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Sample records for biocontrol fungus trichoderma

  1. Identification of a novel fungus, Trichoderma asperellum GDFS1009, and comprehensive evaluation of its biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruiyan; Ni, Mi; Yu, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Ren, Jianhong; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Due to its efficient broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, Trichoderma has been established as an internationally recognized biocontrol fungus. In this study, we found and identified a novel strain of Trichoderma asperellum, named GDFS1009. The mycelium of T. asperellum GDFS1009 exhibits a high growth rate, high sporulation capacity, and strong inhibitory effects against pathogens that cause cucumber fusarium wilt and corn stalk rot. T. asperellum GDFS1009 secretes chitinase, glucanase, and protease, which can degrade the cell walls of fungi and contribute to mycoparasitism. The secreted xylanases are good candidates for inducing plant resistance and enhancing plant immunity against pathogens. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that T. asperellum GDFS1009 produces primary metabolites that are precursors of antimicrobial compounds; it also produces a variety of antimicrobial secondary metabolites, including polyketides and alkanes. In addition, this study speculated the presence of six antimicrobial peptides via ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Future studies should focus on these antimicrobial metabolites for facilitating widespread application in the field of agricultural bio-control.

  2. A New Biocontrol Fungus Trichoderma Kongii in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Isolation and Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlYahya, F.A; ElHussieni, S.M; Ibrahim, A.A; Ibrahim, Y.E

    2007-01-01

    A total of 164 soil and root samples of different plant groups were collected from Abu-Arish governorate , Jazan province South West Saudi Arabia during the period of 2004-2005. Each sample contained feeder roots and approximately 250 g soil, taken from a depth of 20 cm of the soil surface. Samples were analyzed by two different media. Culture fungi on Malt Extract Agar identified by Biolog Systems and culture fungi on Potato Dextrose Agar medium containing chloramphenicol were identified by microscopic characterization. Results showed that, 11 different types of fungi isolated from tested samples, Fusarium spp (40%), Rhizoctonia solani,(12%) Trichoderma spp (12%), Macrophomina phaseoina. (7 %), Aspergillus spp (18 %) were the predominant fungal species. Helminthosporium spp (3%), Alternaria alternate (2%), Pythium spp (2%), Curviularia spp (2%), Cladsporium spp. (1%) and Mucor spp. (1%) were less frequent. (author)

  3. Gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolski, Ilanit; de Luis, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Monte, Enrique; Suárez, M Belén

    2009-10-13

    It has recently been shown that the Trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. With a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of Trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray encompassing 14,081 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based transcripts from eight Trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, and we have used this microarray to examine the gene expression of T. harzianum either alone or in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose. Global microarray analysis revealed 1,617 probe sets showing differential expression in T. harzianum mycelia under at least one of the culture conditions tested as compared with one another. Hierarchical clustering and heat map representation showed that the expression patterns obtained in glucose medium clustered separately from the expression patterns observed in the presence of tomato plants and chitin. Annotations using the Blast2GO suite identified 85 of the 257 transcripts whose probe sets afforded up-regulated expression in response to tomato plants. Some of these transcripts were predicted to encode proteins related to Trichoderma-host (fungus or plant) associations, such as Sm1/Elp1 protein, proteases P6281 and PRA1, enchochitinase CHIT42, or QID74 protein, although previously uncharacterized genes were also identified, including those responsible for the possible biosynthesis of nitric oxide, xenobiotic detoxification, mycelium development, or those related to the formation of infection structures in plant tissues. The effectiveness of the Trichoderma HDO microarray to detect different gene responses under different growth conditions in the fungus T. harzianum strongly indicates that this tool should be useful for further assays that include different stages of plant colonization, as well as

  4. Tomato progeny inherit resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne javanica linked to plant growth induced by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Hugo Agripino de; Araújo Filho, Jerônimo Vieira de; Freitas, Leandro Grassi de; Castillo, Pablo; Rubio, María Belén; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2017-01-10

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%). The first generation (F1) of Ta-primed tomato plants inherited resistance to RKN; although, the induction of defenses occurred through different mechanisms, and in varying degrees, depending on the Ta-Mj interaction. Plant growth promotion induced by Ta was inherited without compromising the level of resistance to Mj, as the progeny of Ta-primed plants displayed increased size and resistance to Mj without fitness costs. Gene expression results from the defense inductions in the offspring of Ta-primed plants, suggested that an auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production promoted by Ta may act as a major defense strategy during plant growth.

  5. Trichoderma spp.: a biocontrol agent for sustainable management of plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naher, L.; Ismail, A.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)

  6. Isolation and functional analysis of Thmfs1, the first major facilitator superfamily transporter from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei Min

    2012-10-01

    A novel major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene, Thmfs1, was isolated from Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum). A Thmfs1 over-expressing mutant displayed enhanced antifungal activity and fungicide tolerance, while the Thmfs1 disruption mutant showed the opposite trend. Trichodermin production in Thmfs1 disruption group (185 mg l(-1)) was decreased by less than 17 % compared to the parental strain, suggesting that Thmfs1 is not mainly responsible for trichodermin secretion. Real-time PCR showed that Thmfs1 transcript level could be induced by a certain range of trichodermin concentrations, while expression of Tri5, encoding a trichodiene synthase, was strongly inhibited under these conditions. To our knowledge, Thmfs1 is the first MFS transporter gene identified in T. harzianum.

  7. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt), has been observed in different areas of Iran in recent years. Current biocontrol studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the. Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. In this study, biocontrol effects of Trichoderma isolates ...

  8. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  9. Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential

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    Zsuzsanna Antal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our

  10. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP and without white mold (SP, evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to verify the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma spp. microbi- olized lettuce seeds, growing in substrate infested with S. sclerotiorum . Trichoderma spp. isolates were obtained from areas with and without history of white mold or stored in water. Mycelial growth rate and sporu- lation of the Trichoderma spp. isolates and control of Trichoderma spp. versus S. sclerotiorum in the in vitro essays. For the in vivo essay, lettuce seeds were microbiolized with Trichoderma spp. and the substrate was infested with S. sclerotiorum . The native isolates of Trichoderma identified belong to T. koningiopsis and T. asperellum species. The CP isolates had higher mycelial growth rates when compared to the SP isolates and stored while the stored isolates showed better responses in confrontation. The application of Trichoderma spp. promoted higher seedlings quality compared to control, as well as good seedlings development in the presence of the pathogen.

  11. Biocontrol properties of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBSD

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay, 25 isolates were selected for further analysis. The interaction between the Trichoderma and fungal pathogens were ... effective biocontrol agents based on their ability to overgrow and ... bean seeds were planted in the plastic pot, which was filled with 3.

  12. Methods for the Evaluation of the Bioactivity and Biocontrol Potential of Species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna; Hicks, Emily; Kandula, Janaki; Kandula, Diwakar; Alizadeh, Hossein; Braithwaite, Mark; Yardley, Jessica; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Stewart, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for assessing the biological properties of individual strains.

  13. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

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    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

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    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

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    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  16. Differential Selection by Nematodes on an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R

    2018-03-15

    Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.

  17. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

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    Fotoohiyan Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.

  18. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum

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    M. Belén Rubio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 (mbf1 homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO and Botrytis cinerea (BC in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control (cpc1. Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the

  19. Involvement of the Transcriptional Coactivator ThMBF1 in the Biocontrol Activity of Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Pardal, Alonso J; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 ( mbf1 ) homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO) and Botrytis cinerea (BC) in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control ( cpc1 ). Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the necrotic leaf

  20. Regulation of morphogenesis and biocontrol properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET protein, Vel1.

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    Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.

  1. Trichoderma harzianum enhances the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improves biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by Pseudomonas fluorescens in tomato.

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    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2004-01-01

    To determine the influence of soil-borne fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 against Meloidogyne javanica. Amendment of the culture filtrate (CF) or methanol extract of the CF of a T. harzianum strain Th6 to P. fluorescens growth medium enhanced the production of nematicidal compound(s) by bacterial inoculants in vitro. In addition, bacteria overwhelmingly expressed phl'-'lacZ reporter gene when the medium was amended with CF of T. harzianum. Pseudomonas fluorescens and T. harzianum applied together in unsterilized sandy loam soil caused greater reduction in nematode population densities in tomato roots. Trichoderma harzianum improves root-knot nematode biocontrol by the antagonistic rhizobacterium P. fluorescens both in vitro and under glasshouse conditions. The synergistic effect of T. harzianum on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol may improve the efficacy of biocontrol bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes. Considering the inconsistent performance of the biocontrol agents under field conditions, application of a mixture of compatible T. harzianum and P. fluorescens would more closely mimic the natural situation and might broaden the spectrum of biocontrol activity with enhanced efficacy and reliability of control.

  2. Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Hajji Lobna; Chattaoui Mayssa; Regaieg Hajer; M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima; Rhouma Ali; Horrigue-Raouani Najet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rat...

  3. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.

  4. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Molecular characteristics of fungus trichoderma viride irradiated gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL; Rika Heriyani; Almaida

    2016-01-01

    Information about the genetic changes due to irradiation on the fungus Trichoderma viride is indispensable in order to improve the ability of these isolates for the delignification of lignocellulose. This study aims to determine the molecular characteristics of isolates fungus Trichoderma viride after irradiation with gamma rays through an approach expression of protein profiles and molecular markers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Irradiation doses used in this study are 6 levels i.e 0; 75; 125; 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy with a dose rate of 0.21 kGy / hour. Protein and DNA extraction isolate is done using the method of extracting phosphate buffer pH 7 and CTAB- phenol-chloroform extraction. Protein in the supernatant was analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-gel polyacrylamide) to produce a protein fingerprint profile. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic variations between 7 isolates of irradiated Trichoderma viride which were RAPD reactions using 3 random primers. The results showed that protein profiles generated by irradiation isolates and the control (no irradiation) gave a different pattern, especially at doses of irradiation 250-750 Gy based dendrogram analysis. DNA-RAPD profile showed a high genetic variation between the isolates were irradiated at a dose of 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy and isolates the control (0 Gy); 75; 125 Gy with 5 cluster formation. Dendrogram analysis showed the coefficient of similarity between 0.62 to 0.68. (author)

  7. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the

  8. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D.; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocl...

  9. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. ... Microscopic studies revealed hyphal coiling (hyperparasitism) of isolates T65, T96 and T90 around Ggt ... rhizosphere competence, mycoparasitism, antibiotic and.

  10. Biocontrol genes from Trichoderma species: A review | Sharma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pest, drought, decreased soil fertility due to use of hazardous chemical pesticides, ... Among them, fungal genus Trichoderma plays a major role in controlling the ... like cell wall degradation, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, hyphal growth, ...

  11. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA; LEISE INÊS HECKLER; RICARDO FELICIANO DOS SANTOS; MIRIA ROSA DURIGO; ELENA BLUME

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP) and without white mold (SP), evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to ver...

  12. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2009-11-30

    Background: Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are effective mycoparasites an for this reason used as biocontrol agents agents plant pathogenic fungi. The ability to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill the prey are essential skills for this process. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride when being confronted with a potential prey. Results: T. atroviride was confronted with two fungal preys, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and cDNAs prepared from mycelia immediately before getting into physical contact with them (“onset of mycoparasitism”), and compared with such prepared from mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes each, were obtained from each of these three conditions. 65 genes, represented by 439 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof verified by expression analysis. They comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from those including posttranslational processing (159 from 183 ESTs), and amino acid metabolism (70 of 84 ESTs), respectively. Several heat shock factors and tRNA synthases were particularly abundant. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the amino acid biosynthesic and the lipid catabolic capacity. Conclusion: Analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions including strong stress response, sensing of nitrogen shortage and lipid catabolism. The data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for breeding of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  13. Trichodiene production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-silenced strain provides evidence of the importance of the sterol biosynthetic pathway in inducing plant defense-related gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both ...

  14. Regulation of Morphogenesis and Biocontrol Properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET Protein, Vel1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species. PMID:20154111

  15. Biocontrol with Trichoderma species for the management of postharvest crown rot of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sangeetha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae cause the postharvest crown rot disease complex of banana. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. from the soil of organic banana orchards (‘native isolates’ and eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. from culture collections (‘introduced isolates’ on the two pathogens. The native and introduced Trichoderma spp. had varied antagonistic effects against the two pathogens. Eight Trichoderma spp. isolates effective in the in vitro assays were evaluated singly on fruits both at room temperature and in cold storage. Single antagonists did not satisfactorily control crown rot on the fruits as compared with the fungicide carbendazim. However, two isolates of T. viride, one of T. harzianum and one of T. koningii performed well when applied singly, and these were selected for evaluation in isolate mixtures. There was very little antagonism between these isolates. Of 11 two-way, three-way and four-way mixtures of these isolates, the four-way and a three-way mixtures reduced crown rot incidence, both at room temperature and in cold storage, giving better control than carbendazim. The study identified consortia of compatible Trichoderma antagonists with superior biocontrol potential for the management of the postharvest crown rot complex of banana.

  16. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  17. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. RNA interference of endochitinases in the sugarcane endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 reduces its fitness as a biocontrol agent of pineapple disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Romão-Dumaresq

    Full Text Available The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte.

  19. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture ‘T. harzianum T22’ was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. PMID:25661720

  20. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture 'T. harzianum T22' was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  2. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martínez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P

    2009-11-30

    Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  4. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2010-07-23

    BACKGROUND: Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. RESULTS: We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  5. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Estrella Alfredo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. The fungal genus Trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. Results We analyzed genome-wide gene expression changes during the begin of physical contact between Trichoderma atroviride and two plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and compared with gene expression patterns of mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes, were obtained from each of these three growth conditions. 66 genes, represented by 442 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof was verified by expression analysis. The upregulated genes comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from the groups representing posttranslational processing, and amino acid metabolism, and included components of the stress response, reaction to nitrogen shortage, signal transduction and lipid catabolism. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the genes for amino acid biosynthesis and of those involved in the catabolism of lipids and aminosugars. Conclusion The analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions. These data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for improvement of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  6. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp) from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1) Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C), (2) Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3) Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4) Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp), (5) Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6) Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.

  7. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS, an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd, the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1 Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C, (2 Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3 Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4 Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp, (5 Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6 Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.

  8. Phylogeny of the Clinically Relevant Species of the Emerging Fungus Trichoderma and Their Antifungal Susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Cano-Lira, José F.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. PMID:24719448

  9. Trichoderma species from the cacao agroecosystem with biocontrol potential of Moniliophthora roreri

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    Omar Reyes-Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ( Moniliophthora roreri es la principal limitante parasítica de la producción de cacao ( Theobroma cacao en México. Una alternativa sostenible para el control de la enfermedad es el uso del hongo Trichoderma . El objetivo del presente estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma con las mejores características antagónicas y fisiológicas in vitro, para el control de M. roreri . Para ello, se caracterizaron 50 aislamientos de Trichoderma , obtenidos del agroecosistema cacao. El crecimiento micelial y la producción de conidios a 25, 30 y 35 °C se consideraron variables fisiológicas. El micoparasitismo, antibiosis y antagonismo potencial fueron las variables antagónicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas ( P = 0.0001 en todas las variables evaluadas . El intervalo de temperatura óptima para el crecimiento micelial y producción de conidios fue de 25 a 30 °C. El micoparasitismo varió de 0 a 100 % y solo los aislamientos de seis especies mostraron esta característica. La antibiosis osciló entre 6.8 y 55.5 %, y el antagonismo potencial varió de 3.4 a 69 %. Trichoderma virens (TTC017 y T. harzianum (TTC090, TTC039, TTC073 mostraron el mejor biocontrol potencial in vitro , por lo que son cepas prometedoras para futuras investigaciones sobre control biológico de la moniliasis del cacao.

  10. The importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma parareesei

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    Esclaudys ePérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM, a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1, ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2 and

  11. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  12. Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma harzianum Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics...... in plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan......®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all...

  13. Biocontrol potential of Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Meloidogyne incognita in

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    Tariq MUKHTAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a sedentary endoparasitic plant pathogen with a very wide host range, which causes annual crop losses amounting to millions of dollars. The small number of available nematicides and restrictions on the use of non-fumigant nematicides due to high toxicity to humans and non-target organisms hinder effective nematode control. A possible alternative to chemical nematicides is the use of biological control agents for the management of this nematode. In the present study, the efficacy of four biocontrol agents was tested against M. incognita at different doses. The biocontrol agents Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum were mass produced and mixed with the formalin sterilized soil at the rates of 2 × 103, 4 × 103, 6 × 103, 8 × 103, and 1 × 104 endospores/chlamydospores/cfu per g of soil. Okra seeds (cv. Sabz Pari were sown in pots of soil amended with the different agents, and 10 d after emergence, the plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Data on plant growth parameters and nematode infestations were recorded 7 weeks after inoculation. The antagonists varied significantly in enhancing various growth parameters and reducing nematode infestations in a dose-responsive manner. Both P. penetrans and P. lilacinus were equally effective and caused maximum reductions in number of galls, egg masses, nematode fecundity and build up as compared with T. harzianum and P. chlamydosporia. Reductions in these parameters at the concentration of 8 × 103 were statistically similar with those caused at the concentration of 1 × 104 chlamydospores/ endospores/cfu. Our results indicate that application of antagonists can suppress galling and reproduction of M. incognita resulting in enhancement of plant growth.

  14. Inhibition coefficient and molecular diversity of multi stress tolerant Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Hirapara, Jaydeep G; Golakiya, B A

    2017-11-01

    Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. koningii, each one of T. hamatum, T. reesei, T. parceramosum and Trichoderma spp.) subjected to in vitro antagonism up to 12days after inoculation against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. A new concept was developed to determine inhibition coefficient representing pathogen biology and biocontrol related biophysical variables. Results explained differential inhibition coefficient of test pathogen by Trichoderma antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of test pathogen was examined highest (91.13%) by T. virens NBAII Tvs12 followed by T. virens MTCC 794 (89.33%) and T. koningii MTCC 796 (62.39%). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs12 and antibiosis for T. koningii MTCC 796. The sclerotial biogenesis of test pathogen was elevated during weak antagonism and diminished in interactions with strong antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of S. rolfsii was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during the antagonism. Trichoderma strains were screened for fungicides (carbendazim and tebuconazole, thiram and mancozeb) and abiotic stress (drought and salt) tolerance. Results indicated that T. koningii MTCC 796 efficiently grew better than the other strains with maximum radial growth under adverse conditions. The genetic variability among the Trichoderma was determined using 34 gene specific markers which amplified 146 alleles. The SSR similarities explained substantial diversity (15 to 87%) across Trichoderma strains and pathogen S. rolfsii. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) were comparable to the cluster analysis and first three most informative PC components explained 64.45% of the total variation. In PCA, potent antagonists appear to be distinct from other strains. Five

  15. Improvement of the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride to enhance both antagonism and induction of plant systemic disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne; Ciliento, Rosalia; Woo, Sheridian L; Lorito, Matteo; Kubicek, Christian P; Mach, Robert L

    2005-07-01

    Biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. We determined whether transgenic strain SJ3-4 of Trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxA, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. The transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxA expression occurred immediately after contact with the plant pathogen, and the glucose oxidase formed was secreted. SJ3-4 had significantly less N-acetylglucosaminidase and endochitinase activities than its nontransformed parent. Glucose oxidase-containing culture filtrates exhibited threefold-greater inhibition of germination of spores of Botrytis cinerea. The transgenic strain also more quickly overgrew and lysed the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum. In planta, SJ3-4 had no detectable improved effect against low inoculum levels of these pathogens. Beans planted in heavily infested soil and treated with conidia of the transgenic Trichoderma strain germinated, but beans treated with wild-type spores did not germinate. SJ3-4 also was more effective in inducing systemic resistance in plants. Beans with SJ3-4 root protection were highly resistant to leaf lesions caused by the foliar pathogen B. cinerea. This work demonstrates that heterologous genes driven by pathogen-inducible promoters can increase the biocontrol and systemic resistance-inducing properties of fungal biocontrol agents, such as Trichoderma spp., and that these microbes can be used as vectors to provide plants with useful molecules (e.g., glucose oxidase) that can increase their resistance to pathogens.

  16. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  17. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals mycoparasitism as the ancestoral life style of Trichoderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl, Verena; Crom, St& #233; phane Le; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, L& #225; szlo; Alcaraz, Luis David; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; D& #246; hren, Hans von; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Fekete, Erzs& #233; bet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hern& #225; ndez-O?ate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; L& #252; beck, Mette; L& #252; beck, Peter Stephensen; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Thon, Michael; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-04-29

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.

  18. Secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma harzianum ALL 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with Fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Bloch, Carlos; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2016-02-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by T. harzianum ALL42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (GLU) or with cell walls from Fusarium solani (FSCW), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in Brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. Trichoderma harzianum was able to grow in Trichoderma Liquid Enzyme Production medium (TLE) and Minimal medium (MM) supplemented with FSCW and in TLE+GLU, but was unable to grow in MM+GLU medium. Protein quantification showed that TLE+FSCW and MM+FSCW had 45- and 30- fold, respectively, higher protein concentration on supernatant when compared to TLE+GLU, and this difference was observable on 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 94 out of 105 proteins excised from 2DE maps were identified. The only protein observed in all three conditions was epl1. In the media supplemented with FSCW, different hydrolases such as chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, glucoamylases, α-1,3-glucanases and proteases were identified, along with other proteins with no known functions in mycoparasitism, such as npp1 and cys. Trichoderma harzianum showed a complex and diverse arsenal of proteins that are secreted in response to the presence of FSCW, with novel proteins not previously described in mycoparasitic-related studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus ...

  20. Peptaibol, secondary-metabolite, and hydrophobin pattern of commercial biocontrol agents formulated with species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Dieckmann, Ralf; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J; Thrane, Ulf; von Döhren, Hans; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Brückner, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in plant-protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna(®) , Trichosan(®) , Vitalin(®) , Promot(®) WP, and TrichoMax(®) , formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well-established, HPLC/MS-based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these formulations contained new and recurrent peptaibols, i.e., peptaibiotics carrying an acetylated N-terminus, the C-terminus of which is reduced to a 1,2-amino alcohol. Their chain lengths, including the amino alcohol, were 11, 14, and 18 residues, respectively. Peptaibols were also to be the dominating secondary metabolites in plate cultures of the four strains obtained from four of the Trichoderma- based BCAs, contributing 95% of the UHPLC-UV/VIS peak areas and 99% of the total ion count MS peak area from solid media. Furthermore, species-specific hydrophobins, as well as non-peptaibiotic secondary metabolites, were detected, the latter being known for their antifungal, siderophore, or plant-growth-promoting activities. Notably, none of the isolates produced low-molecular weight mycotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Identification of a new biocontrol gene in Trichoderma atroviride: the role of an ABC transporter membrane pump in the interaction with different plant-pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Michelina; Lanzuise, Stefania; Vinale, Francesco; Marra, Roberta; Turrà, David; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Lorito, Matteo

    2009-03-01

    Successful biocontrol interactions often require that the beneficial microbes involved are resistant or tolerant to a variety of toxicants, including antibiotics produced by themselves or phytopathogens, plant antimicrobial compounds, and synthetic chemicals or contaminants. The ability of Trichoderma spp., the most widely applied biocontrol fungi, to withstand different chemical stresses, including those associated with mycoparasitism, is well known. In this work, we identified an ATP-binding cassette transporter cell membrane pump as an important component of the above indicated resistance mechanisms that appears to be supported by an extensive and powerful cell detoxification system. The encoding gene, named Taabc2, was cloned from a strain of Trichoderma atroviride and characterized. Its expression was found to be upregulated in the presence of pathogen-secreted metabolites, specific mycotoxins and some fungicides, and in conditions that stimulate the production in Trichoderma spp. of antagonism-related factors (toxins and enzymes). The key role of this gene in antagonism and biocontrol was demonstrated by the characterization of the obtained deletion mutants. They suffered an increased susceptibility to inhibitory compounds either secreted by pathogenic fungi or possibly produced by the biocontrol microbe itself and lost, partially or entirely, the ability to protect tomato plants from Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani attack.

  2. Purification and characterization of a beta-Glucanase produced by Trichoderma harzianum showing biocontrol potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lisboa de Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A beta-1,3-glucanase was produced by Trichoderma harzianum in cultures containing chitin as the sole substrate. Two proteins showing beta-1,3-glucanase activity were purified to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular masses of these proteins were 29 and 36 kDa. The 36 kDa protein was further characterized. It was active on a broad pH range, and maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0. The optimum temperature of the 36 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase was 50ºC, but the purified enzyme was very sensitive to temperature. It lost about 60% or more of the activity after incubation for 30 min at 45, 50 and 60ºC. The apparent K M and Vmax for hydrolysis of laminarin at pH 5.0 and 37ºC, were 0.099 mg of reducing sugar/mL and 0.3 mg of reducing sugar/min.mL, respectively. The enzyme was insensitive to organic compound and metal ions, except for the ferric ion which inhibited about 100% of the original activity at the concentration of 1 mM. In contrast to other hydrolytic enzymes (a chitinase and a protease produced by the same T. harzianum isolate (1051, the beta-1,3-glucanase showed no effect on the cell wall of the phytopathogenic fungus Crinipellis perniciosa.Uma beta-1,3-glucanase foi produzida por Trichoderma harzianum em cultura contendo quitina como fonte de carbono. Duas proteínas com atividade de beta-1,3-glucanase foram purificadas através de cromatografia de interação hidrofóbica. As massas moleculares destas proteínas foram de 29 kDa e 36 kDa. A proteína de 36 kDa foi caracterizada quanto à influência das condições de pH e temperatura. A atividade máxima foi encontrada em pH 5,0 e temperatura de 50ºC. A proteína purificada mostrou-se muito sensível à temperatura. Aproximadamente 60% da atividade original foi perdida por incubação da proteína a 45ºC, 50ºC e 60ºC, por 30 min. O K M aparente e a Vmax para hidrólise de laminarina em pH 5,0 à 37ºC, foram de 0,099 mg de açúcar redutor/mL e 0,3 mg de a

  3. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFITA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  4. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  5. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  6. Potency of Six Isolates of Biocontrol Agents Endophytic Trichoderma Against Fusarium Wilt on Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taribuka, J; Wibowo, A; Widyastuti, S M; Sumardiyono, C

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistanc...

  7. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by Pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H T T; Black, L L; Sikora, R A

    2003-01-01

    Tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. The plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. Occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of Pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees C). Several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. Three Trichoderma harzianum and two Trichoderma virens isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of the disease in the greenhouse and in the field T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were separately used to treat the seed, potting medium and also incorporated into the soil before transplanting. Field soil was naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum, while greenhouse soil was inoculated with the pathogen 10 days after transplanting. All treatments were flooded for 48 hrs at 32 degrees C soil temperature. Results from this study show that most tested T. harzianum and T. virens isolates have little promise for control of tomato sudden death following flooding. The percentage of tomato plants that wilted after growing in soil treated with either T. harzianum or T. virens and P. aphanidermatum was not significantly different when compared to the soil treated with P. aphanidermatum alone. No wilted plants were observed in the control (non treated soil).

  8. Potency of six isolates of biocontrol agents endophytic Trichoderma against fusarium wilt on banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taribuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against  F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks.  Observation of lignification on  the fifth week  showed that lignification occurred in root xylem

  9. Assessment of metabolic capacity of Trichoderma inhamatum Bol12 QD biocontrol on native strains of Phytophthora infestans in vitro

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    Puño Ramon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture

  10. Bioactive steroids and sorbicillinoids isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. Xy24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Lian; Zhang, Min; Liu, Ji-Mei; Tan, Zhen; Chen, Ri-Dao; Xie, Ke-Bo; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2017-10-01

    A new steroid glucoside (1), along with nine known steroids (2-10) and four known sorbicillinoids (11-14), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. Xy24. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with reported data. Compounds 3, 5-7, 9, 10, and 13 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on HIV-1 virus with IC 50 values ranging 1.9-9.3 μM; compounds 10, 13, and 14 showed potent inhibitory activity on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells with inhibitory rates of 108.2, 100, and 75.1% at 10 μM, respectively. In addition, compound 10 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against BCG823 and HePG2 cell lines with IC 50 values of 11.1 and 17.7 μM, respectively.

  11. β-Glucosidases from the Fungus Trichoderma: An Efficient Cellulase Machinery in Biotechnological Applications

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    Pragya Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases catalyze the selective cleavage of glucosidic linkages and are an important class of enzymes having significant prospects in industrial biotechnology. These are classified in family 1 and family 3 of glycosyl hydrolase family. β-glucosidases, particularly from the fungus Trichoderma, are widely recognized and used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. With the rising trends in energy crisis and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative strategies for renewable energy sources need to be developed. However, the major limitation accounts for low production of β-glucosidases by the hyper secretory strains of Trichoderma. In accordance with the increasing significance of β-glucosidases in commercial applications, the present review provides a detailed insight of the enzyme family, their classification, structural parameters, properties, and studies at the genomics and proteomics levels. Furthermore, the paper discusses the enhancement strategies employed for their utilization in biofuel generation. Therefore, β-glucosidases are prospective toolbox in bioethanol production, and in the near future, it might be successful in meeting the requirements of alternative renewable sources of energy.

  12. Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma

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    Katya da Silva Patekoski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a variedades de alface, e a ação do produto Biotrich, formulado com Trichoderma, no controle deste patógeno e na promoção do crescimento das plantas. Em experimento in vitro, plântulas recém-germinadas das variedades de alface Vera e Elisa foram colocadas em placas de Petri com ágar-água e 1 mL de suspensão do produto Biotrich (0,2 mL L-1 e, após 24 horas, em discos com micélio do isolado de Pythium. As avaliações foram realizadas após dez dias de incubação a 20 e 31ºC. Os testes in vivo foram realizados na primavera e verão, em sistema hidropônico "Nutrient Film Technique" (NFT, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, como segue: duas variedades; presença ou ausência do patógeno; e presença ou ausência de Biotrich. Ao final do cultivo, foram avaliadas as massas de matéria fresca e seca das plantas. No experimento in vitro, P. aphanidermatum apresentou maior agressividade a 31ºC. Contudo, não foi verificada patogenicidade nos testes in vivo. De modo geral, o Biotrich não promoveu o crescimento das plantas, mas foi efetivo no controle do patógeno in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum é patogênico às variedades de alface Vera e Elisa, a 20 e 31ºC, e o Biotrich é efetivo para o controle desse patógeno nessas temperaturas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L-1, and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31ºC. In vivo experiments were carried out during

  13. Evaluation of biocontrol ability of native strains of Trichoderma spp on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium sp in coffee (Coffea arabica in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the indiscriminate use agrochemicals in conventional agriculture, it is causing pollution problems in the environment (soil, air and water, hence the search for alternatives that contribute to agricultural production by agro-chemical free sustainable production. This paper studies the biological control of damping off in coffee (Coffea arabica by applying antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp. Under experimental conditions at laboratory facilities of the Academic Unit Carmen Pampa Campesina, a community of Carmen Pampa, Township Coroico. The aim of this study was to biologically control the "damping off", they found two genera that cause damping off in seedbed of coffee: Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.To determine the percentage of growth and control in the culture medium, we used the method of counting quarters, where they gave the mycelial growth of antagonistic fungus Trichoderma sp., And the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. Statistically there was a highly significant difference in the variable growth rate of Trichoderma sp. on pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp. at 3, 6 and 9 days that announces the time factor and treatments are interdependent. The control variable showed a highly significant difference in the time factor and treatment, but the interaction shows no significant difference this makes known factors that are independent, so the fungus Trichoderma sp. not depend on time in treatment, thus showing its inhibitory power to Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp .. This test gives references that there is antagonistic fungus control on the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium sp.

  14. Study on the Biocontrol Activities of Trichoderma species in Greengram with Infected Fungal Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Waine Wityi Htun; Myat Thu; Saw Sandar Maw

    2011-12-01

    Seven species of Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soil sources and studied by cultural morphology and microscopic examinations. In dual plate assay, antifungal effects of seven Trichoderma strains were screened against three plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) on PDA medium and T-5 isolate showed a wide percentage of inhibitory effects on target pathogens with PIRG value. All Trichoderma strains exhibited a clear zone formation on minimal synthetic medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin. T-2 and T-5 were the best chitinase producer strains. In vitro screening for protease activity, the highest protease producing activity of Trichoderma isolate (T-2) were observed in pH indicator medium after 7 days incubation. In pot trial experiment, only T-5 strain exhibited more fungal suppression efficiency on green gram plant than commercial fungicide, Trisan and the other strains. So, it can be said that the effective strain was T-5 strain only which have been more antifungal producing power on three fungal pathogens than Trisan and the resting strains.

  15. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  16. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  17. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a biocontrol agent against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Abiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, a two-year field study was conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone, Nigeria, with the aim to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a bio-control agent against a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties. The experimental field, which naturally has been known for the presence of some nematodes such as Pratylenchus, Helicitylenchus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Rotylenchulus, Xyphinema, was divided into two blocks, each block consisting of three plots with alleys between blocks and plots measuring 5 m and 1.5 m respectively. All treatments were replicated five times by means of a Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial soil nematode population was increased by chopping six kilograms of Meloidogyne incognita galled roots of Celosia agentea from a pure culture into all the plots. One block was treated with bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianumT22 while the second block served as a control unit. The results show that in terms of plant height, the number of branches, yield and reduction of the soil nematode population and root galls, the plants on the Trichoderma treated plots performed significantly better (P=0.05 than those in the control unit did. This therefore implies that root-knot nematodes represent a major constraint in the production of soybean while Trichoderma harzianumT22 improves the yield growth and the yield of soybean as well as better controls soil nematode populations with respect to the control trials.

  18. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum on Capsicum by Trichoderma koningii in potting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1999-09-01

    Two isolates of Trichoderma koningii were evaluated for efficacy in control of damping-off diseases in seedlings of Capsicum annuum grown in pasteurized potting medium in a glasshouse. A selected isolate of binucleate Rhizoctonia and two fungicides were also included as standards for control of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum. Both isolates of T. koningii reduced seedling death caused by R. solani in one of two experiments, and by P. u. sporangii-ferum in two of three experiments. Neither isolate of T. koningii suppressed damping-off caused by either pathogen as consistently as the binucleate Rhizoctonia or fungicides. The implications of these results for commercial disease management are discussed.

  19. Trichoderma spp no biocontrole de cylindrocladium candelabrum em mudas de eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar os efeitos in vitro e in vivo de bioprotetores à base de Trichoderma spp. no controle do fungo Cylindrocladium candelabrum Viegas. Os testes in vitro (confronto direto e inoculação em folhas destacadas foram compostos pelos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - somente C. candelabrum; T2 - isolado 06006S x C. candelabrum; T3 - isolado 53RR x C. candelabrum; T4 - isolado 5D x C. candelabrum; T5 - Agrotrich® x C. candelabrum; e T6 - Trichodel® x C. candelabrum. Todos os tratamentos foram eficientes inibindo o crescimento do fungo C. candelabrum em confrontação direta, e os isolados de Trichoderma spp. 53RR e 06006S, bem como o produto comercial Trichodel®, controlaram a mancha-foliar em folhas destacadas. Para complementar os testes in vitro, os produtos comerciais Agrotrich® e Trichodel® foram testados em mudas de E. saligna cultivadas em casa de vegetação, com os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - Testemunha: sem inoculação; T2 - inoculação de C. candelabrum; T3 - inoculação de C. candelabrum x Agrotrich®; T4 - inoculação de C. candelabrum x Trichodel®; T5 - somente Agrotrich®; e T6 - somente Trichodel®. Este produto apresentou os melhores resultados na redução dos danos causados pelo patógeno em mudas de E. saligna.

  20. Identification of microRNA-Like RNAs in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by solexa sequencing.

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    Kang Kang

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN and non-induction (CON were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.

  1. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Christian P; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A; Druzhinina, Irina S; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte G; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; von Döhren, Hans; Ebbole, Daniel J; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo U; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Y; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith E; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M; Kenerley, Charles M; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. © 2011 Kubicek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. PMID:21501500

  3. Effect of nutrition and environmental factors on the endoparasitic fungus Esteya vermicola, a biocontrol agent against pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianjie; Zhang, Yongan; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Yuzhu; Hou, Jingang; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yunbo; Gu, Lijuan; Sung, Changkeun

    2013-09-01

    The nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola has tremendous potential for biological control. This species exhibits strong infectious activity against pinewood nematodes, whereas the study on the effect of nutrition and environmental factors is still of paucity. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), pH value, temperature, and water activity have great impact on the fungal growth, sporulation, and germination. In nutrition study, the greatest number of conidia (2.36 × 10(9) per colony) was obtained at the C:N ratio of 100:1 with a carbon concentration 32 g l(-1). In addition, the germination rate and radial growth of E. vermicola were used to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and they were optimized as following: pH 5.5, 26 °C and water activity of 0.98. Our results also confirmed that variation of environmental factors has a detrimental influence on the efficacy of active conidia and growth of fungus. Moreover, under above optimal condition, the biocontrol efficacy was significantly improved in regard to the increase of adhesive and mortality rate, which highlight the study on the application of E. vermicola as pine wilt disease biocontrol agent.

  4. Quantification of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum with real-time TaqMan PCR and its potential extrapolation to the hyphal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Antón, Anabel; Raidl, Stefan; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, José Antonio

    2010-04-01

    The species of the genus Trichoderma are used successfully as biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. Among them, Trichoderma harzianum is especially effective. However, to develop more effective fungal biocontrol strategies in organic substrates and soil, tools for monitoring the control agents are required. Real-time PCR is potentially an effective tool for the quantification of fungi in environmental samples. The aim of this study consisted of the development and application of a real-time PCR-based method to the quantification of T. harzianum, and the extrapolation of these data to fungal biomass values. A set of primers and a TaqMan probe for the ITS region of the fungal genome were designed and tested, and amplification was correlated to biomass measurements obtained with optical microscopy and image analysis, of the hyphal length of the mycelium of the colony. A correlation of 0.76 between ITS copies and biomass was obtained. The extrapolation of the quantity of ITS copies, calculated based on real-time PCR data, into quantities of fungal biomass provides potentially a more accurate value of the quantity of soil fungi. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BIOCONTROL ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM FROM EMBU DISTRICT, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Siameto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes, biofungicides, and growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T .viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatogonistic action against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici using dual culture assay and through production of non-volatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibition occurred in Pythium sp-055E interaction (73%.The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek’s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they should be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the greenhouse and under field conditions.

  6. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening the Biosphere: The Fungicolous Fungus Trichoderma phellinicola, a Prolific Source of Hypophellins, New 17-, 18-, 19-, and 20-Residue Peptaibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röhrich, Christian René; Iversen, Anita; Jaklitsch, Walter Michael

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened a specimen of the fungicolous fungus Trichoderma phellinicola (syn. Hypocrea phellinicola) growing on its natural host Phellinus ferruginosus. Results revealed that a particular group...

  8. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  9. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, plant extracts and bio-control agents against rice blast pathogen magnaporthe oryzae couch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajano, J.U.D.; Lodhi, M.; Pathan, M.A.; Khanzada, A.; Shah, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Among 5 fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim, Fosetyl-aluminium, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride, used against the Magnaporthe oryzae, only Mancozeb appeared as the highly effective fungicide that completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. All other fungicides showed little effect at higher concentrations. The extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and calatropis (Calotropis procera L.) when used against M. oryzae by food poisoning method, only higher dose of garlic completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungus. Six bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma polysporum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces variotii and Paecilomyces lilacinus were used. Maximum mycelial inhibition of M. oryzae was provided by P. lilacinus followed by Trichoderma spp. (author)

  10. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  11. Distribution and Genetic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum Associated with Tomato Diseases in Algeria and a Biocontrol Strategy with Indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Debbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty fungal isolates were sampled from diseased tomato plants as result of a survey conducted in seven tomato crop areas in Algeria from 2012 to 2015. Morphological criteria and PCR-based identification, using the primers PF02 and PF03, assigned 29 out of 50 isolates to Fusarium oxysporum (Fo. The banding patterns amplified for genes SIX1, SIX3 and SIX4 served to identify races 2 and 3 of Fo f. sp. lycopersici (FOL, and Fo f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL among the Algerian isolates. All FOL isolates showed pathogenicity on the susceptible tomato cv. “Super Marmande,” while nine of out 10 Algerian FORL isolates were pathogenic on tomato cv. “Rio Grande.” Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR fingerprints showed high genetic diversity among Algerian Fo isolates. Seventeen Algerian Trichoderma isolates were also obtained and assigned to the species T. asperellum (12 isolates, T. harzianum (four isolates and T. ghanense (one isolate based on ITS and tef1α gene sequences. Different in vitro tests identified the antagonistic potential of native Trichoderma isolates against FORL and FOL. Greenhouse biocontrol assays performed on “SM” tomato plants with T. ghanense T8 and T. asperellum T9 and T17, and three Fo isolates showed that isolate T8 performed well against FORL and FOL. This finding was based on an incidence reduction of crown and root rot and Fusarium wilt diseases by 53.1 and 48.3%, respectively.

  12. Distribution and Genetic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum Associated with Tomato Diseases in Algeria and a Biocontrol Strategy with Indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbi, Ali; Boureghda, Houda; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Fifty fungal isolates were sampled from diseased tomato plants as result of a survey conducted in seven tomato crop areas in Algeria from 2012 to 2015. Morphological criteria and PCR-based identification, using the primers PF02 and PF03, assigned 29 out of 50 isolates to Fusarium oxysporum ( Fo ). The banding patterns amplified for genes SIX1, SIX3 and SIX4 served to identify races 2 and 3 of Fo f. sp. lycopersici (FOL), and Fo f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) among the Algerian isolates. All FOL isolates showed pathogenicity on the susceptible tomato cv. "Super Marmande," while nine of out 10 Algerian FORL isolates were pathogenic on tomato cv. "Rio Grande." Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprints showed high genetic diversity among Algerian Fo isolates. Seventeen Algerian Trichoderma isolates were also obtained and assigned to the species T. asperellum (12 isolates), T. harzianum (four isolates) and T. ghanense (one isolate) based on ITS and tef1 α gene sequences. Different in vitro tests identified the antagonistic potential of native Trichoderma isolates against FORL and FOL. Greenhouse biocontrol assays performed on "SM" tomato plants with T. ghanense T8 and T. asperellum T9 and T17, and three Fo isolates showed that isolate T8 performed well against FORL and FOL. This finding was based on an incidence reduction of crown and root rot and Fusarium wilt diseases by 53.1 and 48.3%, respectively.

  13. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. AISLAMIENTO DE CEPAS NATIVAS DE TRICHODERMA SPP DE SUELOS HORTICOLAS DEL VALLE DE TOLUCA, COMO BIOCONTROL POTENCIAL DE SCLEROTINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda G. García-Nuñez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia de Trichoderma en siete localidades en la zona sur del Valle de Toluca, Estado de México. Esta es un área con un alto potencial en la producción de hortalizas. El estudio se dirigió al aislamiento de cepas nativas de Trichoderma a partir de muestras de suelo, identificación de factores fisiográficos, así como las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo que determinan la ocurrencia de Trichoderma. Se evaluó el potencial de las cepas de Trichoderma para el control de Sclerotinia spp., hongo patógeno causante de la pudrición blanda en lechuga. Se aislaron once cepas, el mayor número de ellas asociadas al tipo de suelo se encontró en las localidades de San Francisco Putla y San Francisco Tetetla. El análisis de regresión logística mostró que no hay una relación entre las propiedades del suelo (materia orgánica y pH y la presencia de Trichoderma. La prueba de Tukey (p

  15. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA; HECKLER, LEISE INÊS; SANTOS, RICARDO FELICIANO DOS; DURIGON, MIRIA ROSA; BLUME, ELENA

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO: O fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum é responsável por perdas significativas na produção de alface. Por se tratar de um fungo habitante do solo seu manejo é dificultado, sendo uma alternativa o uso do controle biológico utilizando espécies do gênero Trichoderma. Dessa forma, os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar as espécies Trichoderma spp. nativas presentes em solo com (CP) e sem mofo-branco (SP), avaliar a velocidade de crescimento e o antagonismo in vitro dos isolados de Tricho...

  16. Biosynthesis of Antibiotic Leucinostatins in Bio-control Fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum and Their Inhibition on Phytophthora Revealed by Genome Mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum of Ophiocordycipitaceae is one of the most promising and commercialized agents for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, as well as other insects and plant pathogens. However, how the fungus functions at the molecular level remains unknown. Here, we sequenced two isolates (PLBJ-1 and PLFJ-1 of P. lilacinum from different places Beijing and Fujian. Genomic analysis showed high synteny of the two isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated they were most related to the insect pathogen Tolypocladium inflatum. A comparison with other species revealed that this fungus was enriched in carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes, proteases and pathogenesis related genes. Whole genome search revealed a rich repertoire of secondary metabolites (SMs encoding genes. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetase LcsA, which is comprised of ten C-A-PCP modules, was identified as the core biosynthetic gene of lipopeptide leucinostatins, which was specific to P. lilacinum and T. ophioglossoides, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, gene expression level was analyzed when PLBJ-1 was grown in leucinostatin-inducing and non-inducing medium, and 20 genes involved in the biosynthesis of leucionostatins were identified. Disruption mutants allowed us to propose a putative biosynthetic pathway of leucinostatin A. Moreover, overexpression of the transcription factor lcsF increased the production (1.5-fold of leucinostatins A and B compared to wild type. Bioassays explored a new bioactivity of leucinostatins and P. lilacinum: inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora infestans and P. capsici. These results contribute to our understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of leucinostatins and may allow us to utilize P. lilacinum better as bio-control agent.

  17. Efficient degradation of Azo dyes by a newly isolated fungus Trichoderma tomentosum under non-sterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Song, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Han, Xin; Wei, Dong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    A fast-growing fungus with remarkable ability to degrade several azo dyes under non-sterile conditions was isolated and identified. This fungus was identified as Trichoderma tomentosum. Textile effluent of ten-fold dilution could be decolorized by 94.9% within 72h before optimization. Acid Red 3R model wastewater with a concentration of 85.5mgL -1 could be decolorized by 99.2% within the same time after optimization. High-level of manganese peroxidase and low-level of lignin peroxidase activities were detected during the process of decolorization from the culture supernatant, indicating the possible involvement of two enzymes in azo dye decolorization. No aromatic amine products were detected from the degradation products of Acid Red 3R by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, indicating the possible involvement of a special symmetrical oxidative degradation pathway. Phytotoxicity assay confirmed the lower toxicity toward the test plant seeds of the degradation products when compared to the original dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method To immobilize the aphid-pathogenic fungus erynia neoaphidis in an alginate matrix for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah; Aebi; Tuor

    1998-11-01

    Erynia neoaphidis is an important fungal pathogen of aphid pests worldwide. There have been few reported attempts to formulate this natural agent for use in biocontrol. In the current study, factors involved in the immobilization of E. neoaphidis hyphae in an alginate matrix were investigated. Hyphae of two isolates cultured in liquid medium were 220 to 620 &mgr;m in length and 7 to 19 &mgr;m in diameter with a 74 to 83% cytoplasmic content. The optimal concentration of low-viscosity sodium alginate for production of conidia from entrapped hyphae was 1.5% (wt/vol), and 0.1 and 0.25 M calcium chloride were equally suitable for use as the gelling solution. Alginate beads were rinsed with 10% sucrose after gelling. However, beads should not be left for longer than 40 min in 0.1 M calcium chloride or 10% sucrose to prevent a 10% loss in conidial production. A 40% (vol/vol) concentration of fungal biomass produced significantly more conidia than either 20% or the standard concentration of 10%. This effect persisted even after beads were dried overnight in a laminar flow hood and stored at 4 degreesC for 4 days. Conidia from freshly produced alginate beads caused 27 to 32% infection in Pea aphids as determined by standardized laboratory bioassays. This finding was not significantly different from infections in aphids inoculated with fresh mycelial mats or plugs from Petri dish cultures. In conclusion, algination appears to be a promising technique for utilizing E. neoaphidis in the biocontrol of aphid pests.

  19. Endophytic Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019: a promising biocontrol agent with hyperosmolar, mycoparasitism, and antagonistic activities of induced volatile organic compounds on root-rot pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lian Chen

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the endophytic fungus T. gamsii YIM PH30019 may have a good potential as a biological control agent against notoginseng phytodiseases and can provide a clue to further illuminate the interactions between Trichoderma and phytopathogens.

  20. Involvement of Trichoderma trichothecenes in the biocontrol activity and in the induction of plant defense related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality, compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a...

  1. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenoid compounds of fungal origin which can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in the biosynthesis of HA is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate t...

  2. Hydrolysis of cellulose-containing materials by cellulase of the Trichoderma lignorum OM 534 fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, S L; Lobanok, A G

    1977-01-01

    Of the cellulose containing materials, hydrocellulose was most easily degraded while lignocellulose was hardest to break down with cellulase from T. lignorum grown on lactose or cellulose. Grinding and heat treatment (at 200/sup 0/) of lignocellulose enhanced its enzymic degradability. Hydrolysis was highest by cellulase from lactose-cultured Trichoderma. The hydrolysis products contained glucose, galactose, xylose, and mannose. Filtrates from T. lignorum grown on a lignocellulose were enzymically active after purification.

  3. Antibiosis of Trichoderma spp strains native to northeastern Mexico against the pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, José Luis Hernández; Pérez, María Isabel Sánchez; Prieto, Juan Manuel González; Velásquez, Jesús DiCarlo Quiroz; Olivares, Jesús Gerardo García; Langarica, Homar Rene Gill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sampling of agricultural soils from the Mexican northeastern region was performed to detect Trichoderma spp., genetically characterize it, and assess its potential use as a biologic control agent against Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina is a phytopathogen that attacks over 500 species of cultivated plants and causes heavy losses in the regional sorghum crop. Sampling was performed immediately after sorghum or corn harvest in an area that was approximately 170 km from the Mexico-USA border. Sixteen isolates were obtained in total. Using colony morphology and sequencing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4 of 18S rDNA, 14 strains were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningiopsis and T. virens. Subsequently, their antagonistic activity against M. phaseolina was evaluated in vitro, and 11 isolates showed antagonism by competition and stopped M. phaseolina growth. In 4 of these isolates, the antibiosis phenomenon was observed through the formation of an intermediate band without growth between colonies. One strain, HTE808, was identified as Trichoderma koningiopsis and grew rapidly; when it came into contact with the M. phaseolina colony, it continued to grow and sporulated until it covered the entire petri dish. Microscopic examination confirmed that it has a high level of hyperparasitism and is thus considered to have high potential for use in the control of this phytopathogen. PMID:26691467

  4. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  5. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  6. Use of the Endophytic Fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica and Its Volatiles as Bio-Control Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orna Liarzi

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture.

  7. Isolation, Characterization, and Distribution of a Biocontrol Fungus from Cysts of Heterodera glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D G; Riggs, R D; Correll, J C

    1998-05-01

    ABSTRACT Seventy-six populations of Heterodera glycines were collected from 33 counties in 10 states of the United States along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in 1992 and 1993. A sterile hyphomycete fungus of an unnamed taxon, designated ARF18 and shown to be a parasite of eggs of H. glycines, was isolated from eggs and cysts of 10 of the populations from Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Ten isolates of ARF18 obtained in this study and seven isolates obtained in earlier studies were characterized for cultural morphology on several growth media, the ability to produce sclerotium-like structures (SLS) on cornmeal agar, growth rates, pathogenicity to eggs of H. glycines in vitro, and mitochondrial (mt) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). All 17 isolates of ARF18 readily grew on potato dextrose agar, cornmeal agar, and nutrient agar. Based on colony morphology and SLS appearance on cornmeal agar, the isolates could be grouped into two morphological phenotypes. Isolates that produced SLS that were composed of a compact mass of hyphae were designated ARF18-C, whereas isolates that produced SLS composed of a mass of loosely clumped hyphae were designated ARF18-L. Only minor differences in growth rates were detected among the ARF18-C and ARF18-L isolates. All 10 ARF18-C isolates, which were from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, belonged to a single mtDNA RFLP haplotype. The seven ARF18-L isolates shared many comigrating mtDNA restriction fragments with one another, but belonged to three distinct mtDNA RFLP haplotypes. Ability to infect eggs of H. glycines in vitro varied considerably among the various isolates of ARF18. In particular, several of the ARF18-C isolates were consistently able to infect over 50% (mean = 70.0%, standard deviation = 16%) of the eggs of H. glycines, whereas ARF18-L infected eggs to a lesser degree (mean = 25%, standard deviation = 27%). ARF18-C was isolated only from H. glycines populations

  8. Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-11-01

    The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.

  9. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

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    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  10. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

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    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  11. Disruption of the Eng18B ENGase gene in the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride affects growth, conidiation and antagonistic ability.

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    Mukesh K Dubey

    Full Text Available The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase-type activity. Intracellular ENGase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. The present work is a functional study of the T. atroviride B5-group gene Eng18B, with emphasis on its role in fungal growth and antagonism. A homology model of T. atroviride Eng18B structure predicts a typical glycoside hydrolase family 18 (αβ(8 barrel architecture. Gene expression analysis shows that Eng18B is induced in dual cultures with the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, although a basal expression is observed in all growth conditions tested. Eng18B disruption strains had significantly reduced growth rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B disruption strains compared to the wild-type strain. No difference in spore germination, germ-tube morphology or in hyphal branching was detected. Disruption strains produced less biomass in liquid cultures than the wild-type strain when grown with chitin as the sole carbon source. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus B. cinerea in dual cultures and that this reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway of endogenous

  12. Elucidation of biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma harzianum against different plant fungal pathogens: Universal yet host specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Salwan, Richa; Sharma, Prem N; Kanwar, S S

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, different transcripts of Trichoderma harzianum ThHP-3 were evaluated for their response against four fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum truncatum and Gloesercospora sorghi using RT-qPCR. The time course study of T. harzianum transcripts related to signal transduction, lytic enzymes, secondary metabolites and various transporters revealed variation in expression against four fungal pathogens. In a broader term, the transcripts were upregulated at various time intervals but the optimum expression of cyp3, abc, nrp, tga1, pmk, ech42 and glh20 varied with respect to host fungi. Additionally, the expression of transcripts related to transporters/cytochromes was also observed against Fusarium oxysporum after 96h whereas transcripts related to secondary metabolites and lytic enzymes showed significant difference in expression against Colletotrichum spp. from 72 to 96h. This is first study on transcriptomic response of T. harzianum against pathogenic fungi which shows their host specific response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycoparasitism studies of Trichoderma harzianum against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: evaluation of antagonism and expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes genes.

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    Troian, Rogério Fraga; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; Arruda, Walquiria; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma spp. are known for their biocontrol activity against several plant pathogens. A specific isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, 303/02, has the potential to inhibit the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an important agent involved in several crop diseases. In this study, the interaction between T. harzianum 303/02 and mycelia, sclerotia and apothecia of S. sclerotiorum was studied by scanning electron microscopy. RT-qPCR was used to examine the expression of 11 genes potentially involved in biocontrol. T. harzianum 303/02 parasitizes S. sclerotiorum by forming branches that coil around the hyphae. The fungus multiplied abundantly at the sclerotia and apothecia surface, forming a dense mycelium that penetrated the inner surface of these structures. The levels of gene expression varied according to the type of structure with which T. harzianum was interacting. The data also showed the presence of synergistic action between the cell-wall degrading enzymes.

  14. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

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    Jose A. Rodríguez-León

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH42SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH42HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9/gDM. The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substrate was studied through a 2² experimental plan design. No statistical differences were found within the range of 30-35ºC and 60-70% for temperature and moisture respectively. The biotechnological parameters of the process were derived from the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR pattern, which corresponded to the order of 10(9spores/g moist material. The specific growth rate, maintenance coefficient and the yield based on O2 consumption were 0.108 h-1, 0.001 g.O2/g.biomass.h and 2.7 g biomass/g O2 consumed, respectively.Esporos de Tricoderma harzianum Nº 53 foram produzidos por fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando bagaço de cana como suporte e melaço de cana como fonte de carbono. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram testadas (uréia, (NH42 SO4 , NH4H2PO4 e (NH42HPO4 na produção de esporos. As mais elevadas concentrações de esporos (10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido foram obtidas utilizando a uréia como fonte de nitrogênio. O efeito da temperatura e umidade inicial foram estudadas através da utilização da planificação experimental utilizando um modelo 2². Não foi encontrada diferença estatística na produção de esporos na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 30-35 ° C e umidade inicial de 60-70%. Os parâmetros biotecnológicos foram determinados através da taxa de oxigênio consumido (OUR correspondente a uma produção de 10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido. A taxa de crescimento especifico, coeficiente de manutenção e rendimento foram

  15. Overexpression of erg1 gene in Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: effect on the induction of tomato defence-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, R E; Malmierca, M G; Gutiérrez, S

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the overexpression of erg1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 (T34) on the Trichoderma-plant interactions and in the biocontrol ability of this fungus. Transformants of T34 strain overexpressing erg1 gene did not show effect on the ergosterol level, although a drastic decrease in the squalene level was observed in the transformants at 96 h of growth. During interaction with plants, the erg1 overexpression resulted in a reduction of the priming ability of several tomato defence-related genes belonging to the salicylate pathway, and also of the TomLoxA gene, which is related to the jasmonate pathway. Interestingly, other jasmonate-related genes, such as PINI and PINII, were slightly induced. The erg1 overexpressed transformants also showed a reduced ability to colonize tomato roots. The ergosterol biosynthetic pathway might play an important role in regulating Trichoderma-plant interactions, although this role does not seem to be restricted to the final product; instead, other intermediates such as squalene, whose role in the Trichoderma-plant interaction has not been characterized, would also play an important role. The functional analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of ergosterol could provide additional strategies to improve the ability of biocontrol of the Trichoderma strains and their interaction with plants. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Prolinimines: N-Amino-l-Pro-methyl Ester (Hydrazine) Schiff Bases from a Fish Gastrointestinal Tract-Derived Fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563.

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    Mohamed, Osama G; Khalil, Zeinab G; Capon, Robert J

    2018-01-19

    A rice cultivation of a fish gastrointestinal tract-derived fungus, Trichoderma sp. CMB-F563, yielded natural products incorporating a rare hydrazine moiety, embedded within a Schiff base. Structures inclusive of absolute configurations were assigned to prolinimines A-D (1-4) on the basis of detailed spectroscopic and C 3 Marfey's analysis, as well as biosynthetic considerations, biomimetic total synthesis, and chemical transformations. Of note, monomeric 1 proved to be acid labile and, during isolation, underwent quantitative transformation to dimeric 3 and trimeric 4. Prolinimines are only the second reported natural products incorporating an N-amino-Pro residue, the first to include l-Pro, the first to occur as Schiff bases, and the first to be isolated from a microorganism.

  17. Identification of effector-like proteins in Trichoderma spp. and role of a hydrophobin in the plant-fungus interaction and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Paulina; Alemán-Duarte, Mario Iván; Delaye, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey

    2017-02-15

    Trichoderma spp. can establish beneficial interactions with plants by promoting plant growth and defense systems, as well as, antagonizing fungal phytopathogens in mycoparasitic interactions. Such interactions depend on signal exchange between both participants and can be mediated by effector proteins that alter the host cell structure and function, allowing the establishment of the relationship. The main purpose of this work was to identify, using computational methods, candidates of effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei, validate the expression of some of the genes during a beneficial interaction and mycoparasitism and to define the biological function for one of them. We defined a catalogue of putative effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. We further validated the expression of 16 genes encoding putative effector proteins from T. virens and T. atroviride during the interaction with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and with two anastomosis groups of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. We found genes which transcript levels are modified in response to the presence of both plant fungi, as well as genes that respond only to either a plant or a fungal host. Further, we show that overexpression of the gene tvhydii1, a Class II hydrophobin family member, enhances the antagonistic activity of T. virens against R. solani AG2. Further, deletion of tvhydii1 results in reduced colonization of plant roots, while its overexpression increases it. Our results show that Trichoderma is able to respond in different ways to the presence of a plant or a fungal host, and it can even distinguish between different strains of fungi of a given species. The putative effector proteins identified here may play roles in preventing perception of the fungus by its hosts, favoring host colonization or protecting it from the host's defense response. Finally, the novel effector protein TVHYDII1 plays a role in plant root colonization by T

  18. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

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    Sabine Gruber

    Full Text Available Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  19. Identification of loci and functional characterization of trichothecene biosynthesis genes in the filamentous fungus of the genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by Trichoderma, Fusarium and at least four other genera in the fungal order Hypocreales. Fusarium has a trichothecene biosynthetic gene (TRI) cluster that encodes transport and regulatory proteins as well as most enzymes required for formation of the mycotoxin...

  20. Variabilidade genética na região its do rDNA de isolados de trichoderma spp. (Biocontrolador e Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi Genetic variability in rDNA ITS region of Trichoderma spp. (biocontrole agent and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi isolates

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    Josiane Pacheco Menezes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise de características morfológicas e culturais podem não ser suficientes para uma caracterização precisa das espécies de Trichoderma e Fusarium. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a região do Espaço Interno Transcrito (ITS do rDNA dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma spp. utilizados no biocontrole de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi (isolado UFSMF6. A extração de DNA de cada isolado foi realizada a partir de micélio produzido em meio líquido Batata-Dextrose. As amostras de DNA genômico foram submetidas à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores universais ITS1 e ITS4 e o produto gerado foi sequenciado. Os fragmentos gerados pela amplificação da PCR foram tratados com as enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI. As regiões ITS1, ITS2 e 5.8S do rDNA desses isolados fúngicos foram amplificadas com sucesso. A região ITS dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma e o isolado UFSMF6 de Fusarium apresentaram uma banda simples com um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de base (pb. As enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI geraram polimorfismo de bandas entre os isolados. Com base nas análises da sequência de DNA, os isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16, UFSMT17 e UFSMF6 apresentaram maior similaridade com as espécies Trichoderma koningiopsis, Hypocrea virens, Hypocrea lixii e Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente.The analysis of morphological and cultural characteristics may not enough for the characterization of the species of Trichoderma and Fusarium. The aim of this work was to characterize the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the rDNA of UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 and UFSMT17 isolates of Trichoderma spp. used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi UFSMF6. DNA extraction of each isolate was accomplished starting from hyphae produced in liquid medium Potato-Dextrose-Agar. The samples of genomic DNA were submitted to

  1. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

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    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  2. Trichoderma virens PDR-28: a heavy metal-tolerant and plant growth-promoting fungus for remediation and bioenergy crop production on mine tailing soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, A Giridhar; Shim, Jaehong; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A heavy metal-tolerant fungus, Trichoderma virens PDR-28, was isolated from rhizosphere soil and evaluated for use in remediating mine tailing soil and for plant biomass production. PDR-28 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, acid phosphatase and phytase activity, siderophore production, and P solubilization. HMs were more available in mine tailing soil inoculated soil with PDR-28 than in uninoculated soil; the order of HM bioleaching was Cd > As > Zn > Pb > Cu. PDR-28 effectively removed HMs in the order of Pb > Cd > As > Zn > Cu from liquid media containing 100 mg HM L(-1). Inoculating HM-contaminated mine tailing soil with the fungus significantly increased the dry biomass of maize roots (64%) and shoots (56%). Chlorophyll, total soluble sugars (reducible and nonreducible), starch, and protein contents increased by 46%, 28%, 30%, and 29%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. Inoculation increased heavy metal concentrations in maize roots by 25% (Cu) to 62% (Cd) and in shoots by 35% (Cu) to 64% (Pb) compared to uninoculated plants. Results suggest that PDR-28 would be beneficial for phytostabilization and plant biomass production as a potential source of biofuel in the quest for renewable energy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Molecular Identification, Enzyme Assay, and Metabolic Profiling of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo-Jung; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Jeon, Junhyun; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-06-28

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration Genebank Information Center (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates. In addition, metabolic profiling of the ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid cultures of five Trichoderma isolates that showed the best anti- Phytophthora activities was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiling revealed that Trichoderma isolates shared common metabolites with well-known antifungal activities. Enzyme assays indicated strong cell walldegrading enzyme activities of Trichoderma isolates. Overall, our results indicated that the selected Trichoderma isolates have great potential for use as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

  4. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; de Azevedo, Rafael Ricci; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F; Ulhoa, Cirano José; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Cardoza, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2015-12-09

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants.

  5. Sm2, a paralog of the Trichoderma cerato-platanin elicitor Sm1, is also highly important for plant protection conferred by the fungal-root interaction of Trichoderma with maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaderer, Romana; Lamdan, Netta L; Frischmann, Alexa; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2015-01-16

    The proteins Sm1 and Sm2 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens belong to the cerato-platanin protein family. Members of this family are small, secreted proteins that are abundantly produced by filamentous fungi with all types of life-styles. Some species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are considered as biocontrol fungi because they are mycoparasites and are also able to directly interact with plants, thereby stimulating plant defense responses. It was previously shown that the cerato-platanin protein Sm1 from T. virens - and to a lesser extent its homologue Epl1 from Trichoderma atroviride - induce plant defense responses. The plant protection potential of other members of the cerato-platanin protein family in Trichoderma, however, has not yet been investigated. In order to analyze the function of the cerato-platanin protein Sm2, sm1 and sm2 knockout strains were generated and characterized. The effect of the lack of Sm1 and Sm2 in T. virens on inducing systemic resistance in maize seedlings, challenged with the plant pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus, was tested. These plant experiments were also performed with T. atroviride epl1 and epl2 knockout strains. In our plant-pathogen system T. virens was a more effective plant protectant than T. atroviride and the results with both Trichoderma species showed concordantly that the level of plant protection was more strongly reduced in plants treated with the sm2/epl2 knockout strains than with sm1/epl1 knockout strains. Although the cerato-platanin genes sm1/epl1 are more abundantly expressed than sm2/epl2 during fungal growth, Sm2/Epl2 are, interestingly, more important than Sm1/Epl1 for the promotion of plant protection conferred by Trichoderma in the maize-C. heterostrophus pathosystem.

  6. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

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    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  7. Trichoderma harzianum might impact phosphorus transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Nathalie; de la Providencia, Ivan E; de Boulois, Hervé Dupré; Declerck, Stéphane

    2011-09-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a biocontrol agent active against plant pathogens via mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. Recently, it was demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum was able to parasitize the mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, thus affecting its viability. Here, we question whether this mycoparasitism may reduce the capacity of Glomus sp. to transport phosphorus ((33)P) to its host plant in an in vitro culture system. (33)P was measured in the plant and in the fungal mycelium in the presence/absence of T. harzianum. The viability and metabolic activity of the extraradical mycelium was measured via succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase staining. Our study demonstrated an increased uptake of (33)P by the AM fungus in the presence of T. harzianum, possibly related to a stress reaction caused by mycoparasitism. In addition, the disruption of AM extraradical hyphae in the presence of T. harzianum affected the (33)P translocation within the AM fungal mycelium and consequently the transfer of (33)P to the host plant. The effects of T. harzianum on Glomus sp. may thus impact the growth and function of AM fungi and also indirectly plant performance by influencing the source-sink relationship between the two partners of the symbiosis. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Allelopathic potential of some biocontrol agents for the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effect of synthetic pesticides on human health and the natural ecosystem necessitate the need to explore natural mechanisms of disease control in plants. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of five biocontrol agents: Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma asperellum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus ...

  9. An Ime2-like mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellulase expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Li-Na; Huang, Zhen-Bang; Tao, Yong; Dong, Zhi-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles in transducing environmental and developmental signals inside the cell and regulating gene expression, however, the roles of MAPKs remain largely unknown in Trichoderma reesei. T. reesei ime2 (TrIme2) encodes an Ime2-like MAPK in T. reesei. The deletion of the TrIme2 gene led to 90% increase in cellulase activity against filter paper during earlier period time of cellulase induction as well as the extracellular protein production. Compared to the parent strain, the transcriptional levels of the three major cellulase genes cbh1,cbh2, egl1 were increased by about 9 times, 4 times, 2 times, respectively, at 8 h after cellulase induction in the ΔTrIme2 mutant. In addition, the disruption of TrIme2 caused over 50% reduction of the transcript levels of cellulase transcriptional regulators cre1 and xyr1. TrIme2 functions in regulation of the expression of cellulase gene in T.reesei, and is a good candidate for genetically engineering of T. reesei for higher cellulase production.

  10. Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, Jasmine; Hunt, Sybille; McKay, Matthew; Herbert, Ben R; Nevalainen, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of T. atroviride (T. harzianum P1) grown on media containing either glucose or R. solani cell walls. Protein profiles were compared to identify T. atroviride proteins up-regulated in the presence of the R. solani cell walls. Twenty-four protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Identified up-regulated proteins include known fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase and 42-kDa endochitinase. Three novel proteases of T. atroviride were identified, containing sequence similarity to vacuolar serine protease, vacuolar protease A and a trypsin-like protease from known fungal proteins. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein from Neurospora crassa were also up-regulated as a response to R. solani cell walls. Several cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified from the T. atroviride culture supernatant, providing further evidence that a cellular response indicative of biological control had occurred.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF Trichoderma ISOLATES FOR VIRULENCE EFFICACY ON Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Otadoh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p

  12. Functional Analysis of the Trichoderma harzianum nox1 Gene, Encoding an NADPH Oxidase, Relates Production of Reactive Oxygen Species to Specific Biocontrol Activity against Pythium ultimum▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrientos, M.; Hermosa, R.; Cardoza, R. E.; Gutiérrez, S.; Monte, E.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and NADPH oxidases are involved in the formation of such ROS. The nox1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. The increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ROS production during their direct confrontation with Pythium ultimum. The transformants displayed an increased hydrolytic pattern, as determined by comparing protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities with those for the wild type. In confrontation assays against P. ultimum the nox1-overexpressed transformants were more effective than the wild type, but not in assays against Botrytis cinerea or Rhizoctonia solani. A transcriptomic analysis using a Trichoderma high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray also showed that, compared to gene expression for the interaction of wild-type T. harzianum and P. ultimum, genes related to protease, cellulase, and chitinase activities were differentially upregulated in the interaction of a nox1-overexpressed transformant with this pathogen. Our results show that nox1 is involved in T. harzianum ROS production and antagonism against P. ultimum. PMID:21421791

  13. Massive lateral transfer of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma from its plant-associated hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenthamara, Komal; Zhang, Jian; Atanasova, Lea; Yang, Dongqing; Miao, Youzhi; Grujic, Marica; Pourmehdi, Shadi; Pretzer, Carina; Kopchinskiy, Alexey G.; Hundley, Hope; Wang, Mei; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Lipzen, Anna; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2018-01-01

    Unlike most other fungi, molds of the genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are aggressive parasites of other fungi and efficient decomposers of plant biomass. Although nutritional shifts are common among hypocrealean fungi, there are no examples of such broad substrate versatility as that observed in Trichoderma. A phylogenomic analysis of 23 hypocrealean fungi (including nine Trichoderma spp. and the related Escovopsis weberi) revealed that the genus Trichoderma has evolved from an ancestor with limited cellulolytic capability that fed on either fungi or arthropods. The evolutionary analysis of Trichoderma genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes and auxiliary proteins (pcwdCAZome, 122 gene families) based on a gene tree / species tree reconciliation demonstrated that the formation of the genus was accompanied by an unprecedented extent of lateral gene transfer (LGT). Nearly one-half of the genes in Trichoderma pcwdCAZome (41%) were obtained via LGT from plant-associated filamentous fungi belonging to different classes of Ascomycota, while no LGT was observed from other potential donors. In addition to the ability to feed on unrelated fungi (such as Basidiomycota), we also showed that Trichoderma is capable of endoparasitism on a broad range of Ascomycota, including extant LGT donors. This phenomenon was not observed in E. weberi and rarely in other mycoparasitic hypocrealean fungi. Thus, our study suggests that LGT is linked to the ability of Trichoderma to parasitize taxonomically related fungi (up to adelphoparasitism in strict sense). This may have allowed primarily mycotrophic Trichoderma fungi to evolve into decomposers of plant biomass. PMID:29630596

  14. Evaluation of Trichoderma Isolates for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Bean in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khodae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major pathogens causing root rot in the main bean-growing regions in Zanjan province. Under favorable conditions, yield losses in commercial bean fields due to Rhizoctonia root rot have exceeded 50 percent reduction in pod and seed numbers per plants. In 2012 most isolates of the pathogen from severely infected bean fields in Zanjan were assessed to AG-4. R. solani AG-4 can attack other commercial crops such as potato, alfalfa, barley, tomato, cabbage, etc. which are grown in rotation with bean in the area. Thus, the disease is unlikely to be controlled by crop rotation. Moreover, there is no registered resistant bean cultivar against the disease in Iran. Although soil treatment with fungicides is the only effective control method in the region, according to environmental and side effects of fungicides, alternative approaches such as biocontrol method using Trichoderma species is considered. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using five isolates of Trichoderma (T12-0, T12-N, T19, T6, T95 received from the Department of Plant Pathology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Dr. H. Rouhani and six isolates of Trichoderma (T36,T125, T131, T93, T89, T25 collected in 2011 from rhizosphere of bean plants in the commercial bean fields of Zanjan province (Table 1. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their potential to antagonize in vitro the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani using three different tests. In the first test, each isolate of Trichoderma was grown in a dual culture with R. solani AG-4 strain Rh7 on PDA and incubated at 25˚C. Radii of colony of R. solani were measured after 72 h. In the second test the ability of Trichoderma isolates to produce volatile inhibitors was measured. This experiment was conducted in two conditions involving the same time culturing of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia and isolating 72 h early growing Trichoderma. For both tests the percentage of inhibition was

  15. Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was proven to occur in tomato, Solanum lycopersicom, soil-drenched with different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and a commercial suspension of Serratia marcescens (Nemaless). The potential of such biocontrol agents to trigger plant defense ...

  16. BIOACTIVE METABOLITES FROM TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is an important crop in the agriculturally based economy of Kenya. Many diseases affect the tea plant but the most prevalent is armillaria root rot caused by the fungus Armillaria mellea. Compounds from the fermentation of. Trichoderma species in different media ...

  17. Cloning, annotation and expression analysis of mycoparasitism-related genes in Trichoderma harzianum 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Yang, Qian; Song, Jinzhu; Tan, Chong; Guo, Changhong; Wang, Li; Qu, Lianhai; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum 88, a filamentous soil fungus, is an effective biocontrol agent against several plant pathogens. High-throughput sequencing was used here to study the mycoparasitism mechanisms of T. harzianum 88. Plate confrontation tests of T. harzianum 88 against plant pathogens were conducted, and a cDNA library was constructed from T. harzianum 88 mycelia in the presence of plant pathogen cell walls. Randomly selected transcripts from the cDNA library were compared with eukaryotic plant and fungal genomes. Of the 1,386 transcripts sequenced, the most abundant Gene Ontology (GO) classification group was "physiological process". Differential expression of 19 genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR at different mycoparasitism stages against plant pathogens. Gene expression analysis revealed the transcription of various genes involved in mycoparasitism of T. harzianum 88. Our study provides helpful insights into the mechanisms of T. harzianum 88-plant pathogen interactions.

  18.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

    are important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  19. Generation of Trichoderma atroviride mutants with constitutively activated G protein signaling by using geneticin resistance as selection marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Sabine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are important industrial producers of cellulases and hemicellulases, but also widely used as biocontrol agents (BCAs in agriculture. In the latter function Trichoderma species stimulate plant growth, induce plant defense and directly antagonize plant pathogenic fungi through their mycoparasitic capabilities. The recent release of the genome sequences of four mycoparasitic Trichoderma species now forms the basis for large-scale genetic manipulations of these important BCAs. Thus far, only a limited number of dominant selection markers, including Hygromycin B resistance (hph and the acetamidase-encoding amdS gene, have been available for transformation of Trichoderma spp. For more extensive functional genomics studies the utilization of additional dominant markers will be essential. Results We established the Escherichia coli neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene as a novel selectable marker for the transformation of Trichoderma atroviride conferring geneticin resistance. The nptII marker cassette was stably integrated into the fungal genome and transformants exhibited unaltered phenotypes compared to the wild-type. Co-transformation of T. atroviride with nptII and a constitutively activated version of the Gα subunit-encoding tga3 gene (tga3Q207L resulted in a high number of mitotically stable, geneticin-resistant transformants. Further analyses revealed a co-transformation frequency of 68% with 15 transformants having additionally integrated tga3Q207L into their genome. Constitutive activation of the Tga3-mediated signaling pathway resulted in increased vegetative growth and an enhanced ability to antagonize plant pathogenic host fungi. Conclusion The neomycin phosphotransferase II-encoding nptII gene from Escherichia coli proved to be a valuable tool for conferring geneticin resistance to the filamentous fungus T. atroviride thereby contributing to an enhanced genetic

  20. Biocontrol Agents for Take-all.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.M.; Weller, D.M.; Thomashow, L.S.; Cook, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are described which are effective for the control of diseases caused by the soil-borne fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis (Gg), such as take-all, in small grain crops or turf grass. The subject biocontrol strains have a unique genotype as shown by a characteristic banding

  1. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Schmoll, Monika

    2010-07-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications.

  2. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  3. Impacts of biocontrol products on Rhizoctonia disease of potato and soil microbial communities, and their persistence in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercial biocontrol formulations (Bacillus subtilis GB03, Burkholderia ambifaria type Wisconsin isolate J82, Trichoderma virens Gl-21, and Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), a chemical seed treatment (Topsin, mancozeb, and cymoxanil mixture, TMC), and a combination chemical/biological treatm...

  4. EFECTO SOBRE LA SARNA POLVOSA DE CUATRO AISLAMIENTOS DEL HONGO Trichoderma asperellum EN TRES TIPOS DE SUELO EFFECT ON THE POWDERY SCAB OF FOUR ISOLATES OF THE FUNGUS Trichoderma asperellum IN THREE TYPES OF SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gilchrist

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El protozoario Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea es un parásito obligado que replica en raíces y tubérculos de papa causando la sarna polvosa. Esta enfermedad se ha difundido a escala global debido al comercio de tubérculos-semilla infectados y a la ausencia de tratamientos efectivos. En este trabajo se investigó la influencia sobre la sarna polvosa de cuatro aislamientos de Trichoderma asperellum en tres tipos de suelo: Andisol, Entisol e Inceptisol. Tubérculos de Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro fueron plantados en parcelas infectadas con 1942 ± 226 quistosoros por gramo de suelo. No se observaron diferencias entre las plantas tratadas y no tratadas con T. asperellum. La superficie de raíz ocupada por agallas fue en promedio 2,2%, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas (PThe protozoan Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea is an obligate parasite that replicates in roots and tubers of potato causing the powdery scab. This disease has disseminated on a global scale, because the commercial traffic of infected tubers used as seed and the absence of effective treatments. The present work investigated the effects of four isolates of Trichoderma asperellum in three soil types: Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol. The soils were infected with 1942 ± 226 cystosori per gram of soil. It was used Solanum tuberosum variety Diacol Capiro. No differences were observed between treated and non treated plants with T. asperellum. The root surface affected by galls was an average of 2.2 %, and no significant differences (p<0.05 were observed among the soils. The reduction of plant growth was of 41, 32 and 28 % for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. The reduction in tubers production was of 40, 28 and 0,1% for the Andisol, Entisol and Inceptisol, respectively. Similar percent of root surface covered with galls resulted in production reduction of 40%, but also of 0,1%, indicating the necessity of other methods to

  5. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective in vitro screening tests of Trichoderma viride for antagonism against post harvest pathogens of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rot together with its competitive and mycoparasitic abilities informs its selection as the most promising candidate for the biocontrol of post harvest cassava root rot pathogens.

  6. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  7. The Apoplastic Secretome of Trichoderma virens During Interaction With Maize Roots Shows an Inhibition of Plant Defence and Scavenging Oxidative Stress Secreted Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration. Moreover, we show that upon host penetration, T. virens secretes into the apoplast an arsenal of proteins to facilitate inter- and intracellular colonization of maize root tissues. Using a gel-free shotgun proteomics approach, 95 and 43 secretory proteins were identified from maize and T. virens, respectively. A reduction in the maize secretome (36% was induced by T. virens, including two major groups, glycosyl hydrolases and peroxidases. Furthermore, T. virens secreted proteins were mainly involved in cell wall hydrolysis, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and secondary metabolism, as well as putative effector-like proteins. Levels of peroxidase activity were reduced in the inoculated roots, suggesting a strategy used by T. virens to manipulate host immune responses. The results provide an insight into the crosstalk in the apoplast which is essential to maintain the T. virens-plant interaction.

  8. Assessment of the rhizosphere competency and pentachlorophenol-metabolizing activity of a pesticide-degrading strain of Trichoderma harzianum introduced into the root zone of corn seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigot, Jerĵme; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-05-01

    To develop a dependable approach to introduce laboratory selected, pesticide-degrading microorganisms into soil environments for the purpose of in situ bioremediation, we tested the possibility of utilizing plant rhizospheres as the vehicle. We first established the rhizosphere competency of a strain of the soil fungus Trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol species well studied by plant pathologists to colonize plant rhizosphere in many parts of the world. The strain we chose, T.h.2023 is resistant to many fungicides, and it has been shown to metabolize several pesticides. Second, we found that it readily metabolized pentachlorophenol (PCP), which is quickly and stochiometrically converted to pentachloroanisole (PCA) in liquid culture. Taking advantage of this specific feature, we have developed a sensitive metabolic marker approach that allowed us to monitor for the continuous presence and activity of this fungal strain in the corn rhizosphere soil in situ over time.

  9. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  10. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M. Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  11. Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth Enhancement in Tomato Plants Challenged with Trichoderma harzianum Expressing the Aspergillus nidulans Acetamidase amdS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nicolás, Carlos; Bettiol, Wagner; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in Trichoderma harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by (i) enhanced growth, (ii) increased carbon and nitrogen levels, and (iii) a

  12. Genome-wide characterization of ISR induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 against Botrytis cinerea infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janick eMathys

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime and after (ISR-boost additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance (SAR, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance towards secondary infections. Treatment with Trichoderma hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime, resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against Botrytis cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the Botrytis cinerea induced defense response (BIDR. Microarray results were confirmed for representative genes by qRT-PCR, by analysis of transgenic plants expressing relevant promoter-GUS constructs and by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in various defense-related pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach.

  13. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  14. Trichoderma asperelloides Spores Downregulate dectin1/2 and TLR2 Receptors of Mice Macrophages and Decrease Candida parapsilosis Phagocytosis Independent of the M1/M2 Polarization

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    Andréa G. dos Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has promoted several issues relating to environment. As chemical pesticides remain controversial, biocontrol agents originating from fungi could be an alternative. Among them, we highlight biocontrol agents derived from the fungi genus Trichoderma, which have been documented in limiting the growth of other phytopathogenic fungus in the roots and leaves of several plant species. An important member of this genus is Trichoderma asperelloides, whose biocontrol agents have been used to promote plant growth while also treating soil diseases caused by microorganisms in both greenhouses and outdoor crops. To evaluate the safety of fungal biological agents for human health, tests to detect potentially adverse effects, such as allergenicity, toxicity, infectivity and pathogenicity, are crucial. In addition, identifying possible immunomodulating properties of fungal biocontrol agents merits further investigation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of T. asperelloides spores in the internalization of Candida parapsilosis yeast by mice phagocytes, in order to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism of this interaction, as a model to understand possible in vivo effects of this fungus. For this, mice were exposed to a fungal spore suspension through-intraperitoneal injection, euthanized and cells from the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity were collected for functional, quantitative and phenotypic analysis, throughout analysis of membrane receptors gene expression, phagocytosis ability and cells immunophenotyping M1 (CCR7 and CD86 and M2 (CCR2 and CD206. Our analyses showed that phagocytes exposed to fungal spores had reduced phagocytic capacity, as well as a decrease in the quantity of neutrophils and monocytes in the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity. Moreover, macrophages exposed to T. asperelloides spores did not display the phenotypic profile M1/M2, and

  15. Evaluation of potential bio-control agents on root-knot nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-11

    May 11, 2016 ... fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in vitro. Rajinikanth Rompalli ... Indigenous strains of Trichoderma viride (ITCC No. 6889), Pseudomonas ..... antibiotic rather than protein might be responsible for the nematicidal ...

  16. Unraveling Trichoderma species in the attine ant environment: description of three new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Quimi Vidaurre; Meirelles, Lucas Andrade; Chaverri, Priscila; Rodrigues, Andre

    2016-05-01

    Fungus-growing "attine" ants forage diverse substrates to grow fungi for food. In addition to the mutualistic fungal partner, the colonies of these insects harbor a rich microbiome composed of bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Previous work reported some Trichoderma species in the fungus gardens of leafcutter ants. However, no studies systematically addressed the putative association of Trichoderma with attine ants, especially in non-leafcutter ants. Here, a total of 62 strains of Trichoderma were analyzed using three molecular markers (ITS, tef1 and rpb2). In addition, 30 out of 62 strains were also morphologically examined. The strains studied correspond to the largest sampling carried out so far for Trichoderma in the attine ant environment. Our results revealed the richness of Trichoderma in this environment, since we found 20 Trichoderma species, including three new taxa described in the present work (Trichoderma attinorum, Trichoderma texanum and Trichoderma longifialidicum spp. nov.) as well as a new phylogenetic taxon (LESF 545). Moreover, we show that all 62 strains grouped within different clades across the Trichoderma phylogeny, which are identical or closely related to strains derived from several other environments. This evidence supports the transient nature of the genus Trichoderma in the attine ant colonies. The discovery of three new species suggests that the dynamic foraging behavior of these insects might be responsible for accumulation of transient fungi into their colonies, which might hold additional fungal taxa still unknown to science.

  17. Nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with Trichoderma harzianum expressing the Aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amdS gene

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    Sara Domínguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. In addition to the direct application of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. The amdS gene, encoding an acetamidase of Aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the transformation of filamentous fungi, including Trichoderma spp., but the physiological effects of the introduction of this gene into the genome of these microorganisms still remains unexplored. No evidence of amdS orthologous genes has been detected within the Trichoderma spp. genomes and the amdS heterologous expression in T. harzianum T34 did not affect the growth of this fungus in media lacking acetamide. However, it did confer the ability for the fungus to use this amide as a nitrogen source. Although a similar antagonistic behavior was observed for T34 and amdS transformants in dual cultures against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, a significantly higher antifungal activity was detected in amdS transformants against F. oxysporum, compared to that of T34, in membrane assays on media lacking acetamide. In Trichoderma-tomato interaction assays, amdS transformants were able to promote plant growth to a greater extent than the wild-type T34, although compared with this strain the transformants showed similar capability to colonize tomato roots. Gene expression patterns from aerial parts of 3-week-old tomato plants treated with T34 and the amdS transformants have also been investigated using GeneChip Tomato Genome Arrays. The downregulation of defense genes and the upregulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism genes observed in the microarrays were accompanied by i enhanced growth, ii increased carbon and nitrogen levels and iii a

  18. Homologous expression of a mutated beta-tubulin gene does not confer benomyl resistance on Trichoderma virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, M; Hadar, R; Mukherjee, P K; Horwitz, B A

    2003-01-01

    To clone the beta-tubulins and to induce resistance to benzimidazoles in the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens through site-directed mutagenesis. Two beta-tubulin genes have been cloned using PCR amplification followed by the screening of a T. virens cDNA library. The full-length cDNA clones, coding for 445 and 446 amino acids, have been designated as T. virens tub1 and T. virens tub2. A sequence alignment of these two tubulins with tubulins from other filamentous fungi has shown the presence of some unique amino acid sequences not found in those positions in other beta-tubulins. Constitutive expression of the tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine substitution at position 6 (known to impart benomyl/methyl benzimadazol-2-yl carbamate resistance in other fungi), under the Pgpd promoter of Aspergillus nidulans, did not impart resistance to benomyl. The homologous expression of tub2 gene with a histidine to tyrosine mutation at position +6, which is known to impart benomyl tolerance in other fungi, does not impart resistance in T. virens. Unlike other Trichoderma spp., T. virens, has been difficult to mutate for benomyl tolerance. The present study, through site-directed mutagenesis, shows that a mutation known to impart benomyl tolerance in T. viride and other fungi does not impart resistance in this fungus. Understanding the mechanisms of this phenomenon will have a profound impact in plant-disease management, as many plant pathogenic fungi develop resistance to this group of fungicides forcing its withdrawal after a short period of use.

  19. In vitro Antagonistic Mechanisms of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus to Control Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici the Causal Agent of Wheat Take-all Disease

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    Seddighe Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has recently been detected in different regions of Iran. With respect to biocontrol effect of Trichoderma spp. on many pathogenic fungi, seven isolates of Trichoderma and four isolates of Talaromyces were in vitro evaluated in terms of their biological control against the disease causal agent. In dual culture test the five isolates showed efficient competition for colonization against pathogenic fungus and the highest percentages of inhibition belonging to Talaromyces flavus 60 and Talaromyces flavus 136 were 59.52 and 57.61%, respectively. Microscopic investigations showed that in regions where antagonistic isolates and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici coincide, hyphal contact, penetration and fragmentation of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici were observed. Investigating the effect of volatile and non-volatile compounds at 10 ml concentration showed that the highest inhibition percentage on mycelium growth of the pathogen caused by T. harzianum (44.76% and T. longibrachiatum (52.38% respectively.

  20. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  1. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

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    Prachy Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. RESULTS: Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for

  2. isolated from Trichoderma harzianum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Chitinase gene from Trichoderma harzianum was cloned and hetrologously over expressed in ... used by Trichoderma to inhibit the growth of other fungi. ..... actinomycete isolates from niche habitats in Manipur for antibiotic.

  3. Development of a qPCR strategy to select bean genes involved in plant defence response and regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani interaction

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    Sara Mayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defence response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defence-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from From the 48 bean genes initially analysed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34 or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected.As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defence, which respond to the presence of a biocontrol agent or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defence genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  5. In vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asran-Amal, A; Moustafa-Mahmoud, S M; Sabet, K K; El Banna, O H

    2010-04-01

    The antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. T. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. In vitro screening of 5 isolates of T. harzinum, one isolate of Chaetomium globosum and one isolate of Conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA medium, significantly. The inhibition percentage ranged from 77.9 % to 55.9% for M. phaseolina and 59.2% to 40.4% for R. solani by T. harzinum and C. mentance, respectively. Inhibition for F. solani ranged from 76.5% to 55.7% by T. harzinum and C. globosum, respectively. Isozyme gel electrophoresis was used to assess chitinase activity secreted by selected isolates of T. harzinum under different pH degrees and temperatures. Obtained results indicated that activity of chitinase isozyme produced at 30 °C was higher than 15-20 °C for all tested isolates and activity of chitinase produced by isolates No. 4 and 5 of T. harzinum at pH (7-7.5) was higher than at pH 6, respectively.

  6. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  7. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  8. Trichoderma species mediated differential tolerance against biotic stress of phytopathogens in Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amrita; Raghuwanshi, Richa; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-02-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been reported to aid in imparting biotic as well as abiotic tolerance to plants. However, there are only few reports unfolding the differential ability of separate species of Trichoderma genera generally exploited for their biocontrol potential in this framework. A study was undertaken to evaluate the biocontrol potential of different Trichoderma species namely T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, and T. aureoviride as identified in the group of indigenous isolates from the agricultural soils of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Their biocontrol potential against three major soilborne phytopathogens, i.e., Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum capsici was confirmed by dual culture plate technique. Efficient mycoparasitic ability was further assessed in all the isolates in relation to chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, pectinase, lipase, amylase, and cellulase production while equally consistent results were obtained for their probable phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production abilities. The selected isolates were further subjected to test their ability to promote plant growth, to reduce disease incidence and to tolerate biotic stress in terms of lignification pattern against S. rolfsii in chickpea plants. Among the identified Trichoderma species, excellent results were observed for T. harzianum and T. koningiopsis indicating better biocontrol potential of these species in the group and thus exhibiting perspective for their commercial exploitation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ability of secondary metabolites from trichoderma virens to mediate communication during mutualistic or pathogenic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioinformatic study was conducted to identify the putative genes in the biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens that encode for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Gene expression analysis of 22 putative NRPSs and 4 NRPS/PKS (polyketide synthase) hybrid enzymes was conducted in the presence and...

  10. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

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    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  11. Involvement of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 Protein in the Regulation of Botrytis Virulence- and Tomato Defense-Related Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Eriston V.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Silva, Roberto N.; Guti?rrez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i) act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii) function as biofertilizers; (iii) increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv) induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δepl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum stra...

  12. Application of Trichoderma harziunum T22 as a biofertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum strain (T22) on the growth and development of maize (Zea mays) plants. T. harzianum was applied to the grains in two different treatments. The first one was performed by inoculating the soil with the air dried growth of the tested fungus in three ...

  13. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubichek, C.P.; Tamayo Ramos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus

  14. Enzyme Production and Nitrogen Fixation by Free, Immobilized and Coimmobilized Inoculants of Trichoderma harzianum and Azospirillum brasilense and Their Possible Role in Growth Promotion of Tomato

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    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (Azospirillum brasilense strain Az and a biocontrol fungus (Trichoderma harzianum strain T24 have been evaluated for their individual and combined production of hydrolytic enzymes, nitrogen fixation and their possible role in growth promotion of tomato seedlings. The studied organisms were inoculated as free or calcium alginate-encapsulated cells. All freshly prepared macrobeads showed high encapsulation capacity (EC/% of inocula compared with dry macrobeads. Results of enzyme production did not exhibit consistent pattern of the effect of encapsulation process on enzyme production. Beads entrapping bacterial and/or fungal cells were used successfully in 3 repeated cycles in the presence of fresh sterile culture medium in each growth cycle. Enzyme production by immobilized bacterial and/or fungal cells increased as the growth cycles were repeated. Co-culturing of A. brasilense with T. harzianum (free or immobilized in semisolid nitrogen deficient medium (N-free medium enabled A. brasilense to fix nitrogen on pectin, chitin and carboxymethyl cellulose. The activity of nitrogen fixation by A. brasilense in the case of single and combined cultures with Trichoderma (using dry encapsulated beads into the sterile soil increased with the addition of carbon source. Most of inoculations with free or alginate macrobead formulations of T. harzianum and/or A. brasilense showed significant increase in the growth parameters of tomato seedlings. The root system grew more profusely in the case of all seeds treated with A. brasilense. The growth parameters of Az/T24-treated seeds using dry coimmobilized macrobeads were higher than those of the untreated control. Moreover, the effect was improved significantly in soil enriched with different C sources. Enhanced tomato seedling growth after the co-inoculation could be due to the synergistic effect of both Trichoderma and Azospirillum. Finally, co-inoculation with Azospirillum

  15. Combinatorial efficacy of Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens to enhance suppression of cell wall degrading enzymes produced by Fusarium wilt of Arachis hypogaea.L

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    P Rajeswari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum, the soil borne pathogen causes vascular wilt, on majority of crop plants. It has been demonstrated that two different species of Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens suppress disease by different mechanisms. Therefore, application of a mixture of these biocontrol agents, and thus of several suppressive mechanisms, may represent a viable control strategy. A necessity for biocontrol by combinations of biocontrol agents can be the compatibility of the co-inoculated micro-organisms. Hence, compatibility between Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens that have the ability to suppress Fusarium oxysporum in vitro on the activity of pectinolytic enzymes of Fusarium oxysporum. The activity of pectinolytic enzymes, i.e. pectin methyl esterase, endo and exo polymethylgalacturonases and exo and endo pectin trans eliminases produced by Fusarium oxysporum (Control was higher. Maximum inhibition of pectin methylesterase, exo and endo polymethylgalacturonase and exo and endopectin trans eliminase was shown by culture filtrate of Trichoderma viride + Pseudomonas fluorescens (Tv+Pf (1+2%, followed by Trichoderma harzianum + Pseudomonas fluorescens, (Th +Pf (1.5+2% and Trichoderma viride + Trichoderma harzianum (Tv+Th (1+1.5%. However, pathogenecity suppression of Fusarium oxysporum, a causative of Arachis hypogaea. L by the compatible combination of Trichodema viride + Pseudomonas fluorescens (1+2% was significantly better as compared to the single bio-agent. This indicates that specific interactions between biocontrol agents influence suppression of pathogenicity factors directly by combinations of these compatible bio-agents.

  16. Characterization of Malaysian Trichoderma isolates using random amplified microsatellites (RAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Fatihah, Nur Hasan Nudin; Hasan, Md Mainul

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.

  17. Mycoparasitism studies of Trichoderma species against three phytopathogenic fungi: evaluation of antagonism and hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualhato, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Brandão, Renata Silva; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2013-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are used for biocontrol of several plant pathogens. However, their efficient interaction with the host needs to be accompanied by production of secondary metabolites and cell wall-degrading enzymes. Three parameters were evaluated after interaction between four Trichoderma species and plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum were the most effective antagonists against the pathogens. Most of the Trichoderma species produced toxic volatile metabolites, having significant effects on growth and development of the plant pathogens. When these species were grown in liquid cultures with cell walls from these plant pathogens, they produced and secreted β-1,3-glucanase, NAGAse, chitinase, acid phosphatase, acid proteases and alginate lyase.

  18. Endochitinase 1 (Tv-ECH1) from Trichoderma virens has high subsite specificities for acetylated units when acting on chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußwinkel, Franziska; Goñi, Oscar; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; O'Connell, Shane; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2018-03-15

    Chitosans with defined characteristics have been shown to possess reproducible bioactivities for numerous applications. A promising approach for producing chitosans with defined degrees of polymerization (DP), degrees of acetylation (DA), and patterns of acetylation (PA) involves using chitin-modifying enzymes. One such enzyme, the chitinase Tv-ECH1 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 18, seems to have an important role in the biocontrol properties of the fungus Trichoderma virens, suggesting its potential in generating novel chitosans for plant health applications. In this study, the Tv-ECH1 enzyme was overexpressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, yielding large amounts (up to 2mgmL -1 ) of purified recombinant enzyme of high activity, high purity, and high stability, making the system promising for industrial production of Tv-ECH1. The purified Tv-ECH1 chitinase displayed a wide optimal pH range from 4.5 to 6 and an optimal temperature of 37°C. Detailed subsite specificity analyses revealed high preference for acetylated residues at all four subsites analyzed (-2, -1, +1, +2), making Tv-ECH1 a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of specific chitosan oligomers and for the characterization of chitosan polymers via enzymatic fingerprinting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  20. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Sabine; Omann, Markus; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2013-05-16

    Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These GPCRs consequently represent

  1. Trichoderma as an endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species have been studied for many years for their usefulness in plant disease management. For much of this time, studies focused on the attributes of Trichoderma as a soil saprophyte possessing abilities such as mycoparasitism and antibiosis that directly impact pathogens. The ability...

  2. Development of a molecular approach to describe the composition of Trichoderma communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Remo; Weinert, Nicole; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Berg, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma and its teleomorphic stage Hypocrea play a key role for ecosystem functioning in terrestrial habitats. However, little is known about the ecology of the fungus. In this study we developed a novel Trichoderma-specific primer pair for diversity analysis. Based on a broad range master alignment, specific Trichoderma primers (ITSTrF/ITSTrR) were designed that comprise an approximate 650bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer region from all taxonomic clades of the genus Trichoderma. This amplicon is suitable for identification with TrichoKey and TrichoBLAST. Moreover, this primer system was successfully applied to study the Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of different potato genotypes grown at two field sites in Germany. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the specificity of the primer and revealed a site-dependent Trichoderma composition. Based on the new primer system a semi-nested approach was used to generate amplicons suitable for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and applied to analyse Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of potatoes. High field heterogeneity of Trichoderma communities was revealed by both DGGE. Furthermore, qPCR showed significantly different Trichoderma copy numbers between the sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of composts and Trichoderma strains for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousra TAGHDI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11  also promoted growth of tomato plants.

  4. Contribución al estudio del sistema de lipasas de Trichoderma harzianum

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Maria de Lurdes Antunes

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Entre los hongos del género Trichoderma se han descrito algunas especies importantes como agentes de biocontrol, tales como las parejas anamorfo/teleomorfo T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii, T. viride/H. rufa, T. atroviride/H. atroviridis y T. virens/H. virens. Trichoderma tiene una amplia distribución geográfica, está presente en casi todos los suelos y en hábitats diversos (creciendo en madera, corteza, sobre y dentro otros hongos y sustratos innumerables). Por su adaptación a distintos en...

  5. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  6. Antagonism of Trichoderma isolates against Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Mariela Otoni; de Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Dos Santos, Gil Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Cléia Almeida; de Souza, Danival José

    2017-08-01

    Filamentous fungi from the genus Trichoderma are commonly found in soil. They are considered facultative mycoparasites, and are antagonists of other fungi such as the cultivar of leaf-cutting ants (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus). The aim of the present study was to bioprospect Trichoderma spp. from different soils collected from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, for antagonistic effects against the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. To isolate filamentous fungi, samples were collected from six locations. Preliminarily, isolates were identified by morphological analysis as belonging to Trichoderma. Trichoderma spp. had their internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) sequenced to confirm species-level taxonomy. L. gongylophorus was isolated from a laboratory ant colony. Antagonistic properties of seven isolates of Trichoderma against L. gongylophorus were measured using paired disks in Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium (PDA). All Trichoderma isolates inhibited the growth of L. gongylophorus in Petri dishes. Isolate 2 of Trichoderma spirale group exhibited slow mycelial growth in the Petri dish, and a high rate of inhibition against L. gongylophorus. This isolate is a promising fungus for field tests of biological control methods for leaf-cutting ants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A new species of Trichoderma hypoxylon harbours abundant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingzu; Pei, Yunfei; Li, Erwei; Li, Wei; Hyde, Kevin D; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Xingzhong

    2016-11-21

    Some species of Trichoderma are fungicolous on fungi and have been extensively studied and commercialized as biocontrol agents. Multigene analyses coupled with morphology, resulted in the discovery of T. hypoxylon sp. nov., which was isolated from surface of the stroma of Hypoxylon anthochroum. The new taxon produces Trichoderma- to Verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data indicated that T. hypoxylon is a well-distinguished species with strong bootstrap support in the polysporum group. Chemical assessment of this species reveals a richness of secondary metabolites with trichothecenes and epipolythiodiketopiperazines as the major compounds. The fungicolous life style of T. hypoxylon and the production of abundant metabolites are indicative of the important ecological roles of this species in nature.

  8. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    of the reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma......The key to achieve successful, reproducible biological control is the gradual appreciation that knowledge of the ecological interactions taking place in soil and root environments is required to predict the condition under which biological control can be achieved and, indeed, it may be part...... inoculation procedures were employed. Four potential biocontrol agents, all identified as T. harzianum according to the ITS sequences, were selected according to their ability of reducing radish damping off, and were employed in a Competitive Saprophytic Ability (CSA) test, in order to investigate the role...

  9. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma sp. dan Gliocladium sp. untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu (Fusarium oxysporum) pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhina, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Arie Ramadhina, 2012. The Use of Antagonism Fungus of Trichoderma sp and Gliocladium sp. for Controlling Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) in Red Onion Plants (Allium ascolanicum). Supervised by Lisnawita and Lahmuddin Lubis. The aim of the research was to know the effectiveness of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants. The research was performed in the green-house at the faculty of Agriculture, USU, from February until May, 2012. The researc...

  10. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  11. 77 FR 4903 - Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-0245- 0008;oldLink=false. 18. U.S. EPA. 2010a. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 Biopesticides... EPA consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National...

  12. Snuffelen aan Trichoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Problemen met groene schimmel in champignon-compost blijven zich voor doen, ondanks alle genomen maatregelen. In een onderzoek van Plant Research International wordt nu getracht, via geurprofielen Trichoderma aggressivum al tijdens het doorgroeien aan te tonen.

  13. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  14. Tolerance to chitosan by Trichoderma species is associated with low membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-González, Ernesto A; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Cruz-Valerio, Mayra; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on growth of Trichoderma spp., a cosmopolitan genus widely exploited for their biocontrol properties was evaluated. Based on genotypic (ITS of 18S rDNA) characters, four isolates of Trichoderma were identified as T. pseudokoningii FLM16, T. citrinoviride FLM17, T. harzianum EZG47, and T. koningiopsis VSL185. Chitosan reduces radial growth of Trichoderma isolates in concentration-wise manner. T. koningiopsis VSL185 was the most chitosan tolerant isolate in all culture media amended with chitosan (0.5-2.0 mg ml(-1) ). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined showing that T. koningiopsis VSL185 displays higher chitosan tolerance with MIC value >2000 μg ml(-1) while for other Trichoderma isolates MIC values were around 10 μg ml(-1) . Finally, free fatty acid composition reveals that T. koningiopsis VSL185, chitosan tolerant isolate, displays lower linolenic acid (C18:3) content than chitosan sensitive Trichoderma isolates. Our findings suggest that low membrane fluidity is associated with chitosan tolerance in Trichoderma spp. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Extraction and Identification of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Trichoderma atroviridae (6022 and Evaluating of their Antifungal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahiri Tabarestani

    2017-08-01

    . According to mass spectra library, 61 compounds such as some alkanes, alkenes, phenolic, alcoholic, terpenoid and aromatic compounds have been detected by 4 processes that among them, alkanes had the highest frequency. Many important compounds with the antifungal effect such as iso-amyl-alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1-pentanol, stearic acid, palmitic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate have been identified. So, inhibitory effects of isolate 6022 are related to these compounds. Conclusions: Secondary metabolites of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma have been involved in different biological processes such as biocontrol or communication between fungi and their living environment. These fungi have antibiotic activity against plant pathogenic fungi, so the requirement for monitoring Trichoderma VOCs profiles has been offered. The results showed that isolate 6022 has the potential for controlling above mentioned pathogens so it can be the suitable alternative for chemical toxins. This method is simple for extraction of the secondary metabolites, under laboratory conditions and studied in Iran for the first time.

  16. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  17. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, E.V.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Haapaniemi, P.; Yadav, A.; Saloheimo, M.; Corthals, G.L.; Pakula, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation

  18. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools...

  19. Trichoderma stromaticum and its overseas relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma stromaticum, T. rossicum and newly discovered species form a new lineage in Trichoderma. Phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity in Trichoderma stromaticum are examined in light of reported differences in ecological parameters and AFLP patterns. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis using 4 gen...

  20. Ecological plasticity of Trichoderma fungi in leached chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I. D.; Senchakova, T. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    The autecological properties of Trichoderma fungi ecotypes isolated from the leached chernozem of the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia have been studied. We were the first who carried out the complex study of the synecological relations of micromycetes of such kinds in a system including the soil, microbial community, and plants, i.e., their relations with soil saprotrophic fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, plants, and pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the ecological plasticity of the Trichoderma genus in the soil of this zone is determined by its growth rate, the optimum pH and temperature, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, the biological action of mycotoxins, and the ability for parasitism. The efficiency of the introduction of Trichoderma species typical and atypical for the leached chernozem into this soil and their influence on the structure of the microbial community were evaluated. The T. pseudokoningii ecotype, which produces cellulolytic enzymes, is very promising for industrial biotechnology, and the T. harzianum ecotype can be used in soil biotechnology for the biocontrol of chernozem. The addition of a commercial trichodermin preparation into the chernozem damages the structure of its microbial community.

  1. Histone Deacetylase HDA-2 Regulates Trichoderma atroviride Growth, Conidiation, Blue Light Perception, and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Concepción, Macario; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema Rosa; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Fungal blue-light photoreceptors have been proposed as integrators of light and oxidative stress. However, additional elements participating in the integrative pathway remain to be identified. In Trichoderma atroviride, the blue-light regulator (BLR) proteins BLR-1 and -2 are known to regulate gene transcription, mycelial growth, and asexual development upon illumination, and recent global transcriptional analysis revealed that the histone deacetylase-encoding gene hda-2 is induced by light. Here, by assessing responses to stimuli in wild-type and Δhda-2 backgrounds, we evaluate the role of HDA-2 in the regulation of genes responsive to light and oxidative stress. Δhda-2 strains present reduced growth, misregulation of the con-1 gene, and absence of conidia in response to light and mechanical injury. We found that the expression of hda-2 is BLR-1 dependent and HDA-2 in turn is essential for the transcription of early and late light-responsive genes that include blr-1, indicating a regulatory feedback loop. When subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS), Δhda-2 mutants display high sensitivity whereas Δblr strains exhibit the opposite phenotype. Consistently, in the presence of ROS, ROS-related genes show high transcription levels in wild-type and Δblr strains but misregulation in Δhda-2 mutants. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitations of histone H3 acetylated at Lys9/Lys14 on cat-3 and gst-1 promoters display low accumulation of H3K9K14ac in Δblr and Δhda-2 strains, suggesting indirect regulation of ROS-related genes by HDA-2. Our results point to a mutual dependence between HDA-2 and BLR proteins and reveal the role of these proteins in an intricate gene regulation landscape in response to blue light and ROS. Trichoderma atroviride is a free-living fungus commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots and is widely used as an agent in biocontrol as it parasitizes other fungi, stimulates plant growth, and induces the plant defense system. To survive in

  2. isolated from Trichoderma harzianum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... segmentation, branching and hyphal bursting at the concentration of 200 µg ml-1. Key words: ... family 18 and can be further grouped into class III and class V. Many .... for their ability to act as a biocontrol agents against plant.

  3. Xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, D.J.; Mayers, P.R.; Saddler, J.N. (Fortintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Growth of Trichoderma harzianum E58 on hemicellulose-rich media, both in batch and fermentor cultures, resulted in independent profiles of the production of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes. Dramatic differences in the ratio of xylanase to endoglucanase activities were observed among cultures grown on cellulose-rich Solka Floc and xylan. These results indicated that the induction of xylanases and cellulases was likely to be under separate regulatory control. The specific activity and amount of xylanases produced were found to be dependent on the concentration of xylan in the growth media. Growth on oat spelts xylan or the hemicellulose-rich, watersoluble fraction from steam-treated aspenwood (SEA-WS) greatly enhanced the production of xylanases and xylosidase in the culture filtrates. Constitutive levels of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes were detected during growth of the fungus on glucose. (orig.).

  4. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effects of nitrogen availability and spore concentration on the biocontrol activity of Ascochyta caulina in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of

  6. Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , Alternaria alternata , Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani ). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were designated as Trichoderma harzianum , T. koningii , T. asperellum , T. virens and T. viride . PCA analysis explained 31.53, 61.95, 62.22 and 60.25% genetic variation among Trichoderma isolates based on RAPD, REP-, ERIC- and BOX element analysis, respectively. ERG - 1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase has been used for the first time for diversity analysis of antagonistic Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere. Phylogenetic analysis of ERG -1 gene sequences revealed close relatedness of ERG -1sequences with earlier reported sequences of Hypocrea lixii , T. arundinaceum and T. reesei. However, ERG -1 gene also showed heterogeneity among some antagonistic isolates and indicated the possibility of occurrence of squalene epoxidase driven triterpene biosynthesis as an alternative biocontrol mechanism in Trichoderma species.

  7. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    application of Trichoderma biocontrol strains.

  8. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    application of Trichoderma biocontrol strains. PMID:27482910

  9. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    application of Trichoderma biocontrol strains.

  10. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  11. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  12. mRNA expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in oil palm leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after treatment with Ganoderma boninense pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  13. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  14. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    characterization of Trichoderma isolates parasitic to Pleurotus indicated that they are different from both T. aggressivum forms parasitic to Agaricus, and the majority of the isolates probably belong to the species T. harzianum. In vitro confrontation plates were performed with 26 isolates of aggressive Trichoderma obtained from compost, three Trichoderma isolates used in biological control and 12 varieties of Pleurotus. No inhibitory effect was observed between any of the Trichoderma isolates with Pleurotus, although some growth inhibition was caused by the biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma on some of the aggressive isolates. The temperature optimum for Pleurotus growth was at 28 ℃, whereas Trichoderma grew well at a wider range (20-28℃), and exceeded the growth rate of Pleurotus by three times at 25℃.The pH optimum for the growth of Pleurotus was alkaline (pH 8-9) whereas Trichoderma preferred acidic-neutral pH (5-7) . Various commercial fungicides used in agriculture (procloraz, thiabendazole,dichloran, benomyl, propiconazole, thiofanatomethyl) were tested against the aggressive and biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma, as well as the different varieties of Pleurotus to determine dose response curves and combinations that would inhibit spore germination, mycelial growth and subsequent sporulation. Both procloraz and thiabendazole, which are pesticides allowed in edible mushroom production, were found to control the growth of the aggressive Trichoderma isolates and did not have a negative effect on Pleurotus.

  15. Biodegradation of sulfosulphuron in agricultural soil by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, U; Choudhury, P P

    2014-11-01

    Sulfosulphuron-degrading fungus was isolated by enrichment technique from the sulfosulphuron-contaminated soil of wheat rhizosphere. To assess the biodegradation potential of isolated Trichoderma sp., minimal potato dextrose agar broth with different levels of sulfosulphuron (up to 2 g l(-1) ) was evaluated in the growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of degradation products 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (I) and 2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide-2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide (II) indicating the cleavage of the urea bridge and the presence of the by-product N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (III) indicating the degradation of sulfonylamide linkage. Two other metabolites, N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N'-hydroxyurea (IV) and N, N'-bis(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (V), were also identified. From the previous reports, it was found that the degradation of sulfonyl urea herbicides took place through the chemical degradation of the sulfonylurea bridge followed by microbial degradation. During this investigation, Trichoderma sp. grew well with and degraded sulfosulphuron via both the decarboxylation on the sulphonyl urea bridge and the hydrolytic cleavage of the sulfonylamide linkage as demonstrated by the formation of metabolites. Trichoderma is nonphytopathogenic in nature, and some species of it restrict the growth of soil-dwelling phytopathogens. Therefore, it is a promising candidate for the decontamination of soil from sulfosulphuron residues. The degradation of sulfosulphuron by any individual fungus is being reported for the first time. Trichoderma sp. isolated from wheat-rhizospheric soil could survive in minimal broth rich in sulfosulphuron. Previous reports have described the complete degradation of any sulfonyl urea herbicides by micro-organisms only after the pH-dependent chemical hydrolysis of the sulfonyl urea bridge of the herbicide. This study

  16. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  17. Gate crashing arbuscular mycorrhizas: in vivo imaging shows the extensive colonization of both symbionts by Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lace, Beatrice; Genre, Andrea; Woo, Sheridan; Faccio, Antonella; Lorito, Matteo; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi include strains of Trichoderma species that are used in biocontrol, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, that enhance plant nutrition and stress resistance. The concurrent interaction of plants with these two groups of fungi affects crop performance but has only been occasionally studied so far. Using in vivo imaging of green fluorescent protein-tagged lines, we investigated the cellular interactions occurring between Trichoderma atroviride PKI1, Medicago truncatula and two Gigaspora species under in vitro culture conditions. Trichoderma atroviride did not activate symbiotic-like responses in the plant cells, such as nuclear calcium spiking or cytoplasmic aggregations at hyphal contact sites. Furthermore, T. atroviride parasitized G. gigantea and G. margarita hyphae through localized wall breaking and degradation - although this was not associated with significant chitin lysis nor the upregulation of two major chitinase genes. Trichoderma atroviride colonized broad areas of the root epidermis, in association with localized cell death. The infection of both symbionts was also observed when T. atroviride was applied to a pre-established AM symbiosis. We conclude that - although this triple interaction is known to improve plant growth in agricultural environments - in vitro culture demonstrate a particularly aggressive mycoparasitic and plant-colonizing behaviour of a biocontrol strain of Trichoderma. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Biocontrol of Fusarium circinatum Infection of Young Pinus radiata Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iturritxa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.

  19. Effect of cobalt on the growth of Trichoderma viride and determination of its distribution using 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, V.; Lesny, J.; Babej, L.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and morphology of filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride grown in the presence of various Co concentrations were studied. Using 60 Co, the cobalt content in mycelium and conidia was determined. No influence of 60 Co-radiation on growth and morphology was observed. (author) 5 refs.; 4 figs

  20. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomical investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hot spot region with special reference to Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th; Devi, S Indira; Sharma, K Chandradev; Kennedy, K

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice.

  2. Phylogeny and Taxonomical Investigation of Trichoderma spp. from Indian Region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hot Spot Region with Special Reference to Manipur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Th.; Devi, S. Indira; Sharma, K. Chandradev; Kennedy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Towards assessing the genetic diversity and occurrence of Trichoderma species from the Indian region of Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, a total of 193 Trichoderma strains were isolated from cultivated soils of nine different districts of Manipur comprising 4 different agroclimatic zones. The isolates were grouped based on the morphological characteristics. ITS-RFLP of the rDNA region using three restriction digestion enzymes: Mob1, Taq1, and Hinf1, showed interspecific variations among 65 isolates of Trichoderma. Based on ITS sequence data, a total of 22 different types of representative Trichoderma species were reported and phylogenetic analysis showed 4 well-separated main clades in which T. harzianum was found to be the most prevalent spp. among all the Trichoderma spp. Combined molecular and phenotypic data leads to the development of a taxonomy of all the 22 different Trichoderma spp., which was reported for the first time from this unique region. All these species were found to produce different extrolites and enzymes responsible for the biocontrol activities against the harmful fungal phytopathogens that hamper in food production. This potential indigenous Trichoderma spp. can be targeted for the development of suitable bioformulation against soil and seedborne pathogens in sustainable agricultural practice. PMID:25699268

  3. Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedlings by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B A; Bae, H; Strem, M D; Roberts, D P; Thomas, S E; Crozier, J; Samuels, G J; Choi, Ik-Young; Holmes, K A

    2006-11-01

    Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species are being considered as biocontrol agents for diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao). Gene expression was studied during the interaction between cacao seedlings and four endophytic Trichoderma isolates, T. ovalisporum-DIS 70a, T. hamatum-DIS 219b, T. harzianum-DIS 219f, and Trichoderma sp.-DIS 172ai. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 219f were mycoparasitic on the pathogen Moniliophthora roreri, and DIS 172ai produced metabolites that inhibited growth of M. roreri in culture. ESTs (116) responsive to endophytic colonization of cacao were identified using differential display and their expression analyzed using macroarrays. Nineteen cacao ESTs and 17 Trichoderma ESTs were chosen for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Seven cacao ESTs were induced during colonization by the Trichoderma isolates. These included putative genes for ornithine decarboxylase (P1), GST-like proteins (P4), zinc finger protein (P13), wound-induced protein (P26), EF-calcium-binding protein (P29), carbohydrate oxidase (P59), and an unknown protein (U4). Two plant ESTs, extensin-like protein (P12) and major intrinsic protein (P31), were repressed due to colonization. The plant gene expression profile was dependent on the Trichoderma isolate colonizing the cacao seedling. The fungal ESTs induced in colonized cacao seedlings also varied with the Trichoderma isolate used. The most highly induced fungal ESTs were putative glucosyl hydrolase family 2 (F3), glucosyl hydrolase family 7 (F7), serine protease (F11), and alcohol oxidase (F19). The pattern of altered gene expression suggests a complex system of genetic cross talk occurs between the cacao tree and Trichoderma isolates during the establishment of the endophytic association.

  4. Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Hans-Börje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

    1985-01-01

    The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

  5. How a mycoparasite employs g-protein signaling: using the example of trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omann, Markus; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic Trichoderma spp. act as potent biocontrol agents against a number of plant pathogenic fungi, whereupon the mycoparasitic attack includes host recognition followed by infection structure formation and secretion of lytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites leading to the host's death. Host-derived signals are suggested to be recognized by receptors located on the mycoparasite's cell surface eliciting an internal signal transduction cascade which results in the transcription of mycoparasitism-relevant genes. Heterotrimeric G proteins of fungi transmit signals originating from G-protein-coupled receptors mainly to the cAMP and the MAP kinase pathways resulting in regulation of downstream effectors. Components of the G-protein signaling machinery such as Gα subunits and G-protein-coupled receptors were recently shown to play crucial roles in Trichoderma mycoparasitism as they govern processes such as the production of extracellular cell wall lytic enzymes, the secretion of antifungal metabolites, and the formation of infection structures.

  6. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis: from inhibition to protection against phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwaly eRamadan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defence pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defence-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin, camalexin, and increased expression of defence related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence.The prominent headspace volatile of T. asperellum IsmT5 was identified to be 6-pentyl-α-pyrone, which was solely applied to A. thaliana to verify the growth and defence reactions. Most noticeable is that A. thaliana preexposed to 6PP showed significantly reduced symptoms when challenged with Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola, indicating that defence-activated plants subsequently became more resistant to pathogen attack. Together, these results support that products that are based on Trichoderma volatiles have the potential being a useful biocontrol agent in agriculture.

  7. Human exposure to airborne fungi from genera used as biocontrol agents in plant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Hansen, Vinni Mona; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The fungi Trichoderma harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride, Paeciliomyces fumosoroseus, P. lilacinus, Verticillium/lecanicillium lecanii, Ulocladium oudemansii, U. atrum and Beauveria bassiana are used or considered to be used for biocontrol of pests and plant diseases. Human exposure to these fungi in environments where they may naturally occur or are used as biocontrol agents has not been directly investigated to date. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of human exposure to fungi from the relevant genera. The subject of fungal taxonomy due to the rapid development of this issue is also discussed. B. bassiana, V. lecanii, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, P. lilacinus and U. oudemansii were infrequently present in the air and thus people in general seem to be seldom exposed to these fungi. However, when V. lecanii was present, high concentrations were measured. Fungi from the genera Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Ulocladium were rarely identified to the species level and sometimes high concentrations were reported. T. viride and U. atrum were detected frequently in different environments and sometimes with a high frequency of presence in samples. Thus, people seem to be frequently exposed to these fungi. Sequence data have led to recent revisions of fungal taxonomy, and in future studies it is important to specify the taxonomy used for identification, thus making comparisons possible.

  8. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  9. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  10. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  11. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  13. A combination of biocontrol agents improves the management of dry root rot (Macrophomina phaseolina in greengram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thilagavathi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride (strains Tv1 and Tv13, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis (Bs16 were tested individually and in combination for their effectiveness against root rot of greengram caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. As regards the compatibility of the biocontrol agents with each other, T. viride strains were not compatible with B. subtilis (Bs16, but P. fluorescens strains were compatible with B. subtilis and T. viride. Of the biocontrol agents tested in vitro against M. phaseolina, combinations of P. fluorescens+T. viride (Pf1+Tv1, Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen and they also promoted the growth of the greengram seedlings. A combination of Pf1+Tv1 was most effective in reducing root rot incidence under glass-house and field conditions as compared with other single or combined treatments or the untreated control. The activity of the defense-related enzymes peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase was significantly greater in greengram plants treated with a talc based formulation containing Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1, than in plants receiving other treatments or the untreated control. Moreover, a combination of Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 significantly increased yield under glass house and field conditions.

  14. Statistical culture-based strategies to enhance chlamydospore production by Trichoderma harzianum SH2303 in liquid fermentation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-qian; Song, Kai; Li, Ya-chai; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma-based formulations are applied as commercial biocontrol agents for soil-borne plant pathogens. Chlamydospores are active propagules in Trichoderma spp., but their production is currently limited due to a lack of optimal liquid fermentation technology. In this study, we explored response surface methodologies for optimizing fermentation technology in Trichoderma SH2303. Our initial studies, using the Plackett-Burman design, identified cornmeal, glycerol, and initial pH levels as the most significant factors (P<0.05) for enhancing the production of chlamydospores. Subsequently, we applied the Box-Behnken design to study the interactions between, and optimal levels of, a number of factors in chlamydospore production. These statistically predicted results indicated that the highest number of chlamydospores (3.6×108 spores/ml) would be obtained under the following condition: corn flour 62.86 g/L, glycerol 7.54 ml/L, pH 4.17, and 6-d incubation in liquid fermentation. We validated these predicted values via three repeated experiments using the optimal culture and achieved maximum chlamydospores of 4.5×108 spores/ml, which approximately a 8-fold increase in the number of chlamydospores produced by T. harzianum SH2303 compared with that before optimization. These optimized values could help make chlamydospore production cost-efficient in the future development of novel biocontrol agents. PMID:27487807

  15. Statistical culture-based strategies to enhance chlamydospore production by Trichoderma harzianum SH2303 in liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Qian; Song, Kai; Li, Ya-Chai; Chen, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Trichoderma-based formulations are applied as commercial biocontrol agents for soil-borne plant pathogens. Chlamydospores are active propagules in Trichoderma spp., but their production is currently limited due to a lack of optimal liquid fermentation technology. In this study, we explored response surface methodologies for optimizing fermentation technology in Trichoderma SH2303. Our initial studies, using the Plackett-Burman design, identified cornmeal, glycerol, and initial pH levels as the most significant factors (P<0.05) for enhancing the production of chlamydospores. Subsequently, we applied the Box-Behnken design to study the interactions between, and optimal levels of, a number of factors in chlamydospore production. These statistically predicted results indicated that the highest number of chlamydospores (3.6×10(8) spores/ml) would be obtained under the following condition: corn flour 62.86 g/L, glycerol 7.54 ml/L, pH 4.17, and 6-d incubation in liquid fermentation. We validated these predicted values via three repeated experiments using the optimal culture and achieved maximum chlamydospores of 4.5×10(8) spores/ml, which approximately a 8-fold increase in the number of chlamydospores produced by T. harzianum SH2303 compared with that before optimization. These optimized values could help make chlamydospore production cost-efficient in the future development of novel biocontrol agents.

  16. A novel L-amino acid oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 associated with antagonism of Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Ann; Cheng, Chi-Hua; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Liu, Shu-Ying; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2011-05-11

    Trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, but their biocontrol mechanisms are poorly understood. A novel L-amino oxidase (Th-LAAO) was identified from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323. Here, we show a FAD-binding glycoprotein with the best substrate specificity constant for L-phenylalanine. Although the amino acid sequence of Th-LAAO revealed limited homology (16-24%) to other LAAO members, a highly conserved FAD-binding motif was identified in the N-terminus. Th-LAAO was shown to be a homodimeric protein, but the monomeric form was predominant when grown in the presence of deactivated Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that Th-LAAO had an antagonistic effect against Rhizoctonia solani and a stimulatory one on hyphal density and sporulation in T. harzianum ETS 323. These findings further our understanding of T. harzianum as a biocontrol agent and provide insight into the biological function of l-amino acid oxidase.

  17. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The genus Trichoderma contains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for "hot topic" research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism in T. reesei, T. atroviride, and T. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of each Trichoderma species discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved in N-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability of Trichoderma spp. to generate hybrid galactose-containing N-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique to Trichoderma, and these warrant further investigation. We found interesting expansions in the Trichoderma genus in several signaling pathways, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, RAS GTPases, and casein kinases. A particularly interesting feature absolutely unique to T. atroviride is the duplication of the alternative sulfur amino acid synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The role of subsite +2 of the Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase TrMan5A in hydrolysis and transglycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, Anna; Hägglund, Per; Anderson, Lars Steen

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal catalytic module of beta-mannanase TrMan5A from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is classified into family 5 of glycoside hydrolases. It is further classified in clan A with a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel configuration and has two catalytic glutamates (E169 and E276). It has at ...

  19. The influence of fungicides on the growth of Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    Numbers of strains of Trichoderma asperellum are known as biological control agents of certain root pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The restricted use of fungicides is sometimes useful in combination with these biological control agents. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth of T. asperellum in the presence of fungicides as Previcur (active substance propamocarb) and Sumico (with the active substance carbendazim and diethofencarb). The influence of these fungicides was first examined in laboratory conditions. The fungus was brought on a potato dextrose agar where the fungicides Previcur, Sumico and carbendazim were added in a concentration of 0.1x, 1x and 10x the recommended dose. The growth of T. asperellum was totally inhibited by the three Sumico and carbendazim concentrations. T. asperellum knew a small but significant decrease of growth when the 10x dose of Previcur was added. Afterwards the influence of these fungicides on the fungus was tested in field conditions in the greenhouse. The fungus was applied to the roots of the tomato plant, which was grown on a rockwool medium. Previcur and Sumico were submitted to the plants using the normal procedure. The results of the tests showed that in field conditions there was no effect of the fungicide treatment on the presence of the fungus, although the laboratory tests showed the opposite for Sumico. To explain this contradiction two other experiments were conducted to follow the migration of the Sumico after treatment. A residue analysis showed that the highest concentration of Sumico was detected in the rockwool medium, and some residues were found in the drain water and the stems. Even with a 100x recommended dose of Sumico the fungus was still present the day after the treatment.

  20. Approaches for monitoring the release of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata, a biocontrol agent of root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Simon D; Hidalgo-Diaz, Leopoldo; Clark, Ian M; Morton, C Oliver; de Oca, Nivian Montes; Gray, Paul A; Kerry, Brian R

    2003-02-01

    Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biocontrol agent against root-knot nematodes. Diagnosis of isolates has relied on morphological identification, and is both time-consuming and difficult. beta-tubulin primers have been developed for the identification of this fungus that were specific enough to distinguish between varieties of the fungus within the same species. Separate primers have been developed for the specific detection of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata based on ITS sequences, which were able to detect the fungus in soil from various sites in Cuba where the biocontrol agent had been added. When the PCR diagnosis was combined with serial dilution of soil samples on selective medium, colonies were rapidly identified. The fungus was still present, albeit at low densities, in soils inoculated five years previously. The development of a baiting method allowed quick in situ screening of the isolates' ability to infect nematode eggs, and when combined with PCR diagnosis both varieties of the fungus could be detected in infected eggs. RFLP analysis of ITS sequences from P. chlamydosporia provided an extra level of discrimination between isolates.

  1. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl KOTZE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trunk diseases of grapevine are caused by numerous pathogens, including Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and species of Botryosphaeriaceae (incl. Botryosphaeria and aggregate genera, Phomopsis and Phaeoacremonium. Since infections occur mainly through pruning wounds, that have been shown by previous research to stay susceptible for up to 16 weeks after pruning, long-term pruning wound protection is required for prevention of infection. This study evaluated several biocontrol agents against a range of trunk disease pathogens in dual plate laboratory trials to determine macroscopic and microscopic interactions. The biocontrol agents had a substantial effect on all the pathogens, with a wide range of macroscopic and microscopic interactions observed. The best performing biocontrol agents were tested in two field trials. Fresh pruning wounds were treated with benomyl, Trichoderma products (Biotricho®, Vinevax® and ECO 77® and isolates (USPP-T1 and -T2, identified as T. atroviride and Bacillus subtilis. Seven days after treatment the pruning wounds were inoculated by spraying with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, N. parvum, Diplodia seriata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phomopsis viticola. Eight months after inoculation, the treatments were evaluated by isolation onto potato dextrose agar. The efficacy of the biocontrol agents was in most cases similar or superior to that observed for benomyl. Isolate USPP-T1, in particular, was very effective, reducing incidence of Ph. viticola, E. lata, Pa. chlamydospora, N. australe, N. parvum, D. seriata and L. theobromae by 69, 76, 77, 78, 80, 85 and 92%, respectively. This is the first report of biological protection of grapevine pruning wounds against this group of grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

  2. Species specific substrates and products choices of 4-O-acetyltransferase from Trichoderma brevicompactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Kumari, Indu; Hussain, Razak; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    Antagonistic species of Trichoderma such as T. harzianum, T. viride, T. virens and T. koningii are well-known biocontrol agents that have been reported to suppress pathogenic soil microbes and enhance the growth of crop plants. Secondary metabolites (SMs) including trichothecenes are responsible for its biocontrol activities. The trichothecenes, trichodermin and harzianum A (HA) are produced in species dependent manner respectively, by Trichoderma brevicompactum (TB) and Trichoderma arundinaceum (TA). The last step in the pathway involves the conversion of trichodermol into trichodermin or HA alternatively, which is catalyzed by 4-O-acetyltransferase (encoded by tri3 gene). Comparative sequence analysis of acetyltransferase enzyme of TB with other chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) family proteins revealed the conserved motif involved in the catalysis. Multiple substrate binding studies were carried out to explore the mechanism behind the two different outcomes. His188 was found to have a role in initial substrate binding. In the case of trichodermin synthesis, represented by ternary complex 1, the trichodermol and acetic anhydride (AAn), the two substrates come very close to each other during molecular simulation analysis so that interactions become possible between them and acetyl group may get transferred from AAn to trichodermol, and Tyr476 residue mediates this phenomenon resulting in the formation of trichodermin. However, in case of the HA biosynthesis using the TB version of enzyme, represented by ternary complex 2, the two substrates, trichodermol and octa-2Z,4E,6E-trienedioic acid (OCTA) did not show any such interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial agents against Helicoverpa armigera: Where are we and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... feed and fibre around the world. Different approaches namely: .... biocontrol agent from the fungus Trichoderma harzianum was also evaluated .... the antibiotic biosynthetic gene transfer (Baltz, 2005). Overall 23,000 bioactive ...

  4. Epiphytic Ba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    around each epiphytic bacteria tested was used ---:-.';( days before ..... fungus Gaeumannomyces gramznzs var. trztzcz following wheat ... laboratory studies indicate that antibiosis is one ... of an introduced biocontrol agent (Trichoderma.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 34 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biocontrol properties of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from North-east India against ... Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli ... Entomophaga maimaiga – New entomopathogenic fungus in the Republic of ...

  6. Catalytic diversity and homotropic allostery of two Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase like proteins from Trichoderma brevicompactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Razak; Kumari, Indu; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Khan, Tabreiz Ahmad; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    Trichothecenes are the secondary metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp. Some of these molecules have been reported for their ability to stimulate plant growth by suppressing plant diseases and hence enabling Trichoderma spp. to be efficiently used as biocontrol agents in modern agriculture. Many of the proteins involved in the trichothecenes biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma spp. are encoded by the genes present in the tri cluster. Tri4 protein catalyzes three consecutive oxygenation reaction steps during biosynthesis of isotrichodiol in the trichothecenes biosynthetic pathway, while tri11 protein catalyzes the C4 hydroxylation of 12, 13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene to produce trichodermol. In the present study, we have homology modelled the three-dimensional structures of tri4 and tri11 proteins. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of their action. Both tri4 and tri11 encode for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase like proteins. These data also revealed effector-induced allosteric changes on substrate binding at an alternative binding site and showed potential homotropic negative cooperativity. These analyses also showed that their catalytic mechanism relies on protein-ligand and protein-heme interactions controlled by hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions which orient the complex in optimal conformation within the active sites.

  7. Involvement of pachybasin and emodin in self-regulation of Trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ruu; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Liu, Shu-Ying; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2012-03-07

    Our aim was to determine the effects of two secondary metabolites secreted by Trichoderma harzianum, pachybasin and emodin, on the mycoparasitic coiling behavior and cAMP content of T. harzianum. The number of T. harzianum coils around Nylon 66 fiber was increased in the presence of R. solani. The number of T. harzianum coils around R. solani hyphae and Nylon 66 fiber were significantly increased in the presence of pachybasin and emodin. The cAMP level in T. harzianum was significantly increased by close contact with R. solani and much higer cAMP level in the presence of exogenous pachybasin and emodin. A cAMP inhibitor diminished the effect of pachybasin and emodin on T. harzianum coiling around Nylon 66 fiber. The results suggest that pachybasin and emodin mediate the increase in the number of Trichoderma mycoparasitic coils via cAMP signaling. This is the first report to suggest that pachybasin and emodin play roles in the biocontrol mechanism of Trichoderma.

  8. Isolate-specific conidiation in Trichoderma in response to different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna M; Weld, Richard J; Stewart, Alison

    2010-01-01

    A characteristic feature of Trichoderma is the production of concentric rings of conidia in response to alternating light/dark conditions and a single ring of conidia in response to a single burst of light. In this study, conidiation was investigated in four biocontrol isolates (T. hamatum, T. atroviride, T. asperellum, T. virens) and one isolate from the mushroom pathogen species, T. pleuroticola. All five isolates produced concentric conidial rings under alternating light/dark conditions on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), however, in response to a 15min burst of blue light, only T. asperellum and T. virens produced a clearly defined conidial ring. Both T. pleuroticola and T. hamatum photoconidiated in a disk-like fashion and T. atroviride produced a broken ring with a partially filled in appearance. In the presence of primary nitrogen, T. asperellum and T. pleuroticola conidiated in a disk, whereas, when grown in the presence of secondary nitrogen, a ring of conidia was produced. Primary nitrogen promoted photoconidiation and competency to conidiate in response to light appeared dependent on the nitrogen catabolite repression state of the cell. Mycelial injury was also investigated in the same five isolates of Trichoderma on PDA and under different nitrogen statuses. For the first time, we report that conidiation in response to injury is differentially regulated in different isolates/species of Trichoderma. Copyright © 2009 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae reduces blood feeding and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent against adult African malaria vectors. In addition to causing significant mortality, this pathogen is known to cause reductions in feeding and fecundity in a range of insects. In the present study we

  10. Autodissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae amongst adults of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae s.s.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Background - The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for adult African malaria vectors. In the laboratory, work was carried out to assess whether horizontal transmission of the pathogen can take place during copulation, as this would enhance the

  11. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13

  12. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  13. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  14. Potential of genes and gene products from Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for the development of biological pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, M; Hayes, C K; Zoina, A; Scala, F; Del Sorbo, G; Woo, S L; Harman, G E

    1994-12-01

    Fungal cell wall degrading enzymes produced by the biocontrol fungi Trichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium virens are strong inhibitors of spore germination and hyphal elongation of a number of phytopathogenic fungi. The purified enzymes include chitinolytic enzymes with different modes of action or different substrate specificity and glucanolytic enzymes with exo-activity. A variety of synergistic interactions were found when different enzymes were combined or associated with biotic or abiotic antifungal agents. The levels of inhibition obtained by using enzyme combinations were, in some cases, comparable with commercial fungicides. Moreover, the antifungal interaction between enzymes and common fungicides allowed the reduction of the chemical doses up to 200-fold. Chitinolytic and glucanolytic enzymes from T. harzianum were able to improve substantially the antifungal ability of a biocontrol strain of Enterobacter cloacae. DNA fragments containing genes encoding for different chitinolytic enzymes were isolated from a cDNA library of T. harzianum and cloned for mechanistic studies and biocontrol purposes. Our results provide additional information on the role of lytic enzymes in processes of biocontrol and strongly suggest the use of lytic enzymes and their genes for biological control of plant diseases.

  15. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Jihen [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Loungou, Mouna [Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Ammar, Emna, E-mail: ammarenis@yahoo.fr [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L{sup −1}. • At 200 g L{sup −1} PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  16. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L"−"1. • At 200 g L"−"1 PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  17. Identification of growth stage molecular markers in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Steyaert, Johanna; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Holyoake, Andrew; Braithwaite, Mark; Stewart, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Several members of the genus Trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. Therefore, the ability to monitor and track Trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. The objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust RNA isolation method from soil; and (c) develop molecular marker assays for characterizing morphogenesis whilst in the soil environment. Four cDNA libraries corresponding to conidia, germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were created, and the genes identified by sequencing. Stage specificity of the different genes was confirmed by either Northern blot or quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using RNA from the four stages. con10, a conidial-specific gene, was observed in conidia, as well as one gene also involved in subsequent stages of germination (L-lactate/malate dehydrogenase encoding gene). The germination stage revealed high expression rates of genes involved in amino acid and protein biosynthesis, while in the vegetative-growth stage, genes involved in differentiation, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase similar to Kpp7 from Ustilago maydis and the orthologue to stuA from Aspergillus nidulans, were preferentially expressed. Genes involved in cell-wall synthesis were expressed during conidiogenesis. We standardized total RNA isolation from Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' growing in soil and then examined the expression profiles of selected genes using qRT-PCR. The results suggested that the relative expression patterns were cyclic and not accumulative.

  18. The Effect of Trichoderma on Heavy Metal Mobility and Uptake by Miscanthus giganteus, Salix sp., Phalaris arundinacea, and Panicum virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata J. Kacprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of land application of biomaterials based on two strains of Trichoderma fungus on phytoremediation processes was studied. Six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were analysed in soil and soil leachate as well as in plant tissues. The translocation index (Ti and metal bioconcentration factors (BCF calculated for the inoculated plants were increased compared to the noninoculated control, except for Pb and Salix sp. Simultaneously, the mobilisation of metals in soil solution as an effect of biomaterials was noted. The highest values of Ti—339% (for Cr, 190% (for Ni, and 110% (for Cu—were achieved for the combination Miscanteus giganteus and Trichoderma MSO1. The results indicated that the application of fungus has positive effects on increasing the biomass, soil parameters (C, N, and P, and solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction for Miscanthus giganteus L., Panicum virgatum L., Phalaris arundinacea L., and Salix sp.

  19. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

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    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  20. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  1. Trichoderma G protein-coupled receptors: functional characterisation of a cAMP receptor-like protein from Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kurt; Omann, Markus; Pucher, Marion E; Delic, Marizela; Lehner, Sylvia M; Domnanich, Patrick; Kratochwill, Klaus; Druzhinina, Irina; Denk, Dagmar; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    Galpha subunits act to regulate vegetative growth, conidiation, and the mycoparasitic response in Trichoderma atroviride. To extend our knowledge on G protein signalling, we analysed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As the genome sequence of T. atroviride is not publicly available yet, we carried out an in silico exploration of the genome database of the close relative T. reesei. Twenty genes encoding putative GPCRs distributed over eight classes and additional 35 proteins similar to the Magnaporthe grisea PTH11 receptor were identified. Subsequently, four T. atroviride GPCR-encoding genes were isolated and affiliated to the cAMP receptor-like family by phylogenetic and topological analyses. All four genes showed lowest expression on glycerol and highest mRNA levels upon carbon starvation. Transcription of gpr3 and gpr4 responded to exogenously added cAMP and the shift from liquid to solid media. gpr3 mRNA levels also responded to the presence of fungal hyphae or cellulose membranes. Further characterisation of mutants bearing a gpr1-silencing construct revealed that Gpr1 is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and conidial germination. Four genes encoding the first GPCRs described in Trichoderma were isolated and their expression characterized. At least one of these GPCRs is important for several cellular processes, supporting the fundamental role of G protein signalling in this fungus.

  2. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  3. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Yield under Different Levels of Cadmium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. N81 under different levels of cadmium nitrate. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Trichoderma harzianum at two levels (with and without inoculation and four levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 50, 100, 150 mg l-1 were the treatment. Results of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed that inoculation of Trichoderma increased biological yield (46% and straw yield (30% as compared to control. Cadmium pollution has led to significant decrease in harvest index, grain number per spike and partitioning coefficient up to 5, 20, 24 and 38 percent compared to control, respectively. Furthermore, cadmium and fungus interaction were significant in terms of spike number, grain weight per spike, grain yield and tolerance index. Maximum grain yield and tolerance index were recorded in Trichoderma inoculation under cadmium-free plots which nearly increased 65 and 53 percent, respectively. In conclusion, using Trichoderma under cadmium pollution could improve wheat growth, yield and tolerance index

  4. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  5. Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, Bianca Delgado Menezes; Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; Pötter, Luciana; Silveira, Andressa; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. The use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by Ancylostoma eggs and larvae. Nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different fungal extracts of Paecilomyces lilacinus (n=2), Trichoderma harzianum (n=1) and Trichoderma virens (n=1) isolates on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. Fungal extracts consisted of fungal broth culture supernatant without filtration (crude extract) and filtered broth (filtered extract), macerated mycelium (crude macerate), and macerated mycelium submitted to filtration (filtered macerate). The Ancylostoma eggs were obtained from the feces of naturally infected dogs. In vitro assays were performed in five replicates and consisted of four treatments and one control group. The activity of the fungal extracts of each evaluated fungus differed (p<0.05) from those of the control group, showing significant ovicidal activity. The hatching of the eggs suffered reduction percentages of 68.43% and 47.05% with P. lilacinus, and 56.43% with T. harzianum, when crude macerate extract was used. The reduction with the macerate extract of T. virens was slightly lower (52.25%) than that for the filtered macerate (53.64%). The results showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. The ovicidal effect observed is likely to have been caused by the action of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Elshahawy, Ibrahim E

    2016-05-01

    Dracaena sanderiana, of the family Liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into Egypt. Typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported D. sanderiana samples. The pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on Koch's rule and identified as Colletotrichum dracaenophilum. The optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °C, maintained for 8 days. Kemazed 50% wettable powder (WP) was the most effective fungicide against the pathogen, as no fungal growth was observed over 100 ppm. The biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride followed by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus caused the highest reduction in fungal growth. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that this pathogen was observed on D. sanderiana in Egypt.

  7. Antagonism of Trichoderma species on Cladosporium herbarum and their enzimatic characterization Antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma sobre Cladosporium herbarum e suas caracterização enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The verrucose caused by Cladosporium herbarum reduces production and quality of Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims., a largely consumed tropical fruit. This work aimed to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma species (T. polysporum, T. koningii, T. viride and T. harzianum against Cladosporium herbarum, and to study the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by the pathogen and the antagonists. The results showed considerable antagonistic potential for the biocontrol of C. herbarum isolates by all Trichoderma species, except T. koningii. The most distinguished effect was observed for T. polysporum. In relation to the pattern of esterase obtained by electrophoresis in poliacrylamyde gel, the major activity presented by the isolates was observed after five days of incubation. The C. herbarum isolates produced extracellular enzymes, lipase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease, all possibly related to the infection process. Amylase excretion, not known to be associated with phytopathogens, was detected in Trichoderma species, but not in C. herbarum. In addition to amylase, all Trichoderma species tested produced also extracellular cellulase and pectinase, except T. koningii in relation to the latter enzyme. The demonstration of various esterase isoenzymes in zymograms of the Trichoderma species and C. herbarum isolates was markedly improved by washing the mycelia with detergents or EDTA. This fact suggested that a major fraction of extracelular enzymes may remain attached to outside fungal cell wall after being excreted.O maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims., um fruto tropical amplamente consumido, tem sua produção e a qualidade dos seus frutos reduzidos pela verrugose causada por Cladosporium herbarum. Este trabalho objetivou investigar o antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma (T. polysporum, T.koningii, T. viride e T. harzianum contra C. herbarum, e estudar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares pelo fitopatógeno e

  8. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  9. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  10. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato ...

  11. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6.

  12. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Yazmín; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Patrón-Soberano, Olga Araceli; Islas-Osuna, María Auxiliadora; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; Rosales-Saavedra, María Teresa; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF) to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression of mycoparasitism

  13. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1, a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression

  14. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  15. Antipathy of Trichoderma against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.: Evaluation of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymatic Activities and Molecular Diversity Analysis of Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, Harsukh P; Hirpara, Hitesh Z; Golakiya, Balubhai A

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Trichoderma is a teleomorph of the Hypocrea genus and associated with biological control of plant diseases. The microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Trichoderma was carried out and evaluated for in vitro antagonistic activity against the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot disease in groundnut. In total, 11 isolates of Trichoderma were examined for antagonism at 6 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Out of 11, T. virens NBAII Tvs12 evidenced the highest (87.91%) growth inhibition of the test pathogen followed by T. koningii MTCC 796 (67.03%), T. viride NBAII Tv23 (63.74%), and T. harzianum NBAII Th1 (60.44%). Strong mycoparasitism was observed in the best antagonist Tvs12 strain during 6-12 DAI. The specific activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes - chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase - was positively correlated with growth inhibition of the test pathogen. In total, 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms were reported to amplify 202 alleles across 11 Trichoderma isolates. The average polymorphism information content for SSR markers was found to be 0.80. The best antagonist Tvs 12 was identified with 7 unique SSR alleles amplified by 5 SSR markers. Clustering patterns of 11 Trichoderma strains showed the best antagonist T. virens NBAII Tvs 12 outgrouped with a minimum 3% similarity from the rest of Trichoderma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

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    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana polyamine content is modified by the interaction with different Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Badillo, Fatima Berenice; Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; López-Gómez, Miguel; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Plants are associated with a wide range of microorganisms throughout their life cycle, and some interactions result on plant benefits. Trichoderma species are plant beneficial fungi that enhance plant growth and development, contribute to plant nutrition and induce defense responses. Nevertheless, the molecules involved in these beneficial effects still need to be identify. Polyamines are ubiquitous molecules implicated in plant growth and development, and in the establishment of plant microbe interactions. In this study, we assessed the polyamine profile in Arabidopsis plants during the interaction with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride, using a system that allows direct plant-fungal contact or avoids their physical interaction (split system). The plantlets that grew in the split system exhibited higher biomass than the ones in direct contact with Trichoderma species. After 3 days of interaction, a significant decrease in Arabidopsis polyamine levels was observed in both systems (direct contact and split). After 5 days of interaction polyamine levels were increased. The highest levels were observed with T. atroviride (split system), and with T. virens (direct contact). The expression levels of Arabidopsis ADC1 and ADC2 genes during the interaction with the fungi were also assessed. We observed a time dependent regulation of ADC1 and ADC2 genes, which correlates with polyamine levels. Our data show an evident change in polyamine profile during Arabidopsis - Trichoderma interaction, accompanied by evident alterations in plant root architecture. Polyamines could be involved in the changes undergone by plant during the interaction with this beneficial fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Managing Phytophthora crown and root rot on tomato by pre-plant treatments with biocontrol agents, resistance inducers, organic and mineral fertilizers under nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna GILARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.

  19. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  20. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  1. Differential impact of some Aspergillus species on Meloidogyne javanica biocontrol by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S; Khan, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of some Aspergillus species on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Six species of Aspergillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of certain crops, produced a variety of secondary metabolites in vitro. Culture filtrate (CF) obtained from Ps. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant CHA0/pME3424 grown in King's B liquid medium caused significant mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with CF of A. niger enhanced nematicidal and beta-galactosidase activities of fluorescent pseudomonads while A. quadrilineatus repressed such activities. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of the CF of A. niger markedly optimized bacterial efficacy to cause nematode deaths while hexane extract of the fungus had no influence on the nematicidal activity of the bacterial strains. A. niger applied alone or in conjunction with the bacterial inoculants inhibited root-knot nematode galling in tomato. On the other hand, A. quadrilineatus used alone or together with CHA0 did not inhibit nematode galling but when used in combination with strain CHA0/pME3424 did reduce galling intensity. Aspergillus niger enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by Ps. fluorescensin vitro and improves biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants in tomato while A. quadrilineatus reduces bacterial performance to suppress root-knot nematodes. Rhizosphere harbours a variety of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in most agricultural soils and generally produce a variety of secondary metabolites. Such metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species may influence the production of nematicidal agents and subsequent biocontrol performance of the bacterial inoculants against plant-parasitic nematodes. This fact needs to be taken into

  2. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  3. Biocontrol activity of surfactin A purified from Bacillus NH-100 and NH-217 against rice bakanae disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Ambrin; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Majeed, Saima; Brader, Günter; Sessitsch, Angela; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf

    2018-04-01

    The potential of the Bacillus genus to antagonize phytopathogens is associated with the production of cyclic lipopeptides. Depending upon the type of lipopeptide, they may serve as biocontrol agents that are eco-friendly alternatives to chemical fertilizers. This study evaluates the biocontrol activity of surfactin-producing Bacillus (SPB) strains NH-100 and NH-217 and purified surfactin A from these strains against rice bakanae disease. Biologically active surfactin fractions were purified by HPLC, and surfactin A variants with chain lengths from C12 to C16 were confirmed by LCMS-ESI. In hemolytic assays, a positive correlation between surfactin A production and halo zone formation was observed. The purified surfactin A had strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. solani, Trichoderma atroviride and T. reesei. Maximum fungal growth suppression (84%) was recorded at 2000 ppm against F. moniliforme. Surfactin A retained antifungal activity at different pH levels (5-9) and temperatures (20, 50 and 121 °C). Hydroponic and pot experiments were conducted to determine the biocontrol activity of SPB strains and the purified surfactin A from these strains on Super Basmati rice. Surfactin production in the rice rhizosphere was detected by LCMS-ESI at early growth stages in hydroponics experiments inoculated with SPB strains. However, the maximum yield was observed with a consortium of SPB strains (T4) and purified surfactin A (T5) treatments in the pot experiment. The outcomes of the present study revealed that surfactin A significantly reduced rice bakanae disease by up to 80%. These findings suggest that purified surfactin A could be an effective biocontrol agent against bakanae disease in rice and should be incorporated into strategies for disease management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  5. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthora roreri, known commonly as “monilia”, has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. Fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Trichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma. Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of moniliainfection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p<0.05 in only 35d, ascompared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1 500kg dried beans/ha by 198kg/ha up to 1 698kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110ha plantation by 21 780kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal

  6. Involvement of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 Protein in the Regulation of Botrytis Virulence- and Tomato Defense-Related Genes

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    Eriston V. Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii function as biofertilizers; (iii increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δepl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum strains with: (a the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea and (b with tomato plants, on short (24 h hydroponic cultures and long periods (4-weeks old plants after Trichoderma inoculation. Our results indicate that T. harzianum Epl-1 protein affects the in vitro expression of B. cinerea virulence genes, especially those involved in the botrydial biosynthesis (BcBOT genes, during the mycoparasitism interaction. The tomato defense-related genes were also affected, indicating that Epl-1 is involved in the elicitation of the salicylic acid pathway. Moreover, Epl-1 also regulates the priming effect in host tomato plants and contributes to enhance the interaction with the host tomato plant during the early stage of root colonization.

  7. Fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. However, some antagonistic mechanisms of Trichoderma are not well characterized. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We further tested whether these mechanisms were inducible and upregulated in presence of FOC. The results were as follows: T-E5 heavily parasitized FOC by coiling and twisting the entire mycelium of the pathogen in dual cultures. T-E5 growing medium conditioned with deactivated FOC (T2) showed more proteins and higher cell wall-degrading enzyme activities than T1, suggesting that FOC could induce the upregulation of exoenzymes. The presence of deactivated FOC (T2') also resulted in the upregulation of VOCs that five and eight different types T-E5-derived VOCs were identified from T1' and T2', respectively. Further, the excreted VOCs in T2' showed significantly higher antifungal activities against FOC than T1'. In conclusion, mycoparasitism of T-E5 against FOC involved mycelium contact and the production of complex extracellular substances. Together, these data provide clues to help further clarify the interactions between these fungi. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 Protein in the Regulation of Botrytis Virulence- and Tomato Defense-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston V; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Cardoza, Rosa E; Silva, Roberto N; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i) act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii) function as biofertilizers; (iii) increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv) induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δ epl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum strains with: (a) the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea and (b) with tomato plants, on short (24 h hydroponic cultures) and long periods (4-weeks old plants) after Trichoderma inoculation. Our results indicate that T. harzianum Epl-1 protein affects the in vitro expression of B. cinerea virulence genes, especially those involved in the botrydial biosynthesis ( BcBOT genes), during the mycoparasitism interaction. The tomato defense-related genes were also affected, indicating that Epl-1 is involved in the elicitation of the salicylic acid pathway. Moreover, Epl-1 also regulates the priming effect in host tomato plants and contributes to enhance the interaction with the host tomato plant during the early stage of root colonization.

  9. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  10. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  11. The expression of extracellular fungal cell wall hydrolytic enzymes in different Trichoderma harzianum isolates correlates with their ability to control Pyrenochaeta lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ MARÍA PÉREZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Trichoderma harzianum (ThN3, Th11, Th12 and Th16 were selected for their ability to control the in vitro development of the tomato root pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici. Analysis of the mechanisms involved in biocontrol showed that the formation of non-volatile metabolites appears to be one of those involved in biocontrol of P. lycopersici by all T. harzianum isolates tested. Nevertheless, the higher secretion of chitinases, both in number of isoenzymes and activity by the Th11 strain, correlated well with its higher ability to control this agent in laboratory and greenhouse experiments as compared to the other T. harzianum isolates tested. The secretion of ß -1,3-endoglucanases and/or proteases appeared to have less significance than endochitinases in the biological control of P. lycopersici

  12. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E.; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R.; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S.; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M.; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J. Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-02-10

    SUMMARY

    The genusTrichodermacontains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for “hot topic” research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism inT. reesei,T. atroviride, andT. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of eachTrichodermaspecies discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved inN-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability ofTrichodermaspp. to generate hybrid galactose-containingN-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique toTrichoderma, and these warrant further

  14. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W M; Samuels, G J; Ismaiel, A; Voglmayr, H

    2013-12-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13 phylogenetic species with little or no phenotypic differentiation. This is the first use of acl1 in Trichoderma phylogenetics. The typification of T. viridescens s.str. is clarified and Hypocrea viridescens is replaced by the new name T. paraviridescens. Besides these two species, eleven are phylogenetically recognised and T. olivascens, T. viridarium, T. virilente, T. trixiae, T. viridialbum, T. appalachiense, T. neosinense, T. composticola, T. nothescens and T. sempervirentis are formally described and illustrated. Several species produce yellow diffusing pigment on cornmeal dextrose agar, particularly after storage at 15 °C, while T. olivascens is characterised by the formation of an olivaceous pigment. The results are compared with earlier publications on this group of species.

  15. Biocontrol del moho foliar del tomate Cladosporium fulvum empleando cuatro hongos antagonistas Biocontrole do mofo foliar em tomateiro empregando quatro fungos antagonistas Biocontrol of leaf mold of tomato Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke 1883 employing four antagonistic fungi

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    Enrique Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El moho foliar Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke 1883 produce una enfermedad que ataca el cultivo de tomate en invernadero en el Perú. Como alternativa al control de este patógeno se probó la eficiencia bajo condiciones in vitro e invernadero de cuatro hongos antagonistas: Hansfordia pulvinata (Berk y Curt 1958, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai 1969, T. viride (Persoon 1821 y T. virens (Miller, Giddens y Foster 1963. El cultivo y crecimiento de los hongos se realizó en Agar Sabouraud para Trichoderma spp. y en Agar Jugo V8 para H. pulvinata. El bioensayo empleado fue el de placas precolonizadas propuesto por Krauss. En condiciones in vitro se observó que a 24 ºC y 72 h, el crecimiento de T. harzianum fue estadísticamente diferente de las otras tres especies ensayadas, y a 28 ºC fue similar a T. viride. A 24 ºC y a las 120 h, T. virens fue diferente de todas las especies evaluadas. A las 168 h el crecimiento de las tres especies de Trichoderma fue estadísticamente similar, diferenciándose de H. pulvinata. A 28 ºC a las 120 h y 168 h los resultados fueron estadísticamente similares para las tres especies de Trichoderma, pero diferentes de H. pulvinata. El mecanismo de acción más común para los hongos antagonistas fue el micoparasitismo. Finalmente, T. harzianum fue más eficiente debido a que redujo la severidad de la enfermedad en un 19,35 % bajo condiciones de invernadero.O mofo foliar Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke, 1883 produz uma enfermidade que ataca o cultivo do tomateiro em casa de vegetação no Peru. Como alternativa ao controle desse patógeno, testou-se a eficiência, sob condições in vitro e casa de vegetatção, de quatro fungos antagonistas: Hansfordia pulvinata (Berk y Curt 1958, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai 1969, T. viride (Persoon 1821 y T. virens (Miller, Giddens y Foster 1963. O cultivo e crescimento dos fungos foi realizado em Agar Sabouraud para Trichoderma spp. e em Agar Suco V8 para H. pulvinata. O bioensaio empregado

  16. In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

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    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum against Mycosphaerella fijiensis, foliar pathogen of banana and plantain, was evaluated. The assays were performed using the dual culture method. Competition for space and nutrients, the antagonistic capacity and forms and intensity of antagonism were determined considering the invasion of the surface of the colony, colonization and sporulation of T. harzianum on M. fijiensis after seven days of inoculation. Finally, the effect of volatile metabolites of T. harzianum was evaluated. The results showed in vitro antagonism of T. harzianum against M. fijiensis by competition for space and nutrients of the culture medium. Trichoderma grew over the pathogen colony with hyperparasitism and high intensity. Also, it completely covered the surface of the culture medium. T. harzianum not inhibited the growth of M. fijiensis by volatile metabolites. Damage was observed in the integrity of the cell wall of M. fijiensis hyphae and the cell content exit. The use of antagonistic fungi, could contribute to the design of strategies for integrated management of this disease. Key words: banana and plantain, biocontrol, mechanisms of action

  17. Structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by Trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. These compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. The structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. In this study, three-dimensional structure of Thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from Trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. Fourteen transmembrane helices of Thmfs1 protein are observed contributing to an inward-open conformation. The transport channel and ligand binding sites in Thmfs1 are identified based on heuristic, iterative algorithm and structural alignment with homologous proteins. MD simulations were performed to reveal the differential structural behaviour occurring in the ligand free and ligand bound forms. We found that two discrete trichothecene binding sites are located on either side of the central transport tunnel running from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular side across the Thmfs1 protein. Detailed analysis of the MD trajectories showed an alternative access mechanism between N and C-terminal domains contributing to its function. These results also demonstrate that the transport of trichodermin occurs via hopping mechanism in which the substrate molecule jumps from one binding site to another lining the transport tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the interaction between Trichoderma harzianum and perithecia of Gibberella zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inch, S; Gilbert, J

    2011-01-01

    Chronological events associated with the interaction between a strain of Trichoderma harzianum, T472, with known biological control activity against perithecial production of G. zeae, were studied with scanning electron microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of control. Large clusters of perithecia consisting of 5-15 perithecia formed on the autoclaved, mulched wheat straw inoculated with G. zeae alone (control) with an average of 157 perithecia per plate. Small clusters consisting of 3-6 and an average of 15 perithecia per plate perithecia formed on straw that was treated with T. harzianum. The mature perithecia from straw treated with T. harzianum produced less pigment and were lighter in color than those from the control plates. Furthermore the cells of the outer wall of these perithecia were abnormal in appearance and unevenly distributed across the surface. Immature perithecia were colonized by T. harzianum approximately 15 d after inoculation (dai) with the biocontrol agent and pathogen. Few perithecia were colonized at later stages. The affected perithecia collapsed 21 dai, compared to the perithecia in the control samples that began to collapse 28 dai. Abundant mycelium of T. harzianum was seen on the perithecia of treated samples. Perithecial structures may be resistant to penetration by the mycelium because direct penetration was not observed. Trichoderma harzianum colonized the substrate quickly and out-competed the pathogen, G. zeae.

  19. Changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Lloret, Eva; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Ros, Margarita

    2013-09-01

    The addition of species of Trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. The biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. This study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16S rRNA) and chitinase gene diversity. In addition, the ability of vineyard pruning waste compost, amended (GCTh) or not (GC) with T. harzianum, to suppress Fusarium wilt was evaluated. The addition of T. harzianum resulted in a high relative abundance of certain chitinolytic bacteria as well as in remarkable protection against Fusarium oxysporum comparable to that induced by compost GC. Moreover, variations in the abiotic characteristics of the media, such as pH, C, N and iron levels, were observed. Despite the lower diversity of chitinolytic bacteria found in GCTh, the high relative abundance of Streptomyces spp. may be involved in the suppressiveness of this growing media. The higher degree of compost suppressiveness achieved after the addition of T. harzianum may be due not only to its biocontrol ability, but also to changes promoted in both abiotic and biotic characteristics of the growing media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for Trichoderma harzianum using an orthogonal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J D; Yang, Q

    2015-03-13

    The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the production of fungal bio-pesticides with high efficiency, low cost, and non-polluting fermentation, while also increasing their survival rate under field conditions. This is the first study to develop biocontrol Trichoderma harzianum transformants TS1 that are resistant to benzimidazole fungicides. Agricultural corn stover and wheat bran waste were used as a medium and inducing carbon source for solid fermentation. Spore production was observed, and the method was optimized using single-factor tests with 4 factors at 3 levels in an orthogonal experimental design to determine the optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1. In this step, we determined the best conditions for fermenting the biocontrol fungi. The optimal culture conditions for T. harzianum TS1 were cultivated for 8 days, a ratio of straw to wheat bran of 1:3, ammonium persulfate as the nitrogen source, and a water content of 30 mL. Under optimal culture conditions, the sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 reached 1.49 x 10(10) CFU/g, which was 1.46-fold higher than that achieved before optimization. Increased sporulation of T. harzianum TS1 results in better utilization of space and nutrients to achieve control of plant pathogens. This method allows for the recycling of agricultural waste straw.

  1. EFIKASI ISOLAT TRICHODERMA TERPILIH DENGAN BAHAN ORGANIK UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA LADA DI LAPANGAN

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    Cipta Ginting

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolate and organic matter to control foot rot of black pepper in the field. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of selected Trichoderma isolatand organic matter to control the disease. Dual culture method was used to select a Trichoderma isolate. The experiment to evaluate the efficacy of selected isolate consisted of control (no application of T. harzianum or organic matter, T. harzianum and rice straw, and T. harzianum and coffee husk. As starter, T. harzianum was grown in broken rice. Two liters of organic matter was infested with suspension of 10 g starter in 100 ml steril water and incubated for 2 weeks. The mixture was applied around the base of black pepper stem. The results showed that all plants treated with T. harzianum and organic matter did not show disease symptom. Ten percent of the control plants showed symptoms. However, statistical analysis showed that the occurrence of the disease was not significantly different between treatments. Applications ofT. harzianum and rice straw increased the density of Trichoderma for 1 and 2 months after application. T. harzianum and coffee husk increased the density of the fungus 1 month after application.

  2. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  3. Integrated Translatome and Proteome: Approach for Accurate Portraying of Widespread Multifunctional Aspects of Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Salwan, Richa; Sharma, P. N.; Gulati, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide studies of transcripts expression help in systematic monitoring of genes and allow targeting of candidate genes for future research. In contrast to relatively stable genomic data, the expression of genes is dynamic and regulated both at time and space level at different level in. The variation in the rate of translation is specific for each protein. Both the inherent nature of an mRNA molecule to be translated and the external environmental stimuli can affect the efficiency of the translation process. In biocontrol agents (BCAs), the molecular response at translational level may represents noise-like response of absolute transcript level and an adaptive response to physiological and pathological situations representing subset of mRNAs population actively translated in a cell. The molecular responses of biocontrol are complex and involve multistage regulation of number of genes. The use of high-throughput techniques has led to rapid increase in volume of transcriptomics data of Trichoderma. In general, almost half of the variations of transcriptome and protein level are due to translational control. Thus, studies are required to integrate raw information from different “omics” approaches for accurate depiction of translational response of BCAs in interaction with plants and plant pathogens. The studies on translational status of only active mRNAs bridging with proteome data will help in accurate characterization of only a subset of mRNAs actively engaged in translation. This review highlights the associated bottlenecks and use of state-of-the-art procedures in addressing the gap to accelerate future accomplishment of biocontrol mechanisms. PMID:28900417

  4. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

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    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  5. Biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia: an interaction between host sweet chestnut, its pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and the biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Ljiljana; Katanić, Zorana; Ježić, Marin; Poljak, Igor; Nuskern, Lucija; Matković, Ivana; Idžojtić, Marilena; Ćurković-Perica, Mirna

    2017-03-01

    Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is a severe chestnut disease that can be controlled with naturally occurring hypoviruses in many areas of Europe. The aim of this research was to measure the effect of different Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) strains on the growth of the fungal host and select strains that could potentially be used for human-mediated biocontrol in forests and orchards, and to investigate whether and how chestnut-fungus-virus interactions affect the development and growth of the lesion area on cut stems. Two Croatian CHV1 strains (CR23 and M56/1) were selected as potential biocontrol agents. The sequencing of CHV1/ORF-A showed that both of these virus strains belonged to the Italian subtype of CHV1. In vitro transfection of selected virus strains from hypovirulent to genetically diverse virus-free fungal isolates and subsequent inoculation of all virus/fungus combinations on stems of genetically diverse sweet chestnut trees revealed that Croatian virus strain CR23 had an equally hypovirulent effect on the host as the strong French strain CHV1-EP713, while M56/1 had a weaker effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in some cases the same hypovirus/fungus combinations induced various degrees of canker development on different chestnut genotypes. Some CHV1 strains belonging to the Italian subtype have similar hypovirulent effects on C. parasitica to those belonging to the French subtype. Furthermore, chestnut susceptibility and recovery could be influenced by the response of chestnut trees to particular hypovirulent C. parasitica isolates, and virus-fungus-chestnut interactions could have significant implications for the success of chestnut blight biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mechanism of triphenylmethane Cresol Red degradation by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nurafifah Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Lazim, Zainab Mat; Adnan, Liyana Amalina; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2015-11-01

    Cresol Red belongs to the triphenylmethane (TPM) class of dyes which are potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, very few studies on biodegradation of Cresol Red were investigated as compared to other type dyes such as azo and anthraquinone dye. The aim of this work is to evaluate triphenylmethane dye Cresol Red degradation by fungal strain isolated from the decayed wood in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Trichoderma species and designated as strain Trichoderma harzianum M06. In this study, Cresol Red was decolorized up to 88% within 30 days under agitation condition by Trichoderma harzianum M06. Data analysis revealed that a pH value of 3 yielded a highest degradation rate among pH concentrations (73%), salinity concentrations of 100 g/L (73%), and a volume of 0.1 mL of Tween 80 (79%). Induction in the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase indicates their involvement in Cresol Red removal. Various analytical studies such as Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biotransformation of Cresol Red by the fungus. Two metabolites were identified in the treated medium: 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (t R 7.3 min and m/z 355) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (t R 8.6 min and m/z 267). Based on these products, a probable pathway has been proposed for the degradation of Cresol Red by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

  7. Trichoderma ROLE IN AGROFORESTRY-CACAOTAL SYSTEMS AS AN ANTAGONAL AGENT

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    Úrsula del Carmen López-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and cocoa agroforestry systems are important for food production and biodiversity conservation. Among this diversity there is a group of fungi of the genus Trichoderma that present antagonistic effects against phytopathogens and this action can be used as a form of biological control of plant pathogens. In the agroforestry-cacao system the diseases with the highest frequency and with the greatest impact on cocoa production (Theobroma cacao are black rot (Phytophthora spp., Broom broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis of the main theoretical and practical aspects about the genus Trichoderma and its role in agriculture as an antagonistic agent. One of the microscopic features in the delimitation of the genus, especially by the presence of structures called phalid. The antagonistic mechanisms used by Trichoderma spp. Are described as competition, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. Mycoparasitism is having a relevance on the implications of extracellular enzymes such as chitinases, cellulases, β-1-3-glucanases and proteases that lyse or digest the walls of fungi, Moniliophthora roreri disease. This fungus can inhibit the growth of other fungi and bacteria by producing several volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. On the other hand, it participates in the production of regulators of growth and stimulation of the division, differentiation and cellular growth in the plant by the elicitor agent. Trichoderma species that are commercialized for biological control, growth promoter and biofertilizer are T. viride, T. polysporum and T. harzianum. The T. virens and T. harzianum species are most used for the antagonistic control of M. roreri, Phytophthora spp., and M. perniciosa in agroforestry-cacao systems (Theobroma cacao L. with optimal results to the inhibitory effect for these diseases.

  8. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  9. 77 FR 35331 - Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Control Act (TSCA) for the genetically modified microorganism identified generically as Trichoderma reesei...: Trichoderma reesei (MCAN J-10-2) (generic). Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: Not available...

  10. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  11. Uji Antagonisme Jamur Trichoderma koningii dan Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Penyakit Bidang Sadap Tanaman Karet Mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Marbun, Harif Nepen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research wasto test antagonism ability of Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumto control Ceratocystis fimbriatain laboratory. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Research Agency of Rubber, Sungei Putih from April to December 2015. It was done by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) non factorial with three treatments and eight replications. The results showed Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumpotential as biological agents to control Cerato...

  12. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  13. Identificación de especies de cepas nativas de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus sp. y evaluación de su potencial antagonista in vitro frente al hongo fitopatógeno nativo Moniliophthora roreri en el departamento de Norte de Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Yanet-Suárez; Claudia Patricia Cabrales

    2008-01-01

    The Molinasis is caused fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Which is the most seriuos disease which attacks cocoa, and appears in almost anywhere across the country, causing significant losses to farmers. The recognition of the six kind of fungus Trichoderma sp. Obtained from: El Zulia, El Tarra, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and Agua Clara has been realized, along with the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. Isolationed of Bucarasica, which were evaluated, in order to determinate their antagonic potential in front...

  14. Effect of fluorescent pseudomonades and Trichoderma sp. and their combination with two chemicals on Penicillium digitatum caused agent of citrus green mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M; Tehrani, A Sharifi; Ahmadzadeh, M; Abadi, A Alizadeh Ali

    2006-01-01

    Citrus green mold (Penicillium digitatum) causes economic losses. Chemical fungicides such as imazalil provide the primary means for controlling green mold decay of citrus fruits. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles- increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by usage of biocontrol agent alone or in combination with low dosage of imazalil or sodium bicarbonate. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, P. fluorescens isolate PS and Trichoderma virens isolate TE were evaluated as potential biological agents for control of green mold of oranges caused by P. digitatum. Increasing concentration of SB decreased spore germination of P. digitatum. In laboratory tests, a cell suspension (10(8) cells per ml.) of bacterial strains reduced the incidence of green mold. On fruits surface biocontrol activity of antagonistic isolates was significantly increased when combined with low dosage of imazalil (500ppm) or sodium carbonate (5%). Effect of Trichoderma virens on controlling P. digitatum was better than others with or without these chemicals.

  15. Cellulase biosynthesis by trichoderma viride on soluble substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S B; Kitagawa, Y; Suga, K; Ichikawa, K

    1978-01-01

    Batch and continuous cultures of Trichoderma viride QM 6a were carried out using either glucose or cellobiose as the sole carbon source. From the data obtained in the continuous culture with glucose as substrate, growth parameters of this fungus ..mu../sub m/, K/sub s/, m and Y were identified. In the case of glucose as substrate, there were extremely low levels of cellobiase and no detectable cellulase activity in both batch and continuous cultures. The inducible cellobiase was an intracellular enzyme, produced in association with cell growth in batch culture on cellobiose as substrate. A kinetic model for cellobiose degradation and cell growth is proposed. A significant increase in the extracellular cellulase productivity was obtained in the range of low dilution rates from 0.025 h/sup -1/ to 0.2 h/sup -1/ in the continuous culture on cellobiose. From the results of these experiments, it was concluded that in continuous culture on cellobiose as substrate the cellulase activity was determined by the balance between induction and catabolite repression.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Novel Biocontrol Bacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because bacterial isolates from only a few genera have been developed commercially as biopesticides, discovery and characterization of novel bacterial strains will be a key to market expansion. Our previous screen using plant bioassays identified 24 novel biocontrol isolates representing 12 different genera. In this study, we characterized the 3 isolates showing the best biocontrol activities. The isolates were Pantoea dispersa WCU35, Proteus myxofaciens WCU244, and Exiguobacterium acetylicum WCU292 based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed differential production of extracellular enzymes, antimicrobial activity against various fungal or bacterial plant pathogens, and induced systemic resistance activity against tomato gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. E. acetylicum WCU292 lacked strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but induced systemic resistance against tomato gray mold disease. These results confirm that the trait of biological control is found in a wide variety of bacterial genera

  17. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Paecilomyces lilacinus strains with biocontrol activity against root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, T S; Holland, R J; Gillings, M R; Briscoe, D A; Neethling, D C; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M

    2000-09-01

    Efficient selection of fungi for biological control of nematodes requires a series of screening assays. Assessment of genetic diversity in the candidate species maximizes the variety of the isolates tested and permits the assignment of a particular genotype with high nematophagous potential using a rapid novel assay. Molecular analyses also facilitate separation between isolates, allowing the identification of proprietary strains and trace biocontrol strains in the environment. The resistance of propagules to UV radiation is an important factor in the survival of a biocontrol agent. We have analyzed 15 strains of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus using these principles. Arbitrarily primed DNA and allozyme assays were applied to place the isolates into genetic clusters, and demonstrated that some genetically related P. lilacinus strains exhibit widespread geographic distributions. When exposed to UV radiation, some weakly nematophagous strains were generally more susceptible than effective isolates. A microtitre tray-based assay used to screen the pathogenic activity of each isolate to Meloidogyne javanica egg masses revealed that the nematophagous ability varied between 37%-100%. However, there was no clear relationship between nematophagous ability and genetic clusters. Molecular characterizations revealed sufficient diversity to allow tracking of strains released into the environment.

  18. Emerging microbial biocontrol strategies for plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Ab Rahman, Sharifah Farhana; Singh, Eugenie; Pieterse, Corné M J; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-02-01

    To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using "plant-optimized microbiomes" (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of "microbe-optimized crops". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  20. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  2. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani disease and biostimulant effect by microbial products on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing a mixture of fungi and bacteria (EM Bokashi® 2-fi and EM-5 Sutociu® characterised by plant biostimulant activity, Trichoderma harzianum T22 (biofungicide and the antagonist fungus Trichoderma sp. TJ40 were tested for efficacy against R. solani disease and for their biostimulant effects on bean plants, in growth chamber experiments, and for their direct effect on the pathogen growth, through in vitro experiments. In growth chamber experiments, EM-5 Sutociu was applied to seed (Sut/Se, substrate (Sut/S and leaf (Sut/L many times, EM Bokashi 2-fi to substrare (Bok/S once and combined with Sut, T22 and TJ40 were applied once to substrate. The pathogen was inoculated to substrate at seeding time (first experiment or at seedling phase (second experiment. Under our experimental conditions, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L and T22, in the first experiment, and all treatments, with the exception of Bok/S applied alone in the second experiment, gave significantly disease severity reduction and increase of dry weight and leaf area with respect to the infected control. The TJ40 treatment reduced both disease incidence and disease severity only in the second experiment. In the experiment on the biostimulant effect, T22, Bok/S+Sut/S+Sut/L, Sut/S+Sut/L and Sut/Se+Sut/S+Sut/L showed significantly increases of both dry weight and leaf area. The direct effect of the treatment with T22, TJ40, Bok and Sut on R. solani growth in vitro was studied with two methods, submerged colony (SC and well diffusion (WD assays. The pathogen growth was completely inhibited by Trichoderma T22 in both assays, by Trichoderma TJ40 in a range of 80-50 % in SD assay, and 50-30 % in WD assay and slightly inhibited or not inhibited by Bok and Sut.

  3. Screening of Mutation High-Yielding Biocontrol Bacterium BJ1 by Ion Beam Irradiation and Effect of Controlling Fusarium oxysporum cucunerinum Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Yu Lixia; Liu Jing

    2010-01-01

    BJ1 of Bacillus subtilis is an important biocontrol factor in control of fungus disease. In order to improve the antagonistic ability of the strain,and obtain high-efficiency strains, 12 C 6+ of different doses and linear energy transfer (LET) was used to irradiate the biocontrol bacterium BJ1. The optimum dose and LET of ion beam irradiation for the BJ1 are 200-400 Gy and 60 keV/μm,respectively. The antagonistic ability is increased by 2%-21%. The control effect of mutation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucunerinum is increased by 17.48% over that of BJ1, and mutation also has better plant growth-promoting effect. (authors)

  4. Optimization of mutanase production by Trichoderma harzianum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The highest enzyme activity (0.747 U/mL) was reached in shaken flask cultures ... increase in the production of mutanase compared with the culture before optimization. ... Keywords: Mutanase, Trichoderma harzianum, response surface methodology (RSM), bioreactors, ...

  5. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Ma Zueteh; Kaetus, Isao; Kumakura, Minoro

    1993-01-01

    Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei was carried out by radiation polymerization. It was found that the activity of fixed cells increased with increasing surface area of the carrier and was affected by the concentration of monomer tetraethylenglycol dimethacrylate and the shape of the substrate composition and structure of cotton textile fabrics. (author)

  6. Trichoderma asperellum reconsidered: two cryptic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of a world-wide collection of strains of Trichoderma asperellum using multilocus genealogies of four genomic regions (tef1, rbp2, act, ITS1, 2, 5.8s), sequence polymorphism-derived (SPD) markers, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ...

  7. Antagonist potential of Trichoderma indigenous isolates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... the severity of insects and pathogens attacks especially .... After 30-days of incubation at 26°C, the isolation of Trichoderma ... Percentage inhibition (I) of colony growth of P. palmivora was ..... In fact, our success in isolating.

  8. Trichoderma-Induced Acidification Is an Early Trigger for Changes in Arabidopsis Root Growth and Determines Fungal Phytostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Esparza-Reynoso, Saraí; Garnica-Vergara, Amira; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are common rhizosphere inhabitants widely used as biological control agents and their role as plant growth promoting fungi has been established. Although soil pH influences several fungal and plant functional traits such as growth and nutrition, little is known about its influence in rhizospheric or mutualistic interactions. The role of pH in the Trichoderma–Arabidopsis interaction was studied by determining primary root growth and lateral root formation, root meristem status and cell viability, quiescent center (QC) integrity, and auxin inducible gene expression. Primary root growth phenotypes in wild type seedlings and STOP1 mutants allowed identification of a putative root pH sensing pathway likely operating in plant–fungus recognition. Acidification by Trichoderma induced auxin redistribution within Arabidopsis columella root cap cells, causing root tip bending and growth inhibition. Root growth stoppage correlated with decreased cell division and with the loss of QC integrity and cell viability, which were reversed by buffering the medium. In addition, stop1, an Arabidopsis mutant sensitive to low pH, was oversensitive to T. atroviride primary root growth repression, providing genetic evidence that a pH root sensing mechanism reprograms root architecture during the interaction. Our results indicate that root sensing of pH mediates the interaction of Trichoderma with plants. PMID:28567051

  9. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  10. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

  11. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community.

  12. Combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of aspenwood using enzymes derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    Energy, Mines and Resources Canada supported a project with Forintek Canada Corp. directed toward the conversion of aspenwood to ethanol. This conversion is carried out through three sequential steps, steam explosion/extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation. This investigation involved study of the factors which governed the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis. The physical and chemical state of the material to be hydrolysed, enzyme concentation and adsorption onto residue, end-product characterization and inhibition, recycling of enzymes and cellulose, and growth media for the fungus were among the variables examined. The research demonstrated the interdependency between pretreatment, cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose fermentation and enzyme production. It was also determined that because of the amount of cellulose required for enzyme production and the difficulties encountered in recovering/recycling the celluloses, further work is required in order to commercialize an enzymatic hydrolysis process based on Trichoderma harzianum E58.

  13. Transcriptome profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 induced by sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindélia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process.

  14. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Balcázar-López

    Full Text Available Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc. To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation.

  15. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  16. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  17. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of a ß-1,3-glucanase from a biocontrol fungus in transgenic pearl millet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available by the rice Act1 intron sequences, were subjected to pathogenicity trials. Apart from one isolated event reducing incidence of S. graminicola infection by 58%, transgenic pearl millet showed no resistance to this phytopathogen. The event conferring decreased...

  19. Space mutagenic effect of Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xingshan; Zhou Fengzheng; Huang Xiaoguang; Kuang Zheshi; Pan Mushui; Li Guoli; Guo Yong

    2005-01-01

    The slant mycelia cultured with or without mutagenic agent diethyl sulfate (DS) and spores of Trichoderma reesei were loaded in the 18th returning satellite. Systematical screening showed that the life cycle and morphology of some strains had changed after space flight. After selection and domestication, 3 mutant strains with high cellulose enzyme activity were isolated. The cellulose enzyme productivities of the mutants were significantly increased more than 50%, and the mutant were generically stable. (authors)

  20. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-α-oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: 3 H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, 3 H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and 3 H-leucine for protein synthesis

  1. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  2. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  3. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Vitti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22 to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV.

  4. Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T.

  5. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  6. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Zhuang, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma

  7. Presença dos gêneros Trichoderma e Fusarium em solo rizosférico e não rizosférico cultivado com tomateiro e pepineiro, em horta e estufa Presence of the genus Trichoderma and Fusarium in rhizosphere and bulk soil cultivated with tomato and cucumber, in vegetable garden and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Zago Ethur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Para a elaboração adequada de programas de biocontrole de patógenos de solo, é necessário conhecer a distribuição de patógenos e antagonistas nesse ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a presença dos gêneros Trichoderma e Fusarium em solo rizosférico e não-rizosférico, cultivado com tomateiro e pepineiro, em horta e estufa, e identificar os isolados de Fusarium spp. patogênicos às culturas. Para isso, em horta e estufa, foram realizadas 40 amostragens de solo rizosférico (tomateiro e pepineiro e 20 de solo não-rizosférico. As suspensões dos solos foram diluídas, incubadas em meio BDA e os fungos identificados. Posteriormente, foi realizado o teste de patogenicidade para o tomateiro e o pepineiro, com os isolados de Fusarium spp. obtidos dos solos coletados. Em estufa, para o tomateiro e para o pepineiro, o número de pontos de amostragem com a presença de Trichoderma spp. em solo rizosférico foi significativamente maior (95 e 45%, respectivamente do que em solo não-rizosférico (10%. Neste ambiente, ocorreu diferença na presença de Trichoderma spp. e Fusarium spp., sendo encontrados, respectivamente, em 10 e 55% dos pontos de amostragem. No teste de patogenicidade, cinco isolados de Fusarium oxysporum do tomateiro e seis do pepineiro foram patogênicos às respectivas culturas. Em estufa, Trichoderma spp. ocorre com maior freqüência na rizosfera, enquanto Fusarium spp. está distribuído no solo, e a maioria dos isolados de Fusarium spp. não é patogênica ao tomateiro nem ao pepineiro.For the adequate elaboration of biocontrol programs of soil borne pathogens, it is necessary to understand the distribution of pathogens and antagonists in this environment. This research was aimed at studing the presence of the fungi Trichoderma and Fusarium in rhizosphere and bulk soil, cultivated with tomato and cucumber, in vegetable garden and greenhouse, and to quantify the isolates of Fusarium spp. pathogenic to the

  8. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  9. Protozoa Drive the Dynamics of Culturable Biocontrol Bacterial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stella Müller

    Full Text Available Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG, pyrrolnitrin (PRN and hydrogen cyanide (HCN in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks, as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.

  10. Effect of endophytic pseudomonas aeruinosa and trichoderma harzianum on soil-borne diseases, mycorrhizae and induction of systemic resistance in okra grown in soil amended with vernonia anthelmintica (L.) seeds powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, H. A.; Noreen, R.; Haque, S. E. U.; Sultana, V.; Ara, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biostimulants are used in agricultural practices for plant growth improvement. These fertilizers improve microbial activity and cause a negative impact on soil-borne pathogens. In recent years, stimulating plant natural defense is considered as most promising alternative strategy for crop productivity. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum in soil amendment with Vernonia anthelmintica seeds powder, on root rotting fungi, plant growth, mycorrhizal population around roots, phosphorous uptake and stimulation of plant defense markers like poylphenol and antioxidant status in okra. Combine application of Vernonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma harzianum significantly (p<0.05) suppressed Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum with complete reduction of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil significantly reduced nematode galls on roots. Organic amendment also improved plant resistance against root diseases as evident from enhanced DPPH radical scavenging capacity and polyphenol content in treated plants as compare to control. VA Mycorrhizal spores were found significantly (p<0.05) higher in number around roots received Pseudomonas aeruginosa or T. harzianum alone or in Vernonia amended soil. Whereas, higher concentrations of phosphorus in okra shoots were found in plants received biocontrol agents in amended soil. Mixed application of PGPR and T. harzianum in amended soil produced tallest plants than other treatments. Soil amendment with Vernonia seed powder alone or with biocontrol agents offer a non-chemical means of plant disease control. (author)

  11. Solubilisation of Phosphate and Micronutrients by Trichoderma harzianum and Its Relationship with the Promotion of Tomato Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Xia; Cai, Feng; Pang, Guan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Li, Rong; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 is a biocontrol agent that has been shown to enhance the uptake of nutrients (macro- and microelements) by plants in fields. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of SQR-T037 to P and microelement (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrition in tomato plants grown in soil and in hydroponic conditions. Inoculation with SQR-T037 significantly improved the biomass and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings grown in a nutrient-limiting soil. So we investigated the capability of SQR-T037 to solubilise sparingly soluble minerals in vitro via four known mechanisms: acidification by organic acids, chelation by siderophores, redox by ferric reductase and hydrolysis by phytase. SQR-T037 was able to solubilise phytate, Fe2O3, CuO, and metallic Zn but not Ca3(PO4)2 or MnO2. Organic acids, including lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and succinic acid, were detected by HPLC and LC/MS in two Trichoderma cultures. Additionally, we inoculated tomato seedlings with SQR-T037 using a hydroponic system with specific nutrient deficiencies (i.e., nutrient solutions deficient in P, Fe, Cu or Zn and supplemented with their corresponding solid minerals) to better study the effects of Trichoderma inoculation on plant growth and nutrition. Inoculated seedlings grown in Cu-deficient hydroponic conditions exhibited increases in dry plant biomass (92%) and Cu uptake (42%) relative to control plants. However, we did not observe a significant effect on seedling biomass in plants grown in the Fe- and Zn-deficient hydroponic conditions; by contrast, the biomass decreased by 82% in the P-deficient hydroponic condition. Thus, we demonstrated that Trichoderma SQR-T037 competed for P (phytate) and Zn with tomato seedlings by suppressing root development, releasing phytase and/or chelating minerals. The results of this study suggest that the induction of increased or suppressed plant growth occurs through the direct effect of T. harzianum on root

  12. Butanediol production from cellulose and hemicellulose by Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in sequential coculture with Trichoderma harzianum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, E.K.C.; Deschatelets, L.; Louis-Seize, G.; Saddler, J.N.

    1985-10-01

    The bioconverison of cellulose and hemicellulose substrates to 2,3-butanediol by a sequential coculture approach was investigated with the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum E58 and the fermentative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Vogel medium optimal for the production of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of the fungus was found to be inhibitory to butanediol fermentation. This inhibition appeared to be due to a synergistic effect of various ingredients, particularly the salts, present in the fungal medium. The removal or replacement of such ingredients from Vogel medium led to the relief of fermentation inhibition, but the treatments also resulted in a significant decrease in fungal enzyme production. Resting cells of K. pneumoniae could be used for butanediol production in the fungal medium, indicating that the inhibitory effect on solvent production under such conditions was due to the indirect result of growing inhibition of the bacterial cells. The resting-cell approach could be combined with a fed-batch system for the direct conversion of 8 to 10% (wt/vol) of Solka-Floc or aspenwood xylan to butanediol at over 30% of the theoretical conversion efficiencies.

  13. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  14. Antagonistic activity Trichoderma harzianum Rifai on the causal agent of rice blast (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Juniors Pérez Torres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the antagonistic activity of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on the causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea, were developed several in vitro experiments. It was evaluated the biocontrol mechanisms such as competition through mounted the percent inhibition of radial growth of hyphae of P. grisea from 24 to 240 hours and the antagonistic capacity. In addition, was evaluated micoparasitism to inclination the observation of events Microscopy winding, penetration, vacuolization, lysis, and antibiosis by observing 24 hours a confrontation between the hyphae of the phytopathogenic fungus and biological control agent. It was obtained at 120 hours 100 % inhibition of micelial growth of causal agent, what corresponded with the degree 1 of antagonistic capacity (scale and is recorded as a hyperparasitic action on P. grisea. It was evidenced an antibiotic effect of metabolites produced by T. harzianum (strain A-34 to 24 hours of confrontation, where there was time interaction between the hyphae of microorganisms with 14,3 % inhibition, also was evidence the micoparasitism events by penetration, vacuolization and lysis in the cells of phytopathogenic fungus. These results demonstrated the ability of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea.

  15. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  16. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  17. Impact of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a genetically modified derivative on the diversity of culturable fungi in the cucumber rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, M; Perotto, S; Moenne-Loccoz, Y; Bergero, R; Lazzari, A; Defago, G; Bonfante, P; Luppi, A M

    2001-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  18. Real-time RT-PCR expression analysis of chitinase and endoglucanase genes in the three-way interaction between the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726, Botrytis cinera and strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Søren Dan Funck

    2008-01-01

    Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two endoglucan......Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two...... endoglucanase genes from C. rosea strain IK726 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR in vitro and in strawberry leaves during interaction with B. cinerea. Specific primers were designed for ß-tubulin genes from C. rosea and B. cinerea, respectively, and a gene encoding a DNA-binding protein (DBP) from strawberry......, allowing in situ activity assessment of each fungus in vitro and during their interaction on strawberry leaves. Growth of B. cinerea was inhibited in all pathogen-antagonist interactions while the activity of IK726 was slightly increased. In all in vitro interactions, four of the six genes were upregulated...

  19. Correlation of structure, function and protein dynamics in GH7 cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma atroviride, T. reesei and T. harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anna S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Jana, Suvamay; Badino, Silke F; Kari, Jeppe; Amore, Antonella; Karlsson, Magnus; Hansson, Henrik; Sandgren, Mats; Himmel, Michael E; Westh, Peter; Payne, Christina M; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) Tre Cel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride ( Tat Cel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum ( Tha Cel7A) show high sequence identity with Tre Cel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate. The Tat Cel7A, Tha Cel7A, and Tre Cel7A enzymes were characterized for comparison of function. The catalytic domain of Tat Cel7A was crystallized, and two structures were determined: without ligand and with thio-cellotriose in the active site. Initial hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose was faster with Tat Cel7A than either Tha Cel7A or Tre Cel7A. In synergistic saccharification of pretreated corn stover, both Tat Cel7A and Tha Cel7A were more efficient than Tre Cel7A, although Tat Cel7A was more sensitive to thermal inactivation. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate important structure/function correlations. Moreover, reverse conservation analysis (RCA) of sequence diversity revealed divergent regions of interest located outside the cellulose-binding tunnel of Trichoderma spp. GH7 CBHs. We hypothesize that the combination of loop motifs is the main determinant for the observed differences in Cel7A activity on cellulosic substrates. Fine-tuning of the loop flexibility appears to be an important evolutionary target in Trichoderma spp., a conclusion supported by the RCA data. Our results indicate that, for industrial use, it would be beneficial to combine loop motifs from Tat Cel7A with the thermostability features of Tre Cel7A. Furthermore

  20. Quantification and characterisation of Trichoderma spp. from different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariah, M; Choo, C W; Zakaria, H; Norihan, M S

    2005-01-01

    Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense is of major economic importance. Observations of the low incidence of disease due to Ganoderma species in natural stands, suggest that the disease is kept under control by some biological means. Trichoderma spp. are saprophytic fungi with high antagonistic activities against soil-borne pathogens. However, their abundance and distribution are soil and crop specific. Trichoderma species have been found to be concentrated in the A1 (0-30 cm) and Be soil horizons (30-60 cm), although the abundance of Trichoderma was not significantly different between the oil palm and non-oil palm ecosystems. Characterisation of Trichoderma isolates based on cultural, morphological and DNA polymorphism showed that T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. longibrachiatum made up 72, 14, 10 and 4% of the total Trichoderma isolates isolated. As Trichoderma species are present in the oil palm ecosystem, but at lower numbers and in locations different from those desired, soil augmentation with antagonistic Trichoderma spp. can be developed as a strategy towards integrated management of basal stem rot of oil palm.

  1. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    that would enable pursuance of the primary objective. The developed molecular tools were assembled into an expression system for high-throughput construction of defined integrated T. reesei mutants and combined inactivation of the non-homologous end joining pathway that facilitates ectopic integration...... of exposed DNA fragments, and a color maker so that the mutants, in which the substrate had been integrated correct, could be identified by their phenotype. A new bidirectional selective marker system was developed based on the pyr2 gene, involved in the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, and was included...... essential for biosynthesis of the sorbicillinoids. Hence, genes involved in biosynthesis of this group of polyketides were identified for the first time. Comparative genomics was subsequently used to identify a highly similar polyketide synthase gene cluster in another well-known sorbicillinoid producer...

  2. Glucanase and Chitinase from Some Isolates of Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Sulistyowati, Lilik; Aulanni'am

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are those fungi that are able to grow in plant tissue without causing symptoms of disease. It is thought that these fungi may confer on the host plants degree of resistance to parasitic invasion. Endophytic fungi have been isolated from stem tissue and these fungi are known to be antagonistic to pathogenic fungi. These endophytes produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase enzymes. Based on the fact that chitin and β-1,3-glucan are the main skeletal polysaccharides of the cell walls of fungal patogen. The aim of this research is to do potential test on some of isolates of Trichoderma’s endophytic (L-1, L-2, Is-1, Is-2 and Is-7) in the chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activity in effort to determine endophytic which be chossen to be gene resource for the next research. The gene will be transformed to citrus plant japanese citroen in effort to make citrus plant transgenic resistance to phytopatogenic invasion. The result of this research is endofit namely L-1 is the most potential endophytic fungi with chitinase activities is 4,8 10-2 Unit and glucanase 24,2. 1012 Unit. The addition of chitin and cell wall of phytophtora causes chitinase activity significantly increase, and also addition of laminarin and cell wall of phytophtora makes glucanase activity increase.

  3. Fungicidal compounds from a marine Ascidian-associated fungus Trichoderma harzianum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; Vuppala, S.; DeSouza, L.

    . Of the five isolated secondary metabolites, compounds 2 and 5 are being reported here for the first time from T. harzianum. Compounds 1 and 4 inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii causing sclerotium wilt or rot disease in tropical plants. Compound 2 and 5...

  4. Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control.

  5. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the European biocontrol market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, R U

    2003-01-01

    In Europe total revenues in the biocontrol market have reached approximately 200 million Euros. The sector with the highest turn-over is the market for beneficial invertebrates with a 55% share, followed by microbial agents with approximately 25%. Annual growth rates of up to 20% have been estimated. Besides microbial plant protection products that are currently in the process of re-registration, several microbial products have been registered or are in the process of registration, following the EU directive 91/414. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are exceptionally safe biocontrol agents. Until today, they are exempted from registration in most European countries, the reason why SMEs were able to offer economically reasonable nematode-based products. The development of technology for mass production in liquid media significantly reduced the product costs and accelerated the introduction of nematode products in tree nurseries, ornamentals, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus and turf. Progress in storage and formulation technology has resulted in high quality products which are more resistant to environmental extremes occurring during transportation to the user. The cooperation between science, industry and extension within the EU COST Action 819 has supported the development of quality control methods. Today four companies produce EPN in liquid culture, offering 8 different nematode species. Problems with soil insects are increasing. Grubs, like Melolontha melolontha and other scarabaeidae cause damage in orchards and turf. Since the introduction of the Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera into Serbia in 1992, this pests as spread all over the Balkan Region and has reached Italy, France and Austria. These soil insect pests are potential targets for EPN. The development of insecticide resistance has opened another sector for EPN. Novel adjuvants used to improve formulation of EPN have enabled the foliar application against Western Flower Thrips and Plutella

  6. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  7. Extending the Use of Bioplastic Granules for the Application of Trichoderma Biocontrol Isolates in Flori/Horticulture and Turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  8. Extending the uses of bioplastic granules for the application of Trichoderma biocontrol isolates in flori/horticulture and turf grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  9. Evaluation of the potential of Trichoderma viride in the control of fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad Parizi, T; Ansaria, Mehdi; Elaminejad, Tahereh

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Trichoderma viride as a bio-control agent was evaluated in vitro against Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani[1] using the dual culture technique. Volatile and non-volatile inhibitors of Trichoderma were also evaluated for this purpose. T. viride[2] was shown to have a marked inhibitory effect on the tested pathogens in vitro. Maximum inhibition occurred against P. exigua, with 71.76% reduction in mycelial radial growth. The three pathogens, P. exigua, F. nygamai and R. solani were also found to be susceptible to the volatile inhibitors produced by T. viride, giving rise to growth inhibition of about 68% in each case. When T. viride non-volatile metabolites were tested against the pathogens, maximum inhibition occurred against R. solani (73.95% mycelial growth inhibition), followed by P. exigua (37.17% inhibition). The inhibitory effect of the non-volatile metabolites on F. nygamai was, however, minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Combination of Trichoderma harzianum and Chemical Fertilization Leads to the Deregulation of Phytohormone Networking, Preventing the Adaptive Responses of Tomato Plants to Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M B; Hermosa, Rosa; Vicente, Rubén; Gómez-Acosta, Fabio A; Morcuende, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Bettiol, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization. The application of salt stress significantly changed the parameters related to growth and gas-exchange rates in tomato plants subject to chemical fertilization. However, the gas-exchange parameters were not affected in unfertilized plants under the same moderate saline stress. The combined application of T34 and salt significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of NPK-fertilized plants, while the opposite effects were detected when no chemical fertilization was applied. Decaying symptoms were observed in salt-stressed and chemically fertilized plants previously treated with T34. This damaged phenotype was linked to significantly higher intercellular CO 2 and slight increases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, and to the deregulation of phytohormone networking in terms of significantly lower expression levels of the salt overlay sensitivity 1 ( SOS1 ) gene, and the genes involved in signaling abscisic acid-, ethylene-, and salicylic acid-dependent pathways and ROS production, in comparison with those observed in salt-challenged NPK-fertilized plants.

  11. Measuring of -1,3 Glucanase Activity in Trichoderma Virens Isolates and Selection of the Best Isolates for Biological Control of Cucumber Root Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zavvari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study four isolates of  Trichoderma virens (T.virens 414, T.virens 414.8, T.virens 304 and  T.virens 404.4 were compared based on extra cellular β-1,3 glucanase production and biological control of root rot cucumber (Phytophthora drerchsleri in laboratory and green house experiments.The in vitro potential of those isolates were evaluated against  P.drechsleri  through production of volatile and dual culture. The pH (3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and temperature effects(5, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40˚C on Trichoderma mycelial growth were also evaluated. Colony growth rate of thease isolates were also studied in water agar culture medium containing carboxy methyle cellulose (CMC and showed direct correlation with β-1,3 glucanase secretion. According to results T. virens 304 and T. virens 414.8  were the best isolates in biocontrol of . drechsleri. Result also showed direct correlation between β-1,3 glucanase secretion and inhibition growth of phytophthora  mycelium and reduction of phytophthora infection.

  12. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation and environmental factors on the production of extracellular cellulase enzyme by trichoderma Spp. using banana waste under solid state bio processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafey, H.M.; Matar, Z.A.I.; Ghanem, S.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal strains were isolated from degraded banana waste including leaves, pseudo stems and skins. Many isolated strains showed cellulolytic activities using the plate screening medium. The hyper cellulolytic isolates were selected on the basis of the diameter of the hydrolysis zone surrounding the colonies and identified to the genus level. The identified strains were found to belong to one of the genera Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Pleurotus or Penicillium. The strain with the larger diameter of the hydrolysis zone was found to belong to the genus Trichoderma. It was further identified to be Trichoderma harzianum, which was selected to be studied. Banana waste including leaves and pseudo stems were inoculated by the selected fungus and the production of the carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper cellulase (FPCase) was followed during changes of the growth conditions under solid state fermentation. It was found that the two enzymes shared the same incubation temperature (25 degree C) and incubation period (18 days) for the maximum enzyme production. The gamma radiation dose of 1.5 KGy increased the production of CMCase produced on leaves by 4.0% and on pseudo stems by 5.6% and the production of FPCase produced on leaves by 2.4% and on pseudo stems by 2.3%. The results also suggest that FPCase and CMCase enzymes produced on leaves were higher than those produced from pseudo stems and the level of CMCase enzyme produced was higher than that of FPCase

  14. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. strains for control yellowing pea caused by Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eraso Insuasty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellowing of pea caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is considered the most damaging disease of this crop. This study took place at the plant health laboratory and greenhouse of the Universidad de Nariño, and the experimental stage was conducted at the Granja experimental Botana. Its purpose was to evaluate the antagonistic ability of the fungi Trichoderma spp. to F. oxysporum. Isolation of F. oxysporum was made from diseased tissue; Trichoderma strains were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy plants (collected in the towns of Potosi, Córdoba, Gualmatán, Ipiales and Puerres in the state of Nariño, Colombia, and a commercial strain from laboratory Perkins Ltda. In laboratory, unrestrictedly randomized design with 21 treatments (strains was used. Mycelial growth and inhibition zone were evaluated in dual plantings, which served as selection criteria for greenhouse test where plant height, root length, root dry matter and percentage of incidence were evaluated. In the field, a randomized block design was used to evaluate yield components, plant height and root length with the best strains. In the laboratory, C2 (Córdoba 2, C7 (Gualmatán 3, C14 (Puerres 2, C20 (Potosi 4 and C21 (Perkins Lab. showed antagonistic activity in the greenhouse, C7, C14 and C21 were the best; in field, significant differences between C14 and C21, compared to C7 and the control, were obtained. Strains C14 and C21 have consistent antagonistic capacity and can be used to control F. oxysporum in pea.

  15. Properties of uracil transport by the submerged mycelium of Trichoderma viride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, B.; Betina, V.; Simkovic, M.; Varecka, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the transport of uracil by the submerged mycelium of important mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma viride. transport of radioactively labelled uracil into the submerged mycelium of Trichoderma viride was measured by means of membrane filtration technique. The high-affinity transport was temperature depend with the optimum temperature at 35 grad C. From the Arrhenius plot of the temperature dependence its activation energy could be calculated (54 kJ/mol uracil). The measurement of pH dependence showed the optimum pH at pH 6.5. High-affinity transport was inhibited with 5-fluorouracil. 5-Br-uracil, adenine, xanthine, cytosine, 5-Br-cytosine, adenosine, uridine but not with CMP, thymidine. 14 C-5-fluorouracil was taken up by T. viride mycelium in a similar way but the influx was less by about 20%. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis, rifamycin and rifampicin 9(up to 10 μg/ml) did not inhibit the uracil uptake even after 2 h preincubation wit mycelium. The results suggest that the uptake of uracil is mediated by a carrier. The uptake at sub-millimolar uracil concentrations is almost exclusively driven by the electrochemical potential of protons. The inhibitory effects of other substances presumably taken up by the mycelium may be explained by the competition for the driving force rather than for the binding site of the transporter molecule. In presence of millimolar concentrations of uracil, its osmotic gradient could itself represent the driving force for the transport. (authors)

  16. Potential biocontrol agents for biofouling on artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of biofouling on coastal structures can lead to operational impacts and may harbour problematic organisms, including non-indigenous species. Benthic predators and grazers that can supress biofouling, and which are able to be artificially enhanced, have potential value as augmentative biocontrol agents. The ability of New Zealand native invertebrates to control biofouling on marina pontoons and wharf piles was tested. Caging experiments evaluated the ability of biocontrol to mitigate established biofouling, and to prevent fouling accumulation on defouled surfaces. On pontoons, the gastropods Haliotis iris and Cookia sulcata reduced established biofouling cover by >55% and largely prevented the accumulation of new biofouling over three months. On wharf piles C. sulcata removed 65% of biofouling biomass and reduced its cover by 73%. C. sulcata also had better retention and survival rates than other agents. Augmentative biocontrol has the potential to be an effective method to mitigate biofouling on marine structures.

  17. Development of a multiplex Q-PCR to detect Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T22 in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivo R; van Rijn, Menno; Zwetsloot, Tom J J; Basmagi, Said; Dirks-Mulder, Anita; van Leeuwen, Willem B; Ravensberg, Willem J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The fungal species Trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. To verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with T. harzianum strain T22, a Q-PCR was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. To develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of T. harzianum could be distinguished. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing of the L-aminoacid oxidase gene (aox1) in T. harzianum was applied to determine the mutations differing between various strains isolated from the Trichoderma collection of Koppert Biological Systems. Based on the sequence information obtained, a set of hydrolysis probes was subsequently developed which discriminated T. harzianum T22 strains varying in only a single nucleotide. Probes designed for two strains uniquely recognized the respective strains in Q-PCR with a detection limit of 12,5ng DNA. Titration assays in which T. harzianum DNA from distinct strains was varied further underscored the specificity of the probes. Lastly, fungal DNA extracted from roots of greenhouse cultured tomato plants was analyzed using the probe-based assay. DNA from T. harzianum strain T22 could readily be identified on roots of greenhouse reared tomato plants inoculated with varying concentrations up to one week after treatment with a detection limit of 3e6 colony forming units of T. harzianum T22. We conclude that the Q-PCR method is a reliable and robust method for assessing the presence and quantity of T. harzianum strain T22 in manually inoculated plant material. Our method provides scope for the development of DNA based strain specific identification of additional strains of Trichoderma and other fungal biological control agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants treated with both fungus and mycorrhizal (F+M) treatment showed the maximum uptake of metals and thus the synergistic effect of these fungi can be exploited in decontamination of metals from tannery sludge. Key words: Phytoextraction, tannery sludge, heavy metals, resistant rhizosphere fungi, Arbuscular ...

  19. Biological potantial of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...

  20. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory, Department of Animal ... Trichoderma treated cassava waste was beneficial to lactating West African dwarf goats. .... Animals that did not show any signs of heat were.

  1. Aureobasidium pullulansas a biocontrol agent of blue mold in "Rocha" pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pinto, M M; Moura-Guedes, M C; Barreiro, M G; Pais, I; Santos, M R; Silva, M J

    2006-01-01

    The blue mold of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum is an important postharvest disease which is adequately controlled by application of synthetic fungicides. In recent years, strategies like biological control have been considered a desirable alternative to chemicals. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans for control of postharvest decay of pear. A Portuguese isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was characterized and evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest blue mold decay of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Study of optimal conditions for antagonist growth was carried out in six different culture media. The effect of four maturity stages of fruits in the development of A. pullulans was also studied. Biocontrol studies were performed with two concentrations of the antagonist (3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml). A. pullulans growth was significantly different (P Corn Meal Agar (CMA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media which contains the higher concentration of glucose (20 mg/l). Medium resulted from fruits of the first harvest date presented lower colony diameter. Inoculation of A. pullulans at 3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml reduced the incidence of the disease by 23 and 63%, and reduced the lesion diameter by 36 and 46%, respectively.

  2. Investigation on the infection mechanism of the fungus Clonostachys rosea against nematodes using the green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Jinkui; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhao, Xuna; Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-04-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum) is a potential biocontrol agent. It can suppress the sporulation of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and kill pathogenic nematodes, but the process of nematode pathogenesis is poorly understood. To help understand the underlying mechanism, we constructed recombinant strains containing a plasmid with both the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene egfp and the hygromycin resistance gene hph. Expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Our observations reveal that the pathogenesis started from the adherence of conidia to nematode cuticle for germination, followed by the penetration of germ tubes into the nematode body and subsequent death and degradation of the nematodes. These are the first findings on the infection process of the fungal pathogen marked with GFP, and the developed method can become an important tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of nematode infection by C. rosea.

  3. Induction of SA-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis in Trichoderma harzianum-treated tomato plants after infection of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Paola; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Molinari, Sergio; Altomare, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with Trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of SAR and ethylene production. Soil pre-treatment with Trichoderma harzianum (Th) strains ITEM 908 (T908) and T908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. The effect of T. harzianum treatments on plant defense was detected by monitoring the expression of the genes PR-1/PR-5 and JERF3/ACO, markers of the SA- and JA/ET-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. The compatible nematode-plant interaction in absence of fungi caused a marked suppression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO gene expressions, either locally or systemically, whilst expression of JERF3 gene resulted unaffected. Conversely, when plants were pre-treated with Th-strains, over-expression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO genes was observed in roots 5 days after nematode inoculation. JERF3 gene expression did not change in Th-colonized plants challenged with nematodes. In the absence of nematodes, Trichoderma-root interaction was characterized by the inhibition of both SA-dependent signaling pathway and ET biosynthesis, and, in the case of PR-1 and ACO genes, this inhibition was systemic. JERF3 gene expression was systemically restricted only at the very early stages of plant-fungi interaction. Data presented indicate that Th-colonization primed roots for Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) against root-knot nematodes and reacted to nematode infection more efficiently than untreated plants. Such a response probably involves also activation of ET production, through an augmented transcription of the ACO gene, which encodes for the enzyme catalyzing the last step of ET biosynthesis. JA signaling and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) do not seem to be involved in the biocontrol action of the tested Th-strains against RKNs.

  4. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gL(-1)). The 10 gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Sri Hastuti; Indriana Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, an...

  6. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Sri Hastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition.

  7. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  8. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  9. Application of Trichoderma harzianum in the control of basal stem rot of oil palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah F; Ilias G N M

    2004-01-01

    @@ The palm, Elaeis guineensis, has its origins in Africa but is planted on a commercial basis in several countries Statistics for 2002 showed that in the lead for land mass under oil palm cultivation is Indonesia, at 3,769,000 ha, followed by Malaysia at 3,376,000 ha; however, the world' s leading producer of palm oil is still Malaysia, since the 1970's. Both countries are predicted to produce 82.4%of the world's palm oil production by the year 2005. However, the palm is susceptible to basal stem rot, a devastating disease which results in direct loss of field stands and to which no effective chemical control is yet available. Caused by Ganoderma boninense, infected palms appear symptomless, at the first sign of disease, at least 50 % of the internal trunk tissue stem would have actually rotted. This study investigated the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate FA 1132) as a biological control agent, using 6-month old oil palm seedlings as models and the experiment performed in a greenhouse at 29-30 ℃ ambient conditions. The plants were artificially infected with G. boninense and a conidial suspension of 1 × 109-9 × 109 spores/mL was applied as a soil drench at 1L/plant every 2 weeks for 20weeks. The parameters examined were efficacy of the biocontrol agent and the effect of Trichodermaincorporated mulch in addition to the soil drench. Efficacy was assessed in terms disease severity index (DSI) where a higher percentage indicates a higher severity. Results showed that infection first sets in on untreated plants at week 12 and got worse progressively. The completely untreated plants were all infected and the DSI at 20 weeks after infection (wa. i.) was 92. 5%. Plants given only a Trichoderma -infused food base supplement without conidial suspension gave a DSI of 70% whereas those given a conidial soil drench without supplemental food base gave a DSI of 85% at 20 w.a.i.Infected plants given a conidial treatment together with a food base supplement gave a DSI

  10. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species. PMID:22070776

  11. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  12. Symbiotic Effect of Trichoderma atroviride on Growth Characteristics and Yield of two Cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. in a Contaminated Soil Treated with Copper Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TashakoriFard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils can be a threat to crop production due to plant toxicity. In the recent years, hyperaccumulator plants are cultivated to cleaning up the soils which contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals. However, the biomass of these plants is low and metal specific. Many studies have shown that microorganisms can be used to significantly reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of Trichoderma atroviride on the growth characteristics of tow cultivars of rapeseed in different levels on copper. Materials and Methods In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with three replicates. Treatment were T. atroviride fungi at two levels of inoculated and non-inoculated plants, four levels of copper nitrate including 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg l-1 and two cultivars of rapeseed consist of Hayola 401 and Sarigol. Trichoderma atroviride was prepared from Mycology Lab of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resource University. PDA medium (potato extract, dextrose and agar was kept for a week at 25˚C to propagation of fungal strain. The used medium was previously sterilized in autoclave for 30 minutes. So, this fungus propagated in Wheat's bran for five days. Healthy and uniform seeds of rapeseeds were separated from rogues and infertile ones. Seeds disinfected in hypochlorite sodium 0.5% for five minute and then washed with distilled water three times. After preparing fungus spore suspension of 108 CFU per ml water, 50 g wheat' bran mixed to the soil of each pot. Twenty sterilized seeds sown in 2 cm of soil depth in 25×30 cm pot with 10 kg capacity. Copper nitrate was used to pollute treated soil. During this experiment did not used any pesticides and herbicides and all weed controlled manually. Some growth and yield related parameters such as plant height, number of secondary branches

  13. In vitro antagonism of Thielaviopsis paradoxa by Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Vladimir; Rebolledo, Oscar; Picaso, Rosa M; Cárdenas, Elizabeth; Córdova, Jesús; González, Orfil; Samuels, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-nine Trichoderma strains were isolated from soil taken from 28 commercial plantations of Agave tequilana cv. 'Azul' in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Nine of these isolates produced nonvolatile metabolites that completely inhibited the growth of Thielaviopsis paradoxa on potato dextrose agar plates. These isolates were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum on the basis of their morphology and DNA sequence analysis of two genes (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha). Mycoparasitism of Th. paradoxa by T. longibrachiatum strains in dual cultures was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The Trichoderma hyphae grew alongside the Th. paradoxa hyphae, but penetration of Thielaviopsis hyphae by Trichoderma was no apparent. Aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa were parasitized by Trichoderma. Both hyphae and aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa lost turgor pressure, wrinkled, collapsed and finally disintegrated. In liquid cultures, all nine Trichoderma isolates produced proteases, beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases that would be responsible for the degradation of Thielaviopsis hyphae. These results demonstrate that the modes of action of T. longibrachiatum involved against Th. paradoxa in vitro experiments are mycoparasitism and the production of nonvolatile toxic metabolites.

  14. Is the High Cu Tolerance of Trichoderma atroviride Isolated from the Cu-Polluted Sediment Due to Adaptation? An In Vitro Toxicological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.K.; Yazdani, M.; Abdullah, F.; Tan, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance of Cu by Trichoderma atroviride, a tolerant fungus isolated from the drainage surface sediment of the Serdang Industrial Area was investigated under in vitro conditions. Only this fungus species can tolerate up to 600 mg/ L of Cu on solid medium Potato Dextrose Agar based on the isolation of the most tolerant fungus from the polluted sediment. Toxicity test performed on T. atroviride, showed a maximum tolerance at 300 mg/L of Cu concentration when grown in liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB). The EC 50 value of the isolate was 287.73 mg/ L of Cu concentration in PDB. The Cu concentration in the drainage surface sediment, where the T. atroviride was isolated from, was 347.64 μg/ g while the geochemical distributions of the non-resistant and resistant fractions of Cu were 99.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. The sediment data indicated that the drainage had greatly received anthropogenic Cu from the nearby industries which are involved in the manufacturing of plastics and electronic products. The present findings indicate that the high Cu tolerance showed by T. atroviride could be due to the well adaptation of the fungus to the Cu polluted sediment. Therefore, T. atroviride could be a potential bioremediator of Cu pollution in the freshwater ecosystem. (author)

  15. Population dynamics of epiphytic mycoparasites of the genera Clonostachys and Fusarium for the biocontrol of black pod (Phytophthora palmivora) and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopen, G Martijn ten; Rees, Robert; Aisa, Philo; Stirrup, Tim; Krauss, Ulrike

    2003-05-01

    affected by the shading regime or any other meteorological parameter measured. On the other hand, recolonisation of surface-sterilised cocoa pods by most native mycoparasites was faster in the shade. Only Trichoderma spp. colonised pods exposed to direct sunlight faster than shaded ones. The implications for the design of biocontrol inocula and formulation technology are discussed.

  16. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, P; Mukherjee, P K; Kale, S P [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Roy, M; Mandal, B P; Tyagi, A K [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, G K [Material Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghatak, J [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)], E-mail: sharadkale@gmail.com

    2008-02-20

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 deg. C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at {approx}410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P; Mukherjee, P K; Kale, S P; Roy, M; Mandal, B P; Tyagi, A K; Dey, G K; Ghatak, J

    2008-01-01

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO 3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 deg. C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

  18. HFB7 - A novel orphan hydrophobin of the Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma, is involved in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylucka, Agnes; Akcapinar, Gunseli Bayram; Chenthamara, Komal; Cai, Feng; Grujic, Marica; Karpenko, Juriy; Livoi, Miriam; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma. Evolutionary analysis reveals that HFB7 proteins form a separate clade distinct from other Trichoderma class II hydrophobins and that genes encoding them evolve under positive selection pressure. Homology modelling of HFB7 structure in comparison to T. reesei HFB2 reveals that the two large hydrophobic patches on the surface of the protein are remarkably conserved between the two hydrophobins despite significant difference in their primary structures. Expression of hfb7 gene in T. virens increases at interactions with other fungi and a plant and in response to a diversity of abiotic stress conditions, and is also upregulated during formation of aerial mycelium in a standing liquid culture. This upregulation significantly exceeds that of expression of hfb7 under a strong constitutive promoter, and T. virens strains overexpressing hfb7 thus display only changes in traits characterized by low hfb7 expression, i.e. faster growth in submerged liquid culture. The hfb7 gene is not expressed in conidia. Our data allow to conclude that this protein is involved in defence of Trichoderma against a diversity of stress factors related to the oxidative stress. Moreover, HFB7 likely helps in the establishment of the fungus in wetlands or other conditions related to high humidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening of biocontrol agents for control of foliar diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    Candidate antagonists for the development of biocontrol agents have to fulfill many criteria. The criterion often investigated first in detail is the antagonistic potential of candidates against the target pathogen. However, candidates must also have high ecological competence, must be suitable for

  20. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  1. The effectivity of Tilletiopsis albescens in biocontrol of powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, I.M.B.; Skou, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Tilletiopsis albescens grows well on powdery mildew fungi inoculated on barley or cucumber leaves and causes collapse of the colonies. Application of ballistospores or cut mycelium was equally effective for biocontrol, and the effectiveness tended to increase exponentially with the concentration ...

  2. Farmer evaluation of biocontrol methods against rootknot nematodes in tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Anni; Ndungu, Beth; Karanja, Daniel; Karanja, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Root-knot nematodes in tomatoes cause financial loss to Kenyan smallholders. While soil fumigation appears to be losing effectiveness two bio-control agents (bcas), Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium, appear promising. Participatory budgeting is being used to compare the bcas with chemical and other biological controls on commercial and organic smallholdings.

  3. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  4. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  5. Weed biocontrol in the EU: from serendipity to strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of weeds is a globally-recognized approach to the management of the worst invasive plants in the world. Unfortunately, accidental introduction of agents account for most weed biocontrol in the EU, but do include a number of current or emerging successes. From the redistribution of...

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of microbe-microbe interactions reveals the specific response of the biocontrol strain P. fluorescens In5 to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Olsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    reads per sample. RESULTS: No significant changes in global gene expression were recorded during dual-culture of P. fluorescens In5 with any of the two pathogens but rather each pathogen appeared to induce expression of a specific set of genes. A particularly strong transcriptional response to R. solani...... and in particular the fungus R. solani. This highlights the importance of studying microbe-microbe interactions to gain a better understanding of how different systems function in vitro and ultimately in natural systems where biocontrol agents can be used for the sustainable management of plant diseases....

  7. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with sheep manure amendment enhances soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Barakat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Jn14 in combination with an amendment of sheep manure has on the soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato was investigated over a 28-month period. A combination of T. harzianum and organic amendment at concentrations (w:w of 6 and 10% reduced tomato wilt by 21–36 % and 29–36% respectively, after 0–28 months of soil incubation. When the amendment was added at concentration of 2%, the wilt was suppressed only after 18–28 months. A combination of T. harzianum and the amendment at 6% also increased tomato plant fresh weights by 52% after 28 months, and the 10% amendment increased fresh weights by 56, 40, and 63%, after 18, 24, and 28 months respectively, compared to the experimental controls. Organic amendment at the higher concentrations further stimulated T. harzianum populations, enhanced microbial activity against Fusarium oxysporum in the soil and reduced pathogen populations. Without T. harzianum, the organic amendment at a concentration of 10% reduced disease by only 22, 24, and 23% and only after 18, 24 and 28 months of soil incubation respectively, compared with the controls. However, tomato wilt was not reduced at a 2% manure concentration in less than 12 months of incubation. Organic amendment alone at 6 and 10% reduced the pathogen population by 25% and 37% respectively after 28 months of soil incubation compared with the control. T. harzianum produced fungitoxic metabolites that reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium by 37% and conidium germination by 55% when the pathogen was grown on potato dextrose agar amended with a T. harzianum culture filtrate.

  8. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0750; FRL-8800-9] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012. DATES: This regulation is effective March 3, 2010...

  9. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0749; FRL-8799-4] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080. DATES: This regulation is effective February 25, 2010...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1250 - Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum. 184.1250 Section 184.1250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1250 Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (a) Cellulase enzyme preparation is derived from a nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum (formerly T...

  11. Effect of infesting soil with Trichoderma harzianum and amendment with coffee pulp on survival of Armillaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Jeger, M.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Six isolates of Trichoderma were screened for antagonism to Armillaria in tea stem sections buried in the soil. The inability of Armillaria to invade Trichoderma-colonized stem sections and the reduction of its viability in the plant materials following invasion of these by Trichoderma were used as

  12. The growth promotion of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... HPP16, mung bean, abscisic acid, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). ... solubilization, PSB may also produce other secondary metabolites to improve the plant productivity. ...... Funding from the Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine. Biology ... biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai1295-22.

  13. Oxidative damage induced by heat stress could be relieved by nitric oxide in Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Kai; Li, Zhe; Zhou, Hongzi; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul; Yang, Hetong

    2015-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is an important commercial biocontrol fungal agent. The temperature has been shown to be an important parameter and strain-specific to the mycelia growth of fungi, but less report makes the known of the mechanisms in T. harzianum. In our study, a 6-h treatment of heat increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in mycelia to 212 and 230 % the level of the control, respectively. The exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (150 μM) reduced the TBARS concentration to 53 % of that under heat stress (HS). At the same time, the NO-specific scavenger at 250 μM, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxyl-3-oxide, prevented the exogenous NO-relieved TBARS accumulation under HS. The increased NO concentration under HS was reduced 41 % by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, but not the nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor tungstate. Our study exhibited that NO can protect the mycelia of T. harzianum from HS and reduce the oxidative damage by enhancing the activity of NOS and NR.

  14. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Trichoderma afroharzianum LTR-2 under oxalic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, He; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhou, Hongzi; Zhang, Xinjian; Yang, Hetong

    2017-10-01

    An appropriate reference gene is required to get reliable results from gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to identify stable and reliable reference genes in Trichoderma afroharzianum under oxalic acid (OA) stress, six commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e., elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-tubulin, actin, from the effective biocontrol isolate T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 were tested for their expression during growth in liquid culture amended with OA. Four in silico programs (comparative ΔCt, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of six candidate reference genes. The elongation factor 1 gene EF-1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and was used as the normalizer to quantify the expression level of the oxalate decarboxylase coding gene OXDC in T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 under OA stress. The result showed that the expression of OXDC was significantly up-regulated as expected. This study provides an effective method to quantify expression changes of target genes in T. afroharzianum under OA stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocontrol of the toxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum by soil fauna in an agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Weinert, Joachim; Brunotte, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    In 2011 and 2013, a field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field at Adenstedt (northern Germany) to investigate biocontrol and interaction effects of important members of the soil food web (Lumbricus terrestris, Annelida; Folsomia candida, Collembola and Aphelenchoides saprophilus, Nematoda) on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum in wheat straw. Therefore, soil fauna was introduced in mesocosms in defined numbers and combinations and exposed to either Fusarium-infected or non-infected wheat straw. L. terrestris was introduced in all faunal treatments and combined either with F. candida or A. saprophilus or both. Mesocosms filled with a Luvisol soil, a cover of different types of wheat straw and respective combinations of faunal species were established outdoors in the topsoil of a winter wheat field after harvest of the crop. After a time span of 4 and 8 weeks, the degree of wheat straw coverage of mesocosms was quantified to assess its attractiveness for the soil fauna. The content of Fusarium biomass in residual wheat straw and soil was determined using a double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA method. In both experimental years, the infected wheat straw was incorporated more efficiently into the soil than the non-infected control straw due to the presence of L. terrestris in all faunal treatments than the non-infected control straw. In addition, Fusarium biomass was reduced significantly in all treatments after 4 weeks (2011: 95-99%; 2013:15-54%), whereupon the decline of fungal biomass was higher in faunal treatments than in non-faunal treatments and differed significantly from them. In 2011, Fusarium biomass of the faunal treatments was below the quantification limit after 8 weeks. In 2013, a decline of Fusarium biomass was observed, but the highest content of Fusarium biomass was still found in the non-faunal treatments after 8 weeks. In the soil of all treatments, Fusarium biomass was below the quantification limit. The earthworm species

  16. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

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    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  17. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

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    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  19. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-04-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.

  20. Allium White Rot Suppression with Composts and Trichoderma viride in Relation to Sclerotia Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, E; Noble, R; Mead, A; Marin, F R; Perez, J A; Whipps, J M

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Allium white rot (AWR) is a serious disease of Allium spp. caused by the sclerotium-forming fungus Sclerotium cepivorum. This work has examined the effects of onion waste compost (OWC) and spent mushroom compost (SMC), with and without Trichoderma viride S17A, on sclerotia viability and AWR in glasshouse and field experiments. Incorporation of OWC into soil reduced the viability of sclerotia and the incidence of AWR on onion plants in glasshouse pot bioassays, whereas SMC or T. viride S17A only reduced incidence of AWR. In two field trials, OWC reduced sclerotia viability and was as effective in reducing AWR as a fungicide (Folicur, a.i. tebuconazole). Field application of SMC had no effect on sclerotia viability and did not control AWR. However, the addition of T. viride S17A to SMC facilitated proliferation of T. viride S17A in the soil and increased the healthy onion bulb yield. The results indicate two mechanisms for the suppression of AWR: (i) reduction in the soil population of viable sclerotia, which may be due to volatile sulfur compounds detected in OWC but absent in SMC, and (ii) prevention of infection of onion plants from sclerotia following amendment of soil with OWC, SMC, or T. viride S17A.

  1. Growth and sporulation of Trichoderma polysporum on organic substrates by addition of carbon and nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.Q.; Shahzad, S.

    2015-01-01

    During the present study nine different organic substrates viz., rice grains, sorghum grains, wheat grains, millet grains, wheat straw, rice husk, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were used for mass multiplication of Trichoderma polysporum. Grains, especially sorghum grains were found to be the best substrate for T. polysporum. Wheat straw and rice husk were less suitable, whereas, cow dung, sawdust and poultry manure were not suitable for growth of the fungus. Sucrose at the rate of 30,000 ppm and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 3,000 ppm were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and sporulation of T. polysporum. Amendment of the selected C and N sources to wheat straw, rice husk and millet grains resulted in significantly higher growth and conidia production by T. polysporum as compared to un-amended substrates. Sorghum and rice grains showed suppression in growth and sporulation of T. polysporum when amended with C and N sources. During studies on shelf life, populations of T. polysporum attained the peck at 60-135 days intervals on different substrates and declined gradually thereafter. However, even after 330 days, the populations were greater than the population at 0-day. At 345-360 days interval, populations were less than the initial populations at 0- days. Shelf life on C+N amended wheat straw and rice husk were more as compared to un-amended substrates. (author)

  2. Manipulation of nitrogen leaching from tea field soil using a Trichoderma viride biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Zhou, Sining; Ma, Shuanglong; Jiang, Cancan; Wu, Shanghua; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing use of chemical fertilizers, negative environmental impacts have greatly increased as a result from agricultural fields. The fungus Trichoderma viride used as a biofertilizer can efficiently reduce nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from subtropical tea fields in southern China. In this paper, it was further found that T. viride biofertilizer could alleviate nitrogen (N) leaching in tea fields. Gross N leaching was 1.51 kg ha -1  year -1 with no external fertilizer input, but when 225 kg N ha -1  year -1 was applied, it increased to 12.38 kg ha -1  year -1 using T. viride biofertilizer but 53.46 kg ha -1  year -1 using urea. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified the factors responsible for N leaching to be soil nitrate concentration and soil interflow, simulated here using the water balance simulation model (WaSiM-ETH). Finally, mass-scale production of T. viride biofertilizer from waste reutilization using sweet potato starch wastewater and rice straw was found to be cost-effective and feasible. These procedures could be considered a best management practice to reduce N leaching from tea fields in subtropical areas of central China and to reduce pollution from other agricultural waste products.

  3. Plant uptake of phosphorus from sparingly available P- sources as affected by Trichoderma asperellum T34

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    Ana Maria Garcia-Lopez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Trichoderma asperellum T34 to the plant uptake of phosphorus (P from sparingly phytoavailable forms such as insoluble calcium (Ca phosphates and phytates was studied. Two experiments with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. on siliceous sand were performed involving two factors, namely: (i P source, viz., KH2PO4, phytate (Ins6P, and phosphate rock (PR, and (ii inoculation with T34. Liquid pure cultures of T34 were also used. T34 increased the total content in P of cucumber roots irrespective of the particular P form and enhanced total P uptake by plants with P supplied as Ins6P or PR. The increased phytase activity observed with T34 contributes to explain its favourable influence on the uptake of P supplied as Ins6P. Solubilization of Ca phosphates from PR was favoured by the slightly acidifying effect and the increased organic anion concentration promoted by the fungus in the plant growth media. It can be concluded that T34 can improve P nutrition in plants grown on media containing phytates or insoluble Ca phosphates as dominant P forms.

  4. Impact of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defences on root colonization by Trichoderma harzianum T-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Appels, Freek V W; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-08-03

    We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defenses, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type. Moreover, elicitation of SA-dependent defenses by SA application reduced T-78 colonization, indicating that the SA-pathway affects T-78 endophytism. In contrast, elicitation of the JA-pathway, which antagonized SA-dependent defenses, resulted in enhanced endophytic colonization by T-78. These findings are in line with our previous observation that SA-dependent defenses are repressed by T-78, which likely aids colonization by the endophytic fungus.

  5. Encountering epidemic effects of leaf spot disease (Alternaria brassicae) on Aloe vera by fungal biocontrol agents in agrifields-An ecofriendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Subhankar; Pal, Sujoy; Chakraborty, Niloy

    2018-01-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is a highly important and extensively cultivated medicinal plant and that is also extensively used in the cosmetic industry. It has been frequently reported to suffer from Alternaria leaf spot disease in various parts of the world. Various fungicides used to combat this disease, have deleterious effects on the environment and on pharmacologically important constituents of Aloe vera. To avoid the harmful effects of fungicides an ecofriendly approach has been adopted here. A weekly survey was conducted during 2013-2015 in and around North 24 Parganas (West Bengal) to obtain the percentage of disease index (PDI). For biological control of the disease, screening of the antagonistic efficacy of biocontrol agents was carried out through the in vitro dual-culture-plate method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the mechanism. The in vitro effects of fungicides on the radial growth of the pathogen were evaluated through the poison food method and were compared with potent antagonistic fungi. Field application of potent antagonistic fungi was conducted through the dip-and-spray method. The results showed that, the PDI peaked during the hot and humid conditions of May to September (76.57%-98.57%) but decreased during the winter, December-January (35.71-46.66%). Trichoderma asperellum exerted the greatest inhibition of the radial growth of A. brassicae acting through non volatile (70.39%) and volatile metabolites (72.17%). A SEM study confirmed the hyperparasitic nature of T. asperellum through hyphal coiling-T. asperellum was similar to 2% blitox-50 (73.92%) and better than 2% bavistin (59.77%) (in vitro). In agricultural field trials (2013-15), Trichoderma application restricted the disease to the smallest area (PDI 24.00-29.33%) in comparison to untreated plots (73.33%). In conclusion, saplings treated with the dip method (108 spores / mL) and sprayed 4 times with a spore suspension of biocontrol agents such as T. asperellum, T

  6. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  7. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  8. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  9. Production of cellulase from immobilized Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that obtained on the study of the enzyme activity in the culture of immobilized Trichoderma reesei cells in flask scale (100ml) and bench scale (30l). In the flask scale culture, the batch and repeated batch culture were carried out, and in the bench scale culture, the batch, repeated batch and continuous culture were done by using a culture equipment that is an unit process of the bench scale test plant for saccharification of cellulosic wastes. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells was higher than that of the intact cells in the flask scale culture and it was confirmed that the enzyme activity was not decreased on the repeated batch culture of six times even. In the bench scale culture, it was found that a optimum culture condition of the immobilized cells was not different from that of the free cells and the immobilized cells gave the enzyme solution with a high enzyme activity in the culture condition of 450rpm stirring speed and air supply of 0.1v/v/m above. The technique of the repeated batch and continuous culture for long times in bench scale without contamination was established. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells in continuous culture became to be 85 % to that in batch culture and it was found that the enzyme solution with high enzyme activity was continuously obtained in the continuous culture for long times. (author)

  10. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  11. Evaluación de Trichoderma sobre hongos contaminantes de semillas de palma híbrida interespecífica OxG (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis

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    Oscar Eduardo Ladino Rey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination process of hybrid palm interspecific OxG (E. oleifera x E guineensis. seeds in the company Indupalma ltda has filed a decrease in production, which is reflected in economic losses due to the existence of filamentous fungi that affect seeds. Previous studies have shown the potential controller Trichoderma sp. on these fungi. Commercial and native strains of T. harzianum and T. viride were evaluated against prevalent fungal contaminants of interspecific hybrid palm seeds. They were isolated and identified eleven strains of pathogenic fungi from interspecific hybrid palm seeds that were removed from the different stages of germination. Dual plate tests were conducted at prevalent fungi and the percent inhibition of radial growth (PICO and mycoparasitism were determined. These fungi were inhibited in growth by the antagonistic effect of T. harzianum and T viride. Similarly, T.viride showed a great potential as a biocontrol agent to inhibit over 60% seven out of eleven strains of contaminating fungi.

  12. Comparative study of impact of Azotobacter and Trichoderma with other fertilizers on maize growth

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    Sanjay Mahato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers may be a better eco-friendly option to maintain soil fertility. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Azotobacter and Trichoderma on the vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays L. plants. The experiment was carried out in medium sized pots, at IAAS, Lamjung (Feb 2017 - May 2017 in completely randomized design (CRD, consisting eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were namely T1 (control, T2 (Azotobacter, T3 (Trichoderma, T4 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma, T5 (NPK, T6 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM, T7 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM + NPK, T8 (FYM. Azotobacter showed a positive increase in plant height, stem girth, dry shoot weight, root length and width, and root weight while Trichoderma displayed either negative or minimal impact. Effect of FYM was lower than Azotobacter but considerably higher than Trichoderma. Trichoderma seriously inhibited the expression of Azotobacter when used together. Trichoderma even suppressed the outcome (except shoot weight of FYM when used together. Root length was the longest in Azotobacter inoculation. The highest number of leaves was in T7 followed by Azotobacter (T2 and NPK (T5. Unlike leaf width, Azotobacter showed a negligible increase in leaves length while Trichoderma wherever present showed the negative impact. Minimum chlorophyll content was found in Azotobacter or Trichoderma after 73 days. Azotobacter treatment showed early tasseling than Trichoderma. The association of Azotobacter and Trichoderma increased the biomass. Azotobacter has significant effects on growth parameters of maize and can supplement chemical fertilizer, while Trichoderma was found to inhibit most of the growth parameters.

  13. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

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    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  14. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Loessner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology.

  15. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  17. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; Li Manman; Deng Shengsong; Hu Huajia; Wang Huai; Li Fenghe

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  18. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens F113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P.; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Coppoolse, Eric R.; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J.; Rainey, Paul B.; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765

  20. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migheli, Q.

    2001-01-01

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it

  1. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  2. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  3. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  4. Chemical modification of β -endoglucanase from Trichoderma viridin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Endoglucanase from Trichoderma viride was modified by methanol to explore the catalytic functional groups of cellulase. Crude cellulase was produced, and the conditions of saturation and pH by salting out with ammonium sulfate were optimized. Under optimal conditions, crude cellulase was isolated and purified.

  5. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  6. Effect of physical treatment on Trichoderma reesei cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of physical treatment such as freezing and gamma-ray irradiation on Trichoderma reesei cells was studied. The decrease phenomena of cellulase production, which was observed in the culture of the cells using wheat bran extract, was improved by physical treatment. (author)

  7. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of Trichoderma species based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vi-4177/CSAU be assigned as the type strains of a species of genus Trichoderma based on phylogenetic tree analysis together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit ...

  8. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  9. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  10. Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2017-07-01

    Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.

  11. The Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma: a revision with new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma is revised. Eight new species are described (T. aethiopicum, T. capillare, T. flagellatum, T. gillesii, T. gracile, T. pinnatum, T. saturnisporopsis, T. solani). The twenty-one species known to belong to the Longibrachiatum Clade are included in a synoptic ke...

  12. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cells by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized by radiation polymerization 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate monomer at low temperature. Cellulase production resulting from the growth of the cells in the porous polymer matrix of immobilized cell composites was confirmed by measuring the cellulase activity and pH during the culture. (orig.)

  13. Biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) in Southern Europe and Macaronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Voglmayr, H.

    2015-01-01

    The first large-scale survey of sexual and asexual Trichoderma morphs collected from plant and fungal materials conducted in Southern Europe and Macaronesia including a few collections from French islands east of Africa yielded more than 650 specimens identified to the species level. Routine sequencing of tef1 revealed a genetic variation among these isolates that exceeds previous experience and ca. 90 species were recognized, of which 74 are named and 17 species newly described. Aphysiostroma stercorarium is combined in Trichoderma. For the first time a sexual morph is described for T. hamatum. The hitherto most complete phylogenetic tree is presented for the entire genus Trichoderma, based on rpb2 sequences. For the first time also a genus-wide phylogenetic tree based on acl1 sequences is shown. Detailed phylogenetic analyses using tef1 sequences are presented in four separate trees representing major clades of Trichoderma. Discussions involve species composition of clades and ecological and biogeographic considerations including distribution of species. PMID:26955191

  14. Trichoderma viride infection in a liver transplant recipient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.; Byl, B.; Bourgeois, N.; Coremans-Pelseneer, J.; Florquin, S.; Depré, G.; van de Stadt, J.; Adler, M.; Gelin, M.; Thys, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A liver transplant recipient developed infection of a perihepatic haematoma due to Trichoderma viride. Before the infection was diagnosed, the patient received intense immuno-suppressive and prolonged antibacterial and anti-fungal therapies. Although the death of the patient was not directly related

  15. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol...

  16. Effet du compost et de Trichoderma harzianum sur la suppression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2013 ... induit des pourcentages de réduction qui n'ont pas dépassé 81% et 75% ... Effect of compost and trichoderma harzianum on verticillium wilt of greenhouse tomato crop ... telluriques comme Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium.

  17. Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma harzianum VSL291 on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we evaluated the antagonism in vitro of Trichoderma harzianum strain VSL291 against 18 pathogens of cocoa fruits in dual culture. T. harzianum VSL291 inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi tested between 10.54 and 85.43%. The mycoparasitism of Moniliophthora roreri by T. harzianum VSL291 ...

  18. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Widyastuti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed to measure the distribution and intensity of root rot disease of Acacia spp. in the urban forest at the campus of Gadjah Mada University, to isolate and identify the causal organism and to select Trichoderma sp. as biological agent for controlling the disease. The pathogenicity of the causal organism was tested using Crotalaria juncea L. and trunk of A. mangium Willd. (10 cm diameter, 8 cm length as indicator plant. The ability of Trichoderma sp. as antagonist was tested in vitro. It was concluded that the pathogen of the root rot disease was Ganoderma philippii. The pathogen attacked for species of Acacia spp. in the location namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. crassicarpa. Of the total individual trees of those species in the campus, as much as 38.6%, 22.2%, and 66.7% were attacked by the root rot pathogen respectively. Of the 20 Trichoderma spp. isolate capable to inhibit the pathogen in vitro, three isolates were found as promising agents for biological control of the pathogen. The promising isolates were T. resei/T23, T. koningii/T1, and T. koningii/T16 with inhibition effectivity of 94.58%; 93.66%; and 91.76% respectively. Key words: biological control, red root-rot disease, Trichoderma, acacia

  19. Evaluation of xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.

  20. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Seed germination rate was not affected by Trichoderma application, but .... system architecture under sterile condition (Bjorkman et al. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... of application to tomato seed in seedling shoot and root elements content. .... with production of some organic acids in the rhizosphere.

  1. Comparison of humic acids production by Trichoderma viride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FEA

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch. Fernanda Lopes Motta* and ... Trichoderma is a genus of asexually reproducing fungi with a high level of ... the most active fractions of organic matter and affect a variety of chemical ...

  2. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... cellular enzymes were isolated and characterized later, and the biocontrol mechanisms became clearer (Haran et al., 1996; Zhihe et al., 1998). Fresh cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) are prone to biodeterioration. The first to appear, named. “Primary deterioration” consist of physiological changes.

  3. The relationship of biofilm production to biocontrol activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar biocontrol agent (BCA) efficacy is often inconsistent due to poor colonization and survival on plant surfaces. Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62, a superior leaf colonist and BCA of Botrytis cinerea, forms unsaturated biofilms on plant surfaces. To determine the relationship between biocontrol act...

  4. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seur Kee Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.

  7. Antagonistic studies and hyphal interactions of the new antagonist Aspergillus piperis against some phytopathogenic fungi in vitro in comparison with Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Debaiky, Samah A

    2017-12-01

    The present study represents, for the first time, the detailed studies about the hyphal interactions of Aspergillus piperis, as a new antagonist, against some isolated plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotium cepivorum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in vitro. The bio-controlling capability of A. piperis against the tested phytopathogens was tested using the dual culture method. This experiment revealed that A. piperis had antagonistic activity and reduced the growth of the tested phytopathogens and grew over their mycelia in the paired plates. Also, several antagonistic mechanisms were recorded, in this study, between A. piperis and the tested phytopathogens using the microscopic examination. The bio-controlling activity and the antagonistic mechanisms exhibited by the new antagonist, A. piperis were compared with those obtained by the common antagonist, Trichoderma harzianum against the same phytopathogens. The obtained results showed that, A. piperis was more effective than T. harzianum in inhibiting all the tested species in the dual culture plates. The best result was 81.85% inhibition percentage against S. sclerotiorum by A. piperis while, T. harzianum exhibits only 45.18%. Moreover, several antagonistic mechanisms and hyphal interactions were investigated among the hyphae of both A.piperis and T. harzianum and the hyphae of the tested phytopathogens. These mechanisms were summarized as; mycoparasitism (coiling and penetration of the hyphae) and antibiosis in the form of lysis of the hyphal cells and spores, denaturation and breaking of the hyphae. The indirect interaction (antibiosis) and the direct mycoparasitism were observed by A. piperis against all the tested phytopathogens, but it attacked the hyphae and conidiophores of A. alternata by only the antibiosis interaction. The microscopic examination revealed also that T. harzianum attacked the tested phytopathogens by both antibiosis and mycoparasitism

  8. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Javeria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  9. Effect of the edaphic factors and metal content in soil on the diversity of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racić, Gordana; Körmöczi, Péter; Kredics, László; Raičević, Vera; Mutavdžić, Beba; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Panković, Dejana

    2017-02-01

    Influence of edaphic factors and metal content on diversity of Trichoderma species at 14 different soil sampling locations, on two depths, was examined. Forty-one Trichoderma isolates from 14 sampling sites were determined as nine species based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Our results indicate that weakly alkaline soils are rich sources of Trichoderma strains. Also, higher contents of available K and P are connected with higher Trichoderma diversity. Increased metal content in soil was not inhibiting factor for Trichoderma species occurrence. Relationship between these factors was confirmed by locally weighted sequential smoothing (LOESS) nonparametric smoothing analysis. Trichoderma strain (Szeged Microbiology Collection (SZMC) 22669) from soil with concentrations of Cr and Ni above remediation values should be tested for its potential for bioremediation of these metals in polluted soils.

  10. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  11. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  12. Caracterización molecular y agronómica de aislados de Trichoderma spp nativos del noreste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Mendoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Molecular and agronomic characterization of Trichoderma spp natives of northeastern Mexico  Resumen Trichoderma sp es un hongo frecuentemente usado en actividades agrícolas, pues actúa como antagonista de diversas especies de hongos fitopatógenos. En este estudio se realizó el aislamiento de cuatro cepas de Trichoderma sp nativas del noreste de México, las cuales fueron identificadas a nivel molecular mediante la secuenciación del ITS 1. Además se evaluó su capacidad antagonista en contra los hongos fitopatógenos Macrophomina phaseolina y Fusarium oxysporum, que afectan severamente cultivos de sorgo, maíz y fríjol en el noreste de México. La identificación se realizó de acuerdo al grado de concordancia con secuencias reportadas y corresponden a las especies T. hammatum (HK701;  T. koningiopsis (HK702; T. asperellum (HK703 y Trichoderma sp (HK704. Por otra parte, las pruebas de antagonismo muestran que los aislados HK701, HK703 y HK704 inhiben por competencia el crecimiento de M. phaseolina y F. oxysporum, mientras que HK702 tiene la capacidad para hiperparasitar dichos fitopatógenos. Finalmente, se evaluó la promoción de crecimiento de T. asperellum HK703, en maíz (Pionner 30P49®, usando para ello concentraciones de tratamiento de 1x10e2 hasta 1x10e6 esp/mL. En estos ensayos se midió la producción de biomasa. Los resultados muestran que en concentraciones intermedias se tiene el mayor incremento en altura de plantas y mayor producción de peso seco en follaje y raíz. Entre los parámetros antes mencionados existen diferencias significativas. Palabras clave: control biológico, antagonismo, biofertilizantes, Zea maiz, Sorghum bicolor. Abstract Trichoderma sp is a fungus often used in agricultural activities, because it acts as an antagonist of several species of plant pathogenic fungi. In this study four strains of Trichoderma sp was isolated from the northeastern Mexico, which were identified by

  13. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  14. Three encochitinase-encoding genes identified in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea are differentially expressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Lübeck, Mette

    2008-01-01

    that disruption of each endochitinase gene affected the activity of C. rosea during interaction with F. culmorum in liquid cultures. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00294-008-0199-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users....

  15. An entomopathogenic fungus and nematode prove ineffective for biocontrol of an invasive leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; J.J. Kruse; John Lundquist; K.P. Zogas; M.J. Rinella

    2015-01-01

    A non-native invasive sawfly, the amber-marked birch leaf miner Profenusa thomsoni (Konow), was first detected in south-central Alaska in 1996 and is now widely distributed throughout urban and wild birch trees in Alaska. Impacts have been considered primarily aesthetic because leaf miners cause leaves of birch trees (Betula...

  16. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  17. Differential expression of oil palm pathology genes during interactions with Ganoderma boninense and Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Fahimeh; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Khodavandi, Alireza; Abdullah, Faridah; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Chong, Pei Pei

    2011-07-01

    The expression profiles of Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD1 and SAD2) and type 3 metallothionein (MT3-A and MT3-B) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Expression of SAD1 and MT3-A in roots and SAD2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in G. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet appeared and thereafter decreased to basal levels when symptoms became visible. Our finding demonstrated that the SAD1 expression in leaves was significantly down-regulated to negligible levels at 42 and 63 d after treatment. The transcripts of MT3 genes were synthesized in G. boninense inoculated leaves at 42 d after treatment, and the analyses did not show detectable expression of these genes before 42 d after treatment. In T. harzianum inoculated seedlings, the expression levels of SAD1 and SAD2 increased gradually and were stronger in roots than leaves, while for MT3-A and MT3-B, the expression levels were induced in leaves at 3d after treatment and subsequently maintained at same levels until 63d after treatment. The MT3-A expression was significantly up-regulated in roots at 3d after treatment and thereafter were maintained at this level. Both SAD and MT3 expression were maintained at maximum levels or at levels higher than basal. This study demonstrates that oil palm was able to distinguish between pathogenic and symbiotic fungal interactions, thus resulting in different transcriptional activation profiles of SAD and MT3 genes. Increases in expression levels of SAD and MT3 would lead to enhanced resistance against G. boninense and down-regulation of genes confer potential for invasive growth of the pathogen. Differences in expression profiles of SAD and MT3 relate to plant resistance mechanisms while supporting growth enhancing effects of symbiotic T. harzianum

  18. The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor–pheromone receptor pair (hpr1–hpp1 or hpr2–ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

  19. Combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of aspenwood using enzymes derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A project was initiated to study the conversion of aspenwood to ethanol, butanol or butanediol. The conversion method consisted of steam explosion pretreatment, followed by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrate polymers, cellulose and hemicellulose. The enzyme was derived from a wild strain of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum E58, chosen because it produces a cellulose system that can degrade crystalline cellulose to glucose. The aspenwood was steamed at 240{degree}C for 80 seconds and then water and alkali extracted. The insoluble residue was 84% cellulose and was used for both enzyme production and the production of glucose, which was fermented to ethanol. Before fermentation of the water-soluble fraction was possible, the acetylxylan had to be hydrolyzed and the inhibitors (glucose, galactose, acetic and uronic acids, and lignin- and sugar-degradation products) removed. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to generate less fermentation inhibitors than sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Due to market factors, fermentation research centred on the production of ethanol from hemicellulose, using the yeast Pichia stipitis. Although lignin had no effect on hydrolysis, it increased the bulk to be handled, in combination with small amounts of cellulose was found to strongly adsorb the cellulose enzymes, and broke down to produce inhibitors of the cellulose complex of T. harzanium and the enzyme production phase. Thus, it was advantageous to remove the lignin prior to enzyme production and cellular hydrolysis. None of the strategies were successful in decreasing the amount of cellulose required for enzyme production. It was concluded that T. harzianum E58 is unsuitable for use in a commercial bioconversion project. 59 refs., 31 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette B; Rolff, Jens; Meyling, Nicolai V; Zanchi, Caroline

    2018-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been well studied in the context of bacterial infections. Antifungal peptides have received comparatively less attention. Fungal pathogens of insects and their hosts represent a unique opportunity to study host-pathogen interactions due to the million of years of co-evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect of the expression of Tenecin 3 on the survival of infected hosts as well as on the progression of the fungal infection inside the host. Finally, we tested the activity of Tenecin 3 against B. bassiana. These findings could help improving biocontrol strategies and help understanding the evolution of antifungal peptides as a defense mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Different mechanisms of Trichoderma virens-mediated resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt involve the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in the regulation of growth and activation of the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the development of a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or with cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under glasshouse conditions; this resulted in significantly lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in those treated with CF. To dissect the pathways associated with this response, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling in BGS- and CF-induced resistance was evaluated using JA- and SA-impaired tomato lines. We observed that JA-deficient mutant def1 plants were susceptible to Fusarium pathogen when they were treated with BGS. However, wild-type (WT) BGS-treated tomato plants showed a higher JA level and significantly lower disease incidence. SA-deficient mutant NahG plants treated with CF were also found to be susceptible to Fusarium pathogen and displayed low SA levels, whereas WT CF-treated tomato plants exhibited moderately lower disease levels and substantially higher SA levels. Expression of the JA-responsive defensin gene PDF1 was induced in WT tomato plants treated with BGS, whereas the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related protein 1 acidic (PR1a) gene was up-regulated in WT tomato plants treated with CF. These results suggest that TriV_JSB100 BGS and CF differentially induce JA and SA signalling cascades for the elicitation of Fusarium oxysporum resistance in tomato. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Studies on the Virome of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Reveal Novel dsRNA Elements and Mild Hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2017-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a wide host range and is used as a biocontrol agent against arthropod pests. Mycoviruses have been described in phytopathogenic fungi while in entomopathogenic fungi their presence has been reported only rarely. Here we show that 21.3% of a collection of B. bassiana isolates sourced from worldwide locations, harbor dsRNA elements. Molecular characterization of these elements revealed the prevalence of mycoviruses belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, the smallest reported virus to date, belonging to the family Narnaviridae, and viruses unassigned to a family or genus. Of particular importance is the discovery of members of a newly proposed family Polymycoviridae in B. bassiana. Polymycoviruses, previously designated as tetramycoviruses, consist of four non-conventionally encapsidated capped dsRNAs. The presence of additional non-homologous genomic segments in B. bassiana polymycoviruses and other fungi illustrates the unprecedented dynamic nature of the viral genome. Finally, a comparison of virus-free and virus-infected isogenic lines derived from an exemplar B. bassiana isolate revealed a mild hypervirulent effect of mycoviruses on the growth of their host isolate and on its pathogenicity against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, highlighting for the first time the potential of mycoviruses as enhancers of biocontrol agents.

  3. Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Parolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.

  4. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  5. Biological effect of 60Co γ irradiation on Trichoderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Wang Weiming

    2003-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 60 Co γ-ray on Trichoderma spp (T 32 ) was studied. The germination capacity of spores apparently declined after irradiation. The mutagenic effect curve model is S=e -λD , and the mutagenic curve is Y=-0.940e 1.29x , r=0.9533(r 0.01 =0.765). 130 variant strain which grew rapidly and produced more spores were chosen

  6. 40 CFR 180.1201 - Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1201 Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 is exempt from the requirement of a...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement of...

  9. Virulence and site of infection of the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, to the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Christine Y S; Zhou, Xinsheng; Kaya, Harry K

    2002-11-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is recognized as the most serious pest of both managed and feral Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the world. The mite has developed resistance to fluvalinate, an acaricide used to control it in beehives, and fluvalinate residues have been found in the beeswax, necessitating an urgent need to find alternative control measures to suppress this pest. Accordingly, we investigated the possibility of using the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, as a biocontrol agent of the Varroa mite. Among the 9 isolates of H. thompsonii obtained from the University of Florida and the USDA, only the 3 USDA isolates (ARSEF 257, 1947 and 3323) were infectious to the Varroa mite in laboratory tests. The mite became infected when it was allowed to walk on a sporulating H. thompsonii culture for 5 min. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the membranous arolium of the mite leg sucker is the focus of infection where the fungal conidia adhered and germinated. The infected mites died from mycosis, with the lethal times to kill 50% (LT(50)s) dependent on the fungal isolates. Thus, the LT(50)s were 52.7, 77.2, and 96.7h for isolates 3323, 257, and 1947, respectively. Passage of H. thompsonii through Varroa mite three times significantly reduced the LT(50)s of isolates 257 and 1947 (P<0.05) but not the LT(50) of isolate 3323. The fungus did not infect the honey bee in larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages under our laboratory rearing conditions. Our encouraging results suggest that some isolates of H. thompsonii have the potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent for V. destructor. However, fungal infectivity against the mites under beehive conditions needs to be studied before any conclusion can be made.

  10. Three-way interactions between Fusarium species, their plant hosts and biocontrol organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosawang, Chatchai

    of ABC transporters in mycoparasitic fungi focused on C. rosea and Trichoderma spp. We showed that expression of zhd101 depended on concentrations of ZEA and that the gene was not induced by other agents, suggesting specificity of the enzyme towards ZEA and its derivates. To investigate effects of ZEA...... identified expansion of ABC transporter families in C. rosea as in Trichoderma virens and T. harzianum, but not in T. reesei and T. atroviridae. The expansion was profoundly observed in the subfamily G of C. rosea ABC transporters and the subfamily C of Trichoderma spp, repectively. The subfamilies C and G...

  11. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy of extracellularly synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles by a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus Bipolaris tetramera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Faria; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam; Singh, Sarika; Priya, Shivam; Verma, Smita Rastogi

    2015-02-27

    Particulates of nanometers size have occupied a significant area in the field of medicinal and agricultural purposes due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and exceptional physicochemical, electronic and mechanical properties. Myconanotechnology, an interface between mycology and nanotechnology is budding nowadays for nanoparticle-fabrication using fungus or its metabolites. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a novel phosphate solubilizing fungus B. tetramera KF934408 from rhizospheric soil. This phosphatase releasing fungus was subjected to extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles by redox reaction. Silver (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The formulated AgNPs were irregular shaped with a size ranging between 54.78 nm to 73.49 nm whereas AuNPs were spherical or hexagonal, with a size of 58.4 and 261.73 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were assessed for their antibacterial and antifungal efficacy. The results showed effective antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aeroginosa and Trichoderma sp. at higher concentrations, however, AuNPs possessed only moderate antibacterial efficacy while they found no antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity analysis of nanoparticles on J774 and THP1 α cell lines revealed the dose dependence in case of AgNPs, while AuNPs were non-toxic at both low and high doses. Furthermore, significant elevation of intracellular ROS was observed after 4 h of incubation with both the nanoparticles. The capping of fungal proteins on the particulates might be involved in the activities demonstrated by these inert metal nanoparticles. In conclusion, the findings showed that the metal nanoparticles synthesized by fungus B. tetramera could be used as an antimicrobial agents as well as cost effective and nontoxic immunomodulatory delivery vehicle.

  15. [Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liu-yan; Jiang, Ni; Tang, Mei-qiong; Miao, Jian-hua; Li, Lin-xuan

    2011-04-01

    To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9(Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum), M6 (Trichoderma viride) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43-2.72 times and 1.43-1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak; the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82.35% respectively, even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their inhibition indexes were both reached class I. The inhibition index and inhibition rate of K1 was respectively 46.36% and class IV. The Trichoderma spp. could cause S9 mycelium to appear some phenomenon just like fracture, constriction reduced, digestion, etc. which were observed under the microscope. Trichoderma harsianum and Trichoderma viride showed the further develop prospects in the fight against soil-borne disease on Chinese herbal medicines.

  16. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  17. New insights into the organization and regulation of trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, species of the genus Trichoderma can produce numerous structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SM). This ability is conferred by the presence of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes. Species of Trichoderma in the Brevicompactum clade are able to produce trichothecenes, a f...

  18. Aplikasi Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Hasil Tiga Varietas Kentang Di Dataran Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Rifqi; Maghfoer, Mochammad Dawam; Wardiyati, Tatik

    2013-01-01

    Faktor kelestarian lingkungan menyebabkan ekstensifikasi lahan pertanian kentang di dataran tinggi tidak dapat dilakukan, sehingga dataran medium menjadi alternatif eksplorasi lahan budidaya kentang. Untuk meningkatkan produktivitas kentang di dataran medium disamping pemilihan bibit yang tepat adalah dengan menggunakan Trichoderma harzianum. Trichoderma harzianum selain berperan antagonis terhadap pathogen, juga berperan dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman melalui produksi auksin dan pros...

  19. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  20. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...