etc. Therefore, these beneficial fungi can be regarded as biotechnological tools to provide a variety of crops with useful compounds.Moreover, in in vitro competition assays the transformants were found to be more effective as antagonists against Alternaria alternata than the wild type. Trichoderma sends a variety of biochemical signals to the plants including avirulence molecules; therefore the presence of avr-like proteins in the fungus proteome was investigated. Proteome analysis has permitted us to isolate and sequence many proteins potentially having this function. From the extraeellular protein extracts, we have purified and sequenced a protein with structural characteristics similar to Avr4 of C. fulvum.The protein, Hytra1, was found to be a hydrophobin with chitin binding activity, the typical 8cysteine residues, and 4

  15. Trichoderma-induced plant immunity likely involves both hormonal- and camalexin-dependent mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana and confers resistance against necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Beltrán-Peña, Elda; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma have long been recognized as agents for the biocontrol of plant diseases. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings elicited by co-culture with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride. Interaction of plant roots with fungal mycelium induced growth and defense responses, indicating that both processes are not inherently antagonist. Expression studies of the pathogen...

  16. Molecular evidence that the asexual industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is a clonal derivative of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhls, K; Lieckfeldt, E; Samuels, G. J.; Kovacs, W; Meyer, W.; Petrini, O; Gams, W.; T. Börner; Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    The relationship of the important cellulase producing asexual fungus Trichoderma reesei to its putative teleomorphic (sexual) ancestor Hypocrea jecorina and other species of the Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum was studied by PCR-fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region containing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The differences in the corresponding ITS sequences allowed a grouping of anamorphic (asexual) species of Tr...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Matei; Gabi-Mirela Matei; Petruta Cornea; Gabriela Popa

    2011-01-01

    Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h.) and Trichoderma viride (T.v.) were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the mor...

  18. Cellophane based mini-prep method for DNA extraction from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flavio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for the extraction of DNA from filamentous fungi are frequently laborious and time consuming because most of the available protocols include maceration in liquid nitrogen after the mycelium has been grown in a liquid culture. This paper describes a new method to replace those steps, which involves the growth of the mycelium on cellophane disks overlaid on solid medium and the use of glass beads for cell wall disruption. Results Extractions carried out by this method provided approximately 2 μg of total DNA per cellophane disk for the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. To assess the DNA's quality, we made a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of a gene introduced by a transformation in this fungus's genome (hph gene, with successful results. We also confirmed the quality of the DNA by the use of Southern blotting to analyze the presence of the same gene, which was easily detected, resulting in a sharply defined and strong band. Conclusions The use of this method enabled us to obtain pure DNA from Trichoderma reesei, dispensing with the laborious and time-consuming steps involved in most protocols. The DNA obtained was found to be suitable for PCR and Southern blot analyses. Another advantage of this method is the fact that several samples can be processed simultaneously, growing the fungus on multiple well cell culture plates. In addition, the absence of maceration also reduces sample handling, minimizing the risks of contamination, a particularly important factor in work involving PCR.

  19. Identification of microRNA-Like RNAs in the Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei by Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kang; Zhong, Jiasheng; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Gang; Gou, Christine Yuan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, You; Luo, Jun; Gou, Deming

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN) and non-induction (CON) were gener...

  20. Biocontrol de la pudrición de raíz de nochebuena de interior con Trichoderma spp. Root rot biocontrol for indoor poinsettia with Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Jesús Osuna-Canizalez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En Morelos, la pudrición de la raíz causada por Fusarium spp., es una de las principales enfermedades de la nochebuena de interior. Por su efecto devastador, en su prevención o control se realizan aplicaciones frecuentes de productos químicos, con los riesgos inherentes a la salud humana y al ambiente. En la búsqueda de alternativas bioracionales al manejo de esta enfermedad, se realizó un ensayo en el que se evaluaron tres cepas comerciales de Trichoderma spp., en tres diferentes sustratos: S1= "tierra de hoja" (70% v/v+tezontle grueso (15% v/v+tezontle fino (10% v/v+agrolita (5% v/v; S2= turba (80% v/v+ fibra de coco (20% v/v; S3= "tierra de hoja" (70% + "tepojal" (30%, en las variedades comerciales más comunes, Freedom Red y Prestige Red. Se utilizó un diseño factorial de tratamientos 4 x 3 x 2 y los tratamientos resultantes se evaluaron en un diseño completamente al azar con seis repeticiones. Respecto a la incidencia de pudrición de la raíz, las cepas comerciales de Trichoderma spp., no mostraron diferencias entre sí ni con el testigo químico. La pudrición de la raíz estuvo asociada con S2, debido a una baja capacidad de aireación, y sólo se presentó en Prestige Red. La población (UFC g-¹ de Trichoderma spp., en el sustrato al término del ciclo, fue igual (pIn Morelos, root rot caused by Fusarium spp., is one of the main diseases of indoor poinsettia. In order to prevent or control its devastating effect, frequent applications of chemical products are performed, with inherent risks to human health and environment. In quest for alternative biorational options, an essay in which three commercial strains of Trichoderma spp., was done, in three different substrates: S1= "organic soil" (70% v/v+thick tezontle (15% v/v+thin tezontle (10% v/v+agrolita (5% v/v; S2= peat moss (80% v/v+ coconut fiber (20% v/v; S3= "organic soil" (70%+"tepojal" (30%, in most common commercial varieties, Freedom Red and Prestige Red. A factorial

  1. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  2. Purification and characterization of a beta-Glucanase produced by Trichoderma harzianum showing biocontrol potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lisboa de Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A beta-1,3-glucanase was produced by Trichoderma harzianum in cultures containing chitin as the sole substrate. Two proteins showing beta-1,3-glucanase activity were purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular masses of these proteins were 29 and 36 kDa. The 36 kDa protein was further characterized. It was active on a broad pH range, and maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0. The optimum temperature of the 36 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase was 50ºC, but the purified enzyme was very sensitive to temperature. It lost about 60% or more of the activity after incubation for 30 min at 45, 50 and 60ºC. The apparent K M and Vmax for hydrolysis of laminarin at pH 5.0 and 37ºC, were 0.099 mg of reducing sugar/mL and 0.3 mg of reducing sugar/min.mL, respectively. The enzyme was insensitive to organic compound and metal ions, except for the ferric ion which inhibited about 100% of the original activity at the concentration of 1 mM. In contrast to other hydrolytic enzymes (a chitinase and a protease produced by the same T. harzianum isolate (1051, the beta-1,3-glucanase showed no effect on the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Crinipellis perniciosa.Uma beta-1,3-glucanase foi produzida por Trichoderma harzianum em cultura contendo quitina como fonte de carbono. Duas proteínas com atividade de beta-1,3-glucanase foram purificadas através de cromatografia de interação hidrofóbica. As massas moleculares destas proteínas foram de 29 kDa e 36 kDa. A proteína de 36 kDa foi caracterizada quanto à influência das condições de pH e temperatura. A atividade máxima foi encontrada em pH 5,0 e temperatura de 50ºC. A proteína purificada mostrou-se muito sensível à temperatura. Aproximadamente 60% da atividade original foi perdida por incubação da proteína a 45ºC, 50ºC e 60ºC, por 30 min. O K M aparente e a Vmax para hidrólise de laminarina em pH 5,0 à 37ºC, foram de 0,099 mg de açúcar redutor/mL e 0,3 mg de a

  3. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  4. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h. and Trichoderma viride (T.v. were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the morphological characterization of two strains of Trichoderma isolated from forest soils. Growth rate was higher in strain T.v.SP456 (0,675mm/h than in strain T.h.P8 (0,505mm/h when fungi were grown on Czapek culture medium.Morphological description is completed with photographs of colonies in Petri plates and microscopical aspects of fungal structures belonging to Trichoderma strains SP456 and P8.Comparative aspects concerning the level of main enzymes released by T.h. isolate P8 and T.v.SP456 in liquid culture media showed differences as a function of genetic structure of each fungal isolate. The optimum culture media for inducing peroxidase, polyphenol-oxidase, β-1,3-glucanase activity in T.v.SP456 isolate was Czapek and PDA for phenil-alanin-ammonium-oxidase and chitinase. T.v.SP456 was more efficient than T.h.P8 concerning enzymes activity.The interaction between Trichoderma fungal strains SP456 and P8 and strawberry plant pathogen strains, three belonging to Botrytis cinerea (S1, P1, P2 and one to Phytophtora spp. were examined, also. Both Trichoderma strains act as mycoparasites for plant pathogens. The inhibition percent of radial growth was higher for T.v.SP456 when compared with T.h.P8 for almost all pathogenic isolates.

  6. Assessment of metabolic capacity of Trichoderma inhamatum Bol12 QD biocontrol on native strains of Phytophthora infestans in vitro

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    Puño Ramon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture

  7. RNA Interference of Endochitinases in the Sugarcane Endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 Reduces Its Fitness as a Biocontrol Agent of Pineapple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq; Welington Luiz Araújo; Nicholas J Talbot; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of t...

  8. The SRAP based molecular diversity related to antifungal and antioxidant bioactive constituents for biocontrol potentials of Trichoderma against Sclerotium rolfsii Scc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Bhimani, R D; Golakiya, B A

    2016-08-01

    The study was performed to examine 11 isolates of Trichoderma for their bio-control potentials against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. The antagonists Trichoderma were subjected to sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) based molecular diversity analysis and compared with their hardness to S. rolfsii with respect to secretary antifungal and antioxidant profile. T. virens NBAII Tvs 12 evident highest (87.91 %) growth inhibition of test pathogen followed by T. koningii MTCC 796 (67.03 %) at 7 days after inoculation (DAI). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs 12 and antibiosis for MTCC 796. The growth inhibition of test pathogen was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during antagonism due to release of secretary bioactive antioxidants by antagonists to terminate oxidative burst generated by S. rolfsii and causing inhibition of sclerotium formation. The GC-MS profile identified antifungal and antioxidant constituents hexadecane, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 1-hexadecanesulfonyl chloride, and octadecane in potent antagonists Tvs 12; and nonacosane and octadecane in MTCC 796 along with two novel compounds 1-pentadecene and 1-heneicosyl formate for biocontrol activity. Molecular diversity of Trichoderma isolates associated with antagonistic activity was assessed by SRAP markers. The 115 primer combinations generate total 1328 amplified products of which, 1095 are shared polymorphic and 199 are unique polymorphic. The 15 SRAP combinations produced 18 bands to diagnose best antagonist Tvs 12 and 13 SRAP combinations generated 19 unique bands for identification of MTCC 796. The mycoparasitic antagonist Tvs 12 would be the best antagonist and released unique antifungal and antioxidant constituents to combat pathogen infection. The SRAP based genetic diversity indicates Tvs12 strain clustered with T. viride NBAII Tv23 and shared

  9. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during

  10. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  11. Study on the Biocontrol Activities of Trichoderma species in Greengram with Infected Fungal Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven species of Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soil sources and studied by cultural morphology and microscopic examinations. In dual plate assay, antifungal effects of seven Trichoderma strains were screened against three plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) on PDA medium and T-5 isolate showed a wide percentage of inhibitory effects on target pathogens with PIRG value. All Trichoderma strains exhibited a clear zone formation on minimal synthetic medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin. T-2 and T-5 were the best chitinase producer strains. In vitro screening for protease activity, the highest protease producing activity of Trichoderma isolate (T-2) were observed in pH indicator medium after 7 days incubation. In pot trial experiment, only T-5 strain exhibited more fungal suppression efficiency on green gram plant than commercial fungicide, Trisan and the other strains. So, it can be said that the effective strain was T-5 strain only which have been more antifungal producing power on three fungal pathogens than Trisan and the resting strains.

  12. Effect of microelement and chemical fungicides on biocontrol effect of Trichoderma T23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Jing-hua; GAO Zeng-gui; YANG Chang-cheng; LIU Xian; CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently there have been many reports about soil diseases controlled by Trichoderma, but few could be applied on agriculture production in large areas. T23 isolated from soil around plant roots in the field by Biopesticide Engineering Center of Shenyang Agricultural University could control effectively Cucurbits Fusarium Wilt. The effects of 9 microelements which include copper, zinc, iron, boron,molybdenum, calcium, manganese, magnesium, potassium and frequently-used chemical fungicides,such as-carbendazim, thiram, thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and hymexazol on the growth and the amounts of spores of Fusarium oxysporum FJ and Trichoderma T23 were studied. The effects of those factors on control effect of T23 to melon diseases were discussed and gave basis for the screening of synergistic agents and fungicides in controlling synergistically the pathogen.

  13. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Shentu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1. Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

  14. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  15. Identification of residues important for substrate uptake in a glucose transporter from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Weixin Zhang; Yanli Cao; Jing Gong; Xiaoming Bao; Guanjun Chen; Weifeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    The glucose transporter is an important player in cell metabolism that mediates the intracellular uptake of glucose. Here, we characterized the glucose transporter Stp1 from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The individual substitution of several conserved residues for Ala in Stp1 corresponding to those interacting with D-glucose in the xylose/H+ symporter XylE inflicted contrasting effects on its ability to support the growth of an hxt-null yeast on glucose. The targeted change of P...

  16. Regulation of cellulase gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmén, M; Saloheimo, A; Onnela, M L; Penttilä, M E

    1997-04-01

    Basic features of regulation of expression of the genes encoding the cellulases of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414, the genes cbh1 and cbh2 encoding cellobiohydrolases and the genes egl1, egl2 and egl5 encoding endoglucanases, were studied at the mRNA level. The cellulase genes were coordinately expressed under all conditions studied, with the steady-state mRNA levels of cbh1 being the highest. Solka floc cellulose and the disaccharide sophorose induced expression to almost the same level. Moderate expression was observed when cellobiose or lactose was used as the carbon source. It was found that glycerol and sorbitol do not promote expression but, unlike glucose, do not inhibit it either, because the addition of 1 to 2 mM sophorose to glycerol or sorbitol cultures provokes high cellulase expression levels. These carbon sources thus provide a useful means to study cellulase regulation without significantly affecting the growth of the fungus. RNA slot blot experiments showed that no expression could be observed on glucose-containing medium and that high glucose levels abolish the inducing effect of sophorose. The results clearly show that distinct and clear-cut mechanisms of induction and glucose repression regulate cellulase expression in an actively growing fungus. However, derepression of cellulase expression occurs without apparent addition of an inducer once glucose has been depleted from the medium. This expression seems not to arise simply from starvation, since the lack of carbon or nitrogen as such is not sufficient to trigger significant expression. PMID:9097427

  17. [Use of Endoglucanase IV from Trichoderma reesei to Enhance the Hydrolytic Activity of a Cellulase Complex from the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, O V; Korotkova, O G; Rozhkova, A M; Kondrat'eva, E G; Matys, V Yu; Zorov, I N; Koshelev, A V; Okunev, O N; Nemashkalov, V A; Bubnova, T V; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharide monooxygenase (endoglucanase IV) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei on the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates by cellulases secreted by the fungus Penicillium verruculosum has been investigated. Supplementation of the enzyme complex from P. verruculosum by endoglucanase IV from T. reesei has been shown to elevate the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis by 45%. PMID:26859961

  18. In Vitro Inhibition of Cellulolytic Enzymes of Fusarium Oxysporum by Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas Fluorescens on Arachis Hypogaea L

    OpenAIRE

    P.Rajeswari

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to develop biocontrol system for management of Fusarium wilt in groundnut, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum,and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. .Fusarium wilt diseasescaused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum lead to significant yield losses of crops. Experiments were conducted on the effect of culture filtratesof T.viride (1%), T. harzianum (1.5%), and P. fluorescens (2%) on the in vitro inhibiti...

  19. Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

    2014-09-01

    Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

  20. Proteins Related to the Biocontrol of Pythium Damping-off in Maize with Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Gary E HARMAN; Afio COMIS; Gen-Wu CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Induced resistance has been evidenced as one of mechanisms of Trichoderma to control plantdiseases, however, no study showed the change of host proteomics in Trichoderma-induced resistance ofmaize against damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. The mechanism of Trichoderma harzianumRifai for controlling maize seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum Trow was investigated firstly byproteome technique and the result suggested that T. harzianum strain T22 was not only able to promoteseedling growth but also protein accumulation. One-dimensional electrophoresis assay showed that morebands appeared on the gel with T22 or T22 combined with P. ultimum (T22 + P. ultimum) treatment than withother treatments. Enzyme assay showed that two chitinases of the root sample were more activated in thetreatments with T22 than in the other treatments without T22. Proteins in the seedling roots from the varioustreatments were separated through protein extraction and 2-D electrophoresis technique. In the seedlingsproduced from the T22-treated seeds, there were 104 up-regulated proteins and 164 down-regulated pro-teins relative to the control, and 97 and 150, respectively, after treatment with T22 + P. ultimum; however,with P. ultimum alone the values were much lower than with the other two treatments. The correlationcoefficient values were 0.72, 0.51 and 0.49 for the comparison of protein spot distribution on gel amongcontrol with T22, P. ultimum and T22 + P. ultimum, respectively. So it seemed that P. ultimum infection wasmore effective than T22 in interfering with the host proteome profile. Furthermore, analysis with MALDI-TOF-MAS showed that some important proteins associated with defensive reactions were identified in T22or T22 + P. ultimum treatments, including endochitinase, pathogenesis-related protein PRMS (pathogenesis-related maize seed), GTP-binding protein, isoflavone reductase and other proteins related to respiration. Allthose proteins are probably part of the

  1. Physiological evaluation of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in production processes by marker gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically relevant molecular markers can be used in evaluation of the physiological state of an organism in biotechnical processes. We monitored at high frequency the expression of 34 marker genes in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by the transcriptional analysis method TRAC (TRanscript analysis with the aid of Affinity Capture. Expression of specific genes was normalised either with respect to biomass or to overall polyA RNA concentration. Expressional variation of the genes involved in various process relevant cellular functions, such as protein production, growth and stress responses, was related to process parameters such as specific growth and production rates and substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Results Gene expression of secreted cellulases and recombinant Melanocarpus albomyces laccase predicted the trends in the corresponding extracellular enzyme production rates and was highest in a narrow "physiological window" in the specific growth rate (μ range of 0.03 – 0.05 h-1. Expression of ribosomal protein mRNAs was consistent with the changes in μ. Nine starvation-related genes were found as potential markers for detection of insufficient substrate feed for maintaining optimal protein production. For two genes induced in anaerobic conditions, increasing transcript levels were measured as dissolved oxygen decreased. Conclusion The data obtained by TRAC supported the usefulness of focused and intensive transcriptional analysis in monitoring of biotechnical processes providing thus tools for process optimisation purposes.

  2. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica) in experimental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Rudy; Smeltekop Hugh; Almanza JC; Loza-Murguia Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water), hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica) by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campe...

  3. Water Deficit as a Driver of the Mutualistic Relationship between the Fungus Trichoderma harzianum and Two Wheat Genotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Eduardo P.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.; Carú, Margarita; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of mutualistic interactions between the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes, Triticum aestivum cv. Talhuén and T. turgidum subsp. durum cv. Alifén, and the extent to which water deficit affected these interactions. Two wheat genotypes were cultivated in the presence or absence of T. harzianum and in the presence or absence of water deficit. T. harzianum was in turn cultivated in the presence or absence of wheat plants and in the presence or absence of water deficit. To evaluate the plant-fungus interactions, the root volume, dry biomass, and fecundity of wheat were determined, as was the population growth rate of the fungus. Trichoderma harzianum exerted a positive effect only on plants subjected to water deficit. The population growth rate of T. harzianum was negative in the absence of wheat plants and reached its highest level in the presence of plants under conditions of water deficit. These results confirm the occurrence of a mutualistic interaction between wheat and T. harzianum and show that it is asymmetric and context dependent. PMID:18192424

  4. Proteomics related to the biocontrol of Pythium damping off in maize with Trichoderma harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; Gary G Harman; Alfio Comis

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 controls various diseases of maize and other crops, including seedling and root rots caused by Pythium ultimum. Seedlings of inbred line Mo17 were grown from T22-treated or untreated seeds in field soil or in field soil intested with the pathogen. Five days after planting, seedlings of Mo17 (5-days-old) were smaller in the presence of P. ultimum and larger in the presence of T22 relative to the control. The combination of T22 with P. ultimum (T22 + P.ultimum ) resulted in plants as large as T22 alone. Methods for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis were developed. Proteins in seedlings roots from the various treatments were separated on 2-D gels and analyzed using PDQuestTM 2-D software. With seedlings produced from T22-treated seeds, there were 104 unmatched proteins and 164 matched proteins relative to the control, and 97 and 150 from the treatment with T22 + P. ultimum, respectively, however, with P. ultimum alone the numbers were much lower than above two treatments. Comparatively, there was very lower similarity of proteome patterns of seedling roots with T22 or P. ultimum or both to control seedlings,the correlative coefficient values were 0.72, 0.51 and 0.49 for the comparisons among control with T22, P. ultimum and T22 + P. ultimum, respectively. Moreover, correlative coefficient of proteome patterns between T22 with P. ultimum was only 0.65, and T22 fungal proteome were also not same as any one of seedling roots with various treatments. Taken together, the components in seedling root proteome seemed to be mostly coming from Mo17 plants themselves and affected strongly by either microbes, but the effects appeared to be stronger by P. ultimum than by T22. 41 spots were selected for protein mass fingerprinting identification, and most detected-spots were intensified in abundance by T22 or T22 + P. ultimum treatments such as pathogenesis-related protein and endochitnase etc. SOD (Mn) was found to be involved in

  5. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, plant extracts and bio-control agents against rice blast pathogen magnaporthe oryzae couch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 5 fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim, Fosetyl-aluminium, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride, used against the Magnaporthe oryzae, only Mancozeb appeared as the highly effective fungicide that completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. All other fungicides showed little effect at higher concentrations. The extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and calatropis (Calotropis procera L.) when used against M. oryzae by food poisoning method, only higher dose of garlic completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungus. Six bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma polysporum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces variotii and Paecilomyces lilacinus were used. Maximum mycelial inhibition of M. oryzae was provided by P. lilacinus followed by Trichoderma spp. (author)

  6. Characterization of novel Trichoderma spp. isolates as a search for effective biocontrollers of fungal diseases of economically important crops in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Verónica Fabiana; Mónaco, Cecilia Inés; Cordo, Cristina Alicia; Salerno, Graciela Lidia

    2012-04-01

    Monoconidial cultures of 33 isolates of Trichoderma from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina were characterized on the basis of twenty eight morphological, physiological and biochemical features. All of them were screened for proteinase, endochitinase and β-1,3 glucanase activity. Universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) techniques were used to examine the genetic variability among isolates, which resulted in 127 bands for the total number of isolates. These results were subjected to numerical analysis revealing 20 haplotypes grouped in five clusters. The ability of Trichoderma isolates to antogonize soil-borne fungal plant pathogens using a dual culture assay was done against five fungal species: Alternaria sp., Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, and Pyricularia oryzae. The highest inhibition values (85% RI) were obtained against B. sorokiniana and P. oryzae. Three isolates of T. harzianum named as FCCT2, FCCT3 and FCCT9 were capable of causing a high growth inhibition on four of the fungal species assayed, which was in agreement with their higher extracellular hydrolytic activity. Our results suggest that these isolates have the potential to be effective agents for biocontrol of cereal and tomato fungal pathogens. PMID:22805919

  7. Oviposition response of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus to the secondary metabolite(s of the fungus, Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites produced by Trichoderma viride, a deuteromycetes fungus, under submerged culture condition were formulated and evaluated for oviposition attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito. At a concentration of 10 µg ml-1 the formulation showed remarkable attractancy with an oviposition active index (OAI of +0.52. When the oviposition attractancy of the formulation was compared with a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol, both at 10 µg ml-1, the former was found to be more attractive to result in 70% egg laying than the later with 30% egg laying. Thin layer chromatography fractions of the secondary metabolites showed that a fraction with Rf value of 0.88 was highly active as oviposition attractant with an OAI of +0.65. Further work on identification of the active principle(s of the microbial formulation might lead to an oviposition attractant useful in mosquito vector management.

  8. Preliminary joint X-ray and neutron protein crystallographic studies of endoxylanase II from the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fungal family 11 endoxylanase has been crystallized at pH 8.5 and room-temperature X-ray and neutron diffraction data have been collected. Joint X-ray/neutron refinement is under way; the structural results will aid in rational engineering of the enzyme. Room-temperature X-ray and neutron diffraction data were measured from a family 11 endoxylanase holoenzyme (XynII) originating from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum to 1.55 Å resolution using a home source and to 1.80 Å resolution using the Protein Crystallography Station at LANSCE. Crystals of XynII, which is an important enzyme for biofuel production, were grown at pH 8.5 in order to examine the effect of basic conditions on the protonation-state distribution in the active site and throughout the protein molecule and to provide insights for rational engineering of catalytically improved XynII for industrial applications

  9. The influence of some factors on β-1,4-xylanase activity of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manoliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mesophyllic fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph to Hypocrea jecorina is an important biotechnological tool, known for its ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. Renewable biomass, such as agricultural and forest wastes are used to produce microbial enzymes in various industrial processes such as food, feed and bioethanol industries. In raw biomass materials, such as wheat straws, barley straws and maize stalks, the main polysaccharide is cellulose which is closely associated with hemicelluloses like xylan, manan and xyloguclan. In consequence, the hydrolysis of these materials requires the concerted action of several enzymes, namely cellulases and xylanases. Endo-xylanase (endo-1,4--xylanase, EC 3.2.1.8 is the key enzyme involved in xylan hydrolysis, the mainhemicellulosic component of plant cell walls. The metabolic activity and enzyme productivity of Trichoderma reesei isinfluenced by various environmental conditions. In this context, we analysed the effect of pH, cultivation period, thenature of the substrate used and the nitrogen source on enzymatic activity. The maximum xylanase yield was recorded at a initial pH of 4 (116.189 IU/ml for barley and 5 for wheat (88.578 IU/ml, respectively maize (116.583 IU/ml. The bestsubstrate for endo-xylanase activity was maize stalks (90.446 IU/ml at a a concentration of 30g/L.

  10. 保护地土壤生防木霉菌种群多样性研究%Study on Genetic Diversity of Biocontrol Trichoderma Population in Greenhouse Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺字典; 高增贵; 高玉峰; 张洋

    2011-01-01

    采用传统的形态学特征和分子方法(ITS、TEF序列和UP-PCR)研究了蔬菜保护地土壤中木霉菌种群多样性及其影响因素.结果表明:提交genbank 11个木霉种的序列,分别为长枝木霉(Trichoderma longibrachiatum)、拟康氏木霉(Trichoderma pseudokoningii)、黄绿木霉(Trichoderma aureoviride)、棘孢木霉(Trichoderma asperellum)、深绿木霉(Trichoderma atroviride)、哈茨木霉(Trichoderma harzianum)、非钩木霉(Trichoderma inhamatum)、微孢木霉(Trichoderma minutisporum)、长孢木霉(Trichoderma longipile)和粘绿木霉(Trichoderma virens);木霉菌24个菌株经UP-PCR扩增,引物AS4、AS19、L45扩增出一条500 bp大小的木霉菌种的特征性谱带,其他谱带则为多态性谱带,多态性达93.5%;营养条件、杀菌剂及土壤因素对不同种木霉菌的影响不同,得到2株适应性较强的木霉菌株,有望成为生防菌株.%11 Trichoderma species were submitted to genbank by ITS ,TEF sequences analysis methods and effect factors of population diversity were studied in this paper, which included T. Longibrachiatum, T. Atroviride, T. Harziamun, T. Viren, T. Minutisporum, T. Pseudokoningii, T. Aureoviride, T. Inhamatum, T. Asperellum, T. Longipile and T. Helicum. At the same time, genetic diversity of Tnchoderma isolates were analyzed by Universally Primed PCR. A feature band ,500 bp, was the common one in 11 Trichoderma species,other bands were polymorphic,93.5 %. Futhermore, the effect of nutrition conditions, fungicides, soil factors etc. On Trichoderma was greatly different. 2 obtained strains which were strong adaptation, would be good bio-control strains.

  11. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid compounds of fungal origin which can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in the biosynthesis of HA is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate t...

  12. Colonization and degradation of senescent flowers of zucchini squash by Trichoderma harzianum YC459, a biocontrol agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geun Gon Kim; Young Ryun Chung

    2004-01-01

    @@ In commercial greenhouses, senescent flower petals or flowers of vegetables such as tomato,strawberry, hot pepper and zucchini squash were blighted to be removed from fruits within five days after spraying of Trichoderna harzianun YC459 (TORY() , JGreen Inc.), a biocontrol agent with good and consistent efficacy as chemical fungicides for the control of gray mold rot caused by B.cinerea. The mechanism for selective colonization of senescent floral tissues by T. harzianum YCA59was elucidated using fresh and senescent (4 days and 14 days after pollination, respectively) floral tissues of zucchini squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) . The spores of T. harzianum YCA59were produced much more on water agar and liquid culture media supplemented with 5% dry powder of senescent floral tissues than with fresh tissues during 15 days incubation. Mycelial growth was also much better in the media with senescent tissues than with fresh tissues. Enzyme activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, amylase and polygalacturonase in the liquid media, which might be involved in the colonization and degradation of tissues by T. harzianum YCA59 were compared. The activities of three enzymes were significantly higher in the media with senescent floral tissues than with fresh floral tissues reaching to the maximum during 9 to 12 days of incubation. Especially, the activities of carboxymethyl cellulase and polygalacturonase of T. harzianum YC459 were much higher than those of other Trichoderma species, T. asperellum, T. viride and T. koningii in the liquid media with senescent floral tissues. Based on the results, the selective colonization and degradation of senescent floral tissues, an important habitat for B. cinerea, may be another mechanism for the biocontrol of gray mold rot of vegetables by T. harzianurm YC459.

  13. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Trichoderma gamsii T6085, a Promising Biocontrol Agent of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Piaggeschi, Giulia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma gamsii T6085 is a promising beneficial isolate whose effects consist of growth inhibition of the main agents causing Fusarium head blight, reduction of mycotoxin accumulation, competition for wheat debris, and reduction of the disease in both the lab and the field. Here, we present the first genome assembly of a T. gamsii isolate, providing a useful platform for the scientific community. PMID:26893428

  14. Biosynthesis of Antibiotic Leucinostatins in Bio-control Fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum and Their Inhibition on Phytophthora Revealed by Genome Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erfeng; Mao, Zhenchuan; Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Yin, Wen-Bing; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum of Ophiocordycipitaceae is one of the most promising and commercialized agents for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, as well as other insects and plant pathogens. However, how the fungus functions at the molecular level remains unknown. Here, we sequenced two isolates (PLBJ-1 and PLFJ-1) of P. lilacinum from different places Beijing and Fujian. Genomic analysis showed high synteny of the two isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated they were most related to the insect pathogen Tolypocladium inflatum. A comparison with other species revealed that this fungus was enriched in carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), proteases and pathogenesis related genes. Whole genome search revealed a rich repertoire of secondary metabolites (SMs) encoding genes. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetase LcsA, which is comprised of ten C-A-PCP modules, was identified as the core biosynthetic gene of lipopeptide leucinostatins, which was specific to P. lilacinum and T. ophioglossoides, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, gene expression level was analyzed when PLBJ-1 was grown in leucinostatin-inducing and non-inducing medium, and 20 genes involved in the biosynthesis of leucionostatins were identified. Disruption mutants allowed us to propose a putative biosynthetic pathway of leucinostatin A. Moreover, overexpression of the transcription factor lcsF increased the production (1.5-fold) of leucinostatins A and B compared to wild type. Bioassays explored a new bioactivity of leucinostatins and P. lilacinum: inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora infestans and P. capsici. These results contribute to our understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of leucinostatins and may allow us to utilize P. lilacinum better as bio-control agent. PMID:27416025

  15. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:26168138

  16. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosa Tavassoli; Seyed Hassan Pourseyed; Abdulghaffar Ownagh; Iraj Bernousi; Karim Mardani

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biologica...

  17. The CRE1 carbon catabolite repressor of the fungus Trichoderma reesei: a master regulator of carbon assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiboth Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification and characterization of the transcriptional regulatory networks governing the physiology and adaptation of microbial cells is a key step in understanding their behaviour. One such wide-domain regulatory circuit, essential to all cells, is carbon catabolite repression (CCR: it allows the cell to prefer some carbon sources, whose assimilation is of high nutritional value, over less profitable ones. In lower multicellular fungi, the C2H2 zinc finger CreA/CRE1 protein has been shown to act as the transcriptional repressor in this process. However, the complete list of its gene targets is not known. Results Here, we deciphered the CRE1 regulatory range in the model cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina by profiling transcription in a wild-type and a delta-cre1 mutant strain on glucose at constant growth rates known to repress and de-repress CCR-affected genes. Analysis of genome-wide microarrays reveals 2.8% of transcripts whose expression was regulated in at least one of the four experimental conditions: 47.3% of which were repressed by CRE1, whereas 29.0% were actually induced by CRE1, and 17.2% only affected by the growth rate but CRE1 independent. Among CRE1 repressed transcripts, genes encoding unknown proteins and transport proteins were overrepresented. In addition, we found CRE1-repression of nitrogenous substances uptake, components of chromatin remodeling and the transcriptional mediator complex, as well as developmental processes. Conclusions Our study provides the first global insight into the molecular physiological response of a multicellular fungus to carbon catabolite regulation and identifies several not yet known targets in a growth-controlled environment.

  18. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León; Domenech, F.; M. León; Méndez, T.; D. E. Rodríguez; Ashok Pandey

    1999-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH4)2SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9)/gDM). The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substra...

  19. Identification of residues important for substrate uptake in a glucose transporter from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Cao, Yanli; Gong, Jing; Bao, Xiaoming; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The glucose transporter is an important player in cell metabolism that mediates the intracellular uptake of glucose. Here, we characterized the glucose transporter Stp1 from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The individual substitution of several conserved residues for Ala in Stp1 corresponding to those interacting with D-glucose in the xylose/H(+) symporter XylE inflicted contrasting effects on its ability to support the growth of an hxt-null yeast on glucose. The targeted change of Phe 50, proximal to the substrate-binding site, was also found to exert a profound effect on the activity of Stp1. In contrast with the charged residues, the substitution of Phe 50 with either the hydrophilic residues Asn and Gln or the small residues Gly and Ala significantly enhanced the transport of glucose and its fluorescent analogue, 2-NBDG. On the other hand, a variant with the three substitutions I115F, F199I and P214L displayed remarkably improved activity on glucose and 2-NBDG transport. Further analysis indicated that the combined mutations of Ile 115 and Pro 214, positioned on the lateral surface of the Stp1 N-domain, fully accounted for the enhanced transport activity. These results provide insight into the structural basis for glucose uptake in fungal sugar transporters. PMID:26345619

  20. Biological pre-treatment: Enhancing biogas production using the highly cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, Mira; Illmer, Paul; Wagner, Andreas Otto

    2015-09-01

    With regard to renewable sources of energy, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a desirable endeavor. However, the highly heterogeneous structure of lignocellulose restricts the exploitation of its promising potential in biogas plants. Hence, effective pre-treatment methods are decisive prerequisites to overcome these challenges in order to improve the utilization ratio of (ligno) cellulosic substrates during fermentation. In the present study, the application of Trichoderma viride in an aerobic upstream process prior to anaerobic digestion led up to a threefold increase in the yield of methane and total gas in a lab-scale investigation. Due to its highly efficient cellulolytic activities, T. viride seemed to be responsible for an improved nutrient availability that positively influenced the anaerobic microbiocenosis. Aerobic pre-treatment of organic matter with T. viride is therefore a promising solution to achieve higher methane yields and degradation performances without any additional energy demand, nor undesired by-product inhibition. PMID:26013693

  1. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10³ to 10(7 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10³ conidia/ml at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05 making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  2. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  3. Sequences of stilboflavin C: towards the peptaibiome of the filamentous fungus Stilbella (= Trichoderma) flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Götze, Lutz; von Döhren, Hans; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Brückner, Hans

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Stilbella are recognized as an abundant source of naturally occurring α-aminoisobutyric acid-containing peptides. The culture broth of Stilbella (Trichoderma) flavipes CBS 146.81 yielded a mixture of peptides named stilboflavins (SF), and these were isolated and separated by preparative TLC into groups named SF-A, SF-B, and SF-C. Although all three of these groups resolved as single spots on thin-layer chromatograms, HPLC analysis revealed that each of the groups represents very microheterogeneous mixtures of closely related peptides. Here, we report on the sequence analysis of SF-C peptides, formerly isolated by preparative TLC. HPLC coupled to QqTOF-ESI-HRMS provided the sequences of 10 16-residue peptides and five 19-residue peptides, all of which were N-terminally acetylated. In contrast to the previously described SF-A and SF-B peptaibols, SF-C peptaibols contain Ser-Alaol or Ser-Leuol, which are rarely found as C-termini, and repetitive Leu-Aib-Gly sequences, which have not been detected in peptaibols before. Taking the previously determined sequences of SF-A and SF-B into account, the entirety of peptides produced by S. flavipes (the 'peptaibiome') approaches or exceeds 100 non-ribosomally biosynthesized peptaibiotics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443977

  4. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  5. Screening the Biosphere: The Fungicolous Fungus Trichoderma phellinicola, a Prolific Source of Hypophellins, New 17-, 18-, 19-, and 20-Residue Peptaibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röhrich, Christian René; Iversen, Anita; Jaklitsch, Walter Michael;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened a specimen of the fungicolous fungus Trichoderma phellinicola (syn. Hypocrea phellinicola) growing on its natural host Phellinus ferruginosus. Results revealed that a particular group of...... nonribosomal antibiotic polypeptides, peptaibiotics, which contain the non-proteinogenic marker amino acid, a-aminoisobutyric acid, was biosynthesized in the natural habitat by the fungicolous producer and, consequently, released into the host. By means of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray...

  6. Transcriptional monitoring of steady state and effects of anaerobic phases in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemostat cultures are commonly used in production of cellular material for systems-wide biological studies. We have used the novel TRAC (transcript analysis with aid of affinity capture method to study expression stability of approximately 30 process relevant marker genes in chemostat cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and its transformant expressing laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces. Transcriptional responses caused by transient oxygen deprivations and production of foreign protein were also studied in T. reesei by TRAC. Results In cultures with good steady states, the expression of the marker genes varied less than 20% on average between sequential samples for at least 5 or 6 residence times. However, in a number of T. reesei cultures continuous flow did not result in a good steady state. Perturbations to the steady state were always evident at the transcriptional level, even when they were not measurable as changes in biomass or product concentrations. Both unintentional and intentional perturbations of the steady state demonstrated that a number of genes involved in growth, protein production and secretion are sensitive markers for culture disturbances. Exposure to anaerobic conditions caused strong responses at the level of gene expression, but surprisingly the cultures could regain their previous steady state quickly, even after 3 h O2 depletion. The main effect of producing M. albomyces laccase was down-regulation of the native cellulases compared with the host strain. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptional analysis by TRAC in ensuring the quality of chemostat cultures prior to costly and laborious genome-wide analysis. In addition TRAC was shown to be an efficient tool in studying gene expression dynamics in transient conditions.

  7. Sulphur metabolism and cellulase gene expression are connected processes in the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoll Monika

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphur compounds like cysteine, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine are essential for the viability of most cells. Thus many organisms have developed a complex regulatory circuit that governs the expression of enzymes involved in sulphur assimilation and metabolism. In the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei little is known about the participants in this circuit. Results Analyses of proteins binding to the cellulase activating element (CAE within the promotor of the cellobiohydrolase cbh2 gene led to the identification of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase protein named LIMPET (LIM1, which is an orthologue of the sulphur regulators SCON-2 of Neurospora crassa and Met30p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcription of lim1 is specifically up-regulated upon sulphur limitation and responds to cellulase inducing conditions. In addition, light dependent stimulation/shut down of cellulase gene transcription by methionine in the presence of sulphate was observed. Further, lim1 transcriptionally reacts to a switch from constant darkness to constant light and is subject to regulation by the light regulatory protein ENVOY. Thus lim1, despite its function in sulphur metabolite repression, responds both to light as well as sulphur- and carbon source. Upon growth on cellulose, the uptake of sulphate is dependent on the light status and essential for growth in light. Unlike other fungi, growth of H. jecorina is not inhibited by selenate under low sulphur conditions, suggesting altered regulation of sulphur metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis of the five sulphate permeases found in the genome of H. jecorina revealed that the predominantly mycelial sulphate permease is lacking, thus supporting this hypothesis. Conclusion Our data indicate that the significance of the sulphate/methionine-related signal with respect to cellulase gene expression is dependent on the light status and reaches beyond detection of sulphur

  8. Disruption of the Eng18B ENGase gene in the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride affects growth, conidiation and antagonistic ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K Dubey

    Full Text Available The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase-type activity. Intracellular ENGase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. The present work is a functional study of the T. atroviride B5-group gene Eng18B, with emphasis on its role in fungal growth and antagonism. A homology model of T. atroviride Eng18B structure predicts a typical glycoside hydrolase family 18 (αβ(8 barrel architecture. Gene expression analysis shows that Eng18B is induced in dual cultures with the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, although a basal expression is observed in all growth conditions tested. Eng18B disruption strains had significantly reduced growth rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B disruption strains compared to the wild-type strain. No difference in spore germination, germ-tube morphology or in hyphal branching was detected. Disruption strains produced less biomass in liquid cultures than the wild-type strain when grown with chitin as the sole carbon source. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus B. cinerea in dual cultures and that this reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway of endogenous

  9. Disruption of the Eng18B ENGase Gene in the Fungal Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride Affects Growth, Conidiation and Antagonistic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukesh K.; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Sandgren, Mats; Funck Jensen, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase)-type activity. Intracellular ENGase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD) of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. The present work is a functional study of the T. atroviride B5-group gene Eng18B, with emphasis on its role in fungal growth and antagonism. A homology model of T. atroviride Eng18B structure predicts a typical glycoside hydrolase family 18 (αβ)8 barrel architecture. Gene expression analysis shows that Eng18B is induced in dual cultures with the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, although a basal expression is observed in all growth conditions tested. Eng18B disruption strains had significantly reduced growth rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B disruption strains compared to the wild-type strain. No difference in spore germination, germ-tube morphology or in hyphal branching was detected. Disruption strains produced less biomass in liquid cultures than the wild-type strain when grown with chitin as the sole carbon source. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus B. cinerea in dual cultures and that this reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway of endogenous glycoproteins in T

  10. Potential of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma to enhance ecosystem-service provision in the biofuel grass Miscanthus x giganteus in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino-Valle, Ivan; Kandula, Diwakar; Littlejohn, Chris; Hill, Robert; Walker, Mark; Shields, Morgan; Cummings, Nicholas; Hettiarachchi, Dilani; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sterile hybrid grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg) can produce more than 30 t dry matter/ha/year. This biomass has a range of uses, including animal bedding and a source of heating fuel. The grass provides a wide range of other ecosystem services (ES), including shelter for crops and livestock, a refuge for beneficial arthropods, reptiles and earthworms and is an ideal cellulosic feedstock for liquid biofuels such as renewable (drop-in) diesel. In this study, the effects of different strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma on above- and below-ground biomass of Mxg were evaluated in glasshouse and field experiments, the latter on a commercial dairy farm over two years. Other ES benefits of Trichoderma measured in this study included enhanced leaf chlorophyll content as well as increased digestibility of the dried material for livestock. This study shows, for the first time for a biofuel feedstock plant, how Trichoderma can enhance productivity of such plants and complements other recent work on the wide-ranging provision of ES by this plant species. PMID:27117716

  11. Potential of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma to enhance ecosystem-service provision in the biofuel grass Miscanthus x giganteus in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino-Valle, Ivan; Kandula, Diwakar; Littlejohn, Chris; Hill, Robert; Walker, Mark; Shields, Morgan; Cummings, Nicholas; Hettiarachchi, Dilani; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sterile hybrid grass Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg) can produce more than 30 t dry matter/ha/year. This biomass has a range of uses, including animal bedding and a source of heating fuel. The grass provides a wide range of other ecosystem services (ES), including shelter for crops and livestock, a refuge for beneficial arthropods, reptiles and earthworms and is an ideal cellulosic feedstock for liquid biofuels such as renewable (drop-in) diesel. In this study, the effects of different strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma on above- and below-ground biomass of Mxg were evaluated in glasshouse and field experiments, the latter on a commercial dairy farm over two years. Other ES benefits of Trichoderma measured in this study included enhanced leaf chlorophyll content as well as increased digestibility of the dried material for livestock. This study shows, for the first time for a biofuel feedstock plant, how Trichoderma can enhance productivity of such plants and complements other recent work on the wide-ranging provision of ES by this plant species. PMID:27117716

  12. The ABC transporter ABCG29 is involved in H2O2 tolerance and biocontrol traits in the fungus Clonostachys rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukesh; Jensen, Dan Funck; Karlsson, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    For successful biocontrol interactions, biological control organisms must tolerate toxic metabolites produced by themselves or plant pathogens during mycoparasitic/antagonistic interactions, by host plant during colonization of the plant, and xenobiotics present in the environment. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters can play a significant role in tolerance of toxic compounds by mediating active transport across the cellular membrane. This paper reports on functional characterization of an ABC transporter ABCG29 in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726. Gene expression analysis showed induced expression of abcG29 during exposure to the Fusarium spp. mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) and the fungicides Cantus, Chipco Green and Apron. Expression of abcG29 in C. rosea was significantly higher during C. rosea-C. rosea (Cr-Cr) interaction or in exposure to C. rosea culture filtrate for 2 h, compared to interaction with Fusarium graminearum or 2 h exposure to F. graminearum culture filtrate. In contrast with gene expression data, ΔabcG29 strains did not display reduced tolerance towards ZEA, fungicides or chemical agents known for inducing oxidative, cell wall or osmotic stress, compared to C. rosea WT. The exception was a significant reduction in tolerance to H2O2 (10 mM) in ΔabcG29 strains when conidia were used as an inoculum. The antagonistic ability of ΔabcG29 strains towards F. graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum or Botrytis cinerea in dual plate assays were not different compared with WT. However, in biocontrol assays ΔabcG29 strains displayed reduced ability to protect Arabidopsis thaliana leaves from B. cinerea, and barley seedling from F. graminearum as measured by an A. thaliana detached leaf assay and a barley foot rot disease assay, respectively. These data show that the ABCG29 is dispensable for ZEA and fungicides tolerance, and antagonism but not H2O2 tolerance and biocontrol effects in C. rosea. PMID:26520102

  13. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH42SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH42HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9/gDM. The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substrate was studied through a 2² experimental plan design. No statistical differences were found within the range of 30-35ºC and 60-70% for temperature and moisture respectively. The biotechnological parameters of the process were derived from the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR pattern, which corresponded to the order of 10(9spores/g moist material. The specific growth rate, maintenance coefficient and the yield based on O2 consumption were 0.108 h-1, 0.001 g.O2/g.biomass.h and 2.7 g biomass/g O2 consumed, respectively.Esporos de Tricoderma harzianum Nº 53 foram produzidos por fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando bagaço de cana como suporte e melaço de cana como fonte de carbono. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram testadas (uréia, (NH42 SO4 , NH4H2PO4 e (NH42HPO4 na produção de esporos. As mais elevadas concentrações de esporos (10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido foram obtidas utilizando a uréia como fonte de nitrogênio. O efeito da temperatura e umidade inicial foram estudadas através da utilização da planificação experimental utilizando um modelo 2². Não foi encontrada diferença estatística na produção de esporos na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 30-35 ° C e umidade inicial de 60-70%. Os parâmetros biotecnológicos foram determinados através da taxa de oxigênio consumido (OUR correspondente a uma produção de 10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido. A taxa de crescimento especifico, coeficiente de manutenção e rendimento foram

  14. 海洋真菌Trichoderma reesei的次级代谢产物的分离与鉴定%Secondary metabolism product of fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奕; 吕阿丽; 田黎; 魏岚; 裴月湖

    2007-01-01

    目的 系统研究海洋真菌Trlchoderma reesei的次级代谢产物.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱等手段进行分离,根据理化性质及波谱数据对所得结构进行了鉴定.结果 从海洋真菌Trichoderma reesei发酵液的乙酸乙酯提取物中共分离得到6个成分,分别鉴定为cyclonerodiol(1)、8,9-dihydro-dihydroxymegastigrrmtrienone(2)、harzialactone A(3)、3,6-二苄基哌嗪-2,5-二酮(4)、3-异丁基-8-羟基吡咯并哌嗪-2,5-二酮(5)、3-苄基-8-羟基吡咯并哌嗪-2,5-二酮(6).结论 所分得的化合物均为从海洋真菌Trichoderma reesei的次级代谢产物中首次分离得到.

  15. Biocontrol mechanisms of Thrichoderma strains

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Fernández, Concepción Tahía; Rincón Romero, Ana María; Limón Mirón, María del Carmen; Carballo Codón, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. These indirect a...

  16. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gruber

    Full Text Available Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  17. Variabilidade genética na região its do rDNA de isolados de trichoderma spp. (Biocontrolador e Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi Genetic variability in rDNA ITS region of Trichoderma spp. (biocontrole agent and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Pacheco Menezes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise de características morfológicas e culturais podem não ser suficientes para uma caracterização precisa das espécies de Trichoderma e Fusarium. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a região do Espaço Interno Transcrito (ITS do rDNA dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma spp. utilizados no biocontrole de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi (isolado UFSMF6. A extração de DNA de cada isolado foi realizada a partir de micélio produzido em meio líquido Batata-Dextrose. As amostras de DNA genômico foram submetidas à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores universais ITS1 e ITS4 e o produto gerado foi sequenciado. Os fragmentos gerados pela amplificação da PCR foram tratados com as enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI. As regiões ITS1, ITS2 e 5.8S do rDNA desses isolados fúngicos foram amplificadas com sucesso. A região ITS dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma e o isolado UFSMF6 de Fusarium apresentaram uma banda simples com um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de base (pb. As enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI geraram polimorfismo de bandas entre os isolados. Com base nas análises da sequência de DNA, os isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16, UFSMT17 e UFSMF6 apresentaram maior similaridade com as espécies Trichoderma koningiopsis, Hypocrea virens, Hypocrea lixii e Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente.The analysis of morphological and cultural characteristics may not enough for the characterization of the species of Trichoderma and Fusarium. The aim of this work was to characterize the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the rDNA of UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 and UFSMT17 isolates of Trichoderma spp. used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi UFSMF6. DNA extraction of each isolate was accomplished starting from hyphae produced in liquid medium Potato-Dextrose-Agar. The samples of genomic DNA were submitted to

  18. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact. PMID:19121038

  19. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  20. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  1. Primary Study on Biological Control Potential of Trichoderma harzianum TL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Zhenyu; Xiao; Man; Gao; Xinzheng; Tang; Libo; Li; Li

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a widely used biocontrol fungus. The growth promoting effect of strain Trichoderma harzianum TL-1 on tomato and pepper and its biological control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight were investigated through pot experiments. The results showed that the stain TL-1 had significant promotion effect on growth of pepper and tomato in sterilized and natural soils. With the application dose of 3. 0 and 0. 5g/ pot,their dry weight were increased up to 46% and 150% compared with control,respectively. In addition,TL-1 had good control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight. Compared with fungicide treatment,TL-1 treatment could control diseases for long term,without repeat occurrence of diseases.

  2. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:26521137

  3. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F.; José Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  4. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; de Azevedo, Rafael Ricci; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F; Ulhoa, Cirano José; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Cardoza, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  5. Antimicrobial activities of novel mannosyl lipids isolated from the biocontrol fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Quang; Shin, Teak Soo; Park, Myung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-04-16

    The antagonistic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP has been developed as a microbial biopesticide that effectively controls the development of various plant diseases caused by both pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Antibacterial bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate mannosyl lipids from S. lamellicola BCP, and the structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Three novel mannosyl lipids were characterized and identified as halymecins F and G and (3R,5R)-3-O-β-D-mannosyl-3,5-dihydrodecanoic acid. Massoia lactone and (3R, 5R)-3-hydroxydecan-5-olide were also isolated from S. lamellicola BCP. The three novel compounds inhibited the growth of the majority of phytopathogenic bacteria that were tested, and halymecin F displayed the strongest antibacterial activity. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was the most sensitive to the three novel compounds, with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.58 to 24.8 μg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth from the antagonistic fungus effectively reduced the bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato seedlings. These results indicate that S. lamellicola BCP suppresses the development of plant bacterial diseases through the production of antibacterial metabolites. PMID:24660753

  6. Construction of engineering Trichoderma strains and their characteristics against tomato gray mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian; ZHUANG Jing-hua; GAO Zeng-gui; YANG Chang-cheng; CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The transformed Trichoderma strains Ttrm31, Ttrm34 and Ttrm55 were obtained from Trichoderma wild strain T21 mutated by REMI technique for more effective biocontrol of tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) with Trichoderma agent. Those transformants appeared much better in biocontrol activity in vitro or in vivo against tomato gray mold were better than that of wild strain T21. The main results were as follow:

  7. 木霉对玉米纹枯病的生物防治%Biocontrol of maize sheath blight with Trichoderma spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广志; 文成敬

    2005-01-01

    为明确木霉菌在玉米纹枯病防治上的作用,研究了从雅安郊区大田玉米根际土壤中分离到的18个木霉菌株对立枯丝核菌的抑制作用及对玉米纹枯病的田间防治效果.对峙培养结果表明,这些木霉菌株对立枯丝核菌的抑制率为39.44%~84.98%;而木霉发酵滤液的抑菌作用为13.48%~85.81%.对峙培养和液体发酵滤液的抑菌测定相结合,筛选出木霉菌株T8、T2、T13,经鉴定分别为哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum、黄绿木霉Trichoderma aureoviride和长枝木霉Trichoderma Longibrachiatum.用这3种木霉的固体培养物作进一步的田间防治试验,防治效果分别为62.75%、64.48%、68.52%,比井冈霉素(49.68%)效果高;T13菌株的发酵滤液的防治效果仅为40.07%.3株木霉固体培养物对玉米产量影响显著,增产率依次为29.77%、43.37%、54.21%.

  8. Screening of Trichoderma strains tolerant to benzimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren; ZENG Yong-san; ZHOU Hong-zi; YU Jin-feng; JIANG Xin-yin; ZHANG Yue-li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The screening of isolates and the assay of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma were studied systematically in laboratory and greenhouse in vivo. The proteins tolerant to benzimidazole in Trichoderma strains were purified, and their physical and chemical properties were detected. Compared their biological activities in vitro and vivo in greenhouse, nine biocontrol strains (including Ty- 10-2, LTR-2, Tj-5-1, Tj-5-4, Ty- 11-1, Tj-11-3, Ty- 11-3, Tj-3-3-2, Tj-3-3-4) were screened. These biocontrol strains had faster rates of growth and higher inhibition to gray mould (Bortrytis cinerea),and the inhibition was stable. The effects of controlling gray mould in greenhouse with the screened Trichoderma strains were 70 % and 50 % in vivo.

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SUGAR BEET DAMPING-OFF WITH TRICHODERMA SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of damping-off in sugar beet seedlings with Trichoderma species. Isolates of Trichoderma virens and other Trichoderma species are effective biocontrol agents for diseases of several crops. Control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani has been observed in a number of c...

  10. Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, Jasmine; Hunt, Sybille; McKay, Matthew; Herbert, Ben R; Nevalainen, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of T. atroviride (T. harzianum P1) grown on media containing either glucose or R. solani cell walls. Protein profiles were compared to identify T. atroviride proteins up-regulated in the presence of the R. solani cell walls. Twenty-four protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Identified up-regulated proteins include known fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase and 42-kDa endochitinase. Three novel proteases of T. atroviride were identified, containing sequence similarity to vacuolar serine protease, vacuolar protease A and a trypsin-like protease from known fungal proteins. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein from Neurospora crassa were also up-regulated as a response to R. solani cell walls. Several cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified from the T. atroviride culture supernatant, providing further evidence that a cellular response indicative of biological control had occurred. PMID:15856359

  11. I-SceI-mediated double-strand DNA breaks stimulate efficient gene targeting in the industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Jean Paul; Arentshorst, Mark; Nikolaev, Igor; Barends, Sharief; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-12-01

    Targeted integration of expression cassettes for enzyme production in industrial microorganisms is desirable especially when enzyme variants are screened for improved enzymatic properties. However, currently used methods for targeted integration are inefficient and result in low transformation frequencies. In this study, we expressed the Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-SceI meganuclease to generate double-strand breaks at a defined locus in the Trichoderma reesei genome. We showed that the double-strand DNA breaks mediated by I-SceI can be efficiently repaired when an exogenous DNA cassette flanked by regions homologous to the I-SceI landing locus was added during transformation. Transformation efficiencies increased approximately sixfold compared to control transformation. Analysis of the transformants obtained via I-SceI-mediated gene targeting showed that about two thirds of the transformants resulted from a homologous recombination event at the predetermined locus. Counter selection of the transformants for the loss of the pyrG marker upon integration of the DNA cassette showed that almost all of the clones contained the cassette at the predetermined locus. Analysis of independently obtained transformants using targeted integration of a glucoamylase expression cassette demonstrated that glucoamylase production among the transformants was high and showing limited variation. In conclusion, the gene targeting system developed in this study significantly increases transformation efficiency as well as homologous recombination efficiency and omits the use of Δku70 strains. It is also suitable for high-throughput screening of enzyme variants or gene libraries in T. reesei. PMID:26272087

  12. Role of Two G-Protein Alpha Subunits, TgaA and TgaB, in the Antagonism of Plant Pathogens by Trichoderma virens

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Latha, Jagannathan; Hadar, Ruthi; Horwitz, Benjamin A.

    2004-01-01

    G-protein α subunits are involved in transmission of signals for development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. We cloned two G-protein α subunit genes, tgaA and tgaB, from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens. tgaA belongs to the fungal Gαi class, while tgaB belongs to the class defined by gna-2 of Neurospora crassa. We compared loss-of-function mutants of tgaA and tgaB with the wild type for radial growth, conidiation, germination of coni...

  13. Camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride LY357: isolation, identification, and fermentation conditions optimization for camptothecin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiang; Qu, Xixing; Chen, Fei; Bao, Jinku; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2013-11-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), the third largest anticancer drug, is produced mainly by Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. CPT itself is the starting material for clinical CPT-type drugs, but the plant-derived CPT cannot support the heavy demand from the global market. Research efforts have been made to identify novel sources for CPT. In this study, three CPT-producing endophytic fungi, Aspergillus sp. LY341, Aspergillus sp. LY355, and Trichoderma atroviride LY357, were isolated and identified from C. acuminata. Most CPT produced by these fungi was found in the fermentation broth, and their corresponding CPT yields were 7.93, 42.92, and 197.82 μg l(-1), respectively. The CPT-producing capability of LY341 and LY355 was completely lost after repeat subculturing. A substantial decrease of CPT production was also observed in the second generation of LY357. However, a stable and sustainable production of CPT was found from the second generation through the eighth generation of LY357. The fermentation medium, time, pH, temperature, and agitation rate were optimized for CPT production. Methyl jasmonate and XAD16 were proven to be an optimum elicitor and adsorbent resin, respectively, in view of that CPT yield was increased 3.4- and 11-fold through their use. A 50- to 75-fold increase of CPT yield was obtained when the optimized fermentation conditions, elicitor, and adsorbent resin were combined and applied to the culture of the seventh and eighth generations of LY357, and the highest CPT yield was 142.15 μg l(-1). The CPT-producing T. atroviride LY357 paves a potential to uncover the mysteries of CPT biosynthesis. PMID:23949997

  14. Genome Sequence and Annotation of Trichoderma parareesei, the Ancestor of the Cellulase Producer Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongqing; Pomraning, Kyle; Kopchinskiy, Alexey; Karimi Aghcheh, Razieh; Atanasova, Lea; Chenthamara, Komal; Baker, Scott E.; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Freitag, Michael; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma parareesei is the asexually reproducing ancestor of Trichoderma reesei, the holomorphic industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase. Here, we present the genome sequence of the T. parareesei type strain CBS 125925, which contains genes for 9,318 proteins.

  15. Genome Sequence and Annotation of Trichoderma parareesei, the Ancestor of the Cellulase Producer Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqing; Pomraning, Kyle; Kopchinskiy, Alexey; Karimi Aghcheh, Razieh; Atanasova, Lea; Chenthamara, Komal; Baker, Scott E; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Freitag, Michael; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma parareesei is the asexually reproducing ancestor of Trichoderma reesei, the holomorphic industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase. Here, we present the genome sequence of the T. parareesei type strain CBS 125925, which contains genes for 9,318 proteins. PMID:26272569

  16. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Naher; Soon Guan Tan; Chai Ling Ho; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Siti Hazar Ahmad; Faridah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil pa...

  17. Improved production of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase by expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles-Clark, E.; Hayes, C K; Harman, G. E.; Penttilä, M

    1996-01-01

    The chromosomal endochitinase gene (ThEn-42) of the mycoparasite fungus Trichoderma harzianum P1 was isolated and overexpressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei under the promoter of the major cellulase gene cbhl1. The host strain RutC-30 did not produce any endogenous endochitinase activity. The prepro region of the T harzianum endochitinase was correctly processed in T. reesei. No differences in expression were observed when the prepro region was replaced with the CBHI signal se...

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of CryⅠA(b) gene to Trichoderma harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xingxi; YANG Qian

    2004-01-01

    In this study, CryⅠA(b) gene was successfully transferred into the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum with an efficiency of 60-180 transformants per 106 spores by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated trans- formation. Putative transformants were analyzed to test the presence of CryⅠA(b) gene by Southern blot. Most transformants contained a single T-DNA copy. RT-PCR analysis showed that the CryⅠA(b) gene was transcribed. Antifungal activities and insecticidal activities of the transformants were examined. There was no obvious difference in antifungal activities between the transformants and their wild strains. The modified mortalities of the transformants T1 and T2 were 69.57% and 91.30%, respectively. The tranformation system mediated by A. tumefaciens proved to be a powerful tool for the filamentous fungi transformation and functional genomic study with its high transformation frequency, simplicity of T-DNA integration, and genetic stability of transformants.

  19. In Vitro Inhibition of Cellulolytic Enzymes of Fusarium Oxysporum by Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas Fluorescens on Arachis Hypogaea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajeswari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop biocontrol system for management of Fusarium wilt in groundnut, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum,and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. .Fusarium wilt diseasescaused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum lead to significant yield losses of crops. Experiments were conducted on the effect of culture filtratesof T.viride (1%, T. harzianum (1.5%, and P. fluorescens (2% on the in vitro inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium oxysporum. Theactivity of 1,4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase Cellobiase produced by Fusariumoxysporum was higher, when compared to control.Maximum inhibition of above Cellulolytic enzymes (1, 4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase, Cellobiase was shown by T. viride treatment wasfollowed by T. harzianum and P. fluorescens. Of all the treatments, T. viride treatment showed higher rate of inhibition of Cellulolytic enzymesof Fusarium oxysporum followed by that of T. harzianum and P. fluorescens.This present study indicates that culture filtrate of T.viride(1%is the best biocontrol agent in the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt of Arachis hypogaea .L

  20. Método para preservação da viabilidade e atividade antagônica de Trichoderma stromaticum , agente de biocontrole da vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro Method for preservation of viability and antagonic activity of Trichoderma stromaticum, biocontrol agent of witches´broom disease of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Novais Bastos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a viabilidade da massa esporógena de Trichoderma stromaticum, através do crescimento micelial em meio de cultivo e a atividade antagônica (parasitária em vassouras secas de cacaueiro, após a preservação de quatro isolados (Ts1606, Ts3107, Ts0108, Ts2705 do antagonista por quatro anos em fragmentos de vassoura secas, acondicionados em tubos de ensaio e mantidos em refrigerador com temperatura aproximada de 5 °C. Todos os isolados preservados apresentaram-se viáveis, com crescimento e esporulação normais e continuavam antagônicos a Crinipellis perniciosa. Os resultados obtidos indicam a eficiência do método, que é capaz de manter os isolados de T. stromaticum viáveis por longos períodos de tempo, preservando características morfológicas, fisiológicas e antagônicas.After four years of preservation by using dried cocoa brooms in fridge at 5 °C, the viability of four isolates (Ts1606, Ts3107, Ts0108, Ts2705 of Trichoderma stromaticum was evaluated based on germination of conidia, mycelium growth in a culture medium and antagonistic activity on dry cocoa brooms. All the isolates preserved maintained viability, showing normal growth, sporulation and antagonistic activity against Crinipellis perniciosa.. These results indicate the efficience of the method for the long term preservation of T. stromaticum, maintaining their morphological, physiological, and antagonistic characteristics.

  1.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

    important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  2. Nitrogen fertilization impacts biocontrol of tomato gray mold

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Manzoor Ali; Lecompte, François; Bardin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a common threat for greenhouse production of tomatoes. Control of this disease can be difficult even with chemical treatments, and alternative methods are needed. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is known to modify the impact of pathogens on plants. However, there is scarce knowledge about the effect of fertilization on the efficacy of biocontrol. Here, we studied the effect of N fertilization on biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Microdochium dim...

  3. Pathogenic fungi and Bio-control agents: Competitive bio-assay research

    OpenAIRE

    Olabiyi, T.I.; Ruocco, M.; Lanzuize, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma have a track record of being antagonist to quite of a number of agricultural important pathogens. Trichoderma have some unique characteristics that make it scientifically proven and suitable bio-control agents against varieties of pathogenic organism infecting economic food crops. Trichoderma has the advantage of being environment friendly and not hazardous to the health of human beings, livestock, soil and environment. Competitive bio-assay experiment was carri...

  4. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma...... isolates in a natural pot mix in order to select potential fungal antagonists to be employed in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off of radish, and 2) to verify the hypothesis that competition for a food base plays a role in reducing pathogen activity. Fifteen Trichoderma spp., selected among...

  5. 真菌Trichoderma viride Pers.ex Fr降解三苯废气性能实验%PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENT ON AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE,TOLUENE AND XYLENE BY FUNGUS TRICHODERMA VIRIDE PERS.EX FR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晨涛; 马广大

    2007-01-01

    利用固相静态试验考察前期实验驯化出的真菌Trichoderma viride Pers.ex Fr对苯、甲苯、二甲苯的好氧生物降解性能.结果表明,在本研究的气相浓度范围内(苯47.25~1677.47g/m3,甲苯64.70~1258.50g/m3、二甲苯20.59~1707.85g/m3),3种气体的降解速率随其初始浓度的增大而增加,降解规律苯、甲苯符合Monod方程,二甲苯符合一级反应.

  6. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciornea; Tamara Barbaneagra; Alexandru Manoliu; Mihaela Cristica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The cat...

  7. Synergy in Trichoderma Reesei cellulases

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen Kudal, Eva Rose; Ejaz, Rooshanie Nadia; Poniewierska, Julia Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Synergy has been observed between the various cellulolytic enzymes of the fungus Trichoderma Reesei. Termed cellulases, these enzymes come together to form a potent cocktail of biomass degrading enzymes. The biofuel industry has seen a recent surge partly due to the advances in attaining a more applicable understanding of the mechanisms of synergy that occur when said enzymes are used to degrade biomass into fermentable sugar. To that end, this review summarizes the various theories postulati...

  8. Enhanced Expression of Endochitinase in Trichoderma harzianum with the cbh1 Promoter of Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles-Clark, E.; Harman, G. E.; Penttila, M.

    1996-01-01

    Production of extracellular endochitinase could be increased 5-fold in the mycoparasite fungus Trichoderma harzianum by using the cellulase promoter cbh1 of Trichoderma reesei, whereas the total endochitinase activity increased 10-fold. The cbh1 promoter was not expressed on glucose and sucrose in T. harzianum and was induced by sophorose and on cellulase-inducing medium. The endogenous endochitinase gene was expressed at a low basal level on glucose and sucrose. No specific induction by crab...

  9. The Psychrotolerant Antarctic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003: A Powerful Producer of Cold-Tolerant Chitinolytic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Fenice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, isolated in Continental Antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. Chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. The production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and is submitted to catabolite repression. The chitinolytic system of L. muscarium consists of a number of different proteins having various molecular weights and diverse biochemical characteristics, but their most significant trait is the marked cold-tolerance. L. muscarium and selected strains of the biocontrol agent of pathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum, have been compared for their ability to produce chitinolytic enzymes at different temperatures. At low temperatures the Antarctic strain was definitely much more efficient. Moreover, the fungus was able to exert a strong mycoparasitic action against various other fungi and oomycetes at low temperatures. The parasitic role of this organism appeared related to the production of cell wall degrading enzymes being the release of extracellular chitinolytic enzymes a key event in the mycoparasitic process. Due to the mentioned characteristics, L. muscarium could have an important role for potential applications such as the degradation of chitin-rich materials at low temperature and the biocontrol of pathogenic organisms in cold environments. For these reasons and in view of future industrial application, the production of chitinolytic enzymes by the Antarctic fungus has been up-scaled and optimised in bench-top bioreactor.

  10. The Psychrotolerant Antarctic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003: A Powerful Producer of Cold-Tolerant Chitinolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenice, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, isolated in Continental Antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. Chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. The production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and is submitted to catabolite repression. The chitinolytic system of L. muscarium consists of a number of different proteins having various molecular weights and diverse biochemical characteristics, but their most significant trait is the marked cold-tolerance. L. muscarium and selected strains of the biocontrol agent of pathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum, have been compared for their ability to produce chitinolytic enzymes at different temperatures. At low temperatures the Antarctic strain was definitely much more efficient. Moreover, the fungus was able to exert a strong mycoparasitic action against various other fungi and oomycetes at low temperatures. The parasitic role of this organism appeared related to the production of cell wall degrading enzymes being the release of extracellular chitinolytic enzymes a key event in the mycoparasitic process. Due to the mentioned characteristics, L. muscarium could have an important role for potential applications such as the degradation of chitin-rich materials at low temperature and the biocontrol of pathogenic organisms in cold environments. For these reasons and in view of future industrial application, the production of chitinolytic enzymes by the Antarctic fungus has been up-scaled and optimised in bench-top bioreactor. PMID:27058517

  11. EFECTO SOBRE LA SARNA POLVOSA DE CUATRO AISLAMIENTOS DEL HONGO Trichoderma asperellum EN TRES TIPOS DE SUELO EFFECT ON THE POWDERY SCAB OF FOUR ISOLATES OF THE FUNGUS Trichoderma asperellum IN THREE TYPES OF SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gilchrist

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El protozoario Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea es un parásito obligado que replica en raíces y tubérculos de papa causando la sarna polvosa. Esta enfermedad se ha difundido a escala global debido al comercio de tubérculos-semilla infectados y a la ausencia de tratamientos efectivos. En este trabajo se investigó la influencia sobre la sarna polvosa de cuatro aislamientos de Trichoderma asperellum en tres tipos de suelo: Andisol, Entisol e Inceptisol. Tubérculos de Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro fueron plantados en parcelas infectadas con 1942 ± 226 quistosoros por gramo de suelo. No se observaron diferencias entre las plantas tratadas y no tratadas con T. asperellum. La superficie de raíz ocupada por agallas fue en promedio 2,2%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas (PThe protozoan Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea is an obligate parasite that replicates in roots and tubers of potato causing the powdery scab. This disease has disseminated on a global scale, because the commercial traffic of infected tubers used as seed and the absence of effective treatments. The present work investigated the effects of four isolates of Trichoderma asperellum in three soil types: Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol. The soils were infected with 1942 ± 226 cystosori per gram of soil. It was used Solanum tuberosum variety Diacol Capiro. No differences were observed between treated and non treated plants with T. asperellum. The root surface affected by galls was an average of 2.2 %, and no significant differences (p<0.05 were observed among the soils. The reduction of plant growth was of 41, 32 and 28 % for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. The reduction in tubers production was of 40, 28 and 0,1% for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. Similar percent of root surface covered with galls resulted in production reduction of 40%, but also of 0,1%, indicating the necessity of other methods to

  12. Biocontrol con Trichoderma spp. de Fusarium oxysporum causal del “mal de almácigos” en pre y post emergencia en cebolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Aixa D.; Barrera, Viviana; Reybet, Graciela; Sosa, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    En Argentina, la “podredumbre basal” y el “mal de almácigos” causados por el complejo Fusarium spp. constituyen uno de los problemas más serios en cebolla. En este trabajo se estudió el uso de especies del género Trichoderma como agentes de control biológico (ACB) de F. oxysporum, causal del “mal de almácigos” en cebolla. Se identificaron y caracterizaron morfológica, cultural y fisiológicamente a 10 aislamientos de Trichoderma spp. del cepario de Fitopatología. Por secuenciación del gen TEF-...

  13. Applications of Trichoderma formulations in crop protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monte E; Rodríguez A; Rey M; Axpilicueta A; Gómez M I; de la Vina G; Grondona I; Llobell A

    2004-01-01

    @@ The choice of active Trichoderma strains is important in designing effective and safe biocontrol applications. Many species of Trichoderma have multiple strategies for fungal antagonism and indirect effects on plant health, such as growth promotion, systemic resistance induction and fertility improvements. Some strains are powerful antibiotic producers, and their suitability for use in biocontrol systems must be carefully assessed. However, many other active strains have no antibiotic capacity, and these are likely to be more useful in food production systems since they have not adverse effects on important groups of beneficial soil organisms. We have assessed the performance of selected naturally occurring Trichoderma strains (singly and in combination) and developed TUSAL , a mixture of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride that has demonstrated to be effective against major pathogens in sugar beet and horticulture. TUSAL , has been bulked up and tested under field conditions, showing positive effects on precocity and root development, and increasing the crop production in field trials carried out in different pathosystems. The environmental impact of TUSAL strains on beneficial organisms in the environment were assessed before release, and molecular detection methods were developed to monitor the presence and performance of strains in the field.

  14. Trichoderma chlorosporum,a new record of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium nobile in China%中国木霉属内生真菌一个新记录种Trichoderma chlorosporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志林; 陈益存; 章初龙; 林福呈; 陈连庆

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Typically,Trichoderma spp.are free-living fungi most frequently isolated from soils and have been extensively studied due to their remarkable biocontrol and plant-growth promoting capacity.There is increasing evidence that sometimes they display flexible lifestyle and penetrate epidermis of roots and act as opportunistic,avirulent plant symbiont(Harman et al.2004).Recently,a Trichoderma species living as endophyte,Trichoderma taxi C.L.Zhang et al.(2007),has been recognized.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST COLLECTOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES CAUSING MANGO ANTHRACNOSE AGAINST COLLECTOTRICHUM GLOEOSPORIOIDES CAUSING MANGO ANTHRACNOSE

    OpenAIRE

    NAGALAKSHMI DEVAMMA M; J. Patricia Rajkumari; P. Suvarnalatha Devi

    2014-01-01

    The antagonistic potential biocontrol agents was evaluated against the isolate PTR6 since it was found to be highly virulent based on the results obtained in pathogenic variability test. The antagonistic effect of native microflora was assessed based on their ability to inhibit the pathogen growth in dual culture technique. Among the 21 bacterial biocontrol agents, the antagonist BP6 and BL5 completely (100%) inhibited growth of the pathogen. Among the 21Trichoderma biocontrol...

  16. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela; Goedegebuur, Frits; Van Solingen, Pieter; Ward, Michael

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  17. Using of green fluorescent reporter gene (GFP) to monitor the fate of Fusarium moniliforme mycoparasitized by Trichoderma viride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ting-heng; WANG Wei-xia; WANG Chang-chun; YANG Rui-qin; CAI Xin-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. is a rice pathogenic fungus and causes the disease called Bakanae,which has increasingly damaged rice production in the recent years. Trichoderma spp. has been one of the most widely used biological control agent of plant disease. By geneticaly labelling F. moniliforme with the GFP reporter gene, we have studied the antagonistic action of Trichoderma viride against this pathogenic fungus.

  18. Novel understanding of Trichoderma interaction mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Lorito

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma- based biofungicides are a reality in commercial agriculture, with more than 50formulations registered worldwide as biopesticides or biofertilizers. Several research strategies have been applied to identify the main genes and compounds involved in the complex, three-way interactions between fungal antagonists, plants and microbial pathogens. Proteome and genome analyses have greatly enhanced our ability to conduct targeted and genome-based functional studies. We have obtained reproducible 2-D maps of the entire fungal proteome in various conditions of interaction,which permitted the isolation of many proteins related to specific functions. Many differential proteins from several biocontrol strains of Trichoderma spp. during the in vivo interaction with different plants and/or several phytopathogenic fungi have been isolated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF.Relevant genes have been cloned and specifically inactivated, to demonstrate their function in biocontrol and induction of disease resistance. GFP-based reporter systems with interaction-inducible promoters allowed the characterization of regulatory sequences activated by the presence of the pathogen or the plant. From extensive cDNA and EST libraries of genes expressed during Trichoderma-pathogen-plant interactions, we are identified and determined the role of a variety of novel genes and gene-products, including ABC transporters specifically induced during antagonism with other microbes; enzymes and other proteins that produce or act as novel elicitors of Induced Resistance in plant and promote root growth and crop yield; proteins possibly responsible of a gene-forgene avirulent interaction between Trichoderma and plants; mycoparasitism-related inducers released from fungal pathogens and that activate biocontrol in Trichoderma; fungal promoters specifically induced during mycoparasitism and plant colonization; plant proteins and a novel phytoalexin induced by the presence of the fungal antagonist; etc

  19. Growth of Trichoderma viride on bean (Phaseolus pod solid basal medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Okungbowa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma viride Pers. isolated from soil was grown on two different solid media (Potato Dex trose Agar, PDA, and Bean ( Phaseolus Phaseolus Pod Agar, BPA impregnated sep a rate ly with three nitrogen sources at room temperature (29±2 C. Growth rate was determined from the radial growth of the fungus on Petri dishes. There was no sig nifi cant difference between radial growth of T. viride on PDA and BPA sup ple ment ed with magnesium sulphate and so di um nitrate (p<0.05%. The fun gus did not grow on BPA supplemented with sodium nitrite, where as growth of the organism was observed on PDA treated likewise. Growth of the fungus on ammoniumtreated BPA was com pa ra ble to the control, while no growth was noticed on PDA. On the whole, the growth of T. viride on BPA compared well with that on PDA (p< 0.05%. This is an indication of the possible use of bean pod as a carrier medium for T. viride in biocontrol programmes.

  20. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M. Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  1. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  2. Characterization and gene cloning of a novel serine protease with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Liu, Li-Jun; Shi, Mei; Song, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Chang-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 is a biocontrol fungus with inhibitory ability against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, a crude extract of strain SMF2 in a solid ferment exhibited strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, and a novel serine protease SprT with nematicidal activity was purified from the crude extract. Protease SprT has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, a pH optimum of 8.5, and a temperature optimum of 60-65 degrees C. It had good thermostability, and was stable in an alkaline environment. SprT could degrade bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and gelatin, and its activity was enhanced by many metal ions. The cuticles of nematodes treated by protease SprT obviously crimpled. Purified protease SprT could kill juveniles of M. incognita and inhibit egg hatch, suggesting that it is involved in the nematicidal process of T. pseudokoningii SMF2. The full-length cDNA gene-encoding protease SprT was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that SprT is a monodomain subtilase containing 284 amino acid residues. It had higher identities and a closer relation to the nematicidal serine proteases (59-69%) from nematode parasitic fungi than to the serine proteases (activity from Trichoderma. PMID:19702879

  3. Enhancing rice resistance to fungal pathogens by transformation with cell wall degrading enzyme genes from Trichoderma atroviride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 孙宗修; 朱洁; 徐同; HARMANGaryE; LORITOMatteo

    2004-01-01

    Three genes encoding for fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs), ech42, nag70 and gluc78 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride were inserted into the binary vector pCAMBIA1305.2 singly and in all possible combinations and transformed to rice plants. More than 1800 independently regenerated plantlets in seven different populations (for each of the three genes and each of the four gene combinations) were obtained. The ech42 gene encoding for an endochitinase increased resistance to sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, while the exochitinase-encoding gene, nag70, had lesser effect. The expression level of endochitinase but exochitinase was correlated with disease resistance. Nevertheless, exochitinase enhanced the effect of endochitinase on disease resistance when the two genes co-expressed in transgenics. Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea was found in all kinds of regenerated plants including that with single gluc78. A few lines expressing either ech42 or nag70 gene were immune to the disease. Transgenic plants are being tested to further evaluate disease resistance at field level. This is the first report of multiple of expression of genes encoding CWDEs from Trichoderma atroviride that result in resistance to blast and sheath blight in rice.

  4. Genome-wide characterization of ISR induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 against Botrytis cinerea infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janick eMathys

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime and after (ISR-boost additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance (SAR, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance towards secondary infections. Treatment with Trichoderma hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime, resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against Botrytis cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the Botrytis cinerea induced defense response (BIDR. Microarray results were confirmed for representative genes by qRT-PCR, by analysis of transgenic plants expressing relevant promoter-GUS constructs and by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in various defense-related pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach.

  5. Unraveling Trichoderma species in the attine ant environment: description of three new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Quimi Vidaurre; Meirelles, Lucas Andrade; Chaverri, Priscila; Rodrigues, Andre

    2016-05-01

    Fungus-growing "attine" ants forage diverse substrates to grow fungi for food. In addition to the mutualistic fungal partner, the colonies of these insects harbor a rich microbiome composed of bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Previous work reported some Trichoderma species in the fungus gardens of leafcutter ants. However, no studies systematically addressed the putative association of Trichoderma with attine ants, especially in non-leafcutter ants. Here, a total of 62 strains of Trichoderma were analyzed using three molecular markers (ITS, tef1 and rpb2). In addition, 30 out of 62 strains were also morphologically examined. The strains studied correspond to the largest sampling carried out so far for Trichoderma in the attine ant environment. Our results revealed the richness of Trichoderma in this environment, since we found 20 Trichoderma species, including three new taxa described in the present work (Trichoderma attinorum, Trichoderma texanum and Trichoderma longifialidicum spp. nov.) as well as a new phylogenetic taxon (LESF 545). Moreover, we show that all 62 strains grouped within different clades across the Trichoderma phylogeny, which are identical or closely related to strains derived from several other environments. This evidence supports the transient nature of the genus Trichoderma in the attine ant colonies. The discovery of three new species suggests that the dynamic foraging behavior of these insects might be responsible for accumulation of transient fungi into their colonies, which might hold additional fungal taxa still unknown to science. PMID:26885975

  6. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain "IK726"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Funck; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Lübeck, Mette;

    2007-01-01

    . Among the success stories for control of seed- and soilborne diseases are fungal biocontrol agents based on Trichoderma harzianum, Clonostachys rosea and Conithyrium minitans, and bacterial biocontrol agents based on strains of Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. We have developed C. rosea...

  7. EFFECT OF BIO-CONTROL AGENTS ON RADIAL GROWTH OF SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    G. Darvin; V. Prasanna Kumari

    2013-01-01

    To know the efficacy of bio-control agents on growth of Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut, an in vitro study was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College, Bapatla. For this, three Trichoderma spp., two Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates and one Bacillus subtilis were selected as biocontrol agents. We observed that, there is a significant difference among all the treatments. The lowest radial growth (1.9 cm) and highest per cent inhibition (79.26%) were...

  8. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Itamar Soares de Melo; Jane L. Faull

    2000-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the v...

  9. Genetic regulation of conidiation in Trichoderma hamatun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna Steyaert; Travis Glare; Alison Stewart; Margaret Carpenter; Hayley Ridgway

    2004-01-01

    @@ Achieving a balance between vegetative growth and spore production is essential for successful biocontrol by fungi. Low sporulation rates in the field can result in poor establishment and survival,whereas failure of conidia to recognise hosts can lead to persistence without efficacy. Commercial biocontrol products involve bulk preparations of conidia, however considerable variability in conidiation rates exists between biocontrol agents, which can restrict choice of strain for production. The majority of studies on Trichoderma conidiation have focused on the species T. viride and T. atroviride.These species form conidia in response to blue and near-UV light and/or nutrient deprivation and conidiation proceeds in a highly co-ordinated fashion, however relatively little is known on the genetic basis of Trichoderrma conidiation. In addition, whilst photoconidiation appears to be a general response detailed studies in other Trichoderma species are absent. In this study, conidiation in the lesser known biocontrol species T. hamatum is being investigated using a combined morphological and molecular approach. In contrast to T. atroviride, conidiation in response to blue-light was weaker and variable and suggested that additional triggers may be required for the T. hamatum photoresponse. A series of comparative photoconidiation assays are currently being undertaken investigating the effect of inoculum type and abiotic factors on timing and intensity of the response.Results will be discussed in relation to the current knowledge on conidial morphogenesis in Trichoderma. In addition to these morphological assays, a selection of genes implicated in sporulation and the blue-light responses are currently being isolated and characterised from T. hamatum. Two genes, phr1 and cmp1 , which were isolated previously from T. atroviride will be used as early and late markers of gene expression during the photoresponse in T. hamatum in order to define time points for harvesting

  10. Biocontrol Agents for Take-all.

    OpenAIRE

    Raaijmakers, J. M.; Weller, D.M.; Thomashow, L S; Cook, R J

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are described which are effective for the control of diseases caused by the soil-borne fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis (Gg), such as take-all, in small grain crops or turf grass. The subject biocontrol strains have a unique genotype as shown by a characteristic banding pattern, and exhibit root-colonizing ability which is characterized by both higher population density on roots and extended colonizing activity compared to known Gg-suppressive strains. A further pr...

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils. PMID:26498812

  12. Identification of novel Trichoderma hamatum genes expressed during mycoparasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margaret Carpenter; Alison Stewart; Hayley Ridgway

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma species are currently used as biocontrol agents for crop diseases caused by a number of fungal plant pathogens. However, their biocontrol performance in the field can be unreliable and it is likely that more consistent performance could be achieved through knowledge and manipulation of the genes involved. For example, induction of the genes could be optimised for variable environmental and physiological conditions, superior strains could be selected more effectively and novel strains could be created. One method by which Trichoderma species accomplish biocontrol is mycoparasitism. Several genes involved in the mycoparasitic interaction have previously been characterised, however these consist predominantly of those that encode enzymes that degrade fungal cell walls. In the current study subtractive hybridisation was used to target genes expressed when Trichoderma hamatum and the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were cultured together, subtracting genes expressed when each are grown individually. This experimental design has the potential to yield T.hamatum genes involved in mycoparasitism of S. sclerotiorum, and S. sclerotiorum genes upregulated in host defence. The cDNA fragments yielded by the subtraction were characterised with respect to expression, sequence and species of origin. A number of novel T. hamatum genes which were up-regulated during mycoparasitism were identified.

  13. Expression of Barley Endopeptidase B in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, R.; Mantyla, A.; Nevalainen, H.; Suominen, P.

    1997-01-01

    The gene for barley endopeptidase B (EPB) has been expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the cbh1 promoter. The EPB signal sequence allowed secretion of over 90% of the recombinant protein. Yields reached about 500 mg of immunoreactive protein per liter and exceeded values for any other protein derived from a higher eukaryotic organism produced in T. reesei.

  14. Functional genomic approach to the study of biodiversitywithin Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monte E; Hermosa M R; González F J; Rey M; Cardoza R E; Gutiérrez S; Delgado Jarana J; Llobell A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma is a fungal genus of great and demonstrable biotechnological value, but its genome is poorly surveyed compared with other model microorganisms. Due to their ubiquity and rapid substrate colonization, Trichoderma species have been widely used as biocontrol organisms for agriculture, and their enzyme systems are widely used in industry. Therefore, there is a clear interest to explore beyond the phenotype to exploit the underlying genetic systems using functional genomics tools. The great diversity of species within the Trichoderma genus, the absence of optimized systems for its exploration, and the great variety of genes expressed under a wide range of ambient conditions are the main challenges to consider when starting a comprehensive functional genomics study. An initial project started by three Spanish groups has been extended into the project TRICHOEST, funded by the EU (FP5, QLRT-2001-02032) to target the transcriptome analysis of selected Trichoderma strains with biocontrol potential, in conditions related to antagonism, nutrient stress and plant interactions. Once specific conditions were defined, cDNA libraries were produced and used for EST sequencing. Nine strains from seven Trichoderma species have been considered in this study and an important amount of gene sequence data has been generated, analyzed and used to compare the gene expression in different strains.In parallel to sequencing, genomic expression studies were carried out by means of macro-arrays to identify genes expressed in specific conditions. In silico analysis of DNA sequencing data together with macro-array expression results have lead to a selection based on the potential use of the gene sequences.The selected clone sequences were completed and cloned in appropriate vectors to initiate functional analysis by means of expression studies in homologous and heterologous systems.

  15. Commercial development of Trichoderma species for control of soil-borne vegetable diseases and their integration into standard crop management practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kirstin L McLean; John S Hunt; Alison Stewart

    2004-01-01

    @@ A 10 year research programme at Lincoln University, investigating the use of Trichoderma species for biological control of soil-borne diseases of vegetable crops, has resulted in the development of two commercial products. TrichodryTM 6S and TrichoflowTM 6S based upon Trichoderma hamatum isolate 6SR4, are used to control Sclerotinia lettuce drop disease. The Trichodry 6S product is formulated as a dry flake, which is incorporated into nursery seedling mix and the Trichoflow 6S is a wettable powder which is used as a top-up drench before planting. The treatment stimulates seedling establishment and vigour and protects the developing seedling from Sclerotinia minor infection after transplanting in the field. The second commercial product is TrichopelTM Ali 52. Based upon Trichoderma atroviride isolate C52, which is used to control Sclerotium cepivorum, the causal agent of Allium white rot disease. The product is formulated as a granule and applied into the furrow at planting time. The fungus proliferates in the rhizosphere region and protects the growing seedling from pathogen attack by a combination of nutrient competition, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. The use of Trichopel Ali 52 under low to medium disease pressure in Pukekohe, the main vegetable growing region of New Zealand, gave a three fold cost benefit through yield increases in the 2003-2004 season. Current field development work involves the use of a wettable powder formulation of T. Atroviride distributed via a T-tape irrigation system to target mid-season applications of the product to the onion roots. Both products perform well under low to moderate disease pressure but, when there is high disease pressure, an integrated programme is required to give satisfactory control. Current research is focused on gaining a greater understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors, which influence biocontrol activity under field conditions as a means to enhance integrated control approaches. For example, T

  16. Carbendazim resistance and calculation effective concentration of carbendazim for Trichoderma harzianum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham Siassi; YANG Qian

    2005-01-01

    There is a method for investigating the transformation of resistance gene of carbendazim into Trichoderma harzianum. In order to introduce the resistance to benzimidazole fungicide into bio-control microorganism Trichoderma harzianum was transformed with the resistance gene. In this study, we investigate resistance level and calculate EC 50 ( effective concentration of carbendazim that can survive 50% of Trichoderma harzianum in that concentration) and stability of the resistance for the transformant isolate of Trichoderma harzianum.Results show the transformants can growth on the medium containing more than 1 000 μg/ml carbendazim and the resistance is stabled after 10 times transfer on non-selective medium and have EC 50 average about, 1 200μg/ml.

  17. Genetic improvement of Trichoderma ability to induce systemic resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ciliento R; Mach R L; Lorito M; Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Ruocco M; Scala F; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Brunner K; Zeilinger S

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beneficial applications of Trichoderma spp. in agriculture include not only the control of plant pathogens, but also the improvement of plant growth, micronutrient availability, and plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In addition, it has been suggested that these fungi are able to increase plant disease resistance by activating induced systemic resistance (ISR) . The mode of action of these beneficial fungi in the Trichoderma -plant-pathogen interaction are many, complex and not completely understood. Numerous lytic enzymes have been characterized, the encoding genes (ech42 gluc78,nag1 from T. atroviride strain P1) cloned, and their role in biocontrol demonstrated. The corresponding biocontrol-related inducible promoters have been used in a reporter system based on the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene (goxA) to monitor biocontrol activity. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1, 5-lactone and hydrogen peroxide; this latter compound is known to have an antifungal effect and activate the plant defence cascade, thus increasing resistance to pathogen attack. T. atroviride P1 transformants with various promoters gox were tested as seed coating treatments on bean seeds planted in soil infested with a soilborne fungal pathogen. Successively, the emergent leaves were inoculated with a foliar pathogen to determine the effect of the GOX transformants on biocontrol and resistance to pathogen attack.Inoculations with the P1-GOX transformants not only reduced disease symptoms caused by a soil pathogen, but also the lesions of various foliar pathogens applied far from the Trichoderma colonization, thus activating ISR. A similar approach is being use to genetically improve T.harzianum T22, a rhizosphere competent and commercially marketed strain not transformed yet, by using four different gox gene constructs under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters.Plasmids have been introduced in Trichoderma by

  18. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  19. SSR Markers for Trichoderma virens: Their Evaluation and Application to Identify and Quantify Root-Endophytic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Geistlinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using biological fertilizers and pesticides based on beneficial soil microbes in order to reduce mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides in conventional agriculture is still a matter of debate. In this regard, a European research project seeks to elucidate the role of root-endophytic fungi and to develop molecular tools to trace and quantify these fungi in the rhizosphere and root tissue. To do this, the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens (T. virens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and primers were developed for 12 distinct loci. Primers were evaluated using a global collection of ten isolates where an average of 7.42 alleles per locus was detected. Nei’s standard genetic distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 among the isolates, and the grand mean of haploid diversity in AMOVA analysis was 0.693 ± 0.019. Roots of tomato plants were inoculated with different strains and harvested six weeks later. Subsequent PCR amplification identified root-endophytic strains and co-colonization of roots by different strains. Markers were applied to qPCR to quantify T. virens strains in root tissue and to determine their identity using allele-specific melting curve analysis. Thus, the root-endophytic lifestyle of T. virens was confirmed, strains in roots were quantified and simultaneous colonization of roots by different strains was observed.

  20. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and Their Tolerance to Aromatic Amines, a Major Class of Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-me...

  1. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum is a filamentous fungus that is able to produce and secrete a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used for plant cell wall degradation. The Trichoderma genus has attracted considerable attention from the biorefinery industry due to the production of cell wall...... Pattern Recognition enabling an efficient enzyme discovery. This was furthermore used to re-annotate CAZYmes present in five publically available Trichoderma species, hereby elucidating differences in CAZYmes on a functional level in contrary to glycoside hydrolase family level. This comparison supports...

  2. INFLUENCE OF TRICHODERMA SPP AGAINST ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA INCITING LEAF SPOT OF RUMEX ACETOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Ambuse, V. S. Chatage and U. N. Bhale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L. is caused by Alternaria tenuissima. This paper describes the efficacy of Trichoderma spp against sensitive and resistant isolates of A. tenuissima by dual culture method under invitro conditions. Trichoderma viride T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii species were used for antagonistic study. Results indicate that all Trichoderma species showed antagonistic activity. But among them, T.viride, T.koningii and T.pseudokoningii showed 80% antagonistic activity than others in case of sensitive isolate of test fungus. Resistant isolate of pathogen was restricting the antagonism in some extent.

  3. Functional and Structural Microbial Diversity in Organic and Conventional Viticulture: Organic Farming Benefits Natural Biocontrol Agents ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Florian; Moser, Gerit; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Statistically significant differences in the structure and function of above-ground grapevine-associated microorganisms from organically and conventionally managed vineyards were found. Aureobasidium pullulans, a copper-detoxifying fungus and biocontrol agent, plays a key role in explaining these differences. The black fungus was strongly enriched in the communities of organically managed plants and yielded a higher indigenous antiphytopathogenic potential.

  4. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P. KUBICEK; Monika KOMON-ZELAZOWSKA; Irina S. DRUZHININA

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immuno-compromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny.

  5. Method To Enhance Growth and Sporulation of Pelletized Biocontrol Fungi †

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, G R; Eschen, D. J.; Dandurand, L. M.; Wang, Z. G.

    1991-01-01

    The biocontrol fungi Trichoderma harzianum, used to control soilborne plant pathogens, and Beauveria bassiana, used to control insect pests, were formulated as mycelial biomass in alginate pellets with wheat bran added. After drying for 0, 4, or 16 h, pellets were placed in water or in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 for 4 to 24 h and then allowed to continue drying. PEG-treated pellets containing T. harzianum showed significantly greater proliferation of hyphae in soil th...

  6. Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea through the manipulation of nitrogen fertilization of tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Manzoor Ali; Lecompte, François; Bardin, Marc; Duffaud, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Although nitrogen fertilization is known to affect plant susceptibility to certain pathogens, little is known on its possible effect on the efficacy of biological control. In the present study we examined the effect of five levels of NO3- nutrition on the efficacy of two biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Microdochium dimerum) to protect pruning wounds of tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Plants were grown for two months in a greenhouse with a soil-less drip-irrigationsystem. Differe...

  7. Reservorio fenotípico de cepas de Trichoderma spp con capacidad biocontroladora: su aporte para un manejo agroecológico de enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    Stocco, Marina Celeste; Mónaco, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys Adelma; Abramoff, Cecilia; Kripelz, Natalia; Consolo, Fabiana; Cordo, Cristina Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Las especies de Trichoderma son los antagonistas más utilizados para el biocontrol de enfermedades de plantas, debido a su ubicuidad y su facilidad para ser aisladas y cultivadas. El objetivo fue lograr una colección de especies de Trichoderma, de distinto origen geográfico y actividad biocontroladora sobre Zymoseptoria tritici, en trigo. Se evaluaron 240 aislamientos de Trichoderma obtenidos de muestras de suelo de la región triguera argentina. La capacidad antagónica se ensayó en plántulas ...

  8. Systems biological approaches towards understanding cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress and improvement in “-omics” technologies has made it possible to study the physiology of organisms by integrated and genome-wide approaches. This bears the advantage that the global response, rather than isolated pathways and circuits within an organism, can be investigated (“systems biology”). The sequencing of the genome of Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), a fungus that serves as a major producer of biomass-degrading enzymes for the use of renewable lignoce...

  9. Production of Trichoderma reesei cellulases on glucose-containing media.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakari-Setälä, T; Penttilä, M

    1995-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei was shown to secrete active cellobiohydrolase I and the endoglucanase I catalytic core domain into the culture medium when the fungus was grown on glucose-containing medium. The expression of the proteins was driven by the promoters of the elongation factor 1 alpha, tef1, and the unidentified gene for cDNA1. The cDNA1 promoter gave the best yields. The highest amounts of cellobiohydrolase I and the endoglucanase I core, being 50 to 100 mg/liter, accou...

  10. Novel plant bio-protectants based on Trichoderma spp. strains with superior characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Khalid M.

    2008-01-01

    Global warming caused by the greenhouse effect will alter the geographical distribution of host and pathogen populations, thus affecting the natural physiology of their interaction and reducing the efficacy of chemical and biological control strategies presently used in agriculture. In perspective to this scenario, new management practices will be required. The main task of this thesis was to isolate and characterize new biocontrol agents of the genus Trichoderma originating from Libya, where...

  11. Phylogeny and biodiversity of Trichoderma and Hypocrea and its implications on taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P Kubicek

    2004-01-01

    @@ Safe strain identification and species recognition is an important issue for Trichoderma and Hypocrea,because members of the genus are economically important producers of industrial enzymes and antibiotics, have application as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, whereas some have become known as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised mammals and humans. However, classical approaches based on the use of morphological and phenetic characters have been difficult to apply, due to the plasticity of characters and the discordance of morphological and molecular evolution.

  12. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum – Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  13. Tolerance to chitosan by Trichoderma species is associated with low membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-González, Ernesto A; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Cruz-Valerio, Mayra; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on growth of Trichoderma spp., a cosmopolitan genus widely exploited for their biocontrol properties was evaluated. Based on genotypic (ITS of 18S rDNA) characters, four isolates of Trichoderma were identified as T. pseudokoningii FLM16, T. citrinoviride FLM17, T. harzianum EZG47, and T. koningiopsis VSL185. Chitosan reduces radial growth of Trichoderma isolates in concentration-wise manner. T. koningiopsis VSL185 was the most chitosan tolerant isolate in all culture media amended with chitosan (0.5-2.0 mg ml(-1) ). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined showing that T. koningiopsis VSL185 displays higher chitosan tolerance with MIC value >2000 μg ml(-1) while for other Trichoderma isolates MIC values were around 10 μg ml(-1) . Finally, free fatty acid composition reveals that T. koningiopsis VSL185, chitosan tolerant isolate, displays lower linolenic acid (C18:3) content than chitosan sensitive Trichoderma isolates. Our findings suggest that low membrane fluidity is associated with chitosan tolerance in Trichoderma spp. PMID:27213758

  14. THE ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES OF STREPTOMYCES GENUS IN RELATION TO TRICHODERMA KONINGII

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Breza-Boruta; Zbigniew Paluszak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of actinomycetes of genus Streptomyces on the growth of the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma koningii. 150 strains of Streptomyces spp. isolated from two potato cropping systems were used to the tests. Analyses were conducted experimentally in vitro on PDA medium with pH 6 and 7. The results obtained clearly indicate the inhibitory effect of actinomycetes on the fungus T. koningii. Of the tested population of actinomycetes only two strains did no...

  15. Are mycoparasitism and chitinase production species or isolate dependent in Trichoderma ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Szakacs G; Nagy V; Kovacs K

    2004-01-01

    @@ The relationship between taxonomic status of Trichoderma spp., chitinase production in solid substrate fermentation (SSF) on four media and mycoparasitism in dual culture (confrontation assay)against four plant pathogenic fungi was studied. Seventy five Trichoderma isolates belonging to 35species have been screened. The plant pathogenic fungi used in confrontation assay were Botrytis cinerea , Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi , Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum . The SSF media contained wheat bran, crude chitin (from crab shells, SIGMA) and salt solutions. The best performing isolates in mycoparasitism tests were Trichoderma flavofuscum, T. harzianum, T.inhamatum, T. koningii and T. strigosum. Some isolates exhibiting good mycoparasitism produced chitinase in SSF only at low or medium level. In contrary there were isolates with excellent extracellular chitinase production but their biocontrol potential did not belong to the leading group.Statistical methods have been used to evaluate the data.

  16. Endophytic Trichoderma isolates from tropical environments delay disease onset and induce resistance against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper using multiple mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of several Trichoderma spp., were collected from tropical environments as potential biocontrol agents for cacao (Theobroma cacao) diseases. The diversity of isolates collected, including new species, and there endophytic nature on their host plants, led us to consider if these isolates have...

  17. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke;

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools...

  18. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Nguyen; S.Y. Imanishi; P. Haapaniemi; A. Yadav; M. Saloheimo; G.L. Corthals; T.M. Pakula

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation syst

  19. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  20. PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND SECRETION BY TRICHODERMA REESEI UNDER LOW ENDOGENOUS PROTEIN BACKGROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most commonly used fungi for the manufacturing of industrial enzyme products. The fungus is capable of secreting proteins in levels up to 100 grams per liter. A number of homologous and heterologous proteins have been successfully over-expressed...

  1. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pilar; Schiliro, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnoto...

  2. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  3. Ecological plasticity of Trichoderma fungi in leached chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I. D.; Senchakova, T. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    The autecological properties of Trichoderma fungi ecotypes isolated from the leached chernozem of the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia have been studied. We were the first who carried out the complex study of the synecological relations of micromycetes of such kinds in a system including the soil, microbial community, and plants, i.e., their relations with soil saprotrophic fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, plants, and pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the ecological plasticity of the Trichoderma genus in the soil of this zone is determined by its growth rate, the optimum pH and temperature, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, the biological action of mycotoxins, and the ability for parasitism. The efficiency of the introduction of Trichoderma species typical and atypical for the leached chernozem into this soil and their influence on the structure of the microbial community were evaluated. The T. pseudokoningii ecotype, which produces cellulolytic enzymes, is very promising for industrial biotechnology, and the T. harzianum ecotype can be used in soil biotechnology for the biocontrol of chernozem. The addition of a commercial trichodermin preparation into the chernozem damages the structure of its microbial community.

  4. Extracellular proteome of Trichoderma harzianum to identify proteins with biotechnological value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrosino P; Lorito M; Scala V; Marra R; Vinale F; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Carbone V; Ruocco M; Woo S L

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 parasitizes and controls many phytopatogenic fungi and is applied commercially as biological control agent. The production of hydrolitic enzymes appears to be a key factor in the parasitic process. We tested the endo-esochitinolitic and glucanolitic activities of culture filtrates of T22 grown under carbon and nitrogen starvation or in presence of biomass or cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea , Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum. The highest level of enzimatic activities was found in culture where the mycoparasite interacted with a phytopathogenic fungus. Therefore we used a proteomic approach to investigate changes in the complex mixture of extracellular proteins secreted by T. harzianum strain T22 in order to identify proteins of potential biotechnology value for commercial and industrial use. Proteome technology has greatly enhanced our ability to conduct functional genomics studies. Nevertheless only a few studies have been published so far on the fungal extracellular proteome. Sample preparation remains the most critical step in analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and it requires to be optimized for each specific application. In this study, our first aim was to set up the extraction protocol of the extracellular proteins secreted by T . harzianum strain T22 when it was grown in vitro . The secreted proteins were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and substantial changes in the extracellular proteome of the mycoparasite have been observed. Comparing the 2D maps of the fungus grown in minimal medium with glycerol as carbon source (used as control condition) with those obtained in inducing conditions, a lot of novel proteins appeared. The higher number of novel and upregulated spots was obtained in the presence of Rhizoctonia solani biomass. Other spots were specifically up-regulated by the interaction with different plant pathogens. Differentially expressed

  5. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    application of Trichoderma biocontrol strains. PMID:27482910

  6. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    characterization of Trichoderma isolates parasitic to Pleurotus indicated that they are different from both T. aggressivum forms parasitic to Agaricus, and the majority of the isolates probably belong to the species T. harzianum. In vitro confrontation plates were performed with 26 isolates of aggressive Trichoderma obtained from compost, three Trichoderma isolates used in biological control and 12 varieties of Pleurotus. No inhibitory effect was observed between any of the Trichoderma isolates with Pleurotus, although some growth inhibition was caused by the biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma on some of the aggressive isolates. The temperature optimum for Pleurotus growth was at 28 ℃, whereas Trichoderma grew well at a wider range (20-28℃), and exceeded the growth rate of Pleurotus by three times at 25℃.The pH optimum for the growth of Pleurotus was alkaline (pH 8-9) whereas Trichoderma preferred acidic-neutral pH (5-7) . Various commercial fungicides used in agriculture (procloraz, thiabendazole,dichloran, benomyl, propiconazole, thiofanatomethyl) were tested against the aggressive and biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma, as well as the different varieties of Pleurotus to determine dose response curves and combinations that would inhibit spore germination, mycelial growth and subsequent sporulation. Both procloraz and thiabendazole, which are pesticides allowed in edible mushroom production, were found to control the growth of the aggressive Trichoderma isolates and did not have a negative effect on Pleurotus.

  7. Identificación de genes inducidos en la cepa de biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 durante la interacción con plantas de tomate. Caracterización biológico-funcional de los genes qid74 y asp1

    OpenAIRE

    Samolski Klein, Ilanit

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Tradicionalmente, las especies del género Trichoderma eran consideradas como hongos saprófitos del suelo, de vida libre, cuya habilidad para parasitar a hongos fitopatógenos dio lugar a su uso como agentes de control biológico. Posteriormente, han sido definidas como simbiontes oportunistas avirulentos de plantas por su capacidad de asociarse de manera íntima con las raíces vegetales y, como resultado, promover el crecimiento de los cultivos y estimular sus respuestas de defensa frente al...

  8. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  9. The biodegradation of tallow by Trichoderma harzianum rifai RP1

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater, activated sludge and tallow were used as sources o f organisms in enrichment cultures to screen for species capable of degrading the hard fat, tallow. A total of 58 strains were isolated, o f which seven non-filamentous and two filamentous organisms removed greater than 20% of 20g/l tallow from batch cultures. Optimum fat removal of 83% by the strain F2, identified as the fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai RP1, was observed in cultures buffered to pH 6, incubated at 25°C, shak...

  10. Effects of nitrogen availability and spore concentration on the biocontrol activity of Ascochyta caulina in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of A

  11. Biocontrol agents in signalling resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, L C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which biological control agents suppress disease comprise competition for nutrients, notably iron, production of antibiotics, and secretion of lytic enzymes, as well as inducing resistance in the plant. The former three mechanisms act primarily on the pathogen by decreasing its activity, growth, and/or survival and require the biocontrol agent and the pathogen to be in close proximity. Because microorganisms with biocontrol properties and soilborne pathogens are both attract...

  12. Species concepts and biodiversity in Trichoderma and Hypocrea: from aggregate species to species clusters?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DRUZHININA Irina; KUBICEK Christian P.

    2005-01-01

    Trichoderma/Hypocrea is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans. Species identification, while essential in view of the controversial properties of taxa ofthis genus, has been problematic by traditional methods. Here we will present a critical survey of the various identification methods in use. In addition,we will present an update on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the 88 taxa (which occur as 14 holomorphs, 49 teleomorphs and 25 anamorphs in nature) of Trichoderma/Hypocrea that have been confirmed by a combination of morphological, physiological and genetic approaches.

  13. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  14. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Combination of Fluorescent Pseudomonas, Non-pathogen Fusarium and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yigit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability of biocontrol agents, fluorescent Pseudomonas, non-pathogen Fusarium strain and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 applied in combination and alone, to control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was studied in the greenhouse. Tomato roots were treated with biomass of flourescens Pseudomonas strain from rhizosphere, non-pathogen Fuasrium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 individually and in combination and planted in artificially infested soil with pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Although all biocontrol agents applied individually reduced disease incidence, treatments as combination, except for nonpathogen Fusarium strain + T. harzianum T-22, showed more protective effect. Combination of T. harzianum T-22 + fluorescent Pseudomonas isolate gave the best control (70.2%.

  15. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  16. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Machado de Castro; Marcela Costa Ferreira; Juliana Cunha da Cruz; Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues Pedro; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite; Nei Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase a...

  17. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  18. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 105, 106, 107, and 108 spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, an...

  19. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools for genetic engineering. RESULTS: In this study we present new genetic tools for T. reesei to further expand its use in industrial production. We have developed an expression platform where genes are ...

  20. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster André; Bruno Kenneth S; Collett James R; Baker Scott E; Seiboth Bernhard; Kubicek Christian P; Schmoll Monika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. Results Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out i...

  1. Regulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the regulation of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in the presence of different carbon sources from the biotechnologically important fungus Trichoderma reesei. It was shown that different carbon sources influence fungal growth rate, biomass production and subsequent enzyme secretion. Several genes were identified and suggested to play a role in the development of conidia and in maintaining polarised growth. RNA-sequencing studies showed an increase in t...

  2. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxin; Wang Juan; Wang Shaowen; Xing Miao; Yu Shaowen; Liu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional...

  3. Evolution in biocontrol strains: insight from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    OpenAIRE

    Tayeh, Ashraf; Estoup, Arnaud; Laugier, Guillaume; Loiseau, Anne; Turgeon, Julie; Toepfer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    After being used as a biocontrol agent against aphids for decades without harmful consequences, the Asian harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis has suddenly become an invasive pest on a worldwide scale. We investigate the impact of captive breeding on several traits of this ladybird such as genetic diversity, fecundity, survival and pathogen resistance. We conducted an experiment in the laboratory to compare the fecundity and the susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...

  4. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  5. Effect of Trichoderma sp. on Sclerotium rolfsii, the Causative Agent of Collar Rot on Zamioculcas zamiifolia and an on Farm Method to Mass Produce Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.C. Wijesundera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic effect of three local isolates of Trichoderma viride and one local isolate of Trichoderma harzianum were tested against the pathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. The latter organism is responsible for major loss due to collar rot of the ornamental crop Zamioculcas zamiifolia in Sri Lanka. The disease causes massive losses. The antagonistic potential of the local isolates against the phytopathogenic fungi Sclerotium rolfsii was investigated in dual culture, poison food technique, pot trials and field trials on Zamioculcas zamiifolia plants. All Trichoderma isolates tested under in-vitro conditions significantly inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii. Of these isolates, Trichoderma viride isolate Tv1, showed highest percentage inhibition and was thus selected for in vivo field trials. Data recorded from bi monthly field application of this organism over the two growing seasons, confirmed the success of the treatment in controlling collar rot disease at the economic threshold level. Field application of testing isolate T. viride Tv1 as a conidial suspension (1011 cfu mL-1 greatly reduced the disease incidence of Zamioculcas zamiifolia plants by a percentage of 75.54%. On farm mass production of this isolate was developed to help facilitate the establishment of an integrated eco-friendly disease management system for growers of Zamioculcas zamiifolia. Different media was also evaluated to mass produce the Trichoderma isolate. The media evaluated in this study included the solid substrates barley seeds, paddy, cow pea, maize and sorghum and semi solid, liquid substrates such as potato dextrose, rice extract, paddy extracts, respectively. Although mycelial growth was fastest in barley and paddy media. And the highest yield of spores of the Trichoderma isolate was observed 7 days after inoculation in Barley and Paddy media.

  6. Statistical culture-based strategies to enhance chlamydospore production by Trichoderma harzianum SH2303 in liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Qian; Song, Kai; Li, Ya-Chai; Chen, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Trichoderma-based formulations are applied as commercial biocontrol agents for soil-borne plant pathogens. Chlamydospores are active propagules in Trichoderma spp., but their production is currently limited due to a lack of optimal liquid fermentation technology. In this study, we explored response surface methodologies for optimizing fermentation technology in Trichoderma SH2303. Our initial studies, using the Plackett-Burman design, identified cornmeal, glycerol, and initial pH levels as the most significant factors (P<0.05) for enhancing the production of chlamydospores. Subsequently, we applied the Box-Behnken design to study the interactions between, and optimal levels of, a number of factors in chlamydospore production. These statistically predicted results indicated that the highest number of chlamydospores (3.6×10(8) spores/ml) would be obtained under the following condition: corn flour 62.86 g/L, glycerol 7.54 ml/L, pH 4.17, and 6-d incubation in liquid fermentation. We validated these predicted values via three repeated experiments using the optimal culture and achieved maximum chlamydospores of 4.5×10(8) spores/ml, which approximately a 8-fold increase in the number of chlamydospores produced by T. harzianum SH2303 compared with that before optimization. These optimized values could help make chlamydospore production cost-efficient in the future development of novel biocontrol agents. PMID:27487807

  7. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The genus Trichoderma contains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for "hot topic" research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism in T. reesei, T. atroviride, and T. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of each Trichoderma species discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved in N-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability of Trichoderma spp. to generate hybrid galactose-containing N-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique to Trichoderma, and these warrant further investigation. We found interesting expansions in the Trichoderma genus in several signaling pathways, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, RAS GTPases, and casein kinases. A particularly interesting feature absolutely unique to T. atroviride is the duplication of the alternative sulfur amino acid synthesis pathway. PMID:26864432

  8. The role of subsite +2 of the Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase TrMan5A in hydrolysis and transglycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, Anna; Hägglund, Per; Anderson, Lars Steen;

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal catalytic module of beta-mannanase TrMan5A from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is classified into family 5 of glycoside hydrolases. It is further classified in clan A with a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel configuration and has two catalytic glutamates (E169 and E276). It has at...

  9. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSE IN RED ALGAE Gracilaria verrucosa BY SEPARATED HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SYSTEM USING Trichoderma viride AND Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Ahyar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, renewable marine cellulose from red algae Gracilaria verrucosa was utilized for the production of bioethanol. Bioethanol from the red alga cellulose was produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation methods and the conversion value of the cellulose in Gracilaria verrucosa was estimated. Trichoderma viride fungus and Zymomonas mobilis bacterium were used for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol fermentation, r...

  10. Transformation of Cyclaneusma minus with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP to Enable Screening of Fungi for Biocontrol Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Stewart

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclaneusma needle-cast has a major impact on the New Zealand forest industry. The causal agent, Cyclaneusma minus, causes most severe damage to 11–20 year-old trees and currently there are no economically viable procedures for control of the disease in New Zealand. Here we present a method for genetic transformation of C. minus using protoplasts generated by incubation with Glucanex™ enzyme. C. minus was transformed with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP and expression was stable after successive sub-culturing of the strain in the absence of selective pressure. Expression of the gfp gene allowed us to utilize an in vitro GFP-based screening method to identify strains of Trichoderma with potential for biocontrol of this disease. The strain that showed the most promise as a potential biocontrol candidate exhibited a low level of inhibition by uncharacterized metabolite(s that C. minus secretes into the medium, and consistently caused a loss of GFP expression from the GFP-labeled C. minus strain. The interaction between C. minus and the biocontrol strain, in the interaction zone where GFP expression was lost, was determined to be fungicidal. The utility of such biocontrol strains is discussed. This study represents the first genetic manipulation of C. minus and will pave the way for further studies of the life cycle and infection biology of this organism.

  11. [Effect of Trichoderma species fungi on soil micromycetes, causing infectious conifer seedling lodging in Siberian tree nurseries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimenko, E E; Grodinitskaia, I D

    2000-01-01

    Soils in the tree nurseries studied were characterized by a lower species diversity of fungi than adjacent virgin soils. In particular, the relative abundances of representatives of the genera Mucor, Chaetomium, and Trichoderma in the nursery soil were two times lower than in adjacent virgin soils. On the other hand, the nursery soil exhibited greater abundances of fungi of the genus Fusarium, which are causative agents of many diseases of conifer seedlings. To appreciate the efficiency of biocontrol of the infectious diseases of conifer seedlings, we introduced several indigenous Trichoderma strains into the nursery soil and found that this affected the species composition of soil microflora considerably. Changes in the species composition of mycobiota beneficially influenced the phytosanitary state of soils and reduced the infectious lodging of conifer seedlings. PMID:11195586

  12. Production of a newly isolated Paenibacillus polymyxa biocontrol agent using monosodium glutamate wastewater and potato wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Wenying; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    A phyllosphere bacterial strain EBL-06 was isolated from wheat leaves. The morphology, cultural characteristics, phospholipid fatty acids, physiological and antagonistic fungus activities of this strain were investigated. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with the published 16S rDNA sequences of the relevant bacteria. The results showed that the isolate EBL-06 was a strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa; this strain performed a high level of antagonistic fungus activity toward a broad spectrum of phytopathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Fusarium spp. The isolate EBL-06 can grow well using monosodium glutamate wastewater (MGW) and potato wastewater (PW) as culture medium. The maximum yield of 6.5 x 10(9) CFU/mL of the isolate EBL-06 anti-fungus biocontrol agent was reached in 15 hr cultivation at 28 degrees C, pH 6.0-7.5 using the mixture of MGW and PW (1:9). PMID:21174972

  13. Aislamiento, caracterización y análisis funcional del gen "Thpg1" de "Trichoderma harzianum"

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Díez, María Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Muchas especies del género Trichoderma son utilizadas como agentes de control biológico en agricultura. En este sentido, se han propuesto varios mecanismos de acción como el micoparasitismo, la antibiosis y la competencia por el espacio. Parte de la actividad antagonista de este agente de biocontrol está basada en la secreción de enzimas, como quitinasas o glucanasas, que participan en la penetración del patógeno. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se está prestando una mayor atención a la rela...

  14. Bacteriophage biocontrol of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mustafa; Annapure, Uday S

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacterial cells. Phages are categorized based on the type of their life cycle, the lytic cycle cause lysis of the bacterium with the release of multiple phage particles where as in lysogenic phase the phage DNA is incorporated into the bacterial genome. Lysogeny does not result in lysis of the host. Lytic phages have several potential applications in the food industry as biocontrol agents, biopreservatives and as tools for detecting pathogens. They have also been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health. Two unique features of phage relevant for food safety are that they are harmless to mammalian cells and high host specificity, keeping the natural microbiota undisturbed. However, the recent approval of bacteriophages as food additives has opened the discussion about 'edible viruses'. This article reviews in detail the application of phages for the control of foodborne pathogens in a process known as "biocontrol". PMID:27570260

  15. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDES, BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST RICE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivas; P. Narayan Reddy; Ved Ratan; G. Bindu Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Of the fourteen fungicides of different groups evaluated in-vitro against Rhizoctonia solani , Metalaxyl (0.1%), Mancozeb (0.1%), Tricyclazole (0.1%), Thiophenate methyl (0.1%), Carbendizm+ Mancozeb (0.1%) were proved to be most effective in inhibiting the growth of the fungus. Among the bio-agents screened, Trichoderma viride was most effective in restricting the growth of Rhizoctonia solani followed by Penicillium notatum where as Aspergillus niger was proved least effective. Among the thir...

  16. Preliminary in vitro insights into the use of natural fungal pathogens of leaf-cutting ants as biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgarait, Patricia; Gorosito, Norma; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-09-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are one of the main herbivores of the Neotropics, where they represent an important agricultural pest. These ants are particularly difficult to control because of the complex network of microbial symbionts. Leaf-cutting ants have traditionally been controlled through pesticide application, but there is a need for alternative, more environmentally friendly, control methods such as biological control. Potential promising biocontrol candidates include the microfungi Escovopsis spp. (anamorphic Hypocreales), which are specialized pathogens of the fungi the ants cultivate for food. These pathogens are suppressed through ant behaviors and ant-associated antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria. In order to be an effective biocontrol agent, Escovopsis has to overcome these defenses. Here, we evaluate, using microbial in vitro assays, whether defenses in the ant-cultivated fungus strain (Leucoagaricus sp.) and Actinobacteria from the ant pest Acromyrmex lundii have the potential to limit the use of Escovopsis in biocontrol. We also explore, for the first time, possible synergistic biocontrol between Escovopsis and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii. All strains of Escovopsis proved to overgrow A. lundii cultivar in less than 7 days, with the Escovopsis strain isolated from a different leaf-cutting ant species being the most efficient. Escovopsis challenged with a Streptomyces strain isolated from A. lundii did not exhibit significant growth inhibition. Both results are encouraging for the use of Escovopsis as a biocontrol agent. Although we found that L. lecanii can suppress the growth of the cultivar, it also had a negative impact on Escovopsis, making the success of simultaneous use of these two fungi for biocontrol of A. lundii questionable. PMID:21739253

  17. Identification of growth stage molecular markers in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Steyaert, Johanna; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Holyoake, Andrew; Braithwaite, Mark; Stewart, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Several members of the genus Trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. Therefore, the ability to monitor and track Trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. The objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust RNA isolation method from soil; and (c) develop molecular marker assays for characterizing morphogenesis whilst in the soil environment. Four cDNA libraries corresponding to conidia, germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were created, and the genes identified by sequencing. Stage specificity of the different genes was confirmed by either Northern blot or quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using RNA from the four stages. con10, a conidial-specific gene, was observed in conidia, as well as one gene also involved in subsequent stages of germination (L-lactate/malate dehydrogenase encoding gene). The germination stage revealed high expression rates of genes involved in amino acid and protein biosynthesis, while in the vegetative-growth stage, genes involved in differentiation, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase similar to Kpp7 from Ustilago maydis and the orthologue to stuA from Aspergillus nidulans, were preferentially expressed. Genes involved in cell-wall synthesis were expressed during conidiogenesis. We standardized total RNA isolation from Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' growing in soil and then examined the expression profiles of selected genes using qRT-PCR. The results suggested that the relative expression patterns were cyclic and not accumulative. PMID:26341342

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF TRICHODERMA-BASED FEED ADDITIVE WITH CELLULOLYTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we have presented the information of elaboration of a manufacturing process of Mycocel feed additive with the cellulolytic activity for poul-try industry. Manufacturing process includes follow-ing steps: stock culture maintenance and storage of Trichoderma lignorum 81-17, growing fluid culture of microscopic fungus in sucrose yeast extract me-dium, feed additive with cellulolytic properties out-put and quality control, packaging, storage and disposal of waste. We have shown that the Mycocel is non-toxic feed additive for protozoa and warm-blooded animals (laboratory mice and quails. This study demonstrated total population livability in the experimental group with feed additive. Quail body-weight of experimental group was higher by 6% as compared to the control and feed consumption per 1 kg of live weight of bird was 3,58 kg, 7,5% lower than the control

  19. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  20. Expression of the mammalian peptide hormone obestatin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Angela; Peterson, Robyn; Te'o, Junior; Nevalainen, Helena

    2016-01-25

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is an expression host widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins. However, its capacity for expressing small peptides (reesei cellobiohydrolase I core (CBHI) or xylanase 2 (XYN2) pro-region as a carrier and the cbh1 promoter for gene expression, in high protein-low protease producing mutant strains T. reesei Rut-C30 and HEPI. The yield of obestatin was improved from about 300 ng/ml to up to 5.5 μg/ml through adaptive laboratory evolution and modifications to the cultivation strategy, which included adjustments of the type and ratio of carbon and nitrogen sources used in the medium. The successful expression of Obe-HFBI demonstrated the potential of T. reesei as an expression host for small peptides and further enhancement of the recombinant yield through modification of culture conditions. PMID:26341165

  1. Trichoderma-induced plant immunity likely involves both hormonal- and camalexin-dependent mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana and confers resistance against necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Beltrán-Peña, Elda; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José

    2011-10-01

    Filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma have long been recognized as agents for the biocontrol of plant diseases. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings elicited by co-culture with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride. Interaction of plant roots with fungal mycelium induced growth and defense responses, indicating that both processes are not inherently antagonist. Expression studies of the pathogenesis-related reporter markers pPr1a:uidA and pLox2:uidA in response to T. virens or T. atroviride provided evidence that the defense signaling pathway activated by these fungi involves salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) depending on the amount of conidia inoculated. Moreover, we found that Arabidopsis seedlings colonized by Trichoderma accumulated hydrogen peroxide and camalexin in leaves. When grown under axenic conditions, T. virens produced indole-3-carboxaldehyde (ICAld) a tryptophan-derived compound with activity in plant development. In Arabidopsis seedlings whose roots are in contact with T. virens or T. atroviride, and challenged with Botrytis cinerea in leaves, disease severity was significantly reduced compared to axenically grown seedlings. Our results indicate that the defense responses elicited by Trichoderma in Arabidopsis are complex and involve the canonical defense hormones SA and JA as well as camalexin, which may be important factors in boosting plant immunity. PMID:21931272

  2. Kinetic transcriptome analysis reveals an essentially intact induction system in a cellulase hyper-producer Trichoderma reesei strain

    OpenAIRE

    Poggi-Parodi, Dante; Bidard, Frédérique; Pirayre, Aurélie; Portnoy, Thomas; Blugeon, Corinne; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.; Le Crom, Stéphane; Margeot, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial cellulolytic enzyme producer. Several strains have been developed in the past using random mutagenesis, and despite impressive performance enhancements, the pressure for low-cost cellulases has stimulated continuous research in the field. In this context, comparative study of the lower and higher producer strains obtained through random mutagenesis using systems biology tools (genome and transcriptome sequencing) can ...

  3. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known specie...

  4. The Putative Protein Methyltransferase LAE1 of Trichoderma atroviride Is a Key Regulator of Asexual Development and Mycoparasitism

    OpenAIRE

    Aghcheh, Razieh Karimi; Irina S. Druzhinina; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    In Ascomycota the protein methyltransferase LaeA is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. The common mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. In order ...

  5. Praperlakuan Fisik Dan Biologi Terhadap Biomassa Eceng Gondok Untuk Produksi Enzim Selulase Oleh Aspergillus Niger Dan Trichoderma Reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Amriani, Feni

    2015-01-01

    The Overgrowth of water hyacinth leads to eutrophication of water bodies as it exhausts nutrient and oxygen contents in water. However, it can be potentially used as lignocellulose biomass for cellulase production by several types of microbes such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Physical pretreatment is conducted by size reduction of biomass and biological pretreatment by relying white rot fungus in which used to degrade lignin and improve accessibility of microbes to the cellulo...

  6. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Denton Jai A; Kelly Joan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functi...

  7. Ecological impacts of Phlebiopsis gigantea biocontrol treatment against Heterobasidion spp. as revealed by fungal community profiling and population analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Vainio, Eeva Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Wood decay fungi belonging to the species complex Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato are among the most common and economically important species causing root rot and stem decay in conifers of the northern temperate regions. New infections by these pathogens can be suppressed by tree stump treatments using chemical or biological control agents. In Finland, the corticiaceous fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea has been formulated into a commercial biocontrol agent called Rotstop (Verdera Ltd.). Th...

  8. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:26207800

  9. Genome-scale investigation of phenotypically distinct but nearly clonal Trichoderma strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weld, Richard J.; Cox, Murray P.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; McLean, Kirstin L.; Stewart, Alison; Steyaert, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control agents (BCA) are beneficial organisms that are applied to protect plants from pests. Many fungi of the genus Trichoderma are successful BCAs but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Trichoderma cf. atroviride strain LU132 is a remarkably effective BCA compared to T. cf. atroviride strain LU140 but these strains were found to be highly similar at the DNA sequence level. This unusual combination of phenotypic variability and high DNA sequence similarity between separately isolated strains prompted us to undertake a genome comparison study in order to identify DNA polymorphisms. We further investigated if the polymorphisms had functional effects on the phenotypes. The two strains were clearly identified as individuals, exhibiting different growth rates, conidiation and metabolism. Superior pathogen control demonstrated by LU132 depended on its faster growth, which is a prerequisite for successful distribution and competition. Genome sequencing identified only one non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the strains. Based on this SNP, we successfully designed and validated an RFLP protocol that can be used to differentiate LU132 from LU140 and other Trichoderma strains. This SNP changed the amino acid sequence of SERF, encoded by the previously undescribed single copy gene “small EDRK-rich factor” (serf). A deletion of serf in the two strains did not lead to identical phenotypes, suggesting that, in addition to the single functional SNP between the nearly clonal Trichoderma cf. atroviride strains, other non-genomic factors contribute to their phenotypic variation. This finding is significant as it shows that genomics is an extremely useful but not exhaustive tool for the study of biocontrol complexity and for strain typing. PMID:27190719

  10. Postharvest Biocontrol: Introspection and Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of postharvest biocontrol agents as an alternative to the synthetic, chemical fungicides on a widespread basis has many constraints. During the last twenty years, the field of postharvest biocontrol research has significantly grown and developed and seen the creation of several products. Des...

  11. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum is a filamentous fungus that is able to produce and secrete a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used for plant cell wall degradation. The Trichoderma genus has attracted considerable attention from the biorefinery industry due to the production of cell wall...... degrading enzymes and strong secretion ability of this genus. Here we report extensive transcriptome analysis of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in T. asperellum. The production of cell wall degrading enzymes by T. asperellum was tested on a range of cellulosic materials under various conditions. When T...... the theory that the glycoside hydrolases have evolved from a common ancestor, followed by a specialization in which saprotrophic fungi such as T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum lost a significant number of genes including several glycoside hydrolases....

  12. Trichoderma species collected from Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmorad Zafari

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to identify Trichoderma species isolated from Iran, Trichoderma selective media and malt extract agar (MEA) were used to isolate Trichoderma species from the soil samples. All the cultures were purified on 2% water agar by hyphal tip method prior to morphological examination.Morphological observations were carried out on the cultures grown on 2% MEA and oat meal agar at 20℃ under ambient laboratory conditions. Macroscopic features of colony and microscopic features of conidiophore, phialid and conidium including position of phialids on conidiophore and shape and size of phialids and conidia were studied and recorded 3-5 days after inoculation. Out of 36 tested isolates, using morphological features and molecular data obtained from ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S regions fourteen species were identified as follow: T. atroviride, T. ghanense, T. spirale, T. erinaceum, T. citrinoviride, T. saturnisporum,T. longibrachiatum , T. hamatum , T. harzianum, T. inhamatum , T. tomentosum , T.virens, T. asperellum, T. koningii. Among the species T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were the most frequent species. In addition of the mentioned species two Tichoderma sp. were collected from walnut rhizospher that they are not fit to any described species so far. Although one of them are T. brevicumpactum introduced informally.

  13. Antagonism of Trichoderma species on Cladosporium herbarum and their enzimatic characterization Antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma sobre Cladosporium herbarum e suas caracterização enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The verrucose caused by Cladosporium herbarum reduces production and quality of Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims., a largely consumed tropical fruit. This work aimed to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma species (T. polysporum, T. koningii, T. viride and T. harzianum against Cladosporium herbarum, and to study the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by the pathogen and the antagonists. The results showed considerable antagonistic potential for the biocontrol of C. herbarum isolates by all Trichoderma species, except T. koningii. The most distinguished effect was observed for T. polysporum. In relation to the pattern of esterase obtained by electrophoresis in poliacrylamyde gel, the major activity presented by the isolates was observed after five days of incubation. The C. herbarum isolates produced extracellular enzymes, lipase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease, all possibly related to the infection process. Amylase excretion, not known to be associated with phytopathogens, was detected in Trichoderma species, but not in C. herbarum. In addition to amylase, all Trichoderma species tested produced also extracellular cellulase and pectinase, except T. koningii in relation to the latter enzyme. The demonstration of various esterase isoenzymes in zymograms of the Trichoderma species and C. herbarum isolates was markedly improved by washing the mycelia with detergents or EDTA. This fact suggested that a major fraction of extracelular enzymes may remain attached to outside fungal cell wall after being excreted.O maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims., um fruto tropical amplamente consumido, tem sua produção e a qualidade dos seus frutos reduzidos pela verrugose causada por Cladosporium herbarum. Este trabalho objetivou investigar o antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma (T. polysporum, T.koningii, T. viride e T. harzianum contra C. herbarum, e estudar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares pelo fitopatógeno e

  14. Fluorescent viability stains to probe the metabolic status of aflatoxigenic fungus in dual culture of Aspergillus flavus and Pichia anomala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolic activity of aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several vital stains. Both the FUN-1 stain and the combined use of DiBAC4(5) with CDFA-AM stains demonstrated that P. anomala inactivated the ATP generating syst...

  15. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  16. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6. PMID:18942938

  17. Isolation and analysis of lip2 gene from Trichoderma harzianum

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Madalena; Belo, Hélio; Jorge, Lurdes; Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Monte, Enrique; Choupina, Altino

    2011-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma is cosmopolitan in soils, wood decomposition and plant material. Species of Trichoderma are often dominant components of the soil microflora in various habitats. This is due to different metabolic capacity of the Trichoderma species and its aggressive competitiveness in nature. The genus Trichoderma are frequently used in biological control because of its antagonist ability of phytopathogenic fungi. The mechanisms employed by Trichoderma spp. to antagon...

  18. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A.; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch’s rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

  19. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture. PMID:24925827

  20. Proteome scale census of major facilitator superfamily transporters in Trichoderma reesei using protein sequence and structure based classification enhanced ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Kumari, Indu; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-07-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been acknowledged as potent bio-control agents against microbial pathogens and also as plant growth promoters. Various secondary metabolites are attributed for these beneficial activities. Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) includes the large proportion of efflux-pumps which are linked with membrane transport of these secondary metabolites. We have carried out a proteome-wide identification of MFS transporters using protein sequence and structure based hierarchical method in Trichoderma reesei. 448 proteins out of 9115 were detected to carry transmembrane helices. MFS specific intragenic gene duplication and its context with transport function have been presented. Finally, using homology based techniques, domains and motifs of MFS families have been identified and utilized to classify them. From query dataset of 448 transmembrane proteins, 148 proteins are identified as potential MFS transporters. Sugar porter, drug: H(+) antiporter-1, monocarboxylate porter and anion: cation symporter emerged as major MFS families with 51, 35, 17 and 11 members respectively. Representative protein tertiary structures of these families are homology modeled for structure-function analysis. This study may help to understand the molecular basis of secretion and transport of agriculturally valuable secondary metabolites produced by these bio-control fungal agents which may be exploited in future for enhancing its biotechnological applications in eco-friendly sustainable development. PMID:27041239

  1. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were...

  2. 木霉重寄生过程分子机制的研究进展%Research Progress on Molecular Mechanism of Trichoderma Mycoparasitism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 杨谦

    2012-01-01

    木霉(Trichoderma spp.)是一种广谱性拮抗菌,能够拮抗多种病原真菌,重寄生作用是木霉生物防治的主要机制,掌握其分子机制有利于对木霉进行合理应用和改造.为此,综述了木霉重寄生过程的分子机制研究进展,包括木霉重寄生过程的信号转导途径和产生水解病原菌细胞壁的水解酶的研究概况.木霉重寄生过程中的信号转导途径主要是异源三聚体G蛋白信号和MAPK基序,分泌的细胞壁水解酶主要有几丁质酶,葡聚糖酶和蛋白酶.%Trichoderma spp.was a broad spectrum antagonistic fungus which could antagonized a variety of pathogenic fungi,mycoparasitism was main mechanism of Trichoderma biological control. To master the molecular mechanisms was in favor of reasonable application and transformation of Trichoderma,therefore,this article reviewed the molecular mechanism research progress of Trichoderma mycoparasitism,including the signal transduction of Trichoderma mycoparasitism and the hydrolytic enzymes producing in the process of mycoparasitism which hydrolysis of pathogenic fungi cell wall. Trichoderma signal transduction pathways in the process of mycoparasitism was heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades,the cell wall-degrading enzymes of Trichoderma included chitinase,glucanase and protease.

  3. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  4. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  5. Biodiversity and distribution of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species in New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah L Dodd; Alison Stewart

    2004-01-01

    @@ With increased imports of foreign microbes either as commercial biocontrol products or for the purposes of research, there is potentially an increased threat to indigenous beneficial microflora. In the present study, indigenous species of the fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma are being used as a model system to determine the impact of foreign microbes on the native microflora of New Zealand. In order to protect such microflora, one has to first be aware of what is currently present and what sites, if any,are most vulnerable. A preliminary survey for the presence and diversity of species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma is currently underway in New Zealand and samples are being assessed from forest soils,agricultural soils, orchards, garden soils, sclerotia of various plant pathogens and pasture land. To date 238 isolates have been identified using both morphological characters and DNA sequence data from the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene cluster (ITS1 & ITS2) and, in some instances, sequence of the elongation factor gene (EF1-α) . Isolates were found to represent 16 known species plus three species as yet undescribed. In forest soils T. harzianum /T. inhamatum (31%) and T. viride (29%)followed by T. fertile (13%), were clearly the most abundant species and the remaining five species found in forests ( T. atroviride, T. koningii, T. aureoviride, H. cf. flavovirens anamorph and one unknown) each accounting for <8% of the total. Dominance by the species T. harzianum/inhamatum is consistent with studies done in South-East Asia, a mid-European primeval floodplainforest and Moscow. In contrast, when isolations were conducted with a bias for biocontrol capabilities it was found that the species T. atroviride (29%), T. koningii (17%), T. harzianum (15%)and T. viride (12%) dominated respectively. This survey is currently ongoing in New Zealand.Future studies will monitor indigenous species and strains following inoculation of specific microbes to assess the impact of the

  6. Management of Brown Leaf Rust, Puccinia recondita of Wheat Using Natural Products and Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Eldoksch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biocontrol agents and natural products on brown leaf rust, Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, of wheat were studied under greenhouse and field conditions in 1998/99 and 1999/2000 seasons. Under greenhouse conditions, application of Plant guard (Trichoderma harizianum, Rhizo-N (Bacillus subtilis and the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave reasonable control of leaf rust severity with disease reduction percentages of 64.29, 57.14 and 19.14%, respectively. Field application of formulated natural products during two successive seasons gave effective control of brown rust disease. Natural oil, peppermint oil, jojoba oil, eucalyptus oil and chenopodium oil were the most effective treatments in reducing leaf rust severity and also in improving grain yield. All natural products significantly reduced the rust disease incidence in wheat by 55.5-98.2% and subsequently led to an increase in the grain yield that ranged from 8.5-51.8%. Of the biocontrol agents applied in the field, Plant guard was the most effective treatment followed by yeast and then Rhizo-N. These bioagents significantly improved grain yield and increased 100 kernel weight relative to the untreated control. Sumi-8 fungicide (diniconazole showed complete protection against rust disease incidence in both greenhouse and field trials.

  7. Mechanisms involved in biocontrol by microbial inoculants

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Colum; Delany, Isabel; Fenton, Anne; O'Gara, Fergal

    1996-01-01

    Biological control offers alternative environmentally friendly strategies for the control of phytopathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Biocontrol metabolites are designed so that they do not have any adverse effects on host plants or on indigenous microflora and, in addition, resistance to these metabolites does not appear to develop. As promising alternatives to chemical pesticides, some biocontrol agents have been found to produce a variety of antifungal secondary metaboli...

  8. Targeted precision biocontrol and enhanced pollination

    OpenAIRE

    Hokkanen, Heikki; Boecking, Otto; Cokl, Andrej; Cotes, Belen; Eken, Cafer; Karise, Reet; Krajl, Jasna; Maccagnani, Bettina; Menzler-Hokkanen, Ingeborg; Mommaerts, Veerle; Mänd, Marika; Smagghe, Guy; Söderlund, Niklas; Tuncer, Serdar; Veromann, Eve

    2012-01-01

    BICOPOLL and BICOPOLL-NET connect 12 research units from 10 European countries and autonomous regions into a concerted effort to develop and bring into practice improved methods of biocontrol and pollination services, using strawberry as the case study. BICOPOLL partners will use bees to (i) precision deliver biocontrol agents to the flowers of the target crops to provide control of diseases, (ii) improve the pollination of horticultural crops.

  9. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid) and some of its based systems with Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsa, Rodica; Tudorachi, Nita; Darie-Nita, Raluca Nicoleta; Oprică, Lacramioara; Vasile, Cornelia; Chiriac, Aurica

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biodegradation of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and some plasticized PLA based systems by Trichoderma viride fungus, in liquid medium and controlled laboratory conditions. The studied systems were achieved using PLA, hydrolyzed collagen (HC) as biological macromolecules and other additives by melt processing procedure. PLA and the systems' biodegradability was examined by the weight losses of the samples (after 7 and 21 days of exposure) and FTIR-ATR, GPC, SEM analyses (after 21 fungus inoculation days). The thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) study showed that the thermostability of the samples decreased after biodegradation and was influenced by the chemical structure of the systems' components. PMID:27064086

  10. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-03-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg a.i./kg soil). The data were analyzed using a custom response surface regression model and the response surface curve and contour plots were drawn. Reliability of the model was examined by comparing the result of new experimental treatments with the predicted results. The optimal levels of these two variables also were calculated. The interactive effects of concentrations of Trichoderma and cadusafos were insignificant for several responses such as the total number of eggs per gram soil, the number of intact eggs per gram soil, nematode reproduction factor, and control percent. Closeness of experimental mean values with the expected values proved the validity of the model. The optimal levels of the cadusafos concentration and Trichoderma concentration that caused the best plant growth and lowest nematode reproduction were 1.7 mg a.i./kg soil and 10(8) conidia/ml suspension, respectively. PMID:27168653

  11. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 105, 106, 107, and 108 spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg a.i./kg soil). The data were analyzed using a custom response surface regression model and the response surface curve and contour plots were drawn. Reliability of the model was examined by comparing the result of new experimental treatments with the predicted results. The optimal levels of these two variables also were calculated. The interactive effects of concentrations of Trichoderma and cadusafos were insignificant for several responses such as the total number of eggs per gram soil, the number of intact eggs per gram soil, nematode reproduction factor, and control percent. Closeness of experimental mean values with the expected values proved the validity of the model. The optimal levels of the cadusafos concentration and Trichoderma concentration that caused the best plant growth and lowest nematode reproduction were 1.7 mg a.i./kg soil and 108 conidia/ml suspension, respectively. PMID:27168653

  12. Heterologous expression of the Hsp24 from Trichoderma asperellum improves antifungal ability of Populus transformant Pdpap-Hsp24 s to Cytospora chrysosperma and Alternaria alternate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S D; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H J; Zhang, R S; Yu, Z Y; Wang, J J; Liu, Z H

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses could be improved by transforming with fungal resistance-related genes. In this study, the cDNA sequence (GenBank Acc. No. KP337939) of the resistance-related gene Hsp24 encoding the 24 kD heat shock protein was obtained from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536. The promoter region of Hsp24 contained many cis-regulators related to stresses response, such as "GCN4" and "GCR1" etc. Hsp24 transcription in T. asperellum was up-regulated under six different environmental stresses, compared with the control. Furthermore, following heterologous transformation into Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis (Pdpap), Hsp24 was successfully transcribed in transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s. Pathogen-related genes (PRs) in four Pdpap-Hsp24s were up-regulated compared with those in the control Pdpap (Pdpap-Con). After co-culture of Pdpap-Hsp24s with the weak parasite Cytospora chrysosperma, the transcription of genes related to hormone signal pathway (JA and SA) were up-regulated in Pdpap-Hsp24s, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) and Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining assays indicated that the cell membrane permeability and the active oxygen content of Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves were lower than that of the control Pdpap-Con. And when the Pdpap-Hsp24s were under the Alternaria alternate stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) got higher in Pdpap-Hsp24s than that in Pdpap-Con, and the disease spots in Pdpap-Con leaves were obviously larger than those in Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves. In summary, Hsp24 of T. asperellum ACCC30536 is an important defense response gene, and its heterologous expression improved the resistance of transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s to C. chrysosperma and A. alternate. PMID:27193371

  13. A fitful fungus from a hot, arid climate increases grain yield in cool-cultivated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Fiona M Doohan; HODKINSON, TREVOR R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The fungus Piriformospora indica was first isolated from plants growing in arid, hot desert conditions and has been shown to have significant potential as a biocontrol and biofertilising organism in barley under optimal growth conditions. However, it was not thought to be effective in plants grown in low temperatures and has consequently not been well tested in cold-stressed crops. This study sought to determine the effects of inoculating barley plants with this f...

  14. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  15. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  16. Mechanism of triphenylmethane Cresol Red degradation by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nurafifah Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Lazim, Zainab Mat; Adnan, Liyana Amalina; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2015-11-01

    Cresol Red belongs to the triphenylmethane (TPM) class of dyes which are potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, very few studies on biodegradation of Cresol Red were investigated as compared to other type dyes such as azo and anthraquinone dye. The aim of this work is to evaluate triphenylmethane dye Cresol Red degradation by fungal strain isolated from the decayed wood in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Trichoderma species and designated as strain Trichoderma harzianum M06. In this study, Cresol Red was decolorized up to 88% within 30 days under agitation condition by Trichoderma harzianum M06. Data analysis revealed that a pH value of 3 yielded a highest degradation rate among pH concentrations (73%), salinity concentrations of 100 g/L (73%), and a volume of 0.1 mL of Tween 80 (79%). Induction in the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase indicates their involvement in Cresol Red removal. Various analytical studies such as Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biotransformation of Cresol Red by the fungus. Two metabolites were identified in the treated medium: 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (t R 7.3 min and m/z 355) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (t R 8.6 min and m/z 267). Based on these products, a probable pathway has been proposed for the degradation of Cresol Red by Trichoderma harzianum M06. PMID:26275435

  17. Field Studies on the Relationship between Fusarium verticillioides and Maize (Zea mays L.): Effect of Biocontrol Agents on Fungal Infection and Toxin Content of Grains at Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Pereira; Andrea Nesci; Carlos Castillo; Miriam Etcheverry

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food for the majority of the world's population. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (Teleomorph: Gibberella moniliformis Wineland; synonym: F. moniliformis) is both a saprophyte and a parasite of maize and can also be found as an endophyte. The presence of this fungus in maize constitutes an imminent risk due to its ability to produce fumonisins, mycotoxins with proven carcinogenic effects. The present work investigated biocontrol activity of Bacillus a...

  18. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  19. Gliocladium and Trichoderma in agricultural soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chen; LI Bao-du; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Gliocladium and Trichoderma are common fungi in agricultural soil. Several species of them were isolated and identified, great diversity was displayed in different agricultural soils of different crops,agricultural climate zones, different seasons, depths, different treated soybean cyst nematode soil,healthy and diseased crop soil. Among five crops soil samples, wheat and corn soil were found to possess the largest number of Gliocladium and Trichoderma separately. Gliocladium and Trichoderma of three major crops showed consistent changing patterns with seasonal variation. Corn soil displayed distinct vertical distribution of Trichoderna. There is a different distribution of the two fungi in diseased and healthy plant soil. Among the various isolated methods, diluted plate method is the best for isolating Gliocladium, and Trichoderma could be found in plant residue method and be tolerant to steam for two minutes. In the soybean cyst nematode soil mycobiota, the frequency of Gliocladium is higher than that of the others fungi, and Trichoderma may have the role of bioremediation in herbicide treated soil. Similarly, Gliocladium occurred frequently in different climate zones.

  20. Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-08-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have biotechnological potential in chiral chemistry. We report the cloning, purification, enzymatic activity, and conformational analysis of the TrEH gene from Trichoderma reesei strain QM9414 using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The EH gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, resulting in a molecular mass of 38.2kDa. The enzyme presents an optimum pH of 7.2, and it is highly active at temperatures ranging from 23 to 50°C and thermally inactivated at 70°C (t1/2=7.4min). The Michaelis constants (Km) were 4.6mM for racemic substrate, 21.7mM for (R)-(+)-styrene oxide and 3.0mM for (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The kcat/Km analysis indicated that TrEH is enantioselective and preferentially hydrolyzes (S)-(-)-styrene oxide. The conformational stability studies suggested that, despite the extreme conditions (high temperatures and extremely acid and basic pHs), TrEH is able to maintain a considerable part of its regular structures, including the preservation of the native cores in some cases. The recombinant protein showed enantioselectivity that was distinct from other fungus EHs, making this protein a potential biotechnological tool. PMID:27177457

  1. Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Mycoparasitic Fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis During the Powdery Mildew Host-Induced Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozios, Stefanos; Tosi, Lorenzo; Ferrarini, Alberto; Ferrari, Alessandro; Tononi, Paola; Bellin, Diana; Maurhofer, Monika; Gessler, Cesare; Delledonne, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-02-01

    Ampelomyces quisqualis is a mycoparasite of a diverse range of phytopathogenic fungi associated with the powdery mildew disease. Among them are several Erysiphaceae species with great economic impact on high-value crops such as grape. Due to its ability to parasitize and prevent the spread of powdery mildews, A. quisqualis has received considerable attention for its biocontrol potential. However, and in sharp contrast to the extensively studied biocontrol species belonging to the genus Trichoderma, little is known about the biology of A. quisqualis at the molecular and genetic levels. We present the first genome-wide transcription profiling in A. quisqualis during host-induced germination. A total of 1,536 putative genes showed significant changes in transcription during the germination of A. quisqualis. This finding denotes an extensive transcriptional reprogramming of A. quisqualis induced by the presence of the host. Several upregulated genes were predicted to encode for putative mycoparasitism-related proteins such as secreted proteases, virulence factors, and proteins related to toxin biosynthesis. Our data provide the most comprehensive sequence resource currently available for A. quisqualis in addition to offering valuable insights into the biology of A. quisqualis and its mycoparasitic lifestyle. Eventually, this may improve the biocontrol capacity of this mycoparasite. PMID:25185010

  2. Isolation and Partial Purification of Extracellular Enzyme (1, 3)-β-D Glucanase from Trichoderma reesei (3929)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saravanan; V. Pavani Devi; Shanmugam, A.; D. Sathish Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The fungus Trichoderma reesei produces extracellular lytic enzymes such as β-1, 4 glucanases, β-1, 6 glucanases and β-1, 3 D glucanases. In the present study the PDA medium was used for the production of β-1, 3 glucanases from the fungal strain. Extra cellular protein (β-1, 3 glucanase) was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The amount of reducing sugar (126 mg/100 mL) liberated by the action of enzyme was determined by using DNS method. The molecular weight o...

  3. Cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase gene containing a cellulose binding domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Stålbrand, H; Saloheimo, A; Vehmaanperä, J; HENRISSAT, B.; Penttilä, M

    1995-01-01

    beta-Mannanase (endo-1,4-beta-mannanase; mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase; EC 3.2.1.78) catalyzes endo-wise hydrolysis of the backbone of mannan and heteromannans, including hemicellulose polysaccharides, which are among the major components of plant cell walls. The gene man1, which encodes beta-mannanase, of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei was isolated from an expression library by using antiserum raised towards the earlier-purified beta-mannanase protein. The deduced beta-mannanas...

  4. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Reveals pH-dependent Conformational Changes in Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase I: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY*

    OpenAIRE

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh M.; McGaughey, Joseph; Urban, Volker S.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Petridis, Loukas; Jeremy C Smith; Evans, Barbara R.; Heller, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei (now classified as an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose to soluble sugars, making it of key interest for producing fermentable sugars from biomass for biofuel production. The activity of the enzyme is pH-dependent, with its highest activity occurring at pH 4–5. To probe the response of the solution structure of Cel7A to changes in pH, we measured small angle neutron scattering of it in a series of solut...

  5. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDES, BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST RICE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the fourteen fungicides of different groups evaluated in-vitro against Rhizoctonia solani , Metalaxyl (0.1%, Mancozeb (0.1%, Tricyclazole (0.1%, Thiophenate methyl (0.1%, Carbendizm+ Mancozeb (0.1% were proved to be most effective in inhibiting the growth of the fungus. Among the bio-agents screened, Trichoderma viride was most effective in restricting the growth of Rhizoctonia solani followed by Penicillium notatum where as Aspergillus niger was proved least effective. Among the thirteen plant extracts evaluated garlic extract (10% was most effective in inhibiting the growth of fungus followed by calotropis (10%. Datura leaf extract (10% was found to be least effective in inhibiting the growth of Rhizoctonia solani.

  6. The isolation and identification of a P.polymyxa sp.serain and its bio-control function against pathogenic fungus%一株具有抗菌作用的P. polymyxa sp.菌株的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 董兆麟; 段康民

    2011-01-01

    produce phosphatase, cellu-lase or lipase activity. There is a mutualistic relationship between Paenibacillus polymyxa J and the host. Therefore, this strain is a potential biocontrol agent.

  7. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  8. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei was carried out by radiation polymerization. It was found that the activity of fixed cells increased with increasing surface area of the carrier and was affected by the concentration of monomer tetraethylenglycol dimethacrylate and the shape of the substrate composition and structure of cotton textile fabrics. (author)

  9. IMPROVMENT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROT/WILT OF FABA BEAN BY SALICYLIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser F. Abdel-Monaim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fields in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40 causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride, Bacillus megaterium and chemical inducers (salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promotion of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi.Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/ wilt severity and increased survival of plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and dry weights of the survived plants in pots compared with control.  The combination of biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than using them individually and SA+ T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and No. of branches plant-1 and yield components (No. of pods and seedsplant-1, weight of 100 seeds and total yield feddan-1 and protein content in both seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Faba bean seeds soaked in SA+ T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination of biocontrol agents and

  10. Lectins of fungal pathogens as potential tools in selecting promising biological control agents of Trichoderma spp%植物病原菌凝集素用于筛选生防木霉菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; Maarten Ryder; 李纪顺; 郭勇; 周红姿

    2004-01-01

    In this article, lectins of eight pathogen strains were extracted and purified. By testing agglutination lectins with 19 Trichoderma spp. srains, all lectins from fungi agglutinated the conidia of Trichoderma spp. with different titers, except lectin from Alternaria solani Ms. Result indicated that the agglutination of Trichoderma conidia by fungal lectins was related to their effectiveness caused by the corresponding pathogens. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between titers of Fusarium lectin and the effectiveness of Trichoderma against the disease.The agglutination test might be applied to predict potential effectiveness of a given Trichoderma strain against the corresponding disease and the lectins could be employed in screening Trichoderma spp as biocontrol agents efficiently.%提取并纯化了番茄早疫病、黑根霉、棉花立枯病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌等8个植物病原菌菌株的凝集素,试验观察凝集素与供试19个木霉菌株的凝集反应效价,结果表明除番茄早疫病外,木霉菌分生孢子不同浓度悬浮液与植物病原菌产生的凝集素均有凝集反应,并且木霉菌分生孢子与病原菌凝集素的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对其防效有显著相关性,统计分析表明镰刀菌产生的凝集素与木霉菌的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对它的防效具有显著相关性.因此可以利用凝集素筛选木霉高效生防菌株.

  11. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichodermaspp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced byTrichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol fromTrichoderma longibrachiatumSMF2, onArabidopsisprimary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened theArabidopsisTK VI-resistant mutanttkr1tkr1harbors a point mutation inGORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. Thetkr1mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding ofTrichoderma-plant interactions. PMID:26850879

  12. Enhancement of Rice Seed Germination and Vigour by Trichoderma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Febri Doni; I. Anizan; C.M.Z. Che Radziah; Ahmad Hilmi Salman; Muhammad Hidayat Rodzihan; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of Trichoderma spp. to enhance rice germination and vigour. An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess the effect of seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. in enhancing rice germination and vigour. The results showed that all isolates of Trichoderma spp. significantly increased rice seedling growth, germination rate, vigour index and speed of germination with sp., SL2 showing the greatest increase in all the four parameters. Tric...

  13. Uji Pengaruh Beberapa Herbisida Terhadap Trichoderma sp Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Muhammad Majid: In Vitro Test on the Effect of Trichoderma sp Through Application of some Herbicides. Under Supervision ofHasanuddin and Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem. Herbicide is most commonly used pesticide, yet contained multiple negative effect on environment, especially towards soil microorganisms. This research’s objective is to study effect of herbicide with different concentration towards Trichoderma sp. Trichoderma sp has been inoculated in PDA which have been induced with six different...

  14. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  15. Microecological Relationship Between Metarizium and Trichoderma in Artificial Medium and Soil%培养基和土壤中木霉菌与绿僵菌微生态关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣思瑶; 吕淑霞; 陈捷; 宋磊; 黄磊; 李雅乾

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Trichoderma and Metarhizium cultured on the plate and in soil were studied respectively. The growth of Trichoderma and Metarhizium and the interacting effect between the two strains were observed according to the morphological colony confrontation on plate and re-isolation test from soil when the strains of Trichoderma and Metarhizium were inoculated at different proportion simultaneously. The similar observation was conducted when Metarhizium was inoculated and cultured first followed by inoculating Trichoderma at different intervals. The results showed that when Trichoderma and Metarhizium were inoculated simultaneously at the ratio of 1:100, the average growth distance of Trichoderma was as 6 times as that of Metarhizium on the plate. Metarhizium hardly isolated from Trichoderma after culturing for 4 days in soil. Therefore, Trichoderma inhibited to Metarhizium growth significantly, and it was hard for Metarhizium to grow due to the dominant growth of Trichoderma. When Metarhizium was inoculated and cultured for 7 days before inoculating Trichoderma, the growth distance of Metarhizium was lmm lower than that of Trichoderma, and the spores quantity of Metarhizium was higher than that of Trichoderma after the two strains were in a stable growth. The growth of Trichoderma turned to be weak and the growth rate of Metarhizium increased, consequently the growth of the two strains tended to be balanced, and it could achieve a certain level of co-existence. The thorough research need to be done further more in terms of the complex microbial ecological relationships between Trichoderma and Metarhizium in soil, in order to obtain the key techniques for avoiding the direct ecologic competition of the two strains and to realize the application of the two bio-control agents together synergistically.%为研究木霉菌与绿僵菌在平板及土壤中相互关系,以不同配比同时接种2株菌,采用平板对峙和土壤再分离试验,观察2种

  16. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in the biocontrol species Aneurinibacillus migulanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Faizah N; Rekik, Imen; Bełka, Marta; Ibrahim, Abrar F; Luptakova, Lenka; Jaspars, Marcel; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus strains Nagano and NCTC 7096 show potential in biocontrol against fungal and fungus-like plant pathogens, including a wide range of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Oomycetes. Differences in terms of the range of pathogens that each strain inhibits, however, suggested that production of a single antibiotic cyclic peptide, gramicidin S (GS), by the two strains, is not the sole mechanism of inhibition. The availability of four sequenced genomes of Aneurinibacillus prompted us to apply genome mining techniques to identify the bioactive potential of A. migulanus and to provide insights into the secondary metabolite arsenal of the genus Aneurinibacillus. Up to eleven secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were present in the three Aneurinibacillus species. Biosynthetic gene clusters specifying bacteriocins, microcins, non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, terpenes, phosphonates, lasso peptides and linaridins were identified. Chitinolytic potential and iron metabolism regulation were also investigated. With increasing numbers of biocontrol bacterial genomes being sequenced and mined, the use of approaches similar to those described in this paper will lead to an increase in the numbers of environmentally friendly natural products available to use against plant diseases. PMID:26686620

  17. Bio-control trials of Chaetomium spirale ND35 against apple canker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINYa-fen; SHANGJin-jie

    2005-01-01

    A new endophytic antagonistic fungus, Chaetomium spirale ND35 from Populus tomentosa, was reported. The bio-control trials of C. spirale ND35 against the Valsa Canker of apple were preliminarily investigated. The results of dual culture on PDA plate showed that C. spirale ND35 was capable of strong antagonism against Valsa ceratosperma, and for inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. ceratosperma,.the crude extract of liquid culture of corn steep powder broth was more effective than that one of malt extract broth (MEB). The results of bio-control in greenhouse and field indicated that the disease incidence of apple tree treated with C. spirale ND35 was lower significantly than that treated by other methods. The re-isolation experiment suggested that C. spirale ND35 could colonize in stems and branches of apple trees successfully, and the ND35 colonization rate of the treatment with solid wheat bran culture was higher than that of corn steep powder broth, but the field experiment result the control effect of liquid culture of C. spirale ND35 was better than that of solid culture.

  18. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L.N Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%, followed by glucose (77.42%, whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

  19. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  20. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  1. Transcriptome profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 induced by sugarcane bagasse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Crivelente Horta

    Full Text Available Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process.

  2. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Machado de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin, by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1 after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.. The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50∘C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials.

  3. The impact of Trichoderma harzianum on sprouting and early development of pepper until thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Coghill Tamara A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on the analysis of the stimulative and biopesticide effects of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 on germination, sprouting and early development of two pepper varieties (Amfora and Buketna 1 in organic production. The results show the significant effect of the applied T-22 strain on ger­mination, sprouting, growth and early development of both aboveground and underground parts of plants, either used as soil or seed inoculum, in comparison to controls. It was concluded that T. harzianum T-22 proved its efficiency in promoting growth and development of pepper, and preventing the development of mycoses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31031: Promotion of sustainability and competitiveness in organic plant and stock production using new technologies and inputs

  4. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 on physically treated wheat straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acebal, C.; Castillon, M.P.; Estrada, P.; Mata, I.; Costa, E.; Aguado, J.; Romero, D.; Jimenez, F.

    1986-06-01

    Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was grown on wheat straw as the sole carbon source. The straw was pretreated by physical and chemical methods. The particle size of straw was less than 0.177 mm. Growth of T. reesei QM 9414 was maximal with alkali-pretreated straw whereas cellulase production was optimal when physically pretreated straw was used as substrate. Cellulase yields expressed as IU enzyme activity/g cellulose present in the cultures were considerably higher when alkali pretreatment of wheat straw was omitted. Cellulase yields of 666 IU/g cellulose for filter paper activity (FPA) are the highest described for cultures of T. reesei QM 9414 carried out in analogous conditions. Crystallinity index of the cellulose contained in wheat straw increased slightly after alkali pretreatment. This increase did not decrease cellulose accessibility to the fungus. Delignification of wheat straw was not necessary to achieve the best cellulase production.

  5. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Balcázar-López

    Full Text Available Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc. To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation.

  6. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar-López, Edgar; Méndez-Lorenzo, Luz Helena; Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Esquivel-Naranjo, Ulises; Ayala, Marcela; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Savary, Olivier; Cabana, Hubert; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus) sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc). To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor) from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation. PMID:26849129

  7. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  8. Novel Cellulase Profile of Trichoderma reesei Strains Constructed by cbh1 Gene Replacement with eg3 Gene Expression Cassette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Hong WANG; Ti LIU; Zhi-Hong WU; Shi-Li LIU; Yi LU; Yin-Bo QU

    2004-01-01

    To construct strains of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei with low cellobiohydrolases while high endoglucanase activity, the Pcbh1-eg3-Tcbh1 cassette was constructed and the coding sequence of the cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) gene was replaced with the coding sequence of the eg3 gene by homologous recombination. Disruption of the cbh1 gene was confirmed by PCR, Southern dot blot and Western hybridization analysis in two transforments denoted as L 13 and L29. The filter paper-hydrolyzing activity of strain L29 was 60% of the parent strain Rut C30, and the CMCase activity was increased by 33%. This relatively modest increase suggested that the eg3 cDNA under the control of the cbh1 promoter was not efficiently transcribed as the wild type cbhl gene. However our results confirmed that homologous recombination could be used to construct strains of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei with novel cellulase profile. Such strains are of interest from the basic science perspective and also have potential industrial applications.

  9. 绿色木霉菌对喷气燃料理化性质影响的研究%Study on Influence of Trichoderma viride contamination on Physiochemical Properties of Jet Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷鹤; 黄雪峰; 杨浩

    2016-01-01

    influence of Trichoderma viride contamination on physiochemical properties of jet fuel was studied. The results show that, induction period, acid number and surface tension of jet fuel decrease with increasing of the trichoderma viride culture time, however, the level of particle contamination has a significant increase.In addition, the growth of trichoderma viride in jet fuel can contribute to the steel corrosion, which will cause the great damage to oil tanks and pipes. These results indicate that trichoderma viride as one of the dominate contaminating fungus has a significant influence on physiochemical properties of jet fuel .%对绿色木霉菌(Trichoderma viride)油水体系进行培养,并对喷气燃料理化性质进行分析。试验结果表明,随着培养时间的延长,喷气燃料中颗粒数明显增加,而诱导时间以及表面张力减小。另外,喷气燃料中绿色木霉菌的存在加速了铜片腐蚀,这对储存油罐以及输油管道构成巨大威胁。说明木霉菌作为一个主导污染真菌对喷气燃料的理化性质有重要影响。

  10. Diversity of Trichoderma in greenhouse soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-hui; SUN Xiao-dong; YANG Rui-xiu; YANG Hong; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ The protected agricultural production has become one of the fast growing and widespread cultivation technology in the north parts of China. Continuous cultivation of single crop or less rotation of crops usually resulted in the large amount of accumulation of soilborne pathogens and serious crop diseases in the greenhouse. After a few years of investigation of soilborne fungi in the north parts of China, nearly one hundred species of mictosporic fungi have been identified by the authors. Among these fungi 11species of Trichoderma have been morphologically identified, namely T. atroviride, T.aureoviride, T. citrinoviride , T. fertile, T. harzianum , T. inhamatum , T.longibrachiatum, T. parceramosum, T. reeseii, T. virens and T. viride. Trichoderm is found to be a frequently occurring genus of fungi in greenhouse soil. As an important component of effective beneficial antibiotic mycoparasites in soil Trichoderma plays an important part to regulate the balance of beneficial and harmful soilborne microorganisms.

  11. Space mutagenic effect of Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slant mycelia cultured with or without mutagenic agent diethyl sulfate (DS) and spores of Trichoderma reesei were loaded in the 18th returning satellite. Systematical screening showed that the life cycle and morphology of some strains had changed after space flight. After selection and domestication, 3 mutant strains with high cellulose enzyme activity were isolated. The cellulose enzyme productivities of the mutants were significantly increased more than 50%, and the mutant were generically stable. (authors)

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223

    OpenAIRE

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Novinscak, Amy; Joly, David L.; Filion, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM 223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM 223.

  13. Field Studies on the Relationship between Fusarium verticillioides and Maize (Zea mays L.: Effect of Biocontrol Agents on Fungal Infection and Toxin Content of Grains at Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is a staple food for the majority of the world's population. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg (Teleomorph: Gibberella moniliformis Wineland; synonym: F. moniliformis is both a saprophyte and a parasite of maize and can also be found as an endophyte. The presence of this fungus in maize constitutes an imminent risk due to its ability to produce fumonisins, mycotoxins with proven carcinogenic effects. The present work investigated biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans against F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin B1 production in field-grown maize during four consecutive growing seasons. Treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens consistently reduced F. verticillioides inoculum and fumonisin content of harvested grains. F. verticillioides count and fumonisin levels correlated negatively with rainfall regimes; however, none of these parameters showed significant correlation with yields. Treatment with these biocontrol agents may improve phytosanitary quality of the grains and reduce toxicological risk in the maize agroecosystem.

  14. Screening of Mutation High-Yielding Biocontrol Bacterium BJ1 by Ion Beam Irradiation and Effect of Controlling Fusarium oxysporum cucunerinum Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BJ1 of Bacillus subtilis is an important biocontrol factor in control of fungus disease. In order to improve the antagonistic ability of the strain,and obtain high-efficiency strains, 12C6+ of different doses and linear energy transfer (LET) was used to irradiate the biocontrol bacterium BJ1. The optimum dose and LET of ion beam irradiation for the BJ1 are 200-400 Gy and 60 keV/μm,respectively. The antagonistic ability is increased by 2%-21%. The control effect of mutation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucunerinum is increased by 17.48% over that of BJ1, and mutation also has better plant growth-promoting effect. (authors)

  15. Isolation of a salt tolerant laccase secreting strain of Trichoderma sp. NFCCI-2745 and optimization of culture conditions and assessing its effectiveness in treating saline phenolic effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, L M; Prasanth, G K; Sadasivan, C

    2013-12-01

    Most of the hazardous pollutants are phenolic in nature and persists in the environment. The ability of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and reduce molecular oxygen to water has led to intensive studies of these enzymes. Therefore the fungal strains with high laccase activity and substrate affinity that can tolerate harsh environmental conditions have a potential for biotechnological applications. Salt tolerant laccase secreting fungi can be utilized in treatment of saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents such as coir effluent and textile effluent that needed to be diluted several fold before microbial treatment. This is the first study describing the isolation and optimization of a salt tolerant strain of Trichoderma sp. potential for industrial applications. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and was subsequently confirmed with molecular techniques and deposited at National Fungal Culture Collections of India (NFCCI) under the Accession No. Trichoderma viride NFCCI 2745. In contrast to other laccase secreting fungi, light conditions did not exert much influence on laccase production of this strain and salinity enhanced its laccase secretion. The fungus effectively removed the phenolic content of the textile effluent, coir-ret liquor and wood processing effluent within 96 hr of incubation. The tolerance of the fungus to high salinity and phenolic compounds makes this strain ideal for treating saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents. PMID:24649671

  16. Studies on Exo-Chitinase Production from Trichoderma asperellum UTP-16 and Its Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Praveen; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Anupama, P D; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok K; Singhal, Pradeep K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-09-01

    The growth conditions for chitinase production by Trichoderma asperellum UTP-16 in solid state fermentation was optimized using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The chitinase production was optimized, using one-factor at a time approach, with six independent variables (temperature, pH, NaCl, incubation period, nitrogen and carbon sources) and 3.31 Units per gram dry substrate (U gds(-1)) exo-chitinase yield was obtained. A 21.15% increase was recorded in chitinase activity (4.01 U gds(-1)) through surface response methodology, indicates that it is a powerful and rapid tool for optimization of physical and nutritional variables. Further, efficiency of crude enzyme was evaluated against phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. and a mycelial growth inhibition up to 3.5-6.5 mm was achieved in well diffusion assay. These results could be supplemented as basic information for the development of enzyme based formulation of T. asperellum UTP-16 and its use as a biocontrol agent. PMID:23997329

  17. Universally Primed PCR (UP-PCR) and its applications for taxonomy in Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mette Lübeck

    2004-01-01

    @@ Universally Primed PCR (UP-PCR) is a PCR fingerprinting method that has demonstrated its applicability in different aspects of mycology. These applications constitute analysis of genome structures, identification of species, analysis of population and species diversity, revealing of genetic relatedness at infra-and inter-species level, and identification of UP-PCR markers at different taxonomic levels (strain, group and/or species) . A further development of the UP-PCR technique is an UP-PCR product cross hybridisation assay that facilitates investigation of sequence similarity (homology) of UP-PCR products and grouping of strains into UP-PCR hybridisation groups. This separates the strains into entities with high genetic similarity (DNA homology) . UP-PCR has been used as an aid in taxonomy and species delineation, and to monitor biocontrol strains following their release into the environment by fingerprint characterisation of pure cultures and through direct detection in soil by amplification of UP-PCR-derived SCAR markers. The technique has been applied to Trichoderma strains in particularly with the aims of strain recognition and classification.

  18. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES ISOLATES AGAINST ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF SESAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lubaina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria leaf spot disease is a major threat to sesame (Sesamum orientale L. caused by Alternari asesami. Induced resistance is an alternative to systemic disease resistance response of plants. The present study aims to evaluate Trichoderma species efficacy as biocontrol via induction of resistance against A. sesami in sesame species. During in vitro bio control test, T. harzianum colonize and parallely inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen. Expression of various defence related enzymes observed in sesame induce resistance against the pathogen infection in the host. T. harzianum coupled with inoculation of A. sesami enhance the remarkable induction of defence enzyme such as peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and also the phenolic content compared with the control. The enzyme activity increased from 48 h of sampling and peaked at 72 h and then decreased after 72 h. In greenhouse and field experiments, soil treatment with a powder formulation of T. harzianum two weeks before planting or at the time of planting reduced significantly the incidence of diseases on both the wild and cultivar Thilarani.The results demonstrate that T. harzianumcan be successfully applied as a biological control against Alternaria leaf spot disease in sesame.

  19. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M) MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Haryuni -

    2013-01-01

    AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M) melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan...

  20. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200g/LPG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation. PMID:26855183

  1. Cellulase induction in Trichoderma reesei by cellulose requires its own basal expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle-Urioste, J C; Escobar-Vera, J; El-Gogary, S; Henrique-Silva, F; Torigoi, E; Crivellaro, O; Herrera-Estrella, A; El-Dorry, H

    1997-04-11

    The induction of cellulases by cellulose, an insoluble polymer, in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is puzzling. We previously proposed a mechanism that is based on the presence of low levels of cellulase in the uninduced fungus; this basal cellulase activity would digest cellulose-releasing oligosaccharides that could enter the cell and trigger expression of cellulases. We now present experiments that lend further support to this model. We show here that transcripts of two members of the cellulase system, cbh1 and egl1, are present in uninduced T. reesei cells. These transcripts are induced at least 1100-fold in the presence of cellulose. We also show that a construct containing the hygromycin B resistance-encoding gene driven by the cbh1 promoter confers hygromycin B resistance to T. reesei cells grown in the absence of cellulose. Moreover, cellulose-induced production of the cbh1 transcript was suppressed when antisense RNA against three members of the cellulase system was expressed in vivo. Experiments are presented indicating that extracellular cellulase activity is the rate-limiting event in induction of synthesis of the cellulase transcripts by cellulose. The results reveal a critical requirement for basal expression of the cellulase system for induction of synthesis of its own transcripts by cellulose. PMID:9092563

  2. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

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    Aline Crucello

    Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  3. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  4. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  5. Vision and development in Trichoderma atroviride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Casas S; Cortés C; Ríos M; Rosales T; Bibbins M; Olmedo V; Herrera-Estrella A

    2004-01-01

    @@ Phototropism, the induction of carotenogenesis and reproductive structures, and resetting of the circadian rhythm are controlled by blue light. Trichoderma is used as a photomorphogenetic model due to its ability to conidiate upon exposure to light. In total darkness, T. atroviride grows indefinitely as a mycelium provided that nutrients are not limiting. However, nutrient deprivation and light trigger the conidiation process. A pulse of blue light given to a radially growing colony induces synchronous sporulation. A ring of conidiophores bearing green conidia is produced at what had been the colony perimeter at the time of the light pulse. All known responses to blue light in N. crassa are initiated by a couple of transcription factors encoded by the white-collar genes (wc -1 and wc-2). WC-1 and WC-2 bind to the promoters of light regulated genes to rapidly activate transcription in response to light. In T. atroviride the photolyase encoding gene phr1 undergoes fast transcriptional activation in response to light. The presence of putative WCC binding boxes in the promoter of phr1 , suggested that light responses in Trichoderma could be under the control of white-collar homologues. We cloned two genes and demonstrated by gene replacement that both are essential for photoconidiation and photolyase gene expression. Therefore, they were named blue-light regulator one and two (blr1 and blr2 ). The BLR1 protein has all the characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. The generation of subtractive cDNA libraries allowed us to identify novel, BLR independent, light responses including the regulation of gene expression by blue-light. In addition, we recently initiated a Trichoderma ESTs sequencing project. Until now, we have sequenced above 3000 ESTs, from which we have obtained approximately 1800 unigenes. This unigene set was printed in microarrays and used to search for light induced genes. Twenty five clearly induced and around thirty repressed genes have been

  6. Identification and Characterization of Lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis B1 Against Sapstain Fungus of Rubberwood Through MALDI-TOF-MS and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Dev, Suma Arun; Maria Florence, E J

    2016-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a potent biocontrol agent producing a wide array of antifungal lipopeptides for the inhibition of fungal growth. B. subtilis B1 isolated from market-available compost provided an efficient control of rubberwood sapstain fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The current study is aimed to identify and characterize the lipopeptides responsible for the biocontrol of rubberwood sapstain fungus by Bacillus subtilis B1. The bacterial whole-cell surface extract from the dual culture of B. subtilis B1 and sapstain fungus (L. theobromae) was analysed using MALDI-TOF-MS. The protonated as well as sodium, potassium adducts of homologues of iturin C, surfactin, bacillomycin D and fengycin A and B were identified and expression of the lipopeptide biosynthetic genes could be confirmed through RT-PCR. This is the first report of mycobacillin and trimethylsilyl derivative of bacilysin during antagonism through MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS with RT-PCR offered easy platforms to characterize the antifungal lipopeptides. The identification of antifungal lipopeptides can lead to the formulation of prospective biocontrol by-products which have wide-scale utility. PMID:27004481

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  8. Metarhizium anisopliae and Trichoderma viride control colonies of Atta cephalotes in field better than a chemical insecticide

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    Elkin López Arismendy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf-cutting ant Atta cephalotes is an economically important pest in agriculture. These ants use the material they cut to cultivate a fungus from which they fed. In this study, baits prepared with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae strain M-137, Trichoderma viride strain T-26, antagonist of the symbiont fungus of A. cephaloies, and a combination of both fungi were applied in order to control A. cephalotes colonies under field conditions. In addition, the insecticide activity of the baits was compared to a chemical product, Pirimifos Metil, which was applied with an air pump. The ants did not detect the fungal agents contained in the baits, and introduced then into their nests without awakening defensive behaviors. The mortality of the bait-treated nests was higher than 80% while the treatment with Pirimifos Metil was effective in only 60% of the nests. Additionally, a week after the application of these treatments, changes in the insects' behavior were observed, reflected mainly in the absence of foraging activity. In conclusion, M. anisopliae was effective in controlling A. cephalotes colonies, and superior to the chemical product Pirimifos Metil. 

  9. Exopolysaccharide from Trichoderma pseudokoningii induces macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Chen, Ke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Qin, Guozheng; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Huixia; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-09-20

    In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) derived from Trichoderma pseudokoningii and investigated the molecular mechanism of EPS-mediated activation of macrophages. Results revealed that EPS could significantly induce the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and enhance phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that EPS promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit. Western blot analysis showed that EPS increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, the degradation of IκB-α and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with specific inhibitors of NF-κB and MAPKs significantly attenuated EPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production. EPS also induced the inhibition of cytokine secretion by special antibodies against Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and Dectin-1. These data suggest that EPS from Trichoderma pseudokoningii activates RAW 264.7 cells through NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways via TLR4 and Dectin-1. PMID:27261736

  10. Genomic Basis of Plant Pathogen Suppression by Biocontrol Pseudomonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various plant commensal bacterial species, which naturally colonize the plant rhizosphere, are able to suppress fungal, bacterial, viral and even insect plant pathogens. These biocontrol activities are elicited primarily through the production of secreted exoenzymes and secondary metabolites that ma...

  11. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

    2013-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  12. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  13. Growth Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    OpenAIRE

    Febrilia Nur ‘Aini; Sri Sukamto; Dwi Wahyuni; Risma Galuh Suhesti; Qurrotun Ayunin

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides is  a  disease  which  can  cause  significant yield  loss  of  cocoa.  The  objective  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  abilityof  antagonist  microbes,  Trichoderma  harzianum,  Trichoderma  koningii,  Bacillus subtilis  and Pseudomonas  fluorescens  in  controlling  gloeosporioides  biologically  in  laboratorium  condition.  The  experiment  was  carried  out  in  Crop  Protection  Laboratory,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa  Research  Institut...

  14. Growth Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur ‘Aini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides is  a  disease  which  can  cause  significant yield  loss  of  cocoa.  The  objective  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  abilityof  antagonist  microbes,  Trichoderma  harzianum,  Trichoderma  koningii,  Bacillus subtilis  and Pseudomonas  fluorescens  in  controlling  gloeosporioides  biologically  in  laboratorium  condition.  The  experiment  was  carried  out  in  Crop  Protection  Laboratory,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa  Research  Institute.  Results of  this  research  showed  that  antagonist  fungi,  T.  harzianum,  T.  koningii,  had  a stronger  ability  in  inhibiting  growth  of  C.  gloeosporioides about  83%  compared  to  the  ability  of  antagonist  bacteria,  B.  subtilis  and P.  fluorescens,  only about  49%. Key words: Growth  inhibition,  Colletotrichum  gloeosporioides,  Trichoderma  harzianum, Trichoderma koningii,  Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  15. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. PMID:26832871

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation and environmental factors on the production of extracellular cellulase enzyme by trichoderma Spp. using banana waste under solid state bio processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal strains were isolated from degraded banana waste including leaves, pseudo stems and skins. Many isolated strains showed cellulolytic activities using the plate screening medium. The hyper cellulolytic isolates were selected on the basis of the diameter of the hydrolysis zone surrounding the colonies and identified to the genus level. The identified strains were found to belong to one of the genera Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Pleurotus or Penicillium. The strain with the larger diameter of the hydrolysis zone was found to belong to the genus Trichoderma. It was further identified to be Trichoderma harzianum, which was selected to be studied. Banana waste including leaves and pseudo stems were inoculated by the selected fungus and the production of the carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper cellulase (FPCase) was followed during changes of the growth conditions under solid state fermentation. It was found that the two enzymes shared the same incubation temperature (25 degree C) and incubation period (18 days) for the maximum enzyme production. The gamma radiation dose of 1.5 KGy increased the production of CMCase produced on leaves by 4.0% and on pseudo stems by 5.6% and the production of FPCase produced on leaves by 2.4% and on pseudo stems by 2.3%. The results also suggest that FPCase and CMCase enzymes produced on leaves were higher than those produced from pseudo stems and the level of CMCase enzyme produced was higher than that of FPCase

  17. Fungicidal compounds from a marine Ascidian-associated fungus Trichoderma harzianum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; Vuppala, S.; DeSouza, L.

    . Of the five isolated secondary metabolites, compounds 2 and 5 are being reported here for the first time from T. harzianum. Compounds 1 and 4 inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii causing sclerotium wilt or rot disease in tropical plants. Compound 2 and 5...

  18. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  19. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants. PMID:26160009

  20. Controle de Rhizoctonia solani e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli por biopreparados de isolados de Trichoderma spp.

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    Pedro Paulo Dias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos objetivaram avaliar em condições de casa de vegetação o biocontrole dos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani (RS e Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli (FOP em alface (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Regina, e feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Alessa, respectivamente, utilizando como agentes antagonistas, 10 isolados de Trichoderma spp. selecionados em testes in vitro. Foram feitos biopreparados à base de arroz previamente colonizado por isolados de Trichoderma spp. e posteriormente triturados. Para a realização dos testes, os biopreparados foram inoculados previamente na proporção de 10(9 conídios.mL-1, em substrato comercial para produção de mudas. Após sete dias, os patógenos foram introduzidos separadamente em duas concentrações distintas: R. solani na proporção de 144 mg de meio de arroz por kg de substrato e F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli inoculado na forma de suspensão contendo 4,75 x 10(6 conídios.mL-1. Avaliou-se a influência dos biopreparados na % de damping-off de pós-emergência em plantas de alface e a severidade de murcha em plantas de feijão-vagem. O biopreparado referente ao isolado T-03 foi o mais eficiente no controle de R. solani em plantas de alface cultivar Regina, por ter reduzido a incidência de damping-off de pós-emergência nessa cultura. Por outro lado, nenhum dos biopreparados apresentou efeito antagonista satisfatório à F. oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli em plantas de feijão-vagem.

  1. Effect of Combined Use of Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01 on Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani on Solanum melongena and Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abeysinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of two compatible biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01, both antagonistic to the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, was used to control damping-off in Solanum melongena and Capsicum annuum. Radial growth of the mycelium of R. solani was inhibited by T. harzianum RU01 in dual Petri plate assay. T. harzianum RU01 was capable to invading the whole surface of the pathogen colony, sporulating on it and suppress the production of sclerotia of R. solani. Microscopic studies showed the hyphae of R. solani surrounded by the T. harzianum RU01 and subsequent disintegration. B. subtilis CA32 produced a zone of inhibition only with the pathogen and no sings of antagonism between the bacteria and T. harzianum RU01 on dual Petri plate assay. Significant plant protection was achieved when either B. subtilis added to the seeds or T. harzianum added to soil. However, when combine application of biocontrol agents, seed bacterization and T. harzianum application to soil, significantly enhanced the plant protection from R. solani. Soil application of B. subtilis and seed application of T. harzianum either singly or in combination did not protect from R. solani infection indicating that the importance of mode of application of biocontrol agents.

  2. Enhancement of Rice Seed Germination and Vigour by Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Doni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of Trichoderma spp. to enhance rice germination and vigour. An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess the effect of seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. in enhancing rice germination and vigour. The results showed that all isolates of Trichoderma spp. significantly increased rice seedling growth, germination rate, vigour index and speed of germination with sp., SL2 showing the greatest increase in all the four parameters. Trichoderma sp., SL2 treated rice seeds attained values of 4.48 and 6.00 cm, 0.0084 and 0.0048 g and 1016.56 and 44.75 seeds/day for seedling shoot length seedling root length, shoot weight, root weight, vigour index and speed of germination respectively. We may conclude that Trichoderma spp. is able to enhance seed germination and vigour. The results of the study adds to the further understanding of the role of beneficial fungi in improving rice resistance to stress, yield and quality through seed invigoration. Trichoderma

  3. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  4. Application of Trichoderma harzianum in the control of basal stem rot of oil palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah F; Ilias G N M

    2004-01-01

    @@ The palm, Elaeis guineensis, has its origins in Africa but is planted on a commercial basis in several countries Statistics for 2002 showed that in the lead for land mass under oil palm cultivation is Indonesia, at 3,769,000 ha, followed by Malaysia at 3,376,000 ha; however, the world' s leading producer of palm oil is still Malaysia, since the 1970's. Both countries are predicted to produce 82.4%of the world's palm oil production by the year 2005. However, the palm is susceptible to basal stem rot, a devastating disease which results in direct loss of field stands and to which no effective chemical control is yet available. Caused by Ganoderma boninense, infected palms appear symptomless, at the first sign of disease, at least 50 % of the internal trunk tissue stem would have actually rotted. This study investigated the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate FA 1132) as a biological control agent, using 6-month old oil palm seedlings as models and the experiment performed in a greenhouse at 29-30 ℃ ambient conditions. The plants were artificially infected with G. boninense and a conidial suspension of 1 × 109-9 × 109 spores/mL was applied as a soil drench at 1L/plant every 2 weeks for 20weeks. The parameters examined were efficacy of the biocontrol agent and the effect of Trichodermaincorporated mulch in addition to the soil drench. Efficacy was assessed in terms disease severity index (DSI) where a higher percentage indicates a higher severity. Results showed that infection first sets in on untreated plants at week 12 and got worse progressively. The completely untreated plants were all infected and the DSI at 20 weeks after infection (wa. i.) was 92. 5%. Plants given only a Trichoderma -infused food base supplement without conidial suspension gave a DSI of 70% whereas those given a conidial soil drench without supplemental food base gave a DSI of 85% at 20 w.a.i.Infected plants given a conidial treatment together with a food base supplement gave a DSI

  5. Bioaccumulation of mycotoxins by shellfish: contamination of mussels by metabolites of a Trichoderma koningii strain isolated in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, C; Pouchus, Y F; Bardouil, M; Lassus, P; Roquebert, M F; Verbist, J F

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether toxic metabolites produced by fungi could cause shellfish toxicities, mussels were contaminated in laboratory conditions by sterile filtrates of a liquid culture of a strain of the fungus Trichoderma koningii previously isolated from a shellfish, the cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Mussels were kept in aerated natural seawater and fed with a culture of the microalga Isochrysis galbana, to which a filtrate of liquid fungal culture was added. Mussels were exposed to contamination for 7 days at 16 or 20 degrees C and extractions were then performed and their activity tested on blowfly larvae. The same toxicity was found in the fungal filtrate and the shellfish, indicating bioaccumulation. The digestive gland was the most toxic part of the mussel, confirming contamination by filtration. Treated mussels produced a mucus which appeared to be a means of eliminating toxic metabolites. PMID:9920482

  6. Preparative purification of Trichoderma reesei native and {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} cellobiohydrolase I by electrophoresis and chromatofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offord, D.A.; Lee, N.E.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The enzymes present in the cellulose complex produced by the fungus Trichoderma reesei have been the subject of considerable attention in consequence of their potential for converting cellulosic materials into glucose for further use in fermentation processes. Cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) is the major component of crude commercial fungal cellulose preparations and catalyzes the conversion of insoluble cellulose into cellobiose. The primary structure of CBH I is known, and its tertiary structure, deduced from small-angle X-ray scattering studies, takes the shape of a tadpole with a catalytic head region known as {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} CBH I and a C-terminal cellulose-binding tail region. Removal of the tail can be accomplished with the protease papain, resulting in reduced activity towards insoluble substrates but unchanged activity towards soluble substrates.

  7. Preparative purification of Trichoderma reesei native and core'' Cellobiohydrolase I by electrophoresis and chromatofocussing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offord, D.A.; Lee, N.E.; Woodward, J.

    1990-01-01

    The enzymes present in the cellulase complex produced by the fungus Trichoderma reesei have been the subject of considerable attention due to their potential for converting cellulosic materials into glucose for further use in fermentation processes. Cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) is the major component of crude commercial fungal cellulase preparations and catalyzes the conversion of insoluble cellulose into cellobiose. We have been interested, recently, in the reduction of native and core'' CBH I (the primary structure of CBH I with a catalytic head region) and have needed to develop a method for their preparative purification. We now report that by using electrophoresis and chromatofocussing, preparative quantities of both native and core'' CBH I have been obtained. Since their pI values are different, milligram quantities of core'' CBH I can be generated and purified from the native enzyme by chromatofocussing within 2 hours. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catalytic domain of the extracellular cellulase CBHI from Trichoderma harzianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic domain of CHBI was purified from a cellular extract of T. harzianum. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained and a native X-ray data set was collected using a synchrotron source. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum has a considerable cellulolytic activity that is mediated by a complex of enzymes which are essential for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. These enzymes were produced by the induction of T. harzianum with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) under submerged fermentation in a bioreactor. The catalytic core domain (CCD) of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) was purified from the extracellular extracts and submitted to robotic crystallization. Diffraction-quality CBHI CCD crystals were grown and an X-ray diffraction data set was collected under cryogenic conditions using a synchrotron-radiation source

  9. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  10. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  11. Real-time RT-PCR expression analysis of chitinase and endoglucanase genes in the three-way interaction between the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726, Botrytis cinera and strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Søren Dan Funck;

    2008-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two endoglucan......Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two...... endoglucanase genes from C. rosea strain IK726 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR in vitro and in strawberry leaves during interaction with B. cinerea. Specific primers were designed for ß-tubulin genes from C. rosea and B. cinerea, respectively, and a gene encoding a DNA-binding protein (DBP) from strawberry......, allowing in situ activity assessment of each fungus in vitro and during their interaction on strawberry leaves. Growth of B. cinerea was inhibited in all pathogen-antagonist interactions while the activity of IK726 was slightly increased. In all in vitro interactions, four of the six genes were upregulated...

  12. Trichodermaerin: a diterpene lactone from Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Chantrapromma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H28O3, known as `trichodermaerin' [systematic name: (4E-4,9,15,16,16-pentamethyl-6-oxatetracyclo[10.3.1.01,10.05,9]hexadec-4-ene-7,13-dione], is a diterpene lactone which was isolated from Trichoderma asperellum. The structure has a tetracycic 6–5–7–5 ring system, with the cyclohexanone ring adopting a twisted half-chair conformation and the cyclopentane ring adopting a half-chair conformation, whereas the cycloheptene and tetrahydrofurananone rings are in chair and envelope (with the methyl-substituted C atom as the flap conformations, respectively. The three-dimensional architecture is stabilized by C—H...O interactions.

  13. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium and Deoxynivalenol Production Repress Chitinase Gene Expression in the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma atroviride P1

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Matthias P.; Feichtinger, Georg; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion

    2003-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination associated with head blight of wheat and other grains caused by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum is a chronic threat to crop, human, and animal health throughout the world. One of the most important toxins in terms of human exposure is deoxynivalenol (DON) (formerly called vomitoxin), an inhibitor of protein synthesis with a broad spectrum of toxigenicity against animals. Certain Fusarium toxins have additional antimicrobial activity, and the phytotoxin fusaric aci...

  14. Selective Media for In Vitro Activity Evaluation of Bacterial Biocontrol Against Pathogenic Vibrio

    OpenAIRE

    ALIM ISNANSETYO; MUHTADI; INDAH ISTIQOMAH; KAMISO HANDOYO NITIMULYO; TRIYANTO

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity test is a critical evaluation to screen the potential biocontrol agent. We developed a selective medium for quantitative in vitro activity evaluation of bacterial biocontrol agents against pathogenic Vibrio in aquaculture. Sensitivity test of bacterial biocontrol and Vibrio spp. to nine antibiotics showed that oxytetracycline inhibited the growth of Vibrio spp., but did not inhibit the growth of the bacterial biocontrol. This selective inhibition activity of oxytetracycline ...

  15. Is the High Cu Tolerance of Trichoderma atroviride Isolated from the Cu-Polluted Sediment Due to Adaptation? An In Vitro Toxicological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tolerance of Cu by Trichoderma atroviride, a tolerant fungus isolated from the drainage surface sediment of the Serdang Industrial Area was investigated under in vitro conditions. Only this fungus species can tolerate up to 600 mg/ L of Cu on solid medium Potato Dextrose Agar based on the isolation of the most tolerant fungus from the polluted sediment. Toxicity test performed on T. atroviride, showed a maximum tolerance at 300 mg/L of Cu concentration when grown in liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB). The EC50 value of the isolate was 287.73 mg/ L of Cu concentration in PDB. The Cu concentration in the drainage surface sediment, where the T. atroviride was isolated from, was 347.64 μg/ g while the geochemical distributions of the non-resistant and resistant fractions of Cu were 99.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. The sediment data indicated that the drainage had greatly received anthropogenic Cu from the nearby industries which are involved in the manufacturing of plastics and electronic products. The present findings indicate that the high Cu tolerance showed by T. atroviride could be due to the well adaptation of the fungus to the Cu polluted sediment. Therefore, T. atroviride could be a potential bioremediator of Cu pollution in the freshwater ecosystem. (author)

  16. In-Vitro Efficacy of Trichoderma viride Against Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khirood DOLEY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen causes serious widespread losses to agricultural crops worldwide. Therefore, economy of countries may worsen especially of developing countries. In addition, harmful chemical pesticides which are being used today for increasing crop production creates very serious health hazardous problems to human beings and ecosystem as a whole. The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma species which has been long known to control various soil-borne fungal pathogens in biological way may be utilized. The faster growth rates with which it competes with fungal pathogen mainly brings upon their antagonistic characteristics. An investigation was carried out in laboratory condition towards biological efficacy of T. viride on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium for the bio-control of soil-borne plant pathogens Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina in in-vitro condition. The dual culture technique was followed in which T. viride showed significant antifungal activities towards both the pathogens. T. viride significantly inhibited the mycelial radial growth of S. rolfsii by 75% and M. phaseolina by 71.42%. The results showed variable mycelial growth rate for all fungal isolates which was determined after 6 days of incubation in which T. viride showed minimum of 4.00 days to completely cover the petri-plates and S. rolfsii showed 4.33 days whereas M. phaseolina showed 6.33 days. Thus, T. viride showed encouraging results regarding their biopesticidal and biofungicidal potential against plant pathogens which may be endorsed to substitute harmful chemical supplements that exists in modern day agricultural practices.

  17. Efecto diferencial de seis aislamientos de trichoderma sobre la severidad de Rhizoctonia solani, desarrollo radical y crecimiento de plantas de maíz Differential effect of six Trichoderma isolates on root development, plant growth and severity of Rhizoctonia solani on mayze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuleidy López

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La mancha bandeada de la hoja en maíz, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, ha incrementado su incidencia en Venezuela y ocasiona considerables pérdidas en la producción. En muchos casos la microbiota del suelo sirve para proteger a la planta del ataque de patógenos y contribuye a su mayor desarrollo. Para estudiar medidas de biocontrol de R. solani se seleccionaron seis aislamientos de Trichoderma provenientes de la rizósfera de plantas de maíz colectadas en varias localidades de los estados Portuguesa y Yaracuy, las cuales fueron utilizadas en pruebas de antagonismo en vivero con un sustrato esterilizado. En el sustrato se hicieron dos hoyos y en ellos se colocaron dos granos de arroz esterilizados y 2 mL de solución de esporas del antagonista a 3-7x10(6 conidios·mL-1. Luego se colocó una semilla de maíz híbrido D2000 en cada hoyo y dos esclerocios de R. solani, se adicionaron 3 mL de la solución del antagonista y se cubrió con suelo esterilizado. Con relación a la sobrevivencia de plantas, hubo un efecto positivo en los tratamientos donde se utilizaron las cepas de Trichoderma, obteniéndose valores entre 70 y 90 %. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad en la planta hasta los 60 días, se obtuvieron valores de 82,5 % en el testigo y 16,2 % en el mejor tratamiento con Trichoderma. Para un aislamiento proveniente de Píritu-estado Portuguesa se produjo el avance de la enfermedad fue el menor. Este aislamiento, seguido por el procedente de Yaritagua-estado Yaracuy, propiciaron un mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor desarrollo radical.The banded leaf spot disease on maize, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, has increased its incidence in Venezuela, causing considerable damages and yield reduction. In many cases, soil microbiota can protect the plant from the pathogen attack and contributes to better plant development. In order to study forms of biocontrol of R. solani, six isolations of Trichoderma obtained from maize plant rizosphere were

  18. Cotton Seedling Preemergence Damping-Off Incited by Rhizopus oryzae and Pythium spp. and Its Biological Control with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, C R

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Planting the cotton cv. Sure-Grow 747 in cotton seedling disease plots during the 2001 growing season resulted in high levels of preemergence damping-off among the seedlings. Four cotton pathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. ultimum, an unidentified Pythium sp., and Rhizopus oryzae, were isolated from diseased seed embryos and seedlings. Disease incited by the Pythium spp. could be controlled by seed treatment with Metalaxyl, but disease incited by R. oryzae could not. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl in naturally infested field soil was only partially effective; therefore, symptoms in 47% of the diseased seedlings could be attributed to R. oryzae. Susceptibility to disease appeared to be related to release in the spermosphere, by the germinating seeds, of compounds that stimulate pathogen propagule germination, because exudates from seed of the suscept Sure-Grow 747 and extracts from wheat bran induced pathogen germination and growth, whereas exudates from resistant cv. Stoneville 213 did not. However, even Stoneville 213 became susceptible when infested soil was amended with wheat bran. Seed treatment with preparations of Trichoderma virens parent, mutant, and hybrid strains gave effective biological control of preemergence damping-off. Disease control was attributable to metabolism by the biocontrol agent of pathogen germination stimulants released by the seed, because amendment of pathogen-infested soil with the propagule germination stimulants in wheat bran negated the protective effect of the seed treatment. PMID:18943091

  19. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 deg. C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

  20. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Roy, M.; Mandal, B. P.; Dey, G. K.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Ghatak, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kale, S. P.

    2008-02-01

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 °C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ~410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Improved delivery of biocontrol Pseudomonas and their antifungal metabolites using alginate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Moënne-Loccoz, Y; Fedi, S; Higgins, P; Fenton, A; Dowling, D N; O'Regan, M; O'Gara, F

    1996-02-01

    Alginate polymer was evaluated as a carrier for seed inoculation with a genetically modified strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113LacZY, which protects sugar-beet against Pythium-mediated damping-off. F113LacZY survived in alginate beads at 5 log10 CFU/bead or higher counts for 8 weeks of storage, regardless of the conditions of incubation. In plant inoculation experiments, colonisation of the growing area of the root by F113LacZY, derived from alginate beads placed in the soil next to the seed or from an alginate coating around the seeds, was improved compared with application of just free cells of the strain. F113LacZY trapped in alginate beads was an effective producer of antifungal phloroglucinols as indicated by direct HPLC quantification of phloroglucinols and in vitro inhibition of both the indicator bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1 and the pathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum. Alginate polymer represents a promising carrier for the delivery of biocontrol inoculants for root colonisation and production of antifungal metabolites. PMID:8867631

  2. Two new Chinese record of the genus Trichoderma: Trichoderma pleuroticola and T.pleurotum%木霉属中国新纪录种Trichoderma pleuroticola和T.pleurotum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广志; 杨合同; 张新建; 李纪顺; 陈凯; 黄玉杰

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Identification of two Trichoderma isolates were isolated from the soil in vegetable greenhouses and the pileus of Asafoetida mushroom. [Methods] By combination of morphological charaters and application of internal transcribed spacer (ITS). [Results] Two Trichoderma isolates were identified as Trichoderma pleuroticola S.H.Yu & Park sp. nov. and Trichoderma pleurotum S.H.Yu & Park. The morphological charaters of T. pleuroticola is similar with T. harzianum, but its conidiospore is obviously more than T. harzianum, secretes dark brown pigment, and forms yellow crystal on PDA medium. The typical characteristics of Trichoderma pleurotum is that its conidiophores are mostly solitary and more or less prostrate, branches scattered, arising separately and bearing crowded whorls of appressed phialides at the apex rsembling the conidiophore in Gliocladium. [Conclusion] Two Trichoderma isolates are T. pleuroticola and T. pleurotum respectively, which are two new record species in China.%[目的]对蔬菜大棚土壤中和阿魏菇腐烂的菌盖上分离的两株木霉菌进行分类鉴定.[方法]结合形态学分类特征和ITS序列分析的方法进行鉴定.[结果]从蔬菜大棚的土壤中和阿魏菇腐烂的菌盖上分离的两株木霉菌分别为Trichoderma pleuroticola和T.pleurotum.T.pleuroticola的形态特征与T.harzianum相似,但其分生孢子显著大于T.harzianum的分生孢子,且在PDA上产生黑褐色的色素以及黄色的结晶物.T.pleurotum 典型特征是分生孢子梗单生,有时匍匐,分枝散生,初级分枝和分生孢子梗顶端聚生,类似粘帚霉.[结论]分离的两株木霉分别是T.pleuroticola和T.pleurotum,为木霉菌中国新纪录种.

  3. The effectivity of Tilletiopsis albescens in biocontrol of powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, I.M.B.; Skou, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Tilletiopsis albescens grows well on powdery mildew fungi inoculated on barley or cucumber leaves and causes collapse of the colonies. Application of ballistospores or cut mycelium was equally effective for biocontrol, and the effectiveness tended to increase exponentially with the concentration of...... germinating units (conidia and cut mycelium) applied. Seventy percent relative humidity or more is required for effective biocontrol. Two applications of T. albescens in the period from 3 days before to 3 days after inoculation with powdery mildew were more effective than one. Applications before inoculation...

  4. Morphological characterization and viability assessment of Trichoderma reesei by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecault, Véronique; Patel, Nilesh; Thibault, Jules

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a critical step in the industrial process leading to cellulose ethanol. As a result of the lack of quantitative analysis tools, the intimate relationship that exists between the morphological and physiological states of the microorganism, the shear field in the bioreactor, and the process performance is not yet fully understood. A semiautomatic image analysis protocol was developed to characterize the mycelium morphology and to estimate its percentage viability during the fermentation process based on four morphological types (unbranched, branched, entangled, and clumped microorganisms). Pictures taken under bright field microscopy combined with images of fluorescein diacetate stained fungi were used to assess the morphological parameters and the percentage viability of microorganisms simultaneously. The method was tested during the course of fed-batch fermentation in a reciprocating plate bioreactor. The use of the image analysis protocol was found to be successful in quantifying the variations in the morphology and the viability of T. reesei throughout the fermentation. PMID:17373824

  5. Effect of culture medium composition on Trichoderma reesei's morphology and cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aftab; Vermette, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how fungal morphology influences the volumetric cellulase productivity of Trichoderma reesei cultured in four media with lactose and lactobionic acid as fed-batch in a 7 L stirred tank bioreactor. The use of a cellulose-yeast extract culture medium yielded the highest enzyme production with a volumetric enzyme activity of 69.8 U L(-1) h(-1), and a maximum fungal biomass of 14.7 g L(-1). These findings were associated with the following morphological characteristics of the fungus: total mycelia was 98% of total mean projected area, mean hyphae length of 10 mm, mean hyphae volume of 45.1 mm(3), mean hyphae diameter of 7.9 microm, number of branches 9, and number of tips per hypha 29. A positive correlation was found between the total mycelia, the number of tips and the volumetric enzyme productivity, indicating the weight of these variables on the enzyme productivity. PMID:19592237

  6. Quantitative Site-Specific Phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei Signaling Pathways upon Induction of Hydrolytic Enzyme Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Haapaniemi, Pekka; Yadav, Avinash; Saloheimo, Markku; Corthals, Garry L; Pakula, Tiina M

    2016-02-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation system controlling hydrolase genes involves various signaling pathways. T. reesei was cultivated in the presence of sorbitol, a carbon source that does not induce the production of cellulases and hemicellulases, and then exposed to either sophorose or spent-grain extract, which are efficient inducers of the enzyme production. Specific changes at phosphorylation sites were investigated in relation to the production of cellulases and hemicellulases using an MS-based framework. Proteome-wide phosphorylation following carbon source exchange was investigated in the early stages of induction: 0, 2, 5, and 10 min. The workflow involved sequential trypsin digestion, TiO2 enrichment, and MS analysis using a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. We report on the identification and quantitation of 1721 phosphorylation sites. Investigation of the data revealed a complex signaling network activated upon induction involving components related to light-mediated cellulase induction, osmoregulation, and carbon sensing. Changes in protein phosphorylation were detected in the glycolytic pathway, suggesting an inhibition of glucose catabolism at 10 min after the addition of sophorose and as early as 2 min after the addition of spent-grain extract. Differential phosphorylation of factors related to carbon storage, intracellular trafficking, cytoskeleton, and cellulase gene regulation were also observed. PMID:26689635

  7. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  8. Trichoderma reesei XYN VI--a novel appendage-dependent eukaryotic glucuronoxylan hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biely, Peter; Puchart, Vladimír; Stringer, Mary Ann; Mørkeberg Krogh, Kristian B R

    2014-09-01

    Expression of a Trichoderma reesei gene coding for a putative GH30 xylanase in Aspergillus oryzae led to isolation and purification of a novel xylanase exhibiting catalytic properties different from those of the previously characterized GH30 xylanase XYN IV of T. reesei. The novel enzyme, named XYN VI, exhibited catalytic properties similar to appendage-dependent GH30 glucuronoxylanases previously recognized only in bacteria. XYN VI showed high specific activity only on xylans or xylooligosaccharides containing 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid or D-glucuronic acid side substituents. The cleavage of the main chain takes place primarily at the second glycosidic linkage from the branch towards the reducing end of the polysaccharides or aldouronic acids. These catalytic properties resemble bacterial GH30 glucuronoxylanases, although the recognition of the uronic acid side chains by XYN VI is apparently based on interaction of the substrate with other amino acids. Moreover, in contrast to bacterial enzymes, XYN VI is also capable of slower but significant cleavage of unsubstituted parts of xylan and acidic xylooligosaccharides. The data point to a great catalytic diversity of xylanases produced by the most extensively studied cellulolytic fungus. PMID:25041335

  9. Dual utility of a novel, copper enhanced laccase from Trichoderma aureoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhaty, Yasmin; Ananth, Swetha; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2015-11-01

    Ever since the ability of laccase to oxidize non-phenolic lignin models was described, the oxidative degradation reactions catalyzed by laccase have been widely studied for paper pulp production or detoxification of aromatic pollutants. The viability of developing eco-friendly, laccase aided industrial processes has been explored. Here, we report the isolation and screening of fungi to explore their lignolytic ability on solid media using various substrates as indicators. The promising fungus was cultivated in submerged and solid state conditions. The crude enzyme obtained yielded elevated activity at 75°C and pH 9.0. Addition of CuSO4 increased the activity by almost 25% proving that Cu(2+) catalytically enhances the action of laccases. Decolorization studies were carried out using industrial dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (CI 61200) on solid and liquid medium. Visual decolorization was observed within 2 days of inoculation on solid media whereas, liquid medium incorporated with varying concentrations of dye solution showed a final level of decolorization of up to 76%. Bamboo degradation studies revealed a decrease in lignin content by 51 and 43% within a month. To the best of our knowledge, this study for the first time reports that Trichoderma aureoviridae can produce lignolytic enzyme and degrade lignin. PMID:26231326

  10. Overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in Trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen, Yong Liang, Jing Hua, Li Tao, Wensheng Qin, Sanfeng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. The target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh I promoter from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I gene, gpd promoter from Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk I promoter from T. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase I gene. After transforming into T. reesei QM9414, 43 stable transformants were obtained by PCR amplification and ethylene determination. Southern blot analysis of 14 transformants demonstrated that the efe gene was integrated into chromosomal DNA with copy numbers from 1 to 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 6 transformants showed that the heterologous gene was transcribed. By using wheat straw as a carbon source, the ethylene production rates of aforementioned 14 transformants were measured. Transformant C30-3 with pgk I promoter had the highest ethylene production (4,012 nl h-1 l-1. This indicates that agricultural wastes could be used to produce ethylene in recombinant filamentous fungus T. reesei.

  11. Folding and stability of endoglucanase III, a single-domain cellulase from Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, U; Kellis, J T

    1996-09-01

    The reversible folding of an endoglucanase (EGIII) from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei was investigated by activity, tryptophan fluorescence, and peptide CD measurements. Equilibrium stability was determined by urea denaturation at various pH and temperature values. Unfolding and refolding rates were measured over a range of urea concentrations. The data from the equilibrium and kinetic studies fit a simple two-state model, except at lower urea concentrations, where the folding kinetics indicate a transient intermediate. Unfolding is very slow, with a half-life of about 2 h in 8 M urea at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C. Comparison of the urea dependence of the folding kinetics and equilibrium indicates the protein undergoes 93% of its total change in solvent exposure on going from the unfolded state to the transition state. Thus, the transition state is quite compact. The presence of dithiothreitol destabilized the protein by 7 kcal/mol, indicating the presence of an unusually strong disulfide linkage between the two cysteines in the molecule. Protein stability is dramatically reduced at alkaline pH values; this can be attributed to a titratable shift (pKa = 7.8) in the slope of the urea dependence of unfolding. PMID:8784193

  12. Growth and sporulation of Trichoderma polysporum on organic substrates by addition of carbon and nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the present study nine different organic substrates viz., rice grains, sorghum grains, wheat grains, millet grains, wheat straw, rice husk, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were used for mass multiplication of Trichoderma polysporum. Grains, especially sorghum grains were found to be the best substrate for T. polysporum. Wheat straw and rice husk were less suitable, whereas, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were not suitable for growth of the fungus. Sucrose at the rate of 30,000 ppm and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 3,000 ppm were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and sporulation of T. polysporum. Amendment of the selected C and N sources to wheat straw, rice husk and millet grains resulted in significantly higher growth and conidia production by T. polysporum as compared to un-amended substrates. Sorghum and rice grains showed suppression in growth and sporulation of T. polysporum when amended with C and N sources. During studies on shelf life, populations of T. polysporum attained the peck at 60-135 days intervals on different substrates and declined gradually thereafter. However, even after 330 days, the populations were greater than the population at 0-day. At 345-360 days interval, populations were less than the initial populations at 0- days. Shelf life on C+N amended wheat straw and rice husk were more as compared to un-amended substrates. (author)

  13. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina, represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. Results Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414. Conclusions Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production.

  14. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Andre; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Collett, James R.; Baker, Scott E.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-02

    The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. RESULTS: Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414.CONCLUSIONS:Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production.

  15. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G; Antoniêto, Amanda C C; Persinoti, Gabriela F; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor-XYR1-in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  16. Study on Biological Control Of Rhizoctonia solani via Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Strain T02-25 was selected from approximately 30 rhizosphere isolates of Trichoderma species isolated from roots of crops. Its biological activity against Rhizoctonia solani was determined for the control efficacy to pepper seedling blight caused by R. solani in the field. The assay methods were treating R. solani sclerotia by Trichoderma conidial suspension (106cfu ml-1) and scattering Thichoderma rice bran over the pepper root medium. The results showed that T02-25 was active against R. solani in both ways, and its control efficacy was 82.7% and 78.0%, respectively. In addition to comparison of the efficacy of the two application methods, the relationship of different factors in the control efficacy of Trichoderma against R. solani was discussed.

  17. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation. PMID:26586561

  18. Enabling Low Cost Biopharmaceuticals: A Systematic Approach to Delete Proteases from a Well-Known Protein Production Host Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P; Huuskonen, Anne; Wahl, Ramon; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Kanerva, Anne; Hänninen, Anna-Liisa; Salovuori, Noora; Penttilä, Merja; Natunen, Jari; Ostermeier, Christian; Helk, Bernhard; Saarinen, Juhani; Saloheimo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete proteins. Therefore, it would be an excellent host for producing high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. Developing a filamentous fungus to produce sensitive therapeutic proteins requires that protease secretion is drastically reduced. We have identified 13 major secreted proteases that are related to degradation of therapeutic antibodies, interferon alpha 2b, and insulin like growth factor. The major proteases observed were aspartic, glutamic, subtilisin-like, and trypsin-like proteases. The seven most problematic proteases were sequentially removed from a strain to develop it for producing therapeutic proteins. After this the protease activity in the supernatant was dramatically reduced down to 4% of the original level based upon a casein substrate. When antibody was incubated in the six protease deletion strain supernatant, the heavy chain remained fully intact and no degradation products were observed. Interferon alpha 2b and insulin like growth factor were less stable in the same supernatant, but full length proteins remained when incubated overnight, in contrast to the original strain. As additional benefits, the multiple protease deletions have led to faster strain growth and higher levels of total protein in the culture supernatant. PMID:26309247

  19. Enabling Low Cost Biopharmaceuticals: A Systematic Approach to Delete Proteases from a Well-Known Protein Production Host Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P.; Huuskonen, Anne; Wahl, Ramon; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Kanerva, Anne; Hänninen, Anna-Liisa; Salovuori, Noora; Penttilä, Merja; Natunen, Jari; Ostermeier, Christian; Helk, Bernhard; Saarinen, Juhani; Saloheimo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete proteins. Therefore, it would be an excellent host for producing high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. Developing a filamentous fungus to produce sensitive therapeutic proteins requires that protease secretion is drastically reduced. We have identified 13 major secreted proteases that are related to degradation of therapeutic antibodies, interferon alpha 2b, and insulin like growth factor. The major proteases observed were aspartic, glutamic, subtilisin-like, and trypsin-like proteases. The seven most problematic proteases were sequentially removed from a strain to develop it for producing therapeutic proteins. After this the protease activity in the supernatant was dramatically reduced down to 4% of the original level based upon a casein substrate. When antibody was incubated in the six protease deletion strain supernatant, the heavy chain remained fully intact and no degradation products were observed. Interferon alpha 2b and insulin like growth factor were less stable in the same supernatant, but full length proteins remained when incubated overnight, in contrast to the original strain. As additional benefits, the multiple protease deletions have led to faster strain growth and higher levels of total protein in the culture supernatant. PMID:26309247

  20. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚日生; 李曼曼; 邓胜松; 胡华佳; 王淮; 李凤和

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  1. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL. PMID:25817439

  2. A role for reactive oxygen species in postharvest biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in plant defense responses against pathogens. There is evidence that microbial biocontrol agents also induce a transient production of ROS in a host plant which triggers local and systemic defense responses. In this study, we explored the abilit...

  3. Farmer evaluation of biocontrol methods against rootknot nematodes in tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Anni; Ndungu, Beth; Karanja, Daniel; Karanja, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Root-knot nematodes in tomatoes cause financial loss to Kenyan smallholders. While soil fumigation appears to be losing effectiveness two bio-control agents (bcas), Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium, appear promising. Participatory budgeting is being used to compare the bcas with chemical and other biological controls on commercial and organic smallholdings.

  4. ROLE OF BIOFILMS IN BIOCONTROL OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms often inhabit the leaf surface in organized structures termed biofilms. Burkholderia sp., FP62 is a biocontrol agent of B. cinerea in geranium and forms extensive biofilms in the phyllosphere. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrate extensive phyllosphere colonization (60-70% of t...

  5. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  6. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  7. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  8. Trichoderma harzianum L1 as a potential source for lytic enzymes and elicitor of defense responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. against wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramulu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some natural lignocellulosic substances on the production of ß-glucanase, chitinase, protease and xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum L1 has been studied under solid state fermentation conditions. Maximum activities of all these enzymes were observed in the fermentation medium containing the mixture of 1% rice bran, neem cake and 0.1% crab shell powder. The induction of plant defense response was investigated by inoculating the roots of chickpea cv JG62 with the biocontrol agent, T. harzianum L1. A root extract of chickpea inoculated with T. harzianum L1 showed increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase, as well as induction of new trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. The Fusarium oxysporum protease-2 was inhibited completely by root extract of chickpea inoculated with T. harzianum L1 and showed maximum resistance to rotting of roots caused by wilt disease

  9. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin...

  10. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.;

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol...

  11. Isolation, partial characterization, and cloning of an extracellular chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G; Xie, L Q; Li, J T; Sun, X H; Zhang, H; Du, Q; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S H; Pan, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a well-known biocontrol agent of fungal phytopathogens, as well as insect pests. A 42-kDa chitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases was isolated and partially characterized. Chitinase was purified using successive column chromatography on phenyl-sepharose, DEAE-sepharose, and CM-sepharose. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 40°C and pH 4.6. Enzyme activity was strongly activated in the presence of Mg(2+). The purified enzyme showed inhibitory activity of spore germination against several plant pathogens, particularly Fusarium moniliforme. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were resolved by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Protein modeling and comparative investigation of different chitinase amino acids showed that chitinases are conserved in parasitic fungi. PMID:25867374

  12. Fermentation and microencapsulation of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis in a novel type of hollow beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anant V; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Rose, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-03-01

    In this work, fermentation and formulation aspects of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis BBA were investigated. When incubated in 2% (w/w) glucose and 0.5% (w/w) yeast extract medium in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask without baffles, heavy pellet formation was observed. Only 40% of the mycelium had a size less than 500 μm. When a flask with three baffles was used, the portion of mycelium fermentation results were obtained at 0.4 vvm and 400 rpm stirrer speed with 90% mycelium gluten and 0.5% (w/w) yeast extract could be replaced with 3% (w/w) autoclaved baker's yeast which was never used as capsule additive before. Radial growth of mycelium out of dried hollow beads containing 1% (w/w) biomass and 3% (w/w) baker's yeast was faster than for alginate beads containing equivalent amounts of biomass and yeast indicating a higher bio-control potential. PMID:21181150

  13. Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Against Bread Spoilage Fungus Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are generally recognized as safe and can be used against fungi that contaminate various food commodities. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity for the biocontrol of Aspergillus ochraceus. The antifungal activity of eight strains of lactic acid bacteria has been evaluated by overlay assay method against the spoilage fungus, Aspergillus ochraceus isolated from white bread. The antifungal effect was assessed by co-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria strains and Aspergillus ochraceus in liquid media and mycelium growth inhibition was monitored for over 14 days. The LAB strains Lpl, LAB 43 and LAB 13 presented intense antifungal activity with large inhibition zones of fungal growth and sporulation, but smaller for Lpa and LAB 15 strains. Total inhibition of mycelia growth was induced by the strains LAB 43, LAB 13 and Lpa. The strains LAB 15 and LAB 35 had a moderate inhibition activity on the mycelia growth. The results of this study demonstrated the antifungal activity of several LAB strains by overlay assay and by co-cultivation method. Therefore, it was confirmed the inhibitory effect of the strains LAB 43 and LAB 13 against Aspergillus ochraceus. The experiment revealed that these LAB strains could be further used as biocontrol agents.

  14. Swollenin, a Trichoderma reesei protein with sequence similarity to the plant expansins, exhibits disruption activity on cellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloheimo, Markku; Paloheimo, Marja; Hakola, Satu; Pere, Jaakko; Swanson, Barbara; Nyyssönen, Eini; Bhatia, Amit; Ward, Michael; Penttilä, Merja

    2002-09-01

    Plant cell wall proteins called expansins are thought to disrupt hydrogen bonding between cell wall polysaccharides without hydrolyzing them. We describe here a novel gene with sequence similarity to plant expansins, isolated from the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei. The protein named swollenin has an N-terminal fungal type cellulose binding domain connected by a linker region to the expansin-like domain. The protein also contains regions similar to mammalian fibronectin type III repeats, found for the first time in a fungal protein. The swollenin gene is regulated in a largely similar manner as the T. reesei cellulase genes. The biological role of SWOI was studied by disrupting the swo1 gene from T. reesei. The disruption had no apparent effect on the growth rate on glucose or on different cellulosic carbon sources. Non-stringent Southern hybridization of Trichoderma genomic DNA with swo1 showed the presence of other swollenin-like genes, which could substitute for the loss of SWOI in the disruptant. The swollenin gene was expressed in yeast and Aspergillus niger var. awamori. Activity assays on cotton fibers and filter paper were performed with concentrated SWOI-containing yeast supernatant that disrupted the structure of the cotton fibers without detectable formation of reducing sugars. It also weakened filter paper as assayed by an extensometer. The SWOI protein was purified from A. niger var. awamori culture supernatant and used in an activity assay with Valonia cell walls. It disrupted the structure of the cell walls without producing detectable amounts of reducing sugars. PMID:12199698

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    OpenAIRE

    Seur Kee Park; Young Cheol Kim

    2015-01-01

    The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in ...

  16. PERBAIKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL STEVIA (Stevia rebaudiana BERTONI M MELALUI APLIKASI Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryuni -

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji perbaikan pertumbuhan dan hasil stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M melalui penggunaan  Trichoderma sp.  Perbanyakan  Trichoderma sp. dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Proteksi Perkebunan di Salatiga Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dirancang menggunakan rancangan factorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah inokulasi Trichoderma sp (To = tanpa  Trichoderma sp. & T1 = menggunakan Trichoderma sp. 100 g.  Faktor kedua adalah variasi aplikasi perlakuan yaitu: 1. S0 =  tanpa perlakuan, 2. S1 = 10 hari sebelum tanam, 3. S3 = tanama dan  4. S3 = 10  hari setelah tanam. Tiap perlakuan diulang tiga ulangan, tiap ulangan terdiri dari 16 tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa inokulasi Trichoderma sp. dan aplikasi perlakuan  S3 = 10 hari setelah tanam dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil dari  tanaman tevia. AbstractThe object of this research was examine to repair of growth and yield of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M by Trichoderma sp. application.  Reproduction of Trichoderma sp. performed in the laboratory center of Protection plantation Central of Java at Salatiga.The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized completely factorial design, consisted of two factors. The first factor was Trichoderma sp inoculation which were To = without Trichoderma sp. and T1 = Trichoderma sp. 100 g. The second factor was variation  of plant application treatment, which were 1. S0 = without treatment, 2. S1 = 10 days before of planting , 3. S3 = planting  and 4. S3 = 10 days after planting. Each treatment was repeated three times and each replicate consisted of 16 plants. The result showed that that the inoculation of Trichoderma sp.  and application of treatmen 4 is S3= 10 days after planting increases plant growth and yields of stevia.

  17. Potential of the salt-tolerant laccase-producing strain Trichoderma viride Pers. NFCCI-2745 from an estuary in the bioremediation of phenol-polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, L M; Prasanth, G K; Sadasivan, C

    2014-06-01

    Industrialization causes the generation of phenolic pollutants in the environment. The ability of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and reduce molecular oxygen to water has led to intensive studies on these enzymes. Although salt-tolerant fungi are potential sources of enzymes for industrial applications, they have been inadequately explored for laccase production. This study describes the isolation of a salt- and phenol-tolerant strain of Trichoderma sp. with the ability to produce laccase, and thus with the potential for industrial applications. The coconut husk retting ground in the estuaries of Kerala, India, a saline environment highly polluted with phenolic compounds, was selected for isolating the fungus. Enhanced laccase production was observed at 5-10 ppt salinity. The organism could grow even at 30 ppt salinity with reduced biomass production and laccase secretion. The optimum concentration of different phenolic compounds for enhanced laccase secretion ranged between 20 and 80 mg L(-1) . As the concentration of phenolic compounds increased beyond 200 mg L(-1) , the enzyme activity decreased and was completely inhibited at 800 mg L(-1) . The tolerance of Trichoderma viride Pers. NFCCI-2745 to salinity and various phenolic compounds can be utilized in the bioremediation of highly saline and phenolic compound-rich industrial effluents. PMID:23712577

  18. Rapid Isolation of the Trichoderma Strain with Higher Degrading Ability of a Filter Paper and Superior Proliferation Characteristics Using Avicel Plates and the Double-Layer Selection Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hideo; Nakano, Megumi; Satake, Yuuki; Toyama, Nobuo

    The cost of cellulase is still a problem for bioethanol production. As the cellulase of Trichoderma reesei is applicable for producing ethanol from cellulosic materials, the cellulase productivity of this fungus should be increased. Therefore, we attempted to develop a system to isolate the strain with higher degrading ability of a filter paper and superior proliferation characteristics among the conidia treated with the mitotic arrester, colchicine. When green mature conidia of T. reesei RUT C-30 were swollen, autopolyploidized, and incubated in the double-layer selection medium containing Avicel, colonies appeared on the surface earlier than the original strain. When such colonies and the original colony were incubated on the Avicel plates, strain B5, one of the colonies derived from the colchicinetreated conidia, showed superior proliferation characteristics. Moreover, when strain B5 and the original strain were compared in the filter paper degrading ability and the cellulose hydrolyzing activity, strain B5 was also superior to the original strain. It was suspected that superior proliferation characteristics of strain B5 reflects higher filter paper degrading ability. Thus, we concluded that the Trichoderma strain with higher degrading ability of a filter paper and superior proliferation characteristics can be isolated using Avicel plates and the double-layer selection medium.

  19. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  20. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Loessner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology.

  1. Caracterización molecular y agronómica de aislados de Trichoderma spp nativos del noreste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Mendoza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Molecular and agronomic characterization of Trichoderma spp natives of northeastern Mexico  Resumen Trichoderma sp es un hongo frecuentemente usado en actividades agrícolas, pues actúa como antagonista de diversas especies de hongos fitopatógenos. En este estudio se realizó el aislamiento de cuatro cepas de Trichoderma sp nativas del noreste de México, las cuales fueron identificadas a nivel molecular mediante la secuenciación del ITS 1. Además se evaluó su capacidad antagonista en contra los hongos fitopatógenos Macrophomina phaseolina y Fusarium oxysporum, que afectan severamente cultivos de sorgo, maíz y fríjol en el noreste de México. La identificación se realizó de acuerdo al grado de concordancia con secuencias reportadas y corresponden a las especies T. hammatum (HK701;  T. koningiopsis (HK702; T. asperellum (HK703 y Trichoderma sp (HK704. Por otra parte, las pruebas de antagonismo muestran que los aislados HK701, HK703 y HK704 inhiben por competencia el crecimiento de M. phaseolina y F. oxysporum, mientras que HK702 tiene la capacidad para hiperparasitar dichos fitopatógenos. Finalmente, se evaluó la promoción de crecimiento de T. asperellum HK703, en maíz (Pionner 30P49®, usando para ello concentraciones de tratamiento de 1x10e2 hasta 1x10e6 esp/mL. En estos ensayos se midió la producción de biomasa. Los resultados muestran que en concentraciones intermedias se tiene el mayor incremento en altura de plantas y mayor producción de peso seco en follaje y raíz. Entre los parámetros antes mencionados existen diferencias significativas. Palabras clave: control biológico, antagonismo, biofertilizantes, Zea maiz, Sorghum bicolor. Abstract Trichoderma sp is a fungus often used in agricultural activities, because it acts as an antagonist of several species of plant pathogenic fungi. In this study four strains of Trichoderma

  2. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASEEB Akhtar; SHARMA Anita; SHUKLA Prabhat Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil,bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P.fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

  3. Citrus blackfly in Florida: Eradication or bio-control?

    OpenAIRE

    Tefertiller, Kenneth R.; McKee, Vernon C.; Perry, Vernon G.

    1991-01-01

    The citrus blackfly (CBF) invaded south Florida in January 1976. It was considered by scientists to be a major threat to the Florida citrus industry located in the central part of the state. The CBF was successfully contained in a 1000 square mile tri-county quarantined area surrounding Ft. Lauderdale for several months before breaking out to an area near the commercial citrus production area. During this time federal and state research agencies were evaluating a bio-control approach involvin...

  4. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    MartinJLoessner; StevenHagens

    2014-01-01

    Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-...

  5. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, a...

  6. Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Hui-Jun; Qiao, Junqing; Gao, XueWen; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Biocontrol (BC) formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the e...

  7. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  8. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it

  9. Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo-Nieto, M.; M. Barret; Morrisey, J; Germaine, K.; Martínez-Granero, F.; Barahona, E.; Navazo, A.; Sánchez-Contreras, M.; Moynihan, J.; Giddens, S.; Coppoolse, E.; Muriel, C.; Stiekema, W.; Rainey, P; Dowling, D

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms.

  10. Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea by successful introduction of Pantoea ananatis in the grapevine phyllosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Florian Gasser,1 Massimiliano Cardinale,1 Barbara Schildberger,2 Gabriele Berg11Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; 2Höhere Bundesanstalt und Bundesamt für Wein-und Obstbau, Klosterneuburg, AustriaBackground and aims: The fungus Botrytis cinerea is a common problem in viticulture and leads to serious losses in both yield and quality. The objective was to study the potential of the antagonist Pantoea ananatis BLBT1-08 for controlling this disease.Methods: Pathogen suppression by Pantoea treatments was investigated in different field trials and in detached leaf assays. The mode of action was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy of treated grape leaves and by in vitro assays.Results: The introduction of P. ananatis BLBT1-08 in a 3-year field trial resulted in statistically significant reduction of disease symptoms. However, B. cinerea abundance, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a B. cinerea specific gene, was not reduced when compared to non-treated, symptom-free leaves. A DsRed fluorescent protein labeled BLBT1-08 strain showed a high phyllosphere competence and competition on the leaf surface, but did not colonize the inner parts of plant tissue. Germination of B. cinerea was not inhibited by BLBT1-08 on the leaf, but mycelial growth and symptoms were suppressed without direct pathogen-antagonist contact. The antimicrobial activity was amino acid and temperature dependent.Conclusion: P. ananatis BLBT1-08 is a competitive and promising biocontrol agent for the control of B. cinerea and is highly effective at reducing disease incidence.Keywords: biological control, sustainable viticulture, antagonism

  11. Formulation of Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculants using different carriers for soil treatment in rice seedling growth

    OpenAIRE

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Che Mohd Zain, Che Radziah; Mohd Ariffin, Salwati; Wan Mohamad, Wan Nur’ashiqin; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichoderma sp. SL2 has been previously reported to enhance rice germination, vigour, growth and physiological characteristics. The use of Potato Dextrose Agar as carrier of Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculant is not practical for field application due to its short shelf life and high cost. This study focuses on the use of corn and sugarcane bagasse as potential carriers for Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculants. Findings A completely randomized design was applied for this study. Trichoderma sp...

  12. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens.

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    Johanna Rytioja

    Full Text Available White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification.

  13. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  14. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  15. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

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    Li Junxin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and eno (encoding enolase genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter, approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters.

  16. Regulation of xyn3 gene expression in Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Nogawa, M; Okada, H; Morikawa, Y

    2000-09-01

    The characteristics of regulation of the gene encoding the third xylanase (Xyn III) of a filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7, were studied by Northern blot analysis. A partial DNA sequence (185 bp) of the xyn3 gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA of T. reesei PC-3-7 and sequenced. This xyn3 gene fragment was used as a probe for Southern and Northern blot analysis. The expression of the xyn3 gene was regulated at the transcriptional level. The xyn3 mRNA was expressed in mycelia of T. reesei PC-3-7 induced by Avicel, L-sorbose and sophorose, but not by xylose, xylooligosaccharides and birchwood xylan. Furthermore, it was observed that xyn3 was synchronously expressed with egll but not with xyn1 and xyn2 by L-sorbose, indicating that the xyn3 gene may be coordinately expressed with cellulase genes. By Southern blot analysis, the xyn3 gene was confirmed to exist as a single copy in both strains of T. reesei PC-3-7 and QM9414. However, no xyn3 mRNA appeared in the mycelia induced by any kind of inducers in T. reesei QM9414 even when total RNA was used in large excess, suggesting that the xyn3 gene in T. reesei QM9414 is in the dormant state and cannot be expressed. Therefore, T. reesei PC-3-7 may be a very useful strain for elucidating the induction mechanism of xylanase biosynthesis by cellulosic and xylanosic substrates, and also the regulatory correlation between cellulase and xylanase induction. PMID:11030574

  17. Functional analysis of Trichoderma reesei CKIIα2, a catalytic subunit of casein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Meiling; Liu, Kuimei; Wang, Hanbin; Luo, Yi; Fang, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the most important industrial cellulase-producing filamentous fungus. Although its molecular physiology has been investigated, the signal transduction pathways are not fully understood. In particular, the role of casein kinase II (CKII) is not yet clear. In this work, we carried out functional investigations on a catalytic subunit of CKII, CKIIα2. Comparison of the phenotypic features of T. reesei parent and Δck2α2 strains showed significant changes following ck2α2 disruption. T. reesei Δck2α2 form significantly smaller mycelial pellets in glucose-containing liquid minimum media, have shorter and fewer branch hyphae, produce smaller amounts of chitinases, produce more spores, show more robust growth on glucose-containing agar plates, and consume glucose at a significantly higher rate. Suggestions can be made that CKIIα2 governs chitinase expression, and the disruption of ck2α2 results in lower levels of chitinase production, leading to a weaker cell wall disruption capability, further resulting in weaker hyphal branching, which eventually leads to smaller mycelial pellets in liquid media. Further conclusions can be made that CKIIα2 is involved in repression of sporulation and glucose metabolism, which is consistent with the proposal that CKIIα2 represses global metabolism. These observations make the deletion of ck2α2 a potentially beneficial genetic disruption for T. reesei during industrial applications, as smaller mycelial pellets, more spores and more robust glucose metabolism are all desired traits for industrial fermentation. This work reports novel unique functions of a CKII catalytic subunit and is also the first genetic and physiological investigation on CKII in T. reesei. PMID:25833183

  18. Burkholderia cepacia XXVI siderophore with biocontrol capacity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Santos-Villalobos, Sergio; Barrera-Galicia, Guadalupe Coyolxauhqui; Miranda-Salcedo, Mario Alberto; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2012-08-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of anthracnose in mango. Burkholderia cepacia XXVI, isolated from mango rhizosphere and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as a member of B. cepacia complex, was more effective than 6 other mango rhizosphere bacteria in inhibiting the model mango pathogen, C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456. Biocontrol of this pathogen was demonstrated on Petri-dishes containing PDA by > 90 % reduction of surface colonization. The nature of the biocontrol metabolite(s) was characterized via a variety of tests. The inhibition was almost exclusively due to production of agar-diffusible, not volatile, metabolite(s). The diffusible metabolite(s) underwent thermal degradation at 70 and 121 °C (1 atm). Tests for indole acetic acid production and lytic enzyme activities (cellulase, glucanase and chitinase) by B. cepacia XXVI were negative, indicating that these metabolites were not involved in the biocontrol effect. Based on halo formation and growth inhibition of the pathogen on the diagnostic medium, CAS-agar, as well as colorimetric tests we surmised that strain XXVI produced a hydroxamate siderophore involved in the biocontrol effect observed. The minimal inhibitory concentration test showed that 0.64 μg ml(-1) of siderophore (Deferoxamine mesylate salt-equivalent) was sufficient to achieve 91.1 % inhibition of the pathogen growth on Petri-dishes containing PDA. The biocontrol capacity against C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456 correlated directly with the siderophore production by B. cepacia XXVI: the highest concentration of siderophore production in PDB on day 7, 1.7 μg ml(-1) (Deferoxamine mesylate salt-equivalent), promoted a pathogen growth inhibition of 94.9 %. The growth of 5 additional strains of C. gloeosporioides (isolated from mango "Ataulfo" orchards located in the municipality of Chahuites, State of Oaxaca in Mexico) was also inhibited when confronted with B. cepacia XXVI. Results indicate that B. cepacia XXVI or its

  19. Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populati...

  20. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  1. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Helena Santoro; Silvia Akimi Cavaguchi; Talita Moretto Alexandre; Janaina Zorzetti; Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD), half dosage (½RD), and double dosage (2RD). Germination, colony-forming units (CFU), radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen...

  2. Ethanol Perturbs Glycosylation and Inhibits Hypersecretion in Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Merivuori, Hannele; Montenecourt, Bland S.; Sands, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ethanol and phenylethanol on the growth of and glycoprotein secretion by Trichoderma reesei were studied. Low levels (1.5%, vol/vol) of ethanol perturbed the glycosylation process, as shown by alterations in the isoelectric profile of the secreted proteins and a reduction in the rate of incorporation of mannose into oligosaccharides. In addition to these effects on posttranslational modification, ethanol drastically lowered the protein secretion level of a hypersecretory strain.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement...

  5. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Javeria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  6. Chitosan enhances parasitism of Meloidogyne javanica eggs by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Nuria; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Naranjo-Ortiz, Miguel A; Marin-Ortiz, Ana I; Thornton, Christopher R; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2016-04-01

    Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc), a nematophagous fungus and root endophyte, uses appressoria and extracellular enzymes, principally proteases, to infect the eggs of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). Unlike other fungi, Pc is resistant to chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, used in agriculture as a biopesticide to control plant pathogens. In the present work, we show that chitosan increases Meloidogyne javanica egg parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. Using antibodies specific to the Pc enzymes VCP1 (a subtilisin), and SCP1 (a serine carboxypeptidase), we demonstrate chitosan elicitation of the fungal proteases during the parasitic process. Chitosan increases VCP1 immuno-labelling in the cell wall of Pc conidia, hyphal tips of germinating spores, and in appressoria on infected M. javanica eggs. These results support the role of proteases in egg parasitism by the fungus and their activation by chitosan. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pc genome reveals a large diversity of subtilisins (S8) and serine carboxypeptidases (S10). The VCP1 group in the S8 tree shows evidence of gene duplication indicating recent adaptations to nutrient sources. Our results demonstrate that chitosan enhances Pc infectivity of nematode eggs through increased proteolytic activities and appressoria formation and might be used to improve the efficacy of M. javanica biocontrol. PMID:27020158

  7. The relationship of biofilm production to biocontrol activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar biocontrol agent (BCA) efficacy is often inconsistent due to poor colonization and survival on plant surfaces. Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62, a superior leaf colonist and BCA of Botrytis cinerea, forms unsaturated biofilms on plant surfaces. To determine the relationship between biocontrol act...

  8. Yeast microflora of nectarines and their potential for biocontrol of brown rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident fruit microflora has been the source of biocontrol agents for the control of postharvest decays of fruits and the active ingredient in commercialized biocontrol products. With the exception of grapes and apples, information on the resident microflora of other fruits is only fragmentary; ho...

  9. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens for biocontrol of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables is crucial for consumer food safety. Biocontrol microbes may inhibit or suppress foodborne pathogen growth and enhance existing post-harvest intervention controls. The efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens for biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157...

  10. Impact of Trichoderma spp. on Soybean Seed Germination and Potential Antagonistic Effect on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Tančić; Jelica Skrobonja; Mirjana Lalošević; Radivoje Jevtić; Miloš Vidić

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma species have been registered as species with important plant growth promoting potential and antagonistic effect against various phytopathogens. Trichoderma isolates originating from different soil types from the Vojvodina region (Serbia) were screened using dual culture test for their antagonistic effect against the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. All tested isolates had high radial growth inhibition (RGI) factors of the pathogen and high col...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seur Kee Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.

  12. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  13. Trichoderma reesei CRE1-mediated Carbon Catabolite Repression in Re-sponse to Sophorose Through RNA Sequencing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina Campos; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Castro, Lílian Dos Santos; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated by CRE1 in Trichoderma reesei emerged as a mechanism by which the fungus could adapt to new environments. In the presence of readily available carbon sources such as glucose, the fungus activates this mechanism and inhibits the production of cellulolytic complex enzymes to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. CCR has been well described for the growth of T. reesei in cellulose and glucose, however, little is known about this process when the carbon source is sophorose, one of the most potent inducers of cellulase production. Thus, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing to better understand CCR during cellulase formation in the presence of sophorose, by comparing the mutant ∆cre1 with its parental strain, QM9414. Of the 9129 genes present in the genome of T. reesei, 184 were upregulated and 344 downregulated in the mutant strain ∆cre1 compared to QM9414. Genes belonging to the CAZy database, and those encoding transcription factors and transporters are among the gene classes that were repressed by CRE1 in the presence of sophorose; most were possible indirectly regulated by CRE1. We also observed that CRE1 activity is carbon-dependent. A recent study from our group showed that in cellulose, CRE1 repress different groups of genes when compared to sophorose. CCR differences between these carbon sources may be due to the release of cellodextrins in the cellulose polymer, resulting in different targets of CRE1 in both carbon sources. These results contribute to a better understanding of CRE1-mediated CCR in T. reesei when glucose comes from a potent inducer of cellulase production such as sophorose, which could prove useful in improving cellulase production by the biotechnology sector. PMID:27226768

  14. Comparative molecular evolution of Trichoderma chitinases in response to mycoparasitic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihrmark, Katarina; Asmail, Nashwan; Ubhayasekera, Wimal;

    2010-01-01

    Certain species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites and are used for biological control of fungal diseases on agricultural crops. In Trichoderma, whole-genome sequencing reveal between 20 and 36 different genes encoding chitinases, hydrolytic enzymes that are involved in the...... mycoparasitic attack. Sequences of Trichoderma chitinase genes chi18-5, chi18-13, chi18-15 and chi18-17, which all exhibit specific expression during mycoparasitism-related conditions, were determined from up to 13 different taxa and studied with regard to their evolutionary patterns. Two of them, chi18-13 and...... Trichoderma clades are observed. These observations show that Trichoderma chitinases chi18-13 and chi18-15 evolve in a manner consistent with rapid co-evolutionary interactions and identifies putative target regions involved in determining substrate-specificity....

  15. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago [1] and [2] . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...

  16. Optimal Physical and Nutrient Parameters for Growth of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M for Heavy Crude Oil Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine the optimal parameters for the production of biomass of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M, a fungus isolated from oil-polluted wastewater. The isolate showed maximum growth at day six after incubation in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) in the presence of 3 % (v/ v) heavy Khefji Sour crude oil. Although it grew at pH between 5.0 and 7.0, it grew best at pH 5.5. T. virens UKMP-1M grew at temperatures between 25 and 35 degree Celsius, with its highest growth at 30 degree Celsius. Aeration by agitation at 200 rpm was shown to yield the greatest biomass. Peptone at concentration of 1.5 % (w/ v) was determined to be a better nitrogen source than urea, potassium nitrate (KNO3), yeast extract, ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). Addition of 1 % (v/ v) crude oil to the MSM medium led to higher biomass production than the addition of 3 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % (v/ v) crude oil. The result also revealed that 40 % of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), 100 % of pristane and 74 % of phytane compounds were degraded after 9 days of incubation at optimal physical and nutrient parameters. (author)

  17. Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani in transgenic broccoli with a Trichoderma viride endochitinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ya; REN Shu-xin; GUO Yang-dong; ZHANG Lei; LIAN Wei-ran; XU Feng-feng; LI Shuang-tao; XIANG Juan; ZHANG Guo-zhen; HU Zan-min; ZHAO Bing

    2015-01-01

    A endochitinase gene (Tch ) from the fungus Trichoderma viride was introduced into broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Sixty-eight putative transformants were obtained and the presence of the Tch gene was conifrmed by both PCR and Southern blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis showed an accumulation of the transcript encoding the endochitinase protein in the transgenic plants. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression proifling of endochitinase gene was analyzed. Primary transformants and selfed progeny were examined for expression of the endo-chitinase using a lfuorometric assay and for their resistance to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. The endochitinase activities in T0 in vitro plants, T0 mature plants and T1 mature plants were correlated with leaf lesions, and the transgenic line T618 had high endochitinse activities of 102.68, 114.53 and 120.27 nmol L–1 MU min–1 mg–1 protein in the three kinds of plants, respectively. The endochitinase activity showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the pathogens. Most transgenic T0 broccoli had increased resistance to the pathogens of B. cinerea and R. solani in leaf assays and this resistance was conifrmed to be inheritable. These ifndings suggested that expression of the Tch gene from T. viride could enhance resistance to pathogenic fungi in Brassica species.

  18. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  19. Biodegradation of carbamazepine and clarithromycin by Trichoderma harzianum and Pleurotus ostreatus investigated by liquid chromatography - high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (FTICR MS-IRMPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchicchio, Alessandro; Bianco, Giuliana; Sofo, Adriano; Masi, Salvatore; Caniani, Donatella

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the capability of pharmaceutical biodegradation of fungus Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated through the comparison with the well-known biodegradation capability of white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The study was performed in aqueous phase under aerobic conditions, using two of the most frequently detected drugs in water bodies: carbamazepine and clarithromycin, with concentrations commonly found in treated wastewater (4μg/l and 0.03μg/l respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that T. harzianum is able to remove carbamazepine and clarithromycin. The analyses were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, using high-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry upon electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The high selectivity and mass accuracy provided by high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify some unknown metabolites. On the basis of our study, the major metabolites detected in liquid culture treated by T. harzianum were: 14-hydroxy-descladinosyl- and descladinosyl-clarithromycin, which are pharmacologically inactive products not dangerous for the environment. PMID:27039063

  20. The Anti-Fasciolasis Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Trichoderma harzianum and Their Improvement of the Anti-Fasciolasis Drug Triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelElah A. Banaja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new strains of Fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. Nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. The ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate fungal strains from Taif soil samples, which have the ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum, when challenged with silver nitrate solution, accumulated silver nanoparticles (AgNBs on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles, dislodged by ultrasonication, showed an absorption peak at 420 nm in a UV-visible spectrum, corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron micrographs of dislodged nanoparticles in aqueous solution showed the production of reasonably monodisperse silver nanoparticles (average particle size: 4.66 nm by the fungus. The percentage of non hatching eggs treated with the Triclabendazole drug was 69.67%, while this percentage increased to 89.67% in combination with drug and AgNPs.

  1. Three-way interactions between Fusarium species, their plant hosts and biocontrol organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai

    of ABC transporters in mycoparasitic fungi focused on C. rosea and Trichoderma spp. We showed that expression of zhd101 depended on concentrations of ZEA and that the gene was not induced by other agents, suggesting specificity of the enzyme towards ZEA and its derivates. To investigate effects of...... gene birth and death identified expansion of ABC transporter families in C. rosea as in Trichoderma virens and T. harzianum, but not in T. reesei and T. atroviridae. The expansion was profoundly observed in the subfamily G of C. rosea ABC transporters and the subfamily C of Trichoderma spp, repectively...

  2. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    intraradices (BEG87) were studied in root-free soil compartments separated from a rooting compartment by a fine nylon-mesh. B. cepacia had no effect on AM fungal biomass and energy reserves measured using the signature fatty acid 16:1omega5 from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids...

  3. Immunohistochemical investigation of the necrotropic phase of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the biocontrol of Hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata; Papilionaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal plant pathogens exert much of their effect on plant cells through alterations in the host cell walls. However, biochemical proof for this change is difficult because of the relatively small number of cells that are affected by the pathogen in the bulk of host tissue. In this study, we examine...

  4. Three encochitinase-encoding genes identified in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea are differentially expressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Lübeck, Mette

    2008-01-01

    that disruption of each endochitinase gene affected the activity of C. rosea during interaction with F. culmorum in liquid cultures. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00294-008-0199-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized...

  5. Optimization of solid fermentation of cellulase from Trichoderma koningii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pei-jun; JING De-bing; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Chun-gui

    2004-01-01

    To exploit peashrub resources in Ordos as fodders, it is very crucial to realize industrial production of cheap cellulase of high activity by optimizing culture technology, especially culture substrate. In this study, a new prescription experiment based on uniform design ideal was invented and successfully applied in the solid fermentation of Trichoderma koningii F244, which being performed with two different temperature degrees. The activities of FPA, cotton lyase, CMCase and β-glucosidase were assayed and then mathematical models of enzymatic activities, which were figured out by Unconstraint Mathematical Programming, were developed by Multivariate Regression Program of SPSS10.0. Enzymatic activities of optimized substrate prescriptions corresponding to mathematical models were forecasted to determine an ideal substrate prescription. It is revealed that in solid fermentation, Tween80 has negative effect on cellulase production. Furthermore, the ideal prescription for cellulase complex production by Trichoderma koningii F244 was straw powder 16.9%,wheat bran 26.5%, (NH4)2SO4 9.5% and water 47.1%, whose corresponding cellulase activity was expected to be at the same high level with that of Trichoderma reesei Q9414 on its own recommended substrate. Especially, goats mainly fed on peashrub tissues mixed with cellulase complex of this prescription and culture technology, got an incremental ratio of 0.3 kg/d, which brought a very promising feeding prospect for local peashrub resource. By populization of this cellulase complex, it can integrate living standard, economic construction of local residents into vegetational restoration tightly and thus this paper will be very meaningful to be use for reference for western China like Ordos to realize its sustainable development of economy, society and environment.

  6. Proteomic mapping of secreted proteins of Trichoderma spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li S; Bramley P M; Smith J; Cannon P F

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of highly taxonomically diverse Trichoderma strains were investigated using proteomic approaches, to investigate the utility of protein profiles as taxonomic markers and to identify proteins of potential economic importance. Initial studies have focused on a comparison of single strains of T.aureoviride, T. saturnisporum, T. polysporum, T. longbrachiatum and T. spirale, along with two strains of T. harzianum. All seven strains were grown in synthetic medium supplemented with 2 % (w/v) glycerol, to maximize the diversity of extracellular protein production. Samples of secreted protein were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and will be characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting.

  7. Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hasanloo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex with documented hepatoprotective properties. Silybum  marianum hairy root culture as a source for producing silymarin has been an important strategy for study the cell signaling pathway. In the present investigation Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions have been studied. Methods: The effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ 50 mL culture in 6 different exposure times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h have been investigated on flavonolignans production. The flavonolignans were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. Cell signaling pathway was evaluated by determination of H2O2 content, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Results:The elicitation effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 were examined on flavonolignans accumulation and the activation of cell defense system in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results indicated that the highest silymarin accumulation (0.45 and 0.33 mg/g DW was obtained in media elicited with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of T. harzianum Strains (KHB and G46-3, respectively after 120 h. Feeding time experiments indicated that a significant higher content of silymarin production was achieved after 120 and 72 h in media treated with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of KHB and G46-3, respectively. Our results showed that S. marianum treated by KHB strain, increased taxifolin, silychristin, isosilybin and silydianin productions significantly. The H2O2 content in the control hairy root cultures remained lower than the treated cultures. There was significant enhancement in both peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in treated hairy roots reaching a peak after 72 h. Conclusion: These findings suggested that some Trichoderma strains are positive elicitors for promoting silymarin accumulation in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results also suggested the presence

  8. Indigenous bacteria may interfere with the biocontrol of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Nobutaka; Akutsu, Katsumi

    2009-06-01

    Prodigiosin is a reddish antibiotic pigment that plays an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases by the bacterium Serratia marcescens. However, its activity is unstable under agricultural conditions; further, it can be degraded by various environmental factors. To examine the effect of epiphytic microbes on the stability of prodigiosin used for biological control processes, we collected a total of 1,280 bacterial isolates from the phylloplane of cyclamen and tomato plants. Approximately 72% of the bacterial strains isolated from the cyclamen plants and 66% of those isolated from the tomato plants grew on minimal agar medium containing 100 μg ml-1 prodigiosin. Certain isolates obtained from both plant species exhibited prodigiosin-degrading activity. We compared the 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from the isolates with sequences in a database. The comparison revealed that the sequences determined for the prodigiosin-degrading isolates were homologous to those of the genera Pseudomonas, Caulobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Novosphingobium, and Rathayibacter. These results indicate that indigenous epiphytic microorganisms may interfere with the interaction between plant pathogens and biocontrol agents by degrading the antibiotics produced by the agents.

  9. Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.

  10. Effect of fungicides and of biocontrol agents against powdery mildew of turnip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2008-01-01

    The activity of several fungicides and of two biocontrol agents, Bacillus subtilis and Ampelomyces quisqualis, alone and in combination, against Erysiphe cruciferarum, causal agent of powdery mildew, was evaluated on turnip under controlled conditions. Among the tested fungicides, quinoxyfen and azoxystrobin provided the best disease control, followed by penconazole, myclobutanil, dinocap and meptyldinocap. Sulphur provided a only partial control. The two biocontrol agents used alone provided a only partial disease control, with B. subtilis being generally more effective. The mixture B. subtilis + azoxystrobin was very effective and generally more active than the two components applied alone. The possibility of introducing biocontrol agents into IPM is discussed. PMID:19226738

  11. Trichoderma koningiopsis:A New Chinese Record of the Genus Trichoderma%木霉属中国新记录种Trichoderma koningiopsis记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广记; 陈捷; 刘铜; 刘力行

    2010-01-01

    在华东地区木霉菌资源调查中,利用内转录间隔区(ITS)序列分析和形态学鉴定方法,对从土壤中分离到的木霉菌进行鉴定,发现一个中国新纪录种,即拟康宁木霉.Trichoderma koningiopsis/Hypocrea koningiopsis Samuels,C.Suarez & H.C.Evans sp.nov..该种典型的形态特征是在PDA以及CMD(玉米粉琼脂)上有瓶梗层出现象,而在MA(麦芽提取物)培养基上没有此特征.

  12. The CRE1 carbon catabolite repressor of the fungus Trichoderma reesei: a master regulator of carbon assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Seiboth Bernhard; Druzhinina Irina S; Karaffa Levente; Hartl Lukas; Sándor Erzsébet; Fekete Erzsébet (1975-) (biotechnológus); Atanasova Lea; Linke Rita; Margeot Antoine; Portnoy Thomas; Le Crom Stéphane; Kubicek Christian P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The identification and characterization of the transcriptional regulatory networks governing the physiology and adaptation of microbial cells is a key step in understanding their behaviour. One such wide-domain regulatory circuit, essential to all cells, is carbon catabolite repression (CCR): it allows the cell to prefer some carbon sources, whose assimilation is of high nutritional value, over less profitable ones. In lower multicellular fungi, the C2H2 zinc finger CreA/C...

  13. Antagnism of three strains of Trichoderma spp.against mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia salani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-ze; TU Yan-la

    2004-01-01

    @@ Three strains of Trichoderma spp. TVll2, TX003, TY009 obtained from previous experiments could inhibit the sclerotial formation of two strains of Rhizoctonia salani AG1 (-1A) isolated from the rice paddies in Hanzhou of China. However, it is unclear if there are the antagonism and mycoparasitism of the Trichoderma strains tested against the mycelial growth of R. solani . The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of the Trichoderma strains to inhibit the mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro .

  14. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  15. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  16. POTENCIAL FARMACOINDUSTRIAL DE Trichoderma harzianum PARA FINS FARMACOTERAPÊUTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Albarello Gellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens de Trichoderma estão bem difundidas nos processos de controle de fitopatógenos, além disto, para promoção do desenvolvimento e crescimento das culturas onde são inoculados, estes benefícios dão-se pela gama de processos desempenhados por este organismo, os processos são classificados em parasitismo, antibiose e competição, além de secretarem produtos enzimáticos com ações degradantes, compostos voláteis e antimicrobianos. Por meio de testes de produção enzimática, confronto em placa, metabólitos voláteis e sensibilização do agente, os isolados de Trichoderma harzianum mostraram-se como um potente produtor de substâncias antimicrobianas e antifúngicas perante Sthaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. faecalis e Rhodotorula sp., Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida lusitaniae. Palavras-chave: antimicrobianos, antifúngicas, metabólitos, sensibilização. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p91-96

  17. Trichoderma spp.对樟子松枯梢病病原菌的影响%Effect of Trichoderma spp.on the Pathogen of Sphaeropsis Blight of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞清; 周秀华

    2004-01-01

    通过Trichoderma属3个菌株与樟子松枯梢病菌(Sphaeropsis sapinea)对峙培养试验的结果表明:Trichoderma viride 1, Trichoderma viride 2及Trichoderma harzianum对樟子松枯梢病病原菌都有抑制效果,其中Trichoderma viride 2对病原菌的相对抑制效果最好,且其相对抑制效果随着时间的增加而增长,在40h达到最高,为73.55.Trichoderma viride 1和Trichoderma harzianum对病原菌的相对抑制效果在16h达到最高,分别为4.86及2.59.

  18. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T4 on Bacterial Community in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rhizosphere Soil%生防菌哈茨木霉Trichoderma harzianum T4对西瓜根围土壤细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 张于; 旭热; 王伟

    2013-01-01

      采用平板培养、末端限制性片段长度多态性(terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP)以及变性梯度凝胶电泳(denatured gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)的方法相结合探讨生防菌哈茨木霉 Trichoderma harzianum T4对大棚西瓜根围土壤细菌群落及氨氧化细菌群落的影响,为其在田间应用的生态安全性的评估提供支撑。末端限制性片段长度多态性以及变性梯度凝胶电泳的结果均表明哈茨木霉 T4施入田间约四周内对根围土壤细菌群落产生明显的影响,随后这种扰动现象逐渐减小。对 DGGE中受影响条带的测序结果表明,生防菌 T4促进了假单胞菌 Pseudomonas,芽孢杆菌 Bacillus,苍白杆菌Ochrobactrum 以及中慢生根瘤菌 Mesorhizobium 等细菌类群的生长,对短杆菌 Brevibacterium,克雷白氏肺炎杆菌 Klebsiella pneumoniae,根瘤菌 Rhizobium sp 等表现出抑制作用。生防菌 T4对根围土壤中氨氧化细菌群落并没有产生明显的影响。可见,生防菌木霉 T4引入初期对根围土壤中细菌群落产生明显的扰动,但这种干扰是短暂的,并没有对根围土壤细菌群落形成持续的影响。%The effects of biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum T4 on bacterial and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rhizosphere soil were studied using plate colony calculation, T-RFLP and DGGE method, in order to provide a theoretical basis and technique for assessing the microbial ecology risk of biocontrol agents application. Both T-RFLP and DGGE method demonstrated that T. harzianum T4 had short-term influence on rhizosphere soil bacterial communities which lasted about four weeks. Biocontrol strain T. harzianum T4 increased population of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum and Mesorhizobium. Meanwhile population of other bacteria such as Brevibacterium and Klebsiella pneumoniae were

  19. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...... effects against Pythium damping-off compared with the corresponding treatments with P. aphanidermatum alone, but the biocontrol efficacy depended on the type of organic compounds added. Both BCAs counteracted damping-off in treatments with TSB and chitosan. However, P. polymyxa counteracted damping-off in...

  20. LACK OF ANTAGONISM BETWEEN THE BIOCONTROL AGENT GLIOCLADIUM VIRENS AND VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal biocontrol agent Gliocladium virens Miller, Giddens & Foster on the colonization of cucumber by the VA mycorrhizal fungi Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann and Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe was investigated. noculum of G. virens grown on wheat bran o...

  1. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  2. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  3. Test of biocontrol products against fungal pathogens of tomato and lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaerts, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    Chemical control remains the main measure to reduce the incidence of fungal diseases in various fruits and vegetables. A serious problem against the effective use of these chemicals is the development of resistance by the fungi. The exploitation of biocontrol agents, safer to consumers and the environment, is urgently needed. Furthermore, the demand for reduction in the use of pesticides in agriculture and horticulture increases interest in the possibility of the application of biocontrol age...

  4. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were is...

  5. Potential Pseudomonas Isolated from Soybean Rhizosphere as Biocontrol against Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO; YULIN LESTARI; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; ARI SUSILOWATI; SURYO WIYONO

    2011-01-01

    Plants are liable to be attacked by soilborne fungal pathogens which are responsible to reduce plant growth and losses in yield. In Indonesia, indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria such as antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. have not many been reported yet. Therefore, the potential of the Pseudomonas sp. as biocontrol agent should be deeply explored. The aim of this study was to screen the indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that possessing biocontrol characters against soilborne...

  6. Screening criteria for the development of commercial products for biocontrol of plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Köhl, Jurgen; Blum, Bernard; Nicot, Philippe; Ruocco, Michelina

    2012-01-01

    Antagonists for use in commercial biocontrol products have to fulfil many different requirements. Besides being active control agents against the specific targeted plant pathogens, they must be safe and cost effective. The development of new biocontrol products starts with screening programs including hundreds or thousands of candidates. For commercial use, important criteria are market size, efficacy, ecological characteristics, production costs, safety, environmental risks and protection of...

  7. Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sardul Singh Sandhu; Sharma, Anil K; Vikas Beniwal; Gunjan Goel; Priya Batra; Anil Kumar; Sundeep Jaglan; Sharma, A K; Sonal Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be dev...

  8. Plant pathogens as biocontrol agents of Cirsium arvense – an overestimated approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Müller; Wolfgang Nentwig

    2011-01-01

    Cirsium arvense is one of the worst weeds in agriculture. As herbicides are not very effective and not accepted by organic farming and special habitats, possible biocontrol agents have been investigated since many decades. In particular plant pathogens of C. arvense have received considerable interest and have been promoted as “mycoherbicides” or “bioherbicides”. A total of 10 fungi and one bacterium have been proposed and tested as biocontrol agents against C. arvense...

  9. Facilitating the registration of biocontrol organisms, plant extracts and semiochemicals in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser, B.; Tamm, L.; Bale, J.; Fjelsted, A.; Hokkanen, H; Menzler-Hokkanen, I; Kuhlmann, U.; Strasser, H; Hauschild, R.; Strauch, O.; Ehlers, R.U.

    2008-01-01

    The legal regulation of plant protection products (Dir. 91/414/ EEC) is a bottleneck in the market introduction of new microbial biocontrol agents, plant extracts and pheromones. In contrast, invertebrate biocontrol agents (“beneficials”) are not registered at EU level. The EU-funded project REBECA suggested improvements to accelerate the regulation process and make it more cost-effective, without compromises to the level of safety. Representatives of all stakeholder groups participated in...

  10. Relationship between the aggressiveness of Botrytis cinerea on tomato and the efficacy of biocontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Bardin, Marc; Comby, Morgane; Troulet, Claire; Nicot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The development of BCAs represents an attractive alternative to fungicides for the protection of crops against plant pathogens but the durability of this method has not been studied in details. The objective of the present work was to estimate the risk of loss of biocontrol efficacy towards Botrytis cinerea, by evaluating the sensibility of various isolates of the pathogen to the biocontrol agent Microdochium dimerum. The protective efficacy of M. dimerum was evaluated on tomato plants agains...

  11. Potential biocontrol of fumonisin b1 production by fusarium verticillioides under different ecophysiological conditions in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudin, Nik Iskandar Putra Bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides contaminates maize with the fumonisin group of mycotoxins for which there are strict legislative limits in many countries including the EU. The objectives of this project were (a) to examine the microbial diversity of maize samples from different regions and isolate potential biocontrol agents which could antagonize F. verticillioides and reduce fumonisin B1 (FB1) production, (b) to screen the potential biocontrol candidates using antagonistic interacti...

  12. Studies on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense with Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue-li; LIU Kai-qi; XIANG Mei-mei; LIU Ren

    2004-01-01

    @@ One hundred and fifty one isolates of Trichoderma were collected mainly from more than 40 soil samples and other materials in Guangdong Province (including Chigang, Zhanjiang, Wuchuan,Panyu, Zhaoqing, Dongguan, Humen, Qingyuan, Guanzhou) and the soil samples were also from different plant rhizosphere (including rice, different fruits and different vegetables). It was shown that 39 isolates of Trichoderma grew faster than other isolates using growth velocity experiments.The 39 isolates could effectively inhibit Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (E. F. Sm) Sny. &Hans.by dual cultural experiments. The inhibited activity included the antifungal activities of its metabolite,mycoparasitic activities and the lytic enzymes by dual culture, electronic microcopy and enzyme assay.At present, studies on the taxonomy of the 151 isolates of Trichoderma are carried out in our experiments, some Trichoderma species aggregates will be identified according to the taxonomy system revised by Rifai and Bissett.

  13. Production of chitinases with Trichoderma harzianun isolates using solid substrate fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Nagy

    2004-01-01

    @@ Over forty Trichoderma harzianum isolates have been screened in solid substrate fermentation (SSF)for chitinase production. Strains were isolated from Asian soil and tree bark samples. Identification was performed in Canada and Austria by classical and molecular taxonomical methods.

  14. Exploitation of Trichoderma species on the growth of Pythium Aphanidermatum in Chilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, A; Eswaran, A; Sanjeevkumas, K

    2011-10-01

    Damping-off of chilli caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is a major nursery disease in vegetables. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of eight isolates of Trichoderma species (from chilli rhizosphere) were tested against P. aphanidermatum. All the Trichoderma species had varied antagonistic effects against the pathogen. Among them, TVC3 recorded maximum growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum and produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. The culture filtrate of the Trichoderma isolate TVC3 recorded complete inhibition on the mycelial growth of pathogen at 15% concentration. Moreover, chilli seeds treated with culture filtrate of the isolate TVC3 recorded maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length and vigour index of chilli. The study identified the Trichoderma isolate (TVC3) performed well in inhibiting the mycelial growth of pathogen as well as increased the plant growth in chilli. PMID:24031794

  15. Method To Estimate Growth of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus wentii in Mixed Culture on Cellulosic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, T.; Bisaria, V. S.; Ghose, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    A simple differential method based on measurement of an intracellular pigment of Aspergillus wentii was developed for estimation of the individual growths of two fungi, Trichoderma reesei and A. wentii, in mixed-culture fermentation of an insoluble cellulosic substrate.

  16. The Pochonia chlamydosporia Serine Protease Gene vcp1 Is Subject to Regulation by Carbon, Nitrogen and pH: Implications for Nematode Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elaine; Kerry, Brian R.; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Mutua, Gerald; Devonshire, Jean; Kimenju, John; Hirsch, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers) may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances. PMID:22558192

  17. The Pochonia chlamydosporia serine protease gene vcp1 is subject to regulation by carbon, nitrogen and pH: implications for nematode biocontrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ward

    Full Text Available The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.

  18. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability. PMID:26845376

  19. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Khalili; Mehdi Sadravi; Shahram Naeimi; Vahid Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that ...

  20. Uji Efektifitas Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. Dan Gliocladium sp. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rima Yunisa

    2015-01-01

    Rima Yunisa Nasution. 2014. Effectiveness test on antagonist fungi Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium Sp. to control fusarium disease (Fusarium oxysporum F.sp capsici) for chilli crop (Capsicum Annuum L.) at screen house. Supervised by Lahmuddin Lubis and Hassanuddin. The goal of the research is to examine antagonist fungi Trichoderma and Gliocladium virens towards F. Oxysporum that lead the fusarium disease for chilli crop at screen house. The research was conducted at Plant Dise...

  1. The Polyketide Synthase Gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei Provides Pigmentation and Stress Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion...

  2. Hydrolysis of Palm Kernel Cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by Fungi Trichoderma reesei that Degrades Mannan Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Jaelani; Wiranda Gentini Piliang; Suryahadi; Iman Rahayu

    2008-01-01

    The research was conducted to study the growth characterization of Trichoderma reesei, the degradability of mannan polysaccharides from Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) with different concentrations of fungi and thickness of the PKC medium, as well as the improvement of the nutritive value of palm kernel cake. Experiment 1 was to study the growth characterization of Trichoderma reesei, and Experiment 2 was conducted using concentrations of fungi (104, 105, and 106 CFU per cc) and thickness of the PKC m...

  3. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    temperatures of 4 degreeC or 12 degreeC. In accordance with the results on colony diameters, the fungus revealed an ability to degrade casein, chitin derivatives, Tween 20, and urea as evidenced by the appearance of a halo around the fungal colony. Because of its origin and temperature tolerance, this Argentine strain has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent for insect pest control in cold and temperate environments. PMID:23894949

  4. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  5. Kecernaan in vitro bahan kering dan bahan organik jerami jagung yang diinokulasi dengan Trichoderma sp pada lama inkubasi yang berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    GANI K., RASUL

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kecernaan in vitro bahan kering dan bahan organik jerami jagung yang diinokulasi dengan Trichoderma sp. pada lama inkubasi yang berbeda. Penelitian ini disusun berdasarkan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan yaitu: P0= jerami jagung tanpa inokulasi (kontrol), P1= Jerami jagung + 5% Trichoderma sp. dengan lama waktu inkubasi 1 minggu, P2= Jerami jagung + 5% Trichoderma sp. dengan lama waktu inkubasi 2 minggu, ...

  6. Molecular Identification of Trichoderma spp. in Garlic and Onion Fields and In Vitro Antagonism Trials on Sclerotium cepivorum

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alvarado-Marchena and; William Rivera-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trichoderma species are non-pathogenic microorganisms that protect against fungal diseases and contribute to increased crop yields. However, not all Trichoderma species have the same effects on crop or a pathogen, whereby the characterization and identification of strains at the species level is the first step in the use of a microorganism. The aim of this study was the identification – at species level – of five strains of Trichoderma isolated from soil samples obtained from garlic ...

  7. Characterisation and identification of Trichoderma isolates from a South Australian soil suppressive to Rhizoctonia solani on wheat%南澳大利亚麦田茄丝核菌抑病土中木霉菌的特性和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; Maarten H RYDER; 唐文华

    2005-01-01

    从抑制Rhizoctonia solani的麦田土中分离到木霉菌,依据形态特征,鉴定为 Trichoderma pseudokoningii, T. parceramosum, T. longibrachiatum 和T. harzianum.取样土壤为灰质砂壤土, pH 8.4 (H2O),位于南澳大利亚的埃文.研究了与生物防治作用机制相关的生理学特性包括几丁质酶活性、β-1,3-葡聚糖酶活性、内切葡聚糖酶活性、抗菌活性以及重复寄生能力.T. pseudokoningii生长速度快但是产分生孢子少,但是T. parceramosum产分生孢子多.与其他种类相比,Trichoderma pseudokoningii的分离频率高,在盆载条件下对小麦Rhizoctonia solani根腐病以及全蚀病防治效果高,对R. solani的重复寄生能力强.Trichoderma pseudokoningii菌株间的重复寄生能力差异不明显,但在几丁质酶活性和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶活性上有明显差别.依据平板抑菌能力,可将木霉菌株分为3个组.菌株在不同pH培养基上的生长速度不同,但没有发现特别能适应碱性条件而快速生长的菌株,虽然这些菌株都分离自碱性土壤.%Trichoderma pseudokoningii, T. parceramosum, T. longibrachiatum and T. harzianum were identified based on morphological characterisation of isolates from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive wheat field soil. The soil, a calcareous sandy loam, pH 8.4 (H2O) was collected from Avon, South Australia. Physiological characters which are possibly connected to biocontrol mechanisms including chitinase,β-1,3-glucanase and endoglucanase activity, antibiosis and mycoparasitism were investigated.T. pseudokoningii was fast growing and poor in conidiation, but T. parceramosum isolates were good conidium producers.Compared to the other species,Trichoderma pseudokoningii showed much higher isolation frequency, was better in controlling Rhizoctonia solani root rot and take-all of wheat in a pot experiment, and had stronger mycoparasitic ability toward R. solani. No remarkable difference was found among Trichoderma pseudokoningii

  8. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Elham; Sadravi, Mehdi; Naeimi, Shahram; Khosravi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran. PMID:24031832

  9. Screening of different Trichoderma species against agriculturally important foliar plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Prameeladevi, Thokala; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Kamil, Deeba

    2015-01-01

    Different isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil samples which were collected from different part of India. These isolates were grouped into four Trichoderma species viz., Trichoderma asperellum (Ta), T. harzianum (Th), T. pseudokoningii (Tp) and T. longibrachiatum (Tl) based on their morphological characters. Identification of the above isolates was also confirmed through ITS region analysis. These Trichoderma isolates were tested for in vitro biological control of Alternaria solani, Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotinia scierotiorum which cause serious diseases like early blight (target spot) of tomato and potato, brown leaf spot disease in rice, rice blast disease, and white mold disease in different plants. Under in vitro conditions, all the four species of Trichoderma (10 isolates) proved 100% potential inhibition against rice blast pathogen Pyracularia oryzae. T. harzianum (Th-01) and T. asperellum (Ta-10) were effective with 86.6% and 97.7%, growth inhibition of B. oryzae, respectively. Among others, T. pseudokoningii (Tp-08) and T. Iongibrachiatum (Tl-09) species were particularly efficient in inhibiting growth of S. sclerotiorum by 97.8% and 93.3%. T. Iongibrachiatum (TI-06 and TI-07) inhibited maximum mycelial growth of A. solani by 87.6% and 84.75. However, all the T. harzianum isolates showed significantly higher inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (CD value 9.430), causing white mold disease. This study led to the selection of potential Trichoderma isolates against rice blast, early blight, brown leaf spot in rice and white mold disease in different crops. PMID:26536792

  10. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  11. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz Ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract. PMID:26691463

  12. INTERACCIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS EN PLANTAS: Micorrizas, Trichoderma spp. y Pseudomonas spp. UNA REVISIÓN A REVIEW OF INTERACTION OF BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS IN PLANTS: Mycorrhizae, Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Cano

    , modulated by multiple and complex biotic and abiotic factorsdo exsist. In the rhizosphere, one of the main sites where microorganisms are functiona, specifications, such as nitrogen fixers, phosphate solubilizers, plant growth promotion, biocontrol and pathogenic species, usually for space and nutrients are found. These interrelationships between organisms affect the soil-plant-micro-environment and directly influence the growth and development of plant species. Rhizospheric microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF, Trichoderma fungi and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, usually classified as biological control agents (BCA and plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM, depend on these factors to express their potential beneficial effects. However, the interaction of these three types of microorganisms can be synergistic, potentializing the benefits or otherwise, antagonistic effects do not occur, being the effect on the growth and development of plants absent. According to the above, the purpose of this review was to provide information to understand some of the interactions between microorganisms and thus to clarify the applicability of the co-inoculation of BCA and PGPM from different species with a common goal, the control or biological control of plant pathogens and as a result set and parallel stimulation of plant growth.

  13. Potencialidade antagonística detectada em alguns procariotas agentes de biocontrole de enfermidades de plantas Antagonistic potentiality in prokaryotic biocontrol agents for plant diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Rafael Barra; Reginaldo da Silva; Hélio Glelson Maciel Ferraz; Dirceu Macagnan; Harllen Sandro Alves Silva; Andréa Bittencourt Moura; Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira; Henrique Lopes Mendonça; José Roberto Vieira Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Ao longo de vários anos, no Laboratório de Bacteriologia de Plantas e Controle Biológico (LBPCB) do Departamento de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa têm-se, sistematicamente, isolado, de rizosfera, rizoplano e filoplano de plantas cultivadas de importância econômica, milhares de procariotas os quais são testados, um a um, como agentes de biocontrole de enfermidades. A grande maioria deles, como esperado, não exibe qualquer potencialidade como agente de biocontrole e é descartad...

  14. Potential of the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for control of building molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Julien; Jiménez, Jorge I

    2007-03-01

    The possibility of using the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus for biofumigation against building molds was investigated. Several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium as well as fungi belonging to nine other genera were inhibited or killed in vitro by volatiles produced by potato dextrose agar or rye grain cultures of M. albus. Trichoderma viride was the only fungus that was not inhibited by M. albus volatiles. To test biofumigation as a preventative treatment against fungal colonization of building material, dry pieces of gypsum drywall were fumigated with grain cultures of M. albus in closed boxes. After a simulated water damage and incubation under saturated humidity for 2 weeks, untreated drywall developed natural fungal populations of about 10(5)-10(6) cfu/cm2, while drywall fumigated with M. albus culture (20 g/11 L) had nondetectable fungal populations. To test for curative ability, moist pieces of drywall heavily colonized with Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, or Stachybotrys chartarum were fumigated for 48 h with grain cultures of M. albus. Cladosporium cladosporioides was eliminated within 48 h, while A. niger and S. chartarum were usually more resistant. However, a longer curative fumigation of 96 h was effective in reducing A. niger or naturally occurring mold populations by about 5 log values. The production of volatile organic compounds from 20 g of rye grain culture in 11 L containers was monitored by solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography. Concentrations of isobutyric acid, the most abundant volatile, increased gradually in the headspace until it reached 25 microg/L (m/v) within 96 h. The second and third most abundant compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol and isobutanol, peaked at about 10 and 5 microg/L (m/v), respectively, within the first 24 h and declined gradually afterwards. PMID:17538650

  15. KADAR GLUKOSA DARI HIDROLISIS SELULOSA PADA ECENG GONDOK MENGGUNAKAN Trichoderma viride DENGAN VARIASI TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbowatiningrum R Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah kita ketahui bahwa eceng gondok merupakan salah satu sumber selulosa yang melimpah di alam dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon bagi jamur Trichoderma viride. Eceng gondok memiliki bobot kering selulosa 21,5%, hemiselulosa 33,9% dan lignin 7,01%. Trichoderma viride adalah jamur saprofit yang berpotensi memproduksi selulase yang mampu mendegradasi ikatan β-1,4-glikosida pada rantai selulosa untuk menghasilkan glukosa. Glukosa dapat dimanfaatkan dalam produksi sirup gula, asam organik dan bioetanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan Trichoderma viride yang mampu tumbuh pada media pertumbuhan hasil modifikasi eceng gondok serta memperoleh temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis eceng gondok dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dalam menghasilkan glukosa. Proses pertama adalah persiapan sampel enceng gondok meliputi delignifikasi, kurva pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride dibuat dalam media modifikasi eceng gondok untuk mengetahui waktu optimum pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride. Penentuan temperatur optimum dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dari aktivitas Trichoderma viride didasarkan pada glukosa yang dihasilkan dari hidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok menggunakan metode Nelson Somogyi. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa Trichoderma viride mampu tumbuh pada media modifikasi eceng gondok. Temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok adalah 35oC dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dihasilkannya glukosa pada jam ke-96 yaitu sebesar 1,3864 mg/L.

  16. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (Bion® as resistance inducers in garlic (Allium sativum L. agains white rot Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez María A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inducers of biotic and abiotic resistance emerge as an alternative for the management of garlic white rot caused by the fungus Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. To evaluate the effect of these inducers on crop yield variables, final disease incidence (DI, the area under the curve of disease progress (AUDPC and variables associated with plant growth and yield of garlic, and experiment was set, using the fungi Trichoderma harzianum and T. koningiopsis with Bion® under field conditions in a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replications were incorporated. The treatments were conformed as follows: control, Trichoderma harzianum under commercial formulas Tricobiol® (Tri, Subiol® (S, T. koningiopsis (Tk, Bion® (B, T. koningiopsis + Bion (Tk+ B, Subiol Bion (S+B and Bion +Tricobiol (Tri+ B. The higher yields and growth variables correspond to those plants treated with Tk+ B treatment and coincided with some of the lowest AUDPC. The lower (DI was observed when applied Tk, Tk +B and Tri. These results indicated that the greatest protection against the disease was achieved with the combination of the antagonist with the chemical reflected in a decrease of AUDPC and a delay in the peak of infection. The total yield of garlic increased in the treatments in which both inducers and that stimulated plant productivity and thus the development and defense.

  17. Investigating the compatibility of the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea IK726 with prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 and phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamou, Nathalie N; Dubey, Mukesh; Tzelepis, Georgios; Menexes, Georgios; Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Karlsson, Magnus; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2016-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK726 with the phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7 or with the prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas C. rosea displayed high tolerance to S. rubidaea but not to P. chlororaphis. We hypothesized that this could be attributed to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. The results of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR showed an induction of seven genes (abcB1, abcB20, abcB26, abcC12, abcC12, abcG8 and abcG25) from subfamilies B, C and G. In planta experiments showed a significant reduction in foot and root rot on tomato plants inoculated with C. rosea and P. chlororaphis. This study demonstrates the potential for combining different biocontrol agents and suggests an involvement of ABC transporters in secondary metabolite tolerance in C. rosea. PMID:26860841

  18. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth of common bean plants and to reduce severity of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, as well as to identify the best performing isolates. Sixty Trichoderma spp. isolates were evaluated as to their capacity to promote growth in common bean. The seven isolates that stood out were added to the culture substrate and assessed for reduction in severity of anthracnose in bean plants treated with C. lindemuthianum conidia. The most efficient isolates in controlling the disease were identified by DNA sequencing. The IB 28/07 isolate was evaluated in the concentrations 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% (weight:volume, which reduced disease severity in 41.51, 55.15, 81.82, and 96.06%, respectively. The most efficient Trichoderma spp

  19. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp Plant growth promotion of common bean and anthracnose control by Trichoderma spp

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro; Ricardo Harakava; Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon; Sylvia Dias Guzzo

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antr...

  20. Efficient production of Taka-amylase A by Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C; Udaka, S

    1991-07-01

    An efficient heterologous protein production system was developed in Trichoderma viride, a very efficient cellulase producer. An expression vector containing the Taka-amylase A gene from Aspergillus oryzae, which was fused to the strong promoter and signal peptide sequence of the cellobiohydrolase 1 gene (cbh1) of T. viride, and the hygromycin B resistance gene was used to transform protoplasts of T. viride. Using hygromycin B resistance, a frequency of 3 transformants per microgram DNA on average was obtained. One transformant showed highly elevated alpha-amylase production, 1.0 g/l, which was shown to be under the control of the cbh1 gene promoter. Analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the transformant showed the integration of more than one copy of the vector. PMID:1368719