Bélanger Richard R
Full Text Available Abstract The yeast-like epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma flocculosa is known to antagonize powdery mildew fungi through proliferation on colonies presumably preceded by the release of an antifungal glycolipid (flocculosin. In culture conditions, P. flocculosa can be induced to produce or not flocculosin through manipulation of the culture medium nutrients. In order to characterize and understand the metabolic changes in P. flocculosa linked to glycolipid production, we conducted a 2-DE proteomic analysis and compared the proteomic profile of P. flocculosa growing under conditions favoring the development of the fungus (control or conducive to flocculosin synthesis (stress. A large number of protein spots (771 were detected in protein extracts of the control treatment compared to only 435 matched protein spots in extracts of the stress cultures, which clearly suggests an important metabolic reorganization in slow-growing cells producing flocculosin. From the latter treatment, we were able to identify 21 protein spots that were either specific to the treatment or up-regulated significantly (2-fold increase. All of them were identified based on similarity between predicted ORF of the newly sequenced genome of P. flocculosa with Ustilago maydis' available annotated sequences. These proteins were associated with the carbon and fatty acid metabolism, and also with the filamentous change of the fungus leading to flocculosin production. This first look into the proteome of P. flocculosa suggests that flocculosin synthesis is elicited in response to specific stress or limiting conditions.
Raaijmakers, J.M.; Weller, D.M.; Thomashow, L.S.; Cook, R.J.
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are described which are effective for the control of diseases caused by the soil-borne fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis (Gg), such as take-all, in small grain crops or turf grass. The subject biocontrol strains have a unique genotype as shown by a characteristic banding
Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M
The accumulation of biofouling on coastal structures can lead to operational impacts and may harbour problematic organisms, including non-indigenous species. Benthic predators and grazers that can supress biofouling, and which are able to be artificially enhanced, have potential value as augmentative biocontrol agents. The ability of New Zealand native invertebrates to control biofouling on marina pontoons and wharf piles was tested. Caging experiments evaluated the ability of biocontrol to mitigate established biofouling, and to prevent fouling accumulation on defouled surfaces. On pontoons, the gastropods Haliotis iris and Cookia sulcata reduced established biofouling cover by >55% and largely prevented the accumulation of new biofouling over three months. On wharf piles C. sulcata removed 65% of biofouling biomass and reduced its cover by 73%. C. sulcata also had better retention and survival rates than other agents. Augmentative biocontrol has the potential to be an effective method to mitigate biofouling on marine structures.
Candidate antagonists for the development of biocontrol agents have to fulfill many criteria. The criterion often investigated first in detail is the antagonistic potential of candidates against the target pathogen. However, candidates must also have high ecological competence, must be suitable for
The adverse effect of synthetic pesticides on human health and the natural ecosystem necessitate the need to explore natural mechanisms of disease control in plants. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of five biocontrol agents: Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma asperellum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus ...
This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it
Full Text Available Lysobacter are ubiquitous environmental bacteria emerging as novel biocontrol agents and new sources of anti-infectives. So far, very little effort has been invested in the study of the biology of these Gram-negative gliding bacteria. Many Lysobacter species are characterized by their yellow-orange appearance. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified a stand-alone polyketide synthase (PKS gene cluster required for the pigment production in L. enzymogenes OH11. The yellow pigments were abolished in the "white" mutants generated by target-specific deletions of ketosynthase (KS, acyl carrier protein, or ketoreductase. Spectroscopic data suggested that the pigments belong to xanthomonadin-like aryl polyenes. Polyene-type polyketides are known to be biosynthesized by modular PKS (Type I, not by stand-alone PKS (Type II which always contain the heterodimer KS-CLF (chain-length factor as the key catalytic component. Remarkably, this aryl polyene PKS complex only contains the KS (ORF17, but not the CLF. Instead, a hypothetical protein (ORF16 is located immediately next to ORF17. ORF16-17 homologs are widespread in numerous uncharacterized microbial genomes, in which an ORF17 homolog is always accompanied by an ORF16 homolog. The deletion of ORF16 eliminated pigment production, and homology modeling suggested that ORF16 shares a structural similarity to the N-terminal half of CLF. A point-mutation of glutamine (Q166A that is the conserved active site of known CLF abolished pigment production. The "white" mutants are significantly more sensitive to UV/visible light radiation or H2O2 treatment than the wild type. These results unveil the first example of Type II PKS-synthesized polyene pigments and show that the metabolites serve as Lysobacter "sunscreens" that are important for the survival of these ubiquitous environmental organisms.
Naher, L.; Ismail, A.
Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)
Gafni, Aviva; Calderon, Claudia E; Harris, Raviv; Buxdorf, Kobi; Dafa-Berger, Avis; Zeilinger-Reichert, Einat; Levy, Maggie
Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis as mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.
Full Text Available Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.
Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...
Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria solani was obtained from forest soil sample by carrying out in vitro and in vivo screening techniques. This study reports the identification and characterization of a Bacillus sp. SRB 27 that may be used as a bio-control agent against the plant diseases in crop plants. It was identified as ...
Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.
The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings
Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J
This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.
Full Text Available Trunk diseases of grapevine are caused by numerous pathogens, including Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and species of Botryosphaeriaceae (incl. Botryosphaeria and aggregate genera, Phomopsis and Phaeoacremonium. Since infections occur mainly through pruning wounds, that have been shown by previous research to stay susceptible for up to 16 weeks after pruning, long-term pruning wound protection is required for prevention of infection. This study evaluated several biocontrol agents against a range of trunk disease pathogens in dual plate laboratory trials to determine macroscopic and microscopic interactions. The biocontrol agents had a substantial effect on all the pathogens, with a wide range of macroscopic and microscopic interactions observed. The best performing biocontrol agents were tested in two field trials. Fresh pruning wounds were treated with benomyl, Trichoderma products (Biotricho®, Vinevax® and ECO 77® and isolates (USPP-T1 and -T2, identified as T. atroviride and Bacillus subtilis. Seven days after treatment the pruning wounds were inoculated by spraying with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, N. parvum, Diplodia seriata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phomopsis viticola. Eight months after inoculation, the treatments were evaluated by isolation onto potato dextrose agar. The efficacy of the biocontrol agents was in most cases similar or superior to that observed for benomyl. Isolate USPP-T1, in particular, was very effective, reducing incidence of Ph. viticola, E. lata, Pa. chlamydospora, N. australe, N. parvum, D. seriata and L. theobromae by 69, 76, 77, 78, 80, 85 and 92%, respectively. This is the first report of biological protection of grapevine pruning wounds against this group of grapevine trunk disease pathogens.
Full Text Available The biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride (strains Tv1 and Tv13, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis (Bs16 were tested individually and in combination for their effectiveness against root rot of greengram caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. As regards the compatibility of the biocontrol agents with each other, T. viride strains were not compatible with B. subtilis (Bs16, but P. fluorescens strains were compatible with B. subtilis and T. viride. Of the biocontrol agents tested in vitro against M. phaseolina, combinations of P. fluorescens+T. viride (Pf1+Tv1, Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen and they also promoted the growth of the greengram seedlings. A combination of Pf1+Tv1 was most effective in reducing root rot incidence under glass-house and field conditions as compared with other single or combined treatments or the untreated control. The activity of the defense-related enzymes peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase was significantly greater in greengram plants treated with a talc based formulation containing Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1, than in plants receiving other treatments or the untreated control. Moreover, a combination of Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 significantly increased yield under glass house and field conditions.
Baloyi, M A; Laing, M D; Yobo, K S
Biological control is a promising non-chemical approach for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Use of combinations of biocontrol agents have been reported to be an effective method to increase the efficacy of biological control effects. In this study, combinations of either two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or Clonostachys rosea (C. rosea) isolates and Bt+C. rosea isolates were evaluated in vitro in microtitre plates for their biocontrol activity on sheep nematodes. The Baermann technique was used to extract the surviving L3 larval stages of intestinal nematodes and counted under a dissecting microscope to determine the larval counts. Results indicate that there was a significant reduction of nematode counts due to combination of biocontrol agents (Pnematodes counts by 72.8%, 64% and 29.8%. The results revealed a control level of 57% when C. rosea isolates P3+P8 were combined. Combination of Bt and C. rosea isolates B10+P8 caused the greatest mortality of 76.7%. Most combinations were antagonistic, with only a few combinations showing an additive effect. None were synergistic. The isolate combinations were more effective than when isolates were used alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cirsium arvense is one of the worst weeds in agriculture. As herbicides are not very effective and not accepted by organic farming and special habitats, possible biocontrol agents have been investigated since many decades. In particular plant pathogens of C. arvense have received considerable interest and have been promoted as “mycoherbicides” or “bioherbicides”. A total of 10 fungi and one bacterium have been proposed and tested as biocontrol agents against C. arvense. A variety of experiments analysed the noxious influence of spores or other parts of living fungi or bacteria on plants while others used fungal or bacterial products, usually toxins. Also combinations of spores with herbicides and combinations of several pathogens were tested. All approaches turned out to be inappropriate with regard to target plant specificity, effectiveness and application possibilities. As yet, none of the tested species or substances has achieved marketability, despite two patents on the use of Septoria cirsii and Phomopsis cirsii. We conclude that the potential of pathogens for biocontrol of C. arvense has largely been overestimated.
Full Text Available Ever since plant diseases began causing losses in viticulture, the control of phytopathogenic fungi has become of vital interest for winemakers. The occurrence of novel pests, fungicide resistance, and changed consumer expectations have led to an enormous demand for novel plant protection strategies. As part of integrated protection measures, antagonistic microorganisms have been investigated to a large extent. Such microorganisms can be applied not only in conventional, but also in organic farming as biological control agents (BCA. Particularly, yeasts were found to be interesting candidates for the development of BCA. Many of these eukaryotic microorganisms are found as part of the phylloplane microflora. In this study, we assessed a set of 38 yeast isolates from different habitats, including the guts of termites, for inhibitory effects against some phytopathogenic fungi that have received less attention in earlier studies. The majority of yeasts were found to interfere with fungi infecting grapevine (Eutypa lata, Botrytis cinerea, and Roesleria subterranea, stone fruits (Monilinia fructicola, or rice (Magnaporte oryzae, as well in vitro and in model experiment on fruits. Although most yeast strains secreted glycoside hydrolases and proteases, attempts to demonstrate direct antagonistic activities of lytic enzymes failed. However, in culture filtrates of the termite yeast Papiliotrema odontotermitis OO5, a low molecular thermostable antagonistic factor was detected. Iron depletion as a BCA mechanism was confirmed for strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima but not for other yeasts.
From a pest management perspective, limited knowledge on the genetics of released biocontrol agents has been repeatedly considered as one possible cause of failures in classical biological control. Introduced biocontrol agents are expected to experience a loss in genetic diversity as the result of s...
Pandin, Caroline; Le Coq, Dominique; Canette, Alexis; Aymerich, Stéphane; Briandet, Romain
Almost one-third of crop yields are lost every year due to microbial alterations and diseases. The main control strategy to limit these losses is the use of an array of chemicals active against spoilage and unwanted pathogenic microorganisms. Their massive use has led to extensive environmental pollution, human poisoning and a variety of diseases. An emerging alternative to this chemical approach is the use of microbial biocontrol agents. Biopesticides have been used with success in several fields, but a better understanding of their mode of action is necessary to better control their activity and increase their use. Very few studies have considered that biofilms are the preferred mode of life of microorganisms in the target agricultural biotopes. Increasing evidence shows that the spatial organization of microbial communities on crop surfaces may drive important bioprotection mechanisms. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence of biofilm formation by biocontrol agents on crops and discuss how this surface-associated mode of life may influence their biology and interactions with other microorganisms and the host and, finally, their overall beneficial activity. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.
Madsen, Anne Mette; Hansen, Vinni Mona; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Eilenberg, Jørgen
The fungi Trichoderma harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride, Paeciliomyces fumosoroseus, P. lilacinus, Verticillium/lecanicillium lecanii, Ulocladium oudemansii, U. atrum and Beauveria bassiana are used or considered to be used for biocontrol of pests and plant diseases. Human exposure to these fungi in environments where they may naturally occur or are used as biocontrol agents has not been directly investigated to date. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of human exposure to fungi from the relevant genera. The subject of fungal taxonomy due to the rapid development of this issue is also discussed. B. bassiana, V. lecanii, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, P. lilacinus and U. oudemansii were infrequently present in the air and thus people in general seem to be seldom exposed to these fungi. However, when V. lecanii was present, high concentrations were measured. Fungi from the genera Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Ulocladium were rarely identified to the species level and sometimes high concentrations were reported. T. viride and U. atrum were detected frequently in different environments and sometimes with a high frequency of presence in samples. Thus, people seem to be frequently exposed to these fungi. Sequence data have led to recent revisions of fungal taxonomy, and in future studies it is important to specify the taxonomy used for identification, thus making comparisons possible.
Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.
Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Gram, Lone
acid (TDA), inhibited V. vulnificus as did pure TDA (MIC of 1-3.9 μM). P. inhibens DSM 17395 (at 106 cfu/ml) eradicated 105 cfu/ml V. vulnificus CMCP6 (a rifampicin resistant variant) from a co-culture oyster model system (oyster juice) whereas the pathogen grew to 107 cfu/ml when co......, the presence of P. inhibens could not prevent subsequently added V. vulnificus from entering the live animals, likely because of too low levels of the biocontrol strain. Whilst the oyster model studies provided indication that P. inhibens DSM 17395 could be a good candidate as biocontrol agent against V...
Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed
Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200–400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200–400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200–400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation. - Highlights: • A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during 9 month storage period. • Effects of γ radiation in combination with biocontrol agent on physico-chemical parameters of the apple fruits during cold storage. • The potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with biocontrol agent. • Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum (postharvest pathogen) control
Yánez-Mendizábal, V; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Torres, R; Solsona, C; Abadias, M; Teixidó, N
To prepare commercially acceptable formulations of Bacillus subtilis CPA-8 by spray-drying with long storage life and retained efficacy to control peach and nectarine brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. CPA-8 24-h- and 72-h-old cultures were spray dried using 10% skimmed milk, 10% skimmed milk plus 10% MgSO(4) , 10% MgSO(4) and 20% MgSO(4) as carriers/protectants. All carriers/protectants gave good percentages of powder recovery (28-38%) and moisture content (7-13%). CPA-8 survival varied considerably among spray-dried 24-h- and 72-h-old cultures. Seventy-two hours culture spray dried formulations showed the highest survival (28-32%) with final concentration products of 1·6-3·3 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) , while viability of 24-h-old formulations was lower than 1%. Spray-dried 72-h-old formulations were selected to subsequent evaluation. Rehydration of cells with water provided a good recovery of CPA-8 dried cells, similar to other complex rehydration media tested. Spray-dried formulations stored at 4 ± 1 and 20 ± 1°C showed good shelf life during 6 months, and viability was maintained or slightly decreased by 0·2-0·3-log. CPA-8 formulations after 4- and 6 months storage were effective in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. on nectarines and peaches resulting in a 90-100% reduction in disease incidence. Stable and effective formulations of biocontrol agent B. subtilis CPA-8 could be obtained by spray-drying. New shelf-stable and effective formulations of a biocontrol agent have been obtained by spray-drying to control brown rot on peach. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Meyer, Susan L F; Roberts, Daniel P
Numerous microbes are antagonistic to plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi, but few of these organisms are commercially available for management of these pathogens. Inconsistent performance of applied biocontrol agents has proven to be a primary obstacle to the development of successful commercial products. One of the strategies for overcoming inconsistent performance is to combine the disease-suppressive activity of two (or more) beneficial microbes in a biocontrol preparation. Such combinations have potential for more extensive colonization of the rhizosphere, more consistent expression of beneficial traits under a broad range of soil conditions, and antagonism to a larger number of plant pests or pathogens than strains applied individually. Conversely, microbes applied in combination also may have antagonistic interactions with each other. Increased, decreased, and unaltered suppression of the target pathogen or pest has been observed when biocontrol microbes have been applied in combination. Unfortunately, the ecological basis for increased or decreased suppression has not been determined in many cases and needs further consideration. The complexity of interactions involved in the application of multiple organisms for biological control has slowed progress toward development of successful formulations. However, this approach has potential for overcoming some of the efficacy problems that occur with application of individual biocontrol agents.
RATIH DEWI HASTUTI
Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.
Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the screening method for the selection of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease. The relationship between the strain biocontrol ability and their in vitro studied traits was investigated to identify the most important factors to be considered for the selection of effective biocontrol agents. In fact, previous selection procedure relying only on in vitro antibacterial activity was shown to be not suitable in some cases. A direct plant-protection strategy was performed to screen the 32 Bacillus biocontrol agent candidates. Moreover, potential in vitro biocontrol traits were investigated including biofilm formation, motility, hemolytic activity, detection of lipopeptide biosynthetic genes (sfp, ituC and bmyB and production of antibacterial compounds. The obtained results indicated high correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol with the reduction of gall weight (p = 0.000 and the antibacterial activity in vitro (p = 0.000. Moreover, there was strong correlations of the efficiency of the biocontrol (p = 0.004 and the reduction in gall weight (p = 0.000 with the presence of the bmyB gene. This gene directs the synthesis of the lipopeptide bacillomycin belonging to the iturinic family of lipopeptides. These results were also confirmed by the two-way hierarchical cluster analysis and the correspondence analysis showing the relatedness of these four variables. According to the obtained results a new screening procedure of Bacillus biocontrol agents against crown gall disease could be advanced consisting on two step selection procedure. The first consists on selecting strains with high antibacterial activity in vitro or those harbouring the bmyB gene. Further selection has to be performed on tomato plants in vivo. Moreover, based on the results of the biocontrol assay, five potent strains exhibiting high biocontrol abilities were selected. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus
Renato Carrer Filho
Full Text Available Um actinomiceto (Streptomyces setonii, isolado 'UFV-RD1', obtido de rizosfera de planta sadia de tomateiro, foi selecionado dentre outros 117, como promissor agente de biocontrole de enfermidades da cultura. Em testes de antagonismo in vitro contra patógenos do tomateiro, o isolado 'UFV-RD1' foi incapaz de inibir o crescimento de bactérias (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria mas inibiu a germinação de conídios de alguns fungos (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Em ensaios de biocontrole experimental in vivo, em casa de vegetação, o actinomiceto foi efetivo em reduzir a severidade de sintomas no caso de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos testados como desafiantes. A campo, quando A. solani e P. infestans ocorreram naturalmente, as plantas originárias de sementes microbiolizadas com propágulos da estirpe 'UFV-RD1' exibiram sintomas menos severos que as plantas controle para o caso da pinta preta. O agente de biocontrole é promissor para futuros protocolos de manejo integrado, como forma de reduzir a quantidade de defensivos utilizados.An actinomycete (Streptomyces setonii, isolate 'UFV-RD1', isolated from the rhizosphere of a healthy tomato plant was selected out of 117 as a promising biocontrol agent for tomato diseases. In in vitro antagonism tests against tomato pathogens, the isolate 'UFV-RD1' was unable to inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria but inhibited conidium germination of fungi (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans, Corynespora cassiicola, Stemphylium solani. Experimental biocontrol assays in a greenhouse indicated that the actinomycete was effective for reducing symptom severity in the case of bacteria and fungi tested
Ferraz, Hélvio Gledson Maciel
Na maioria dos experimentos sobre controle biológico de fitopatógenos já descritos, Rizobactérias Promotoras de Crescimento em Plantas (PGPR s) são dispensadas por microbiolização de sementes e bactérias residentes do filoplano são dispensadas por pulverização da parte aérea da cultura. Procurou-se verificar, se outras formas de dispensa do agente de biocontrole são igualmente eficientes aos métodos clássicos de dispensa. Objetivou-se testar várias formas de dispensa do agente de biocontrole ...
Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed
Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.
Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen
An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly
Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne; Ciliento, Rosalia; Woo, Sheridian L; Lorito, Matteo; Kubicek, Christian P; Mach, Robert L
Biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. We determined whether transgenic strain SJ3-4 of Trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxA, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. The transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxA expression occurred immediately after contact with the plant pathogen, and the glucose oxidase formed was secreted. SJ3-4 had significantly less N-acetylglucosaminidase and endochitinase activities than its nontransformed parent. Glucose oxidase-containing culture filtrates exhibited threefold-greater inhibition of germination of spores of Botrytis cinerea. The transgenic strain also more quickly overgrew and lysed the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum. In planta, SJ3-4 had no detectable improved effect against low inoculum levels of these pathogens. Beans planted in heavily infested soil and treated with conidia of the transgenic Trichoderma strain germinated, but beans treated with wild-type spores did not germinate. SJ3-4 also was more effective in inducing systemic resistance in plants. Beans with SJ3-4 root protection were highly resistant to leaf lesions caused by the foliar pathogen B. cinerea. This work demonstrates that heterologous genes driven by pathogen-inducible promoters can increase the biocontrol and systemic resistance-inducing properties of fungal biocontrol agents, such as Trichoderma spp., and that these microbes can be used as vectors to provide plants with useful molecules (e.g., glucose oxidase) that can increase their resistance to pathogens.
Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum cucumerinum. Cucumber was grown in three soils with strain B068150 inoculated in a greenhouse for 90 days, and the colonization ability of strain B068150 in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils was determined. Changes in total bacteria and fungi community composition and structures using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and sequencing were determined. Colony counts showed that B068150 colonization in the rhizosphere was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in non-rhizosphere soils. Based on our data, the introduction of B. bacillus B068150 did not change the diversity of microbial communities significantly in the rhizosphere of three soils. Our data showed that population density of B068150 in clay soil had a significant negative correlation on bacterial diversity in cucumber rhizosphere in comparison to loam and sandy soils, suggesting that the impact of B068150 might be soil specific.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is an invasive insect species of sweet chestnut (Castanea spp. originating from China, and the only effective control measure against this pest is classical biological control with introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis. This parasitoid has been widely released in many European countries, but it also has the ability to rapidly spread naturally. No official releases have been done in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Material and Methods: D. kuriphilus galls were collected in July 2017 on 6 localities in forest district Unsko (Una Sana canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presence and parasitism rates of T. sinensis were recorded in the entomological laboratory, Croatian Forest Research Institute. T. sinensis larvae were identified morphologically and by being compared with the voucher specimens. Results and Discussion: Torymus sinensis larvae were positively identified in the examined D. kuriphilus galls from all localities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Parasitism rates ranged from 44.83 to 74%. Occurrence and high parasitism rates in Bosnia and Herzegovina observed in this study are not results of biocontrol releases of T. sinensis, but can be attributed to natural spread from Croatia. High parasitism rates observed in this study can indicate that the parasitoid was present in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2016. Conclusions: This study presents the first record of Torymus sinensis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We predict that the parasitoid will continue its spread over Bosnia and Herzegovina in sweet chestnut forests and orchards and that it will act as effective biological control agent against D. kuriphilus.
Li, Yunlong; Gu, Yilin; Li, Juan; Xu, Mingzhu; Wei, Qing; Wang, Yuanhong
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease found in a wide range of plants and can significantly reduce crop yields. Bacterial strain LJ02 is a biocontrol agent (BCA) isolated from a greenhouse in Tianjin, China. In combination of morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, strain LJ02 was classified as a new member of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Greenhouse trials showed that LJ02 fermentation broth (LJ02FB) can effectively diminish the occurrence of cucurbits powdery mildew. When treated with LJ02FB, cucumber seedlings produced significantly elevated production of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase as compared to that of the control. We further confirmed that the production of free salicylic acid (SA) and expression of one pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 in cucumber leaves were markedly elevated after treating with LJ02FB, suggesting that SA-mediated defense response was stimulated. Moreover, LJ02FB-treated cucumber leaves could secrete resistance-related substances into rhizosphere that inhibit the germination of fungi spores and the growth of pathogens. Finally, we separated bacterium and its fermented substances to test their respective effects and found that both components have SA-inducing activity and bacterium plays major roles. Altogether, we identified a BCA against powdery mildew and its mode of action by inducing systemic resistance such as SA signaling pathway.
Lu, Dandan; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Xianhao; Yu, Xiaoping
Actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens and as plant growth promoters. In this study, a total of 320 actinomycetes were isolated from various habitats in China. Among which, 77 strains have been identified as antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum which usually caused fusarium wilt of cucumber. Of these, isolate actinomycete M527 not only displayed broad-spectrum antifungal activity but also showed the strongest antagonistic activity against the spore germination of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. In pot experiments, the results indicated that isolate M527 could promote the shoot growth and prevent the development of the disease on cucumber caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. The control efficacy against seedling fusarium wilt of cucumber after M527 fermentation broth root-irrigation was up to 72.1% as compared to control. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate M527 was identified as Streptomyces rimosus. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH
Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.
Pylro, Victor Satler; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Varani, Alessandro de Mello; Andreote, Cristiane Cipolla Fasanella; Bernardo, Eduardo Roberto de Almeida; Zucchi, Tiago
We report here the closed and near-complete genome sequence and annotation of Bacillus velezensis strain AGVL-005, a bacterium isolated from soybean seeds in Brazil and used for phytopathogen biocontrol. Copyright © 2018 Pylro et al.
Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan
The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control.
Jensen, Dan Funck; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Lübeck, Mette
Numerous experiments demonstrating potential biocontrol effects on soilborne diseases have been reported in the scientific literature. However, from the lists of approved and registered biocontrol agents, it is striking how few have been commercialised and are used in practise for plant disease c...... with in such a development. Australasian Plant Pathology 36(2) 95-101 Submitted: 12 January 2006 Accepted: 15 January 2007 Published: 6 March 2007 Full text DOI: 10.1071/AP07009 © Australasian Plant Pathology Society 2007...
Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P
The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.
Mashinistova, A. V.; Elchin, A. A.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Khudaibergenova, B. M.; Shabaev, V. P.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.
Rhizosphere-borne microorganisms reintroduced to the soil-root interface can establish without inducing permanent disturbance in the microbial balance and effectively colonise the rhizosphere due to carbon sources of plant root exudates. A challenge for future development of microbial products for use in agriculture will be selection of rhizosphere-competent microbes that both protect the plant from pathogens and improve crop establishment and persistence. In this study screening, collection, identification and expression of stable and technological microbial strains living in soils and in the rhizosphere of abundant weed - couch-grass Elytrigia repens L. Nevski were conducted. A total of 98 bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere were assessed for biocontrol activity in vitro against phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium heterosporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Drechslera teres, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Piricularia oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, Colletothrichum atramentarium and Cladosporium sp., Stagonospora nodorum. Biocontrol activity were performed by the following methods: radial and parallel streaks, "host - pathogen" on the cuts of wheat leaves. A culture collection comprising 64 potential biocontrol agents (BCA) against wheat and barley root diseases has been established. Of these, the most effective were 8 isolates inhibitory to at least 4 out of 5 phytopathogenic fungi tested. The remaining isolates inhibited at least 1 of 5 fungi tested. Growth stimulating activity of proposed rhizobacteria-based preparations was estimated using seedling and vegetative pot techniques. Seeds-inoculation and the tests in laboratory and field conditions were conducted for different agricultural crops - wheat and barley. Intact cells, liquid culture filtrates and crude extracts of the four beneficial bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of weed were studied to stimulate plant growth. As a result, four bacterial strains selected from rhizosphere of weed
SUWANTO, ANTONIUS; HALA, YUSMINAH; AFFANDI, RIDWAN; Jr., MUHAMMAD ZAIRIN
Rifampicin-resistant marker was employed as a reporter to detect the adherence and colonization of V. harveyi in shrimp larvae. Vibrio harveyi P1B and YA32.2 were isolated from dead shrimp larvae in Besuki, Northern Coast of East Java, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pristine sea water in Pacitan, Southern Coast of East Java. Vibrio metschnikovii used as biocontrol agent was isolated from healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, West Java. Spontaneous mutation was conducted to generate V. h...
Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.
Atkins, Simon D; Hidalgo-Diaz, Leopoldo; Clark, Ian M; Morton, C Oliver; de Oca, Nivian Montes; Gray, Paul A; Kerry, Brian R
Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biocontrol agent against root-knot nematodes. Diagnosis of isolates has relied on morphological identification, and is both time-consuming and difficult. beta-tubulin primers have been developed for the identification of this fungus that were specific enough to distinguish between varieties of the fungus within the same species. Separate primers have been developed for the specific detection of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata based on ITS sequences, which were able to detect the fungus in soil from various sites in Cuba where the biocontrol agent had been added. When the PCR diagnosis was combined with serial dilution of soil samples on selective medium, colonies were rapidly identified. The fungus was still present, albeit at low densities, in soils inoculated five years previously. The development of a baiting method allowed quick in situ screening of the isolates' ability to infect nematode eggs, and when combined with PCR diagnosis both varieties of the fungus could be detected in infected eggs. RFLP analysis of ITS sequences from P. chlamydosporia provided an extra level of discrimination between isolates.
Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sang Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Sang, Mee Kyung; Song, Jaekyeong
Bacillus species have been widely used as biological control agents in agricultural fields due to their ability to suppress plant pathogens. Bacillus velezensis M75 was isolated from cotton waste used for mushroom cultivation in Korea, and was found to be antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the M75 strain, which has a 4,007,450-bp single circular chromosome with 3921 genes and a G+C content of 46.60%. The genome contained operons encoding various non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Our results will provide a better understanding of the genome of B. velezensis strains for their application as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens in agricultural fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chemical pesticides are widely used in agriculture, which endangers both environmental health and food safety. Biocontrol is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective green technique in environmental protection and agricultural production; it generally uses selected bioresources, including beneficial microorganisms. We isolated a novel bacterial strain (NKG-1 from the rare dormant volcanic soils of Changbai Mountain in China's Jilin Province. The strain was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus using morphological, biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic 16S rDNA sequencing data. This strain was able to suppress mycelial growth and conidial germination of numerous plant pathogenic fungi on solid media. A greenhouse experiment showed that application of NKG-1 fermentation broth prior to inoculation of Botrytis cinerea, the cause of gray tomato mold, inhibited growth of the mold by 60%. Furthermore, application of a 100× dilution of NKG-1 fermentation broth to tomato seedlings yielded a significant increase in seedling fresh weight (27.4%, seedling length (12.5%, and root length (57.7% compared to the control. When the same dosage was applied in the field, we observed increases in tomato plant height (14.7%, stem diameter (12.7%, crown width (16.3%, and maximum fruit diameter (11.5%. These results suggest that NKG-1 has potential commercial application as a biofertilizer or biocontrol agent.
Xue, Jianjie; Zhang, Yongan; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Yuzhu; Hou, Jingang; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yunbo; Gu, Lijuan; Sung, Changkeun
The nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola has tremendous potential for biological control. This species exhibits strong infectious activity against pinewood nematodes, whereas the study on the effect of nutrition and environmental factors is still of paucity. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), pH value, temperature, and water activity have great impact on the fungal growth, sporulation, and germination. In nutrition study, the greatest number of conidia (2.36 × 10(9) per colony) was obtained at the C:N ratio of 100:1 with a carbon concentration 32 g l(-1). In addition, the germination rate and radial growth of E. vermicola were used to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and they were optimized as following: pH 5.5, 26 °C and water activity of 0.98. Our results also confirmed that variation of environmental factors has a detrimental influence on the efficacy of active conidia and growth of fungus. Moreover, under above optimal condition, the biocontrol efficacy was significantly improved in regard to the increase of adhesive and mortality rate, which highlight the study on the application of E. vermicola as pine wilt disease biocontrol agent.
Calvo, H; Marco, P; Blanco, D; Oria, R; Venturini, M E
The biocontrol potential of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BUZ-14 was tested against the main postharvest diseases of orange, apple, grape and stone fruit. After characterizing the temperature and pH growth curves of strain BUZ-14, its in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and P. italicum. Subsequently, in vivo activity was tested against these pathogens by treating fruit with cells, endospores and cell-free supernatants. The in vitro results showed that BUZ-14 inhibited the growth of all the pathogens tested corresponding to the least susceptible species, P. italicum, and the most susceptible, M. laxa. In vivo tests corroborated these results as most of the treatments decreased the incidence of brown rot in stone fruit from 100% to 0%, establishing 10 7 CFU mL -1 as the minimum inhibitory concentration. For the Penicillium species a preventive treatment inhibited P. digitatum and P. italicum growth in oranges and reduced P. expansum incidence in apples from 100% to 20%. Finally, it has been demonstrated that BUZ-14 was able to survive and to control brown rot in peaches stored at cool temperatures, making it a very suitable biocontrol agent for application during the post-harvest storage and marketing of horticultural products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ge, Beibei; Liu, Binghua; Nwet, Thinn Thinn; Zhao, Wenjun; Shi, Liming; Zhang, Kecheng
Chemical pesticides are widely used in agriculture, which endangers both environmental health and food safety. Biocontrol is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective green technique in environmental protection and agricultural production; it generally uses selected bioresources, including beneficial microorganisms. We isolated a novel bacterial strain (NKG-1) from the rare dormant volcanic soils of Changbai Mountain in China's Jilin Province. The strain was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus using morphological, biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic 16S rDNA sequencing data. This strain was able to suppress mycelial growth and conidial germination of numerous plant pathogenic fungi on solid media. A greenhouse experiment showed that application of NKG-1 fermentation broth prior to inoculation of Botrytis cinerea, the cause of gray tomato mold, inhibited growth of the mold by 60%. Furthermore, application of a 100× dilution of NKG-1 fermentation broth to tomato seedlings yielded a significant increase in seedling fresh weight (27.4%), seedling length (12.5%), and root length (57.7%) compared to the control. When the same dosage was applied in the field, we observed increases in tomato plant height (14.7%), stem diameter (12.7%), crown width (16.3%), and maximum fruit diameter (11.5%). These results suggest that NKG-1 has potential commercial application as a biofertilizer or biocontrol agent.
Defoirdt, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter
Because of the risk of antibiotic resistance development, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used more carefully in animal production. However, a decreased use of antibiotics could result in a higher frequency of pathogenic bacteria, which in its turn could lead to a higher incidence of infections. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have long been known to exhibit bacteriostatic activity. These compounds also specifically downregulate virulence factor expression and positively influence the gastrointestinal health of the host. As a consequence, there is currently considerable interest in SCFAs as biocontrol agents in animal production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers of beta-hydroxy short-chain fatty acids. Currently, PHAs are applied as replacements for synthetic polymers. These biopolymers can be depolymerised by many different microorganisms that produce extracellular PHA depolymerases. Interestingly, different studies provided some evidence that PHAs can also be degraded upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract of animals and consequently, adding these compounds to the feed might result in biocontrol effects similar to those described for SCFAs.
Yánez-Mendizabal, V; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Cañamás, T; Teixidó, N
The role of endospore production by Bacillus subtilis CPA-8 on survival during spray-drying was investigated by comparison with a non-spore-forming biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2. Endospore formation promoted heat resistance in CPA-8 depending on growth time (72 h cultures were more resistant than 24 h ones). The survival of CPA-8 and CPA-2 after spray-drying was determined after being grown in optimised media for 24 and 72 h. Spray-dried 72 h CPA-8 had the best survival (32%), while CPA-2 viability was less than 2%. CPA-8 survival directly related with its ability to produce endospores. Spray-dried CPA-8 reduced Monilinia fructicola conidia germination similarly to fresh cells, demonstrating that spray-drying did not adversely affect biocontrol efficacy. Endospore production thus improves CPA-8 resistance to spray-drying. These results can provide a reliable basis for optimising of the spray-drying formulation process for CPA-8 and other microorganisms.
Pan, Hua-Qi; Li, Qing-Lian; Hu, Jiang-Chun
A Bacillus sp. 9912 mutant, 9912D, was approved as a new biological fungicide agent by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China in 2016 owing to its excellent inhibitory effect on various plant pathogens and being environment-friendly. Here, we present the genome of 9912D with a circular chromosome having 4436 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), and a circular plasmid encoding 59 CDSs. This strain was finally designated as Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomic analyses. Genome analysis revealed a total of 19 candidate gene clusters involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including potential new type II lantibiotics. The absence of fengycin biosynthetic gene cluster is noteworthy. Our data offer insights into the genetic, biological and physiological characteristics of this strain and aid in deeper understanding of its biocontrol mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hajano, J.U.D.; Lodhi, M.; Pathan, M.A.; Khanzada, A.; Shah, G.S.
Among 5 fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim, Fosetyl-aluminium, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride, used against the Magnaporthe oryzae, only Mancozeb appeared as the highly effective fungicide that completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. All other fungicides showed little effect at higher concentrations. The extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and calatropis (Calotropis procera L.) when used against M. oryzae by food poisoning method, only higher dose of garlic completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungus. Six bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma polysporum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces variotii and Paecilomyces lilacinus were used. Maximum mycelial inhibition of M. oryzae was provided by P. lilacinus followed by Trichoderma spp. (author)
Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf
The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics...... in plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan......®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all...
Aline S Romão-Dumaresq
Full Text Available The sugarcane root endophyte Trichoderma virens 223 holds enormous potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in the control of sugarcane diseases. Its efficacy as a biocontrol agent is thought to be associated with its production of chitinase enzymes, including N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidases, chitobiosidases and endochitinases. We used targeted gene deletion and RNA-dependent gene silencing strategies to disrupt N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase and endochitinase activities of the fungus, and to determine their roles in the biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens. The loss of N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities was dispensable for biocontrol of the plurivorous damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and of the sugarcane pathogen Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causal agent of pineapple disease. Similarly, suppression of endochitinase activities had no effect on R. solani and S. sclerotiorum disease control, but had a pronounced effect on the ability of T. virens 223 to control pineapple disease. Our work demonstrates a critical requirement for T. virens 223 endochitinase activity in the biocontrol of C. paradoxa sugarcane disease, but not for general antagonism of other soil pathogens. This may reflect its lifestyle as a sugarcane root endophyte.
Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente
Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.
Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Hirapara, Jaydeep G; Golakiya, B A
Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. koningii, each one of T. hamatum, T. reesei, T. parceramosum and Trichoderma spp.) subjected to in vitro antagonism up to 12days after inoculation against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. A new concept was developed to determine inhibition coefficient representing pathogen biology and biocontrol related biophysical variables. Results explained differential inhibition coefficient of test pathogen by Trichoderma antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of test pathogen was examined highest (91.13%) by T. virens NBAII Tvs12 followed by T. virens MTCC 794 (89.33%) and T. koningii MTCC 796 (62.39%). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs12 and antibiosis for T. koningii MTCC 796. The sclerotial biogenesis of test pathogen was elevated during weak antagonism and diminished in interactions with strong antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of S. rolfsii was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during the antagonism. Trichoderma strains were screened for fungicides (carbendazim and tebuconazole, thiram and mancozeb) and abiotic stress (drought and salt) tolerance. Results indicated that T. koningii MTCC 796 efficiently grew better than the other strains with maximum radial growth under adverse conditions. The genetic variability among the Trichoderma was determined using 34 gene specific markers which amplified 146 alleles. The SSR similarities explained substantial diversity (15 to 87%) across Trichoderma strains and pathogen S. rolfsii. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) were comparable to the cluster analysis and first three most informative PC components explained 64.45% of the total variation. In PCA, potent antagonists appear to be distinct from other strains. Five
Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.
Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.
Seleção de bactérias endofíticas de tomateiro como potenciais agentes de biocontrole e de promoção de crescimento Screening of endophytic bacteria isolated from tomato plants as potencial biocontrol agents and growth promotion
Patrícia Baston Barretti
Full Text Available Quarenta isolados bacterianos endofíticos de plantas sadias de tomateiro foram avaliados quanto à sua potencialidade como agentes de biocontrole de doenças do tomateiro. Foi realizada, em casa de vegetação, uma seleção massal utilizando-se Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato e Alternaria solani, como patógenos desafiantes. Com base na média do número de lesões por planta, quatro isolados foram selecionados como potenciais agentes de biocontrole dessas enfermidades fúngica e bacteriana do tomateiro. Esses isolados foram identificados, por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S do DNA ribossômico, como Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 e Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. Os mesmos isolados selecionados para o biocontrole também foram avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de promover o crescimento em plantas e somente S. marcescens (UFV-E13 proporcionou aumento na altura das plantas.Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria obtained from healthy tomato plants were tested for their potential as biocontrol agents of tomato diseases. A massal screening was performed at greenhouse using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Alternaria solani as challenging pathogens. Based on the average number of lesions per plant, four isolates were selected as potential agents of biocontrol of these tomato diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. These isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 and Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. The four endophytes selected for biocontrol were also evaluated for their ability of promoting plant growth and only S. marcescens (UFV-E13 presented increase in the height of the plants.
Zhang, Tao; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha
White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp) from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1) Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C), (2) Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3) Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4) Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp), (5) Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6) Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.
Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS, an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd, the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1 Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C, (2 Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3 Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4 Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp, (5 Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6 Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.
Ferreira-Pinto, M M; Moura-Guedes, M C; Barreiro, M G; Pais, I; Santos, M R; Silva, M J
The blue mold of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum is an important postharvest disease which is adequately controlled by application of synthetic fungicides. In recent years, strategies like biological control have been considered a desirable alternative to chemicals. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans for control of postharvest decay of pear. A Portuguese isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was characterized and evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest blue mold decay of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Study of optimal conditions for antagonist growth was carried out in six different culture media. The effect of four maturity stages of fruits in the development of A. pullulans was also studied. Biocontrol studies were performed with two concentrations of the antagonist (3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml). A. pullulans growth was significantly different (P Corn Meal Agar (CMA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media which contains the higher concentration of glucose (20 mg/l). Medium resulted from fruits of the first harvest date presented lower colony diameter. Inoculation of A. pullulans at 3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml reduced the incidence of the disease by 23 and 63%, and reduced the lesion diameter by 36 and 46%, respectively.
Jackson, Trevor A; Crawford, Allan M; Glare, Travis R
The introduction of Oryctes virus into outbreak areas of the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has been a major success for "classical" biocontrol with a virus and has led to a dramatic reduction in palm damage in many areas of the Asia/Pacific region. In recent years, however, there have been new reports of high levels of rhinoceros beetle damage to palms. Damage has been especially intense in SE Asia following the introduction of no-burn polices for land clearance and replanting, but outbreaks have also been reported from some Pacific Islands where control seems to have diminished over time. SE Asian studies show that there is considerable genetic variation among endemic Oryctes virus isolates and studies in new island release areas have shown rapid evolution of the virus. The consequences of such genetic variation are in need of further study. Furthermore, the taxonomic position of the virus is unclear, with its removal from the Baculoviridae to an "unassigned' virus, reflecting its novel characteristics. Genomic sequencing could help resolve the taxonomy of the virus and provide a basis for studying strain variation. Oryctes virus has achieved wide success in the past without the benefit of molecular analysis and identification techniques. In order to fully take advantage of this unique pathogen for protection of palms, a renewed, coordinated effort centered on genetic selection and distribution of effective strains is required.
Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.
Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael
Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Balsells-Llauradó, Marta; Gotor-Vila, Amparo; Torres, Rosario
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CPA-8 has been described as an effective biocontrol agent to control brown rot in stone fruit for both preharvest and postharvest applications. However, no information about the environmental fate and behaviour of this strain under field conditions is available. The dispersion of the CPA-8 application was evaluated using water-sensitive papers, and complete coverage was observed on the leaves of treated trees, while treatment. On non-treated trees, CPA-8 was detected on leaves until 180 days after treatment, and on weeds, the CPA-8 population was dependent on the distance from the treated trees. A high persistence of CPA-8 was detected on inert materials, such as clothes and gloves worn by handlers and plastic harvesting boxes. More than 99% of the samples with a CPA-8 phenotype were confirmed as CPA-8 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This work demonstrated a good distribution, persistence and adaptation of the CPA-8 strain to field and postharvest conditions. Monitoring of dispersion and persistence is an excellent tool to determine the time of application and provides valuable information for registering issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
currently testing the pathogenicity of different isolates on P. australis germination and results are extremely diverse. Isolates and P. australis...pathogenicity. While these Pythium species have large effects on seed germination , it is doubtful that they can contribute to reductions in P...potential agents for in-depth study; (2) outline and report initial testing procedures and results of host-specificity studies of identified agents; (3
Increased production of organic agricultural products and the relative ineffectiveness of traditional control measures support development of new biocontrol technologies for use against pink rot infections in storage. The microbiota of 84 different agricultural soils was individually transferred to...
Natalia Olsson Markelova
Full Text Available Members of the genus Bdellovibrio are small and highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio enters the prey cell, transforming it into a structure that is referred to as a bdelloplast. It then grows and divides inside the bdelloplast, ending in lysis and the release of the Bdellovibrio progeny. Because of this capability, Bdellovibrio is a potential antibacterial agent. In this article, we report the results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with actively growing and viable but nonculturable (VBNC Vibrio cholerae. A significant observation was that Bdellovibrio attacked both VBNC and actively growing V. cholerae. These results indicate that Bdellovibrio, a “living antibiotic,” has potential as an antibacterial agent in environmental and public health bioprotection.
Taribuka, J; Wibowo, A; Widyastuti, S M; Sumardiyono, C
Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistanc...
Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun
The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.
Bhunchoth, A; Phironrit, N; Leksomboon, C; Chatchawankanphanich, O; Kotera, S; Narulita, E; Kawasaki, T; Fujie, M; Yamada, T
To isolate and characterize novel bacteriophages infecting the phytopathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, and to evaluate them as resources with potential uses in the biocontrol of bacterial wilt. Fourteen phages infecting R. solanacearum were isolated from soil samples collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The phages showed different host ranges when tested against 59 R. solanacearum strains isolated from Thailand and Japan. These phages were characterized as nine podoviruses and five myoviruses based on their morphology. Podovirus J2 in combination with another podovirus (φRSB2) lysed host cells very efficiently in contaminated soil. J2 treatment prevented wilting of tomato plants infected with a highly virulent R. solanacearum strain. Treatment with J2 effectively reduced the amount of the bacterial wilt pathogen in contaminated soil and prevented bacterial wilt of tomato in pot experiments. Myovirus J6 possessed jumbo phage features, giving a unique opportunity to study its utilization as a biocontrol agent. As exemplified by J2, the phages isolated in this study represent valuable resources with potential uses in biocontrol of bacterial wilt. A rare jumbo phage J6 served as a valuable subject to understand and utilize this new group of phages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Degenkolb, Thomas; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Dieckmann, Ralf; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J; Thrane, Ulf; von Döhren, Hans; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Brückner, Hans
The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in plant-protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna(®) , Trichosan(®) , Vitalin(®) , Promot(®) WP, and TrichoMax(®) , formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well-established, HPLC/MS-based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these formulations contained new and recurrent peptaibols, i.e., peptaibiotics carrying an acetylated N-terminus, the C-terminus of which is reduced to a 1,2-amino alcohol. Their chain lengths, including the amino alcohol, were 11, 14, and 18 residues, respectively. Peptaibols were also to be the dominating secondary metabolites in plate cultures of the four strains obtained from four of the Trichoderma- based BCAs, contributing 95% of the UHPLC-UV/VIS peak areas and 99% of the total ion count MS peak area from solid media. Furthermore, species-specific hydrophobins, as well as non-peptaibiotic secondary metabolites, were detected, the latter being known for their antifungal, siderophore, or plant-growth-promoting activities. Notably, none of the isolates produced low-molecular weight mycotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.
Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are a serious and growing problem, and the incidence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne pathogens is reported to have increased. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains demands novel strategies to counteract this epidemic. In this regard, lytic bacteriophages have reemerged as an alternative for the control of pathogenic bacteria. However, the effective use of phages relies on appropriate biological and genomic characterization. In this study, we present the isolation and characterization of a novel bacteriophage named phiLLS, which has shown strong lytic activity against generic and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains. Transmission electron microscopy of phiLLS morphology revealed that it belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Furthermore, this phage exhibited a relatively large burst size of 176 plaque-forming units per infected cell. Phage phiLLS significantly reduced the growth of E. coli under laboratory conditions. Analyses of restriction profiles showed the presence of submolar fragments, confirming that phiLLS is a pac-type phage. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of large terminase subunits confirmed that this phage uses a headful packaging strategy to package their genome. Genomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis showed that phiLLS is a novel bacteriophage that is most closely related to T5-like phages. In silico analysis indicated that the phiLLS genome consists of 107,263 bp (39.0 % GC content encoding 160 putative ORFs, 16 tRNAs, several potential promoters and transcriptional terminators. Genome analysis suggests that the phage phiLLS is strictly lytic without carrying genes associated with virulence factors and/or potential immunoreactive allergen proteins. The bacteriophage isolated in this study has shown promising results in the biocontrol of bacterial growth under in vitro conditions, suggesting that it may prove useful as an alternative
Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Kumar, Amit; Kapoor, Sanjay
Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3
Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted for 2 years to determine the effectiveness of combined use of two biocontrol agents, Bacillus firmus and Aspergillus versicolor for control of Macrophomina phaseolina induced charcoal rot of cowpea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini induced wilt of cumin. The lowest level of plant mortality (3‒4% due to charcoal rot of cowpea was recorded when bacterium coated seeds were sown in radish compost amended soil compared to the non-amended soil (13.8‒20.5%, but this was not significantly better than some other treatments. Cowpea roots from B. firmus coated seeds had better nodulation than any of the individual A. versicolor treatments. Although B. firmus coated seeds + A. versicolor + farmyard manure resulted in maximum nodulation this was not significantly different to B. firmus seed coating. Root colonization by the combined biocontrol agent treatments was better than the individual biocontrol agent treatments. Combining A. versicolor with farmyard manure supported the maximum populations of total fungi and actinomycetes. In both winter seasons, the lowest incidence of wilt (1.0‒5.2% on cumin was recorded when A. versicolor was amended with neem compost compared to the non-amended soil (5.7‒10.5%. Maximum colonization of A. versicolor on roots was observed in B. firmus + A. versicolor + farmyard manure amended plots. During both years, the treatment combination of A. versicolor in neem compost amended plots resulted in maximum populations of fungi, bacteria and A. versicolor in the soil, which was greater than in the non-amended soil. Significant increases in disease control were not recorded after single or repeated delivery of A. versicolor. These results suggest that combining B. firmus as seed coatings with A. versicolor as soil applications gives improved control of M. phaseolina and Fusarium induced diseases on legume and seed spice crops in arid soils.
Madsen, Anne Mette
Exposure to bioaerosols containing fungi and bacteria may cause various deleterious respiratory health effects. Fungi and bacteria are commercially produced and applied to the environment as microbiological pest control agents (MPCAs). Attention has been drawn towards the exposure and health risks due to the use of commercially important MPCAs. As part of a risk evaluation this paper intends to review whether the exposure to MPCAs (Beauveria bassiana, Verticillium lecanii, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. polysporum, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, P. lilacinus, Streptomyces griseoviridis, Bacillus subtilis and Ba. thuringiensis) exceeds background exposure levels. The paper is further aimed to focus on the aerosolization of MPCAs in relation to exposure and human inhalation. From the few studies about exposures it is concluded that both people handling MPCAs in occupational settings and residents of an area where MPCAs have been applied may be exposed to MPCAs. The highest exposures to MPCAs are found for people applying MPCAs. In 2 of 12 environments exposure to applied MPCAs were higher than exposure to the total number of bacteria or fungi.
Full Text Available The use of biological control agents to control pests is an alternative to pesticides and a tool to manage invasive alien species. However, biocontrol agents can themselves become invasive species under certain conditions. The harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis is a native Asian biocontrol agent that has become a successful invader. We reviewed articles containing “Harmonia axyridis” to gather information on its presence and surveyed entomologists researching Coccinellidae around the world to investigate further insights about the current distribution, vectors of introduction, habitat use and threats this species pose. The harlequin ladybird has established populations in at least 59 countries outside its native range. Twenty six percent of the surveyed scientists considered it a potential threat to native Coccinellidae. Published studies and scientists suggest Adalia bipunctata, native to Europe, is under the highest risk of population declines. Strict policies should be incorporated to prevent its arrival to non-invaded areas and to prevent further expansion range. Managing invasive species is a key priority to prevent biodiversity loss and promote ecosystem services.
Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks. Observation of lignification on the fifth week showed that lignification occurred in root xylem
Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.
Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these agents to field-based evaluations of their actual impact on mosquito survival and malaria risk. Mineral oil-formulations of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were applied using five different techniques that each exploited the behaviour of malaria mosquitoes when entering, host-seeking or resting in experimental huts in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania. Results Survival of mosquitoes was reduced by 39-57% relative to controls after forcing upward house-entry of mosquitoes through fungus treated baffles attached to the eaves or after application of fungus-treated surfaces around an occupied bed net (bed net strip design). Moreover, 68 to 76% of the treatment mosquitoes showed fungal growth and thus had sufficient contact with fungus treated surfaces. A population dynamic model of malaria-mosquito interactions shows that these infection rates reduce malaria transmission by 75-80% due to the effect of fungal infection on adult mortality alone. The model also demonstrated that even if a high proportion of the mosquitoes exhibits outdoor biting behaviour, malaria transmission was still significantly reduced. Conclusions Entomopathogenic fungi strongly affect mosquito survival and have a high predicted impact on malaria transmission. These entomopathogens represent a viable alternative for malaria control, especially if they are used as part of an integrated vector management strategy. PMID:22449130
ShiLi Miao; Yi Li; Qinfeng Guo; Hua Yu; JiangQing Ding; et al.
The development of an effective approach to control and eradication of invasive species has become a major challenge to scientists, managers, and society. Biocontrol has been widely utilized to control exotic plants in the past few decades with some degree of sucess. However, there have been an increasing number of controversies pertaining to this approach, largely...
Larena, I; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A
ABSTRACT Production of conidia of Penicillium oxalicum (ATCC number pending), a biocontrol agent of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, was tested in liquid and solid fermentation. P. oxalicum produced 250-fold more conidia in solid than in liquid fermentation at 30 days after inoculation of substrate. Solid fermentation was carried out in plastic bags (600 cm(3)) especially designed for solid fermentation (VALMIC) containing 50 g of peat/vermiculite (PV) (1:1, wt/wt) with 40% moisture, sealed, sterilized, and then inoculated with 1 ml of a conidial suspension of P. oxalicum (10(5) conidia g(-1) dry substrate), sealed again, and incubated in darkness at 20 to 25 degrees C for 30 days. Addition of amendments to PV in a proportion of 0.5 (wt/wt) significantly increased conidial production of P. oxalicum. The best production was obtained on PV plus meal of cereal grains (barley) or leguminous seeds (lentil) (100-fold higher). Conidial production obtained after 5 days of inoculation was similar to that obtained at 30 days. However, viability of conidia produced in PV plus lentil meal was 35% higher than that of conidia produced in PV plus barley meal. Changes in proportions (1:1:0.5, wt/wt/wt; 1:1:1, wt/wt/wt; 1:0.5:0.5, wt/wt/wt; 1:1:0.5, vol/vol/vol) of components of the substrate (peat/vermiculite/lentil meal) did not enhance production or viability of conidia. Optimal initial moisture in the substrate was 30 to 40%. At lower moistures, significant reductions of production of conidia were observed, particularly at 10%. There was a general decline in the number of conidia in bags with time of storage at -80, -20, 4, and 25 degrees C, or at room temperature (range from 30 to 15 degrees C), with the highest decline occurring from 60 to 180 days. Conidial viability also was reduced with time, except for conidia stored at -20 degrees C. Fresh conidia produced in solid fermentation system or those conidia stored at -20 degrees C for 180 days reduced Fusarium wilt of
López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Antón, Anabel; Raidl, Stefan; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, José Antonio
The species of the genus Trichoderma are used successfully as biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. Among them, Trichoderma harzianum is especially effective. However, to develop more effective fungal biocontrol strategies in organic substrates and soil, tools for monitoring the control agents are required. Real-time PCR is potentially an effective tool for the quantification of fungi in environmental samples. The aim of this study consisted of the development and application of a real-time PCR-based method to the quantification of T. harzianum, and the extrapolation of these data to fungal biomass values. A set of primers and a TaqMan probe for the ITS region of the fungal genome were designed and tested, and amplification was correlated to biomass measurements obtained with optical microscopy and image analysis, of the hyphal length of the mycelium of the colony. A correlation of 0.76 between ITS copies and biomass was obtained. The extrapolation of the quantity of ITS copies, calculated based on real-time PCR data, into quantities of fungal biomass provides potentially a more accurate value of the quantity of soil fungi. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krstin, Ljiljana; Katanić, Zorana; Ježić, Marin; Poljak, Igor; Nuskern, Lucija; Matković, Ivana; Idžojtić, Marilena; Ćurković-Perica, Mirna
Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is a severe chestnut disease that can be controlled with naturally occurring hypoviruses in many areas of Europe. The aim of this research was to measure the effect of different Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) strains on the growth of the fungal host and select strains that could potentially be used for human-mediated biocontrol in forests and orchards, and to investigate whether and how chestnut-fungus-virus interactions affect the development and growth of the lesion area on cut stems. Two Croatian CHV1 strains (CR23 and M56/1) were selected as potential biocontrol agents. The sequencing of CHV1/ORF-A showed that both of these virus strains belonged to the Italian subtype of CHV1. In vitro transfection of selected virus strains from hypovirulent to genetically diverse virus-free fungal isolates and subsequent inoculation of all virus/fungus combinations on stems of genetically diverse sweet chestnut trees revealed that Croatian virus strain CR23 had an equally hypovirulent effect on the host as the strong French strain CHV1-EP713, while M56/1 had a weaker effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in some cases the same hypovirus/fungus combinations induced various degrees of canker development on different chestnut genotypes. Some CHV1 strains belonging to the Italian subtype have similar hypovirulent effects on C. parasitica to those belonging to the French subtype. Furthermore, chestnut susceptibility and recovery could be influenced by the response of chestnut trees to particular hypovirulent C. parasitica isolates, and virus-fungus-chestnut interactions could have significant implications for the success of chestnut blight biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Carbó, Anna; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Fons, Estanislau; Teixidó, Neus
The biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 is effective against several diseases. Consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of C. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential for increasing its potential with respect to future commercial applications. The present study aimed to optimise the conditions for making a dry formulation of C. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against Penicillium expansum on apples. The optimal conditions for the drying process were found to be 40 °C for 45 min and the use of potato starch as the carrier significantly enhanced the viability. However, none of the protective compounds tested increased the viability of the dried cells. A temperature of 25 °C for 10 min in phosphate buffer was considered as the optimum condition to recover the dried formulations. The dried formulations should be stored at 4 °C and air-packaged; moreover, shelf life assays indicated good results after 12 months of storage. The formulated products maintained their biocontrol efficacy. A fluidised bed drying system is a suitable process for dehydrating C. sake cells; moreover, the C. sake formulation is easy to pack, store and transport, and is a cost-effective process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Amanda Reges de Sena
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of pH and temperature on the lysis of yeast using experimental design. In this study, the enzymatic extract containing β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, obtained from the micro-organism Moniliophthora perniciosa, was used. The experiment showed that the best conditions for lysis of Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 by lytic enzyme were pH 4.9 at 37 ºC and pH 3.9 at 26.7 ºC, respectively. The lytic enzyme may be used for obtaining various biotechnology products from yeast.
Duarte, Vinicius da Silva; Dias, Roberto Sousa; Kropinski, Andrew M.
Bovine mastitis remains the main cause of economic losses for dairy farmers. Mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) is related to an acute mastitis and its treatment is still based on the use of antibiotics. In the era of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), bacterial viruses (bacteriophages......, such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha, were observed after viral treatment. This work brings the whole characterization and immune response to vB_EcoM-UFV13, a biocontrol candidate for bovine mastitis.......) present as an efficient treatment or prophylactic option. However, this makes it essential that its genetic structure, stability and interaction with the host immune system be thoroughly characterized. The present study analyzed a novel, broad host-range anti-mastitis agent, the T4virus vB_EcoM-UFV13...
Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K
Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.
Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, a two-year field study was conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone, Nigeria, with the aim to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a bio-control agent against a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties. The experimental field, which naturally has been known for the presence of some nematodes such as Pratylenchus, Helicitylenchus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Rotylenchulus, Xyphinema, was divided into two blocks, each block consisting of three plots with alleys between blocks and plots measuring 5 m and 1.5 m respectively. All treatments were replicated five times by means of a Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial soil nematode population was increased by chopping six kilograms of Meloidogyne incognita galled roots of Celosia agentea from a pure culture into all the plots. One block was treated with bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianumT22 while the second block served as a control unit. The results show that in terms of plant height, the number of branches, yield and reduction of the soil nematode population and root galls, the plants on the Trichoderma treated plots performed significantly better (P=0.05 than those in the control unit did. This therefore implies that root-knot nematodes represent a major constraint in the production of soybean while Trichoderma harzianumT22 improves the yield growth and the yield of soybean as well as better controls soil nematode populations with respect to the control trials.
Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is one of the major destructive soil-borne diseases infecting cucumber. In this study, we screened 60 target strains isolated from vinegar waste compost, from which 10 antagonistic strains were identified to have the disease suppression capacity of bio-control agents. The 16S rDNA gene demonstrated that the biocontrol agents were Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis). Based on the results of antagonistic activity experiments and pot experiment, an interesting strain of P. polymyxa (named NSY50) was selected for further research. Morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that this strain was positive for protease and cellulase and produced indole acetic acid (22.21±1.27μg mL -1 ) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD). NSY50 can significantly up-regulate the expression level of defense related genes PR1 and PR5 in cucumber roots at the early stages upon challenge with FOC. However, the gene expression levels of a set of defense-related genes, such as the plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family (e.g., Csa001236, Csa09775, Csa018159), 26kDa phloem protein (Csa001568, Csa003306), glutathione-S-transferase (Csa017734) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Csa002864) were suppressed by pretreatment with NSY50 compared with the single challenge with FOC after nine days of inoculation. Of particular interest was the reduced expression of these genes at disease progression stages, which may be required for F. oxysporum dependent necrotrophic disease development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok
The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining
The potential application of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. However, no marine BALOs have been reported for Vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. In the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine Bacteriovorax strain DA5 against Vibrio alginolyticus zouA was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°C and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity of infection. Then, we showed that experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei larvae exhibited significantly higher survival with incremental DA5 levels. Finally, variation in the bacterial counts and the bacterial community in larval rearing water was investigated after prophylactic application of DA5. The elimination effect of DA5 on vibrios was visible at early time points, whereas only a few non-dominant bacteria, rather than the predominant populations, were affected through analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rDNA V3 region. Accordingly, the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of DA5 on vibriosis associated with L. vannamei could markedly enhance larval survivability, and these results will facilitate the application of marine Bacteriovorax to control vibriosis in shrimp larviculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Subhankar; Pal, Sujoy; Chakraborty, Niloy
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is a highly important and extensively cultivated medicinal plant and that is also extensively used in the cosmetic industry. It has been frequently reported to suffer from Alternaria leaf spot disease in various parts of the world. Various fungicides used to combat this disease, have deleterious effects on the environment and on pharmacologically important constituents of Aloe vera. To avoid the harmful effects of fungicides an ecofriendly approach has been adopted here. A weekly survey was conducted during 2013-2015 in and around North 24 Parganas (West Bengal) to obtain the percentage of disease index (PDI). For biological control of the disease, screening of the antagonistic efficacy of biocontrol agents was carried out through the in vitro dual-culture-plate method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the mechanism. The in vitro effects of fungicides on the radial growth of the pathogen were evaluated through the poison food method and were compared with potent antagonistic fungi. Field application of potent antagonistic fungi was conducted through the dip-and-spray method. The results showed that, the PDI peaked during the hot and humid conditions of May to September (76.57%-98.57%) but decreased during the winter, December-January (35.71-46.66%). Trichoderma asperellum exerted the greatest inhibition of the radial growth of A. brassicae acting through non volatile (70.39%) and volatile metabolites (72.17%). A SEM study confirmed the hyperparasitic nature of T. asperellum through hyphal coiling-T. asperellum was similar to 2% blitox-50 (73.92%) and better than 2% bavistin (59.77%) (in vitro). In agricultural field trials (2013-15), Trichoderma application restricted the disease to the smallest area (PDI 24.00-29.33%) in comparison to untreated plots (73.33%). In conclusion, saplings treated with the dip method (108 spores / mL) and sprayed 4 times with a spore suspension of biocontrol agents such as T. asperellum, T
Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F
Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.
Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R
The present study aimed at exploring mahua (Madhuca indica) oil cake as a novel substrate for the production of biosurfactant by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation (SSF). Response surface methodology showed followings as the optimal conditions for the production of biosurfactant: mahua oil cake 7.48 g, 2.5 ml inoculum size (1×10(8) cells/ml), and pH 7.22 and 31 °C temperature. The characterization of the biosurfactant by TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS revealed the presence of rhamnolipid. The presence of rhamnosyl transferase gene responsible for biosynthesis of rhamnolipid was identified. The strain SNAU02 exhibited antifungal activity and demonstrated no toxicity against the seeds of Brassica oleracea and Artemia salina employed as a bio-indicator. The present findings indicated the potential of mahua oil cake as suitable substrate for the production of rhamnolipids in SSF by S. rubidaea SNAU02 and application potential of the biosurfactant produced as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Disease in agricultural field is a big problem that causes a massive loss in production. In this present investigation, we have reported a soil-borne bacterium Bacillus cereus IB311 which is antagonistic to plant pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and could make a substantial contribution to the prevention of plant diseases. To prove the practical application, the strain was directly applied in agricultural field. The results demonstrated that B. cereus IB311 has increased the production (20% and 26% in term of average pod number per plant, average seed number per pod, and seed yield per experimental plot in ground nut (Arachis hypogaea var. Koushal, G201 and sesame (Sesamum indicum var. Kanak, respectively. To reduce the production cost, the biomass production was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM. Interactions of three variables (glucose, beef extract and inoculum were studied using Central Composite Design. According to our analysis, optimum production of Bacillus cereus IB311 (5.383 µg/ mL may be obtained at glucose 1.985%, beef extract 1.615% and inoculums size 0.757%. Therefore, we strongly believe that the application of this strain in agricultural field as bio-controlling agent will definitely enhance the production yield and will reduce the disease risk.
Guardado-Valdivia, Lizeth; Tovar-Pérez, Erik; Chacón-López, Alejandra; López-García, Ulises; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; Stoll, Alexandra; Aguilera, Selene
Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous fruit, including soursop and avocado. The use of fungicides to maintain the high quality of fruit creates a potential health risk. One alternative to this problem is the biological control, which has been applied successfully during postharvest. The Bacillus species are one of the most studied biological agents against postharvest pathogens because accomplish their biocontrol performance by producing a variety of metabolites. In this study, we evaluated the activity of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant, obtained from Bacillus strain B5 culture, against micelial growth and spore germination of two virulent strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from soursop and avocado. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. A preventive treatment using cell free supernatant, reduced severity and incidence of anthracnose disease on harvested soursop and avocado fruit. B. atrophaeus strain B5 harbors genes involved in the production of antibiotics such as surfactin, bacillomycin and iturin, which could be contributing to the efficiency of the preventive treatment during postharvest. The antagonistic role of metabolites contained in the cell free supernatant against anthracnose disease, provide a new approach by which to attack this problem and can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides, environmental pollution, leading to the safer fruit preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Legarda, Garikoitz; Ruano-Rosa, David; Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Niqui, José L.; Triviño, Juan C.; Roca, Amalia; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús
The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens. Three strains (PIC25, PIC105, and PICF141) showing high in vitro inhibition ability of pathogens' growth, particularly against V. dahliae, were eventually selected. Their effectiveness against VWO caused by the defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae was also demonstrated, strain PICF141 being the rhizobacteria showing the best performance as BCA. Genotypic and phenotypic traits traditionally associated with plant growth promotion and/or biocontrol abilities were evaluated as well (e.g., phytase, xylanase, catalase, cellulase, chitinase, glucanase activities, and siderophore and HCN production). Multi-locus sequence analyses of conserved genes enabled the identification of these strains as Pseudomonas spp. Strain PICF141 was affiliated to the “Pseudomonas mandelii subgroup,” within the “Pseudomonas fluorescens group,” Pseudomonas lini being the closest species. Strains PIC25 and PIC105 were affiliated to the “Pseudomonas aeruginosa group,” Pseudomonas indica being the closest relative. Moreover, we identified P. indica (PIC105) for the first time as a BCA. Genome sequencing and in silico analyses allowed the identification of traits commonly associated with plant-bacteria interactions. Finally, the root colonization ability of these olive
Application of Doehlert experimental design in the optimization of experimental variables for the Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 cell lysis Aplicação do modelo Doehlert na otimização das variáveis experimentais para a lise de Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 e Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300
Amanda Reges de Sena
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of pH and temperature on the lysis of yeast using experimental design. In this study, the enzymatic extract containing β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, obtained from the micro-organism Moniliophthora perniciosa, was used. The experiment showed that the best conditions for lysis of Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 by lytic enzyme were pH 4.9 at 37 ºC and pH 3.9 at 26.7 ºC, respectively. The lytic enzyme may be used for obtaining various biotechnology products from yeast.O presente trabalho visou verificar a influência do pH e temperatura na lise de leveduras utilizando planejamento experimental. No estudo, foi utilizado o extrato enzimático, contendo β-1,3-glucanase e quitinase líticas, obtidas do micro-organismo Moniliophthora perniciosa. O delineamento experimental mostrou que as melhores condições para a lise de Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 e Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300, pelas enzimas líticas, foram pH 4,9 a 37 ºC, pH 3,9 a 26,7 ºC, respectivamente. As enzimas líticas podem ser utilizadas para a obtenção de vários produtos biotecnológicos a partir de leveduras.
Cai, Xun-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Wang, Bao-Tong; Xue, Ya-Rong
Bacillus velezensis CC09, which was isolated from healthy leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and previously identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09, shows great potential as a new biocontrol agent, in control of many phytopathogenic diseases. To extend our understanding of the potential antifungal capacities, we did a whole genome analysis of strain CC09. Result shows that strain CC09 has a relatively large genome size (4.17Mb) with an average GC content of 46.1%, and 4021 predicted genes. Thirteen secondary metabolites encoding clusters have been identified within the genome of B. velezensis CC09 using genome mining technique. Data of comparative genomic analysis indicated that 3 of the clusters are conserved by all strains of B. velezensis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis 168, 9 by B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens, and 2 by all strains of B. velezensis. Another 2 clusters encoding NRPS (Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases) and NRPS-TransATPKS (NRPS and trans-Acyl Transferase Polyketide Synthetases) respectively are observed only in 15 B. velezensis strains, which might lead to the synthesis of novel bioactive compounds and could be explored as antimicrobial agents in the future. These clusters endow B. velezensis CC09 with strong and broad antimicrobial activities, for example, in control of wheat powdery mildew disease. Moreover, our data further confirmed the taxonomy of strain CC09 is a member of B. velezensis rather than a strain of B. amyloliquefaciens based on core genome sequence analysis using phylogenomic approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are well-known bio-control agents which promote the plant growth and suppress the pathogen infection. The beneficial effects are attributed to the production of phytohormones, antibiotics, siderophores and secondary metabolites (SM. Trichodermin and Harzianum A, SMs have documented anti-fungal activities as well. Tri5 gene encodes for trichodiene synthase (TS contains a terpene fold and involved at the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules. Furthermore, domain analysis of proteins from diverse organisms showed that the terpene fold has functional diversity with diverse applications in agriculture, medicine and applied biotechnology. These proteins can be classified into single and multi-domains based on their structures. It was observed that multi-domain proteins carry additional helices which may regulate the catalytic efficiency. Further, activity enhancing mutations with potentially higher catalytic activities were screened. In an offshoot to the above work, we have analyzed binding of Trichodermin with the 25S rRNA that constitutes the petidyltransferase centre (PTC. The trichodermin resistance protein (60S ribosomal protein L3 was reported to overcome the inhibitory effects of trichothecene compounds. Normal mode analysis and MD of trichodermin resistance protein and 25S consisting of PTC showed that the W-finger region of the protein may move towards 25S rRNA and may block the binding pocket of the trichodermin. These results may lead to develop strategies for higher TS activity and the mechanism of action of these molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions. These may be further exploited for enhancing the efficiency of these biotechnological agents used in sustainable agriculture.
Zimmermann, Judith; Musyoki, Mary K; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank
Our objectives were to (1) monitor the proliferation of the biocontrol agent (BCA) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. strigae strain "Foxy-2", an effective soil-borne BCA against the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica , in the rhizosphere of maize under different agro-ecologies, and (2) investigate its impact on indigenous rhizosphere fungal community abundance and composition. Field experiments were conducted in Busia and Homa Bay districts in western Kenya during two cropping seasons to account for effects of soil type, climate, growth stage and seasonality. Maize seeds were coated with or without "Foxy-2" and soils were artificially infested with S. hermonthica seeds. One treatment with nitrogen rich organic residues ( Tithonia diversifolia ) was established to compensate hypothesized resource competition between "Foxy-2" and the indigenous fungal community. Rhizosphere soil samples collected at three growth stages (i.e., EC30, EC60, EC90) of maize were subjected to abundance measurement of "Foxy-2" and total indigenous fungi using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis was used to assess potential alterations in the fungal community composition in response to "Foxy-2" presence. "Foxy-2" proliferated stronger in the soils with a sandy clay texture (Busia) than in those with a loamy sand texture (Homa Bay) and revealed slightly higher abundance in the second season. "Foxy-2" had, however, only a transient suppressive effect on total indigenous fungal abundance which ceased in the second season and was further markedly compensated after addition of T. diversifolia residues. Likewise, community structure of the indigenous fungal community was mainly altered by maize growth stages, but not by "Foxy-2". In conclusion, no adverse effects of "Foxy-2" inoculation on indigenous fungal rhizosphere communities were observed corroborating the safety of this BCA under the given agro-ecologies.
Steyaert, Johanna; Hicks, Emily; Kandula, Janaki; Kandula, Diwakar; Alizadeh, Hossein; Braithwaite, Mark; Yardley, Jessica; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Stewart, Alison
Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for assessing the biological properties of individual strains.
Vázquez García, Gema
Actualmente, la reducción de materias activas (UE) y la implantación de la nueva Directiva comunitaria 2009/128/ que establece el marco de actuación para conseguir un uso sostenible de los plaguicidas químicos y la preferencia de uso de métodos biológicos, físicos y otros no químicos, obliga a buscar métodos de control menos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente. El control biológico (CB) de enfermedades vegetales empleando agentes de control biológico (ACB) se percibe como una alternativa más...
Full Text Available The yeast Metschnikowia fructicola was reported as an efficient biological control agent of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables, and it is the bases of the commercial formulated product “Shemer.” Several mechanisms of action by which M. fructicola inhibits postharvest pathogens were suggested including iron-binding compounds, induction of defense signaling genes, production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes and relatively high amounts of superoxide anions. We assembled the whole genome sequence of two strains of M. fructicola using PacBio and Illumina shotgun sequencing technologies. Using the PacBio, a high-quality draft genome consisting of 93 contigs, with an estimated genome size of approximately 26 Mb, was obtained. Comparative analysis of M. fructicola proteins with the other three available closely related genomes revealed a shared core of homologous proteins coded by 5,776 genes. Comparing the genomes of the two M. fructicola strains using a SNP calling approach resulted in the identification of 564,302 homologous SNPs with 2,004 predicted high impact mutations. The size of the genome is exceptionally high when compared with those of available closely related organisms, and the high rate of homology among M. fructicola genes points toward a recent whole-genome duplication event as the cause of this large genome. Based on the assembled genome, sequences were annotated with a gene description and gene ontology (GO term and clustered in functional groups. Analysis of CAZymes family genes revealed 1,145 putative genes, and transcriptomic analysis of CAZyme expression levels in M. fructicola during its interaction with either grapefruit peel tissue or Penicillium digitatum revealed a high level of CAZyme gene expression when the yeast was placed in wounded fruit tissue.
Kamou, Nathalie N; Dubey, Mukesh; Tzelepis, Georgios; Menexes, Georgios; Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Karlsson, Magnus; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Jensen, Dan Funck
This study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK726 with the phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7 or with the prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas C. rosea displayed high tolerance to S. rubidaea but not to P. chlororaphis. We hypothesized that this could be attributed to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. The results of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR showed an induction of seven genes (abcB1, abcB20, abcB26, abcC12, abcC12, abcG8 and abcG25) from subfamilies B, C and G. In planta experiments showed a significant reduction in foot and root rot on tomato plants inoculated with C. rosea and P. chlororaphis. This study demonstrates the potential for combining different biocontrol agents and suggests an involvement of ABC transporters in secondary metabolite tolerance in C. rosea.
Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our
Dwi Sri Hastuti, Liana; Faull, Jane
A pot experiment was carried out to test the effectiveness of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) isolated from Sumatera for controlling infection by the root-knot nematode (RKN) on Deli tobacco plant. Wheat bran soil containing 109 conidia of Arthrobotrys. oligospora, Candellabrella musiformis and Dactylella eudermata was added to the soil as a dry inoculum. Carbofuran was also applied as chemical agent and comparison treatment. Seedling tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Deli 4 was inoculated with root knot (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood.) seven days after the plant were transplanted to the pots. A. oligospora, C. musiformis and D. eudermata were found to be reliable as biocontrol agents, reducing the number of vermiform nematodes, swollen root, sausage shaped and galls in tobacco plant after 7, 15 and 30 days of infection with M. incognita. Treatment with NTF produced results that were comparable with Carbofuran® as a control agent in the reduction of the number of infections in tobacco plant caused by M. incognita in Nicotiana tabacum var. Deli 4. They also optimize the growth of the tobacco plants especially up to 15 days after infection.
Biocontrol ability and action mechanismof Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina isolated from wine musts against grey mold disease agent Botrytis cinerea on grape and their effects on alcoholic fermentation
Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos
Full Text Available Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after five days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glycerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations.The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process
Araújo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira
Species of genus Burkholderia display different interaction profiles in the environment, causing either several diseases in plants and animals or being beneficial to some plants, promoting their growth, and suppressing phytopathogens. Burkholderia spp. also produce many types of biomolecules with antimicrobial activity, which may be commercially used to protect crops of economic interest, mainly against fungal diseases. Herein we have applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to investigate secondary metabolites produced by B. seminalis TC3.4.2R3 in monoculture and coculture with plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The siderophore pyochelin and the rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C15-C14 were detected in wild-type B. seminalis strain, and their productions were found to vary in mutant strains carrying disruptions in gene clusters associated with antimicrobial compounds. Two mycotoxins were detected in F. oxysporum. During coculture with B. seminalis, metabolites probably related to defense mechanisms of these microorganisms were observed in the interspecies interaction zone. Our findings demonstrate the effective application of MALDI-MSI in the detection of bioactive molecules involved in the defense mechanism of B. seminalis, and these findings suggest the potential use of this bacterium in the biocontrol of plant diseases caused by F. oxysporum.
Foliar biocontrol agent (BCA) efficacy is often inconsistent due to poor colonization and survival on plant surfaces. Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62, a superior leaf colonist and BCA of Botrytis cinerea, forms unsaturated biofilms on plant surfaces. To determine the relationship between biocontrol act...
Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.
de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T
Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development. Results A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth. Conclusions Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced
Petti, Carloalberto; Reiber, Kathrin; Ali, Shahin S; Berney, Margaret; Doohan, Fiona M
Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens -mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development. A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth. Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced both symptoms and yield loss asssociated with the disease
Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad
Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several...
Prospective biological control agents generally must be demonstrated to not pose risks to non-target plants. Laboratory experiments evaluating host plant specificity are the most common method of evaluating such risk; however, they are constrained by limitations of space and number of replicates, gi...
McLeod, Anni; Ndungu, Beth; Karanja, Daniel; Karanja, Peter
This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Root-knot nematodes in tomatoes cause financial loss to Kenyan smallholders. While soil fumigation appears to be losing effectiveness two bio-control agents (bcas), Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium, appear promising. Participatory budgeting is being used to compare the bcas with chemical and other biological controls on commercial and organic smallholdings.
Apr 26, 2012 ... Based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay, 25 isolates were selected for further analysis. The interaction between the Trichoderma and fungal pathogens were ... effective biocontrol agents based on their ability to overgrow and ... bean seeds were planted in the plastic pot, which was filled with 3.
Biological control of weeds is a globally-recognized approach to the management of the worst invasive plants in the world. Unfortunately, accidental introduction of agents account for most weed biocontrol in the EU, but do include a number of current or emerging successes. From the redistribution of...
Seur Kee Park
Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.
Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC, self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS.
Full Text Available Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a Km and Vmax of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol.
Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F
To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giles E. Budge
Full Text Available The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an invasive pest of honey bees. Indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa, it has now become established in North America and Australia. It represents a serious threat to European honey bees. Commercially available entomopathogenic agents were screened for their potential to control beetle larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi investigated had minimal impact. The nematodes Steinernema kraussei and S. carpocapsae provided excellent control with 100% mortality of larvae being obtained. Sequential applications of the nematodes following larvae entering sand to pupate also provided excellent control for up to 3 weeks. The information gained supports the development of contingency plans to deal with A. tumida should it occur in the UK, and is relevant to the management of Small hive beetle where it is already present.
Humberto Franco Shiomi
Full Text Available Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, and on potted seedling of cv. Mundo Novo. The endophytic bacterial isolates tested proved to be effective in inhibiting urediniospore germination and/or rust development, with values above 50%, although the results obtained in urediniospore germination tests were inferior to the treatment with fungicide propiconazole. Endophytic isolates TG4-Ia, TF2-IIc, TF9-Ia, TG11-IIa, and TF7-IIa, demonstrated better coffee leaf rust control in leaf discs, detached leaves, and coffee plant tests. The endophytic isolates TG4-Ia and TF9-Ia were identified as Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky and Bacillus cereus Frank. & Frank., respectively. Some endophytic bacterial isolates were effective in controlling the coffee leaf rust, although some increased the severity of the disease. Even though a relatively small number of endophytic bacteria were tested, promising results were obtained regarding the efficiency of coffee leaf rust biocontrol. These selected agents appears to be an alternative for future replacement of chemical fungicide.Supressão de doenças de plantas por microrganismos endofíticos tem sido demonstrada em diversos patossistemas. Neste trabalho foram selecionados isolados de bactérias endofíticas de folhas e ramos de cafeeiro com potencial para o controle biológico da ferrugem do cafeeiro, pois é conhecido que esses microrganismos podem possuir essa característica. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas previamente de folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica L e Coffea
Estudo do potencial do pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus como agente de controle biológico de Egeria densa, E. najas e Ceratophyllum demersum Evaluation of the biocontrol potential of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus for Egeria densa, E. najas and Ceratophyllum demersum
Full Text Available Visando fornecer subsídios para elaboração de sistema de manejo integrado das grandes massas de plantas daninhas aquáticas submersas em lagos e represas, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a eficiência do pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus como agente de controle biológico de Egeria densa, E. najas e Ceratophyllum demersum. As espécies de plantas daninhas foram oferecidas individualmente, duas a duas e as três espécies juntas. Verificou-se que este peixe tem uma eficiência média de controle dessas plantas daninhas variando entre 28 e 100%, podendo eliminar uma massa verde dessas plantas, com a mesma quantidade de seu peso, em sete dias. A eficiência de controle diária aumentou com o tempo de predação. O pacu é mais seletivo para E. densa ou E. najas quando na presença de C. demersum. Não ocorreu alteração na eficiência de controle do pacu sobre E. densa ou E. najas em todos os tratamentos e nos três períodos estudados (três, cinco e sete dias.In order to provide basic information for the establishment of integrated management systems for submersed aquatic weeds in lakes and reservoirs, this research evaluated the efficiency of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus as a biocontrol agent of Egeria densa, E. najas and Ceratophyllum demersum. One, two and the three plant species together were offered to the fish. The average efficacy of this fish to control these plants ranged between 28 and 100%. The fish could eliminate a fresh mass of these plants, equivalent to its body weight, in seven days of predation period. Control efficiency increased with increasing duration of the trials. Pacu is more selective in controlling E. densa or E. najas when in the presence of C. demersum. No decreased efficacy was observed in the control of E. densa or E. najas in any of the treatments nor in any of three time periods studied (3, 5, and 7 days.
Palazzini, Juan M; Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Chulze, Sofía N
Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions. The genome sequencing allowed us to accurately determine the taxonomy of the strain using a phylogenomic approach, which places it in the Bacillus velezensis clade. In addition, the draft genome allowed us to use bioinformatics to mine the genome for potential metabolites. The genome mining allowed us to identify 9 active secondary metabolites conserved by all B. velezensis strains and one additional secondary metabolite, the lantibiotic ericin, which is unique to this strain. This study represents the first confirmed production of ericin by a B. velezensis strain. The genome also allowed us to do a comparative genomics with its closest relatives and compare the secondary metabolite production of the publically available B. velezensis genomes. The results showed that the diversity in secondary metabolites of strains in the B. velezensis clade is driven by strains making different antibacterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Pandin, Caroline; Le Coq, Dominique; Deschamps, Julien; Védie, Régis; Rousseau, Thierry; Aymerich, Stéphane; Briandet, Romain
Bacillus subtilis QST713 is extensively used as a biological control agent in agricultural fields including in the button mushroom culture, Agaricus bisporus. This last use exploits its inhibitory activity against microbial pathogens such as Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum, the main button mushroom green mould competitor. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium with a genome size of 4 233 757 bp, 4263 predicted genes and an average GC content of 45.9%. Based on phylogenomic analyses, strain QST713 is finally designated as Bacillus velezensis. Genomic analyses revealed two clusters encoding potential new antimicrobials with NRPS and TransATPKS synthetase. B. velezensis QST713 genome also harbours several genes previously described as being involved in surface colonization and biofilm formation. This strain shows a strong ability to form in vitro spatially organized biofilm and to antagonize T. aggressivum. The availability of this genome sequence could bring new elements to understand the interactions with micro or/and macroorganisms in crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.
The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...
Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank
The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as
EVALUACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE GALLINAZA POR SU POTENCIAL PARA EL BIOCONTROL DE FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM EN PLÁNTULAS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA EVALUATION OF MICROORGANISMS INSOLATED FROM HEN MANURE FOR THEIR POTENCIAL AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM IN GOOSEBERRY (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA SEEDLINGS
Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Amézquita
Full Text Available En Colombia, las pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por Fusarium oxysporum en el cultivo de uchuva son considerables. Se evaluaron hongos y bacterias aislados de 2 fuentes de gallinaza, su potencial como agentes de biocontrol de este patógeno. La evaluación se realizó en cajas de Petri con PDA para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del centro, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos de la gallinaza. Los aislamientos que mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de F. oxysporum. Cada uno de los aislamientos que mostró el mayor potencial antagónico fue inoculado simultáneamente con el patógeno en plántulas de uchuva y evaluado por sus efectos en contra de la incidencia de la enfermedad y la muerte de las plántulas. Los resultados indicaron que de los 39 microorganismos aislados de la gallinaza pura, 6 mostraron antagonismo contra F. oxysporum y entre ellos los más efectivos para restringir in vitro su crecimiento y esporulación fueron los hongos H2 y H6 y las bacterias B17 y B19. Las bacterias B17 y B19 resultaron ser las más efectivas en reducir no sólo la incidencia sino también la muerte de plántulas ocasionada por el patógeno. Según los resultados de la identificación, los hongos H2 y H6 pertenecen a los géneros Geotrichum sp. y Trichoderma sp, respectivamente y las bacterias B17 y B19 al género Bacillus.In Colombia, economic losses due to attack of Fusarium oxysporum in the gooseberry plantation are considerable. Fungi and bacteria isolated from 2 hen manure sources were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents of this pathogen. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA by placing a 5 mm diameter disk, colonized by this pathogen, in the center of the plates and at 3 cm from the center, over the
Konishi, Masaaki; Makino, Motoki
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced by several smut fungi of the Ustilaginaceae family; they are promising microbial biosurfactants and have excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. Pseudozyma hubeiensis is a candidate for abundant MEL production and produces large amounts of 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-C). An acetyltransferase disruption mutant of P. hubeiensis, SY62-MM36, was obtained to selectively produce deacetylated 4-O-[(2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-D), and the structures of the products were determined. Lower mobility of major spots of the mutant on silica gel thin-layer chromatography verified its more hydrophilic nature than that of wild-type MEL-A, B, and C. Structural analyses confirmed the product to be MEL-D, which comprises acyl chains of caproic acid (C6:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension (γCMC) of the MEL-D were 2.0 × 10 -5 M and 29.7 mN/m, respectively. SY62-MM36 also produced a minor product that was estimated as triacylated MEL-D. The triacylated MEL-D had a CMC of 3.5 × 10 -5 M and a γCMC of 29.6 mN/m. In water, MEL-D formed a lamella liquid crystal phase over a broad range of concentrations. By fed-batch cultivation, the mutant produced 91.6 ± 6.3 g/L of MEL-D for 7 days. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solans, Mariana; Scervino, Jose Martin; Messuti, María Inés; Vobis, Gernot; Wall, Luis Gabriel
Control of fungal plant diseases by using naturally occurring non-pathogenic microorganisms represents a promising approach to biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and fungal antagonistic activity of actinobacteria from forage soils in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina. A total of 32 saprophytic strains of actinobacteria were obtained by different isolation methods from rhizospheric soil of Lotus tenuis growing in the Salado River Basin. Based on physiological traits, eight isolates were selected for their biocontrol-related activities such as production of lytic extracellular enzymes, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and antagonistic activity against Cercospora sojina, Macrophomia phaseolina, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium verticilloides. These actinobacteria strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and identified by using molecular techniques. The characterization of biocontrol-related activities in vitro showed positive results for exoprotease, phospholipase, fungal growth inhibition, and siderophore production. However, none of the strains was positive for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Streptomyces sp. MM140 presented the highest index for biocontrol, and appear to be promising pathogenic fungi biocontrol agents. These results show the potential capacity of actinobacteria isolated from forage soils in the Argentine Pampas lowlands as promising biocontrol agents, and their future agronomic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Abd-Allah, E F
Three hundred and seventy two isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces were isolated and screened for chitinase production. Streptomyces plicatus was found to be the best producer. The highest chitinase production were incubated for 3 d at 30 degrees C on buffered culture medium (pH 8.0) containing chitin plus sucrose and calcium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources. S. plicatus chitinase had a highly significant inhibitory effect on spore germination, germ tube elongation and radial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Altrernaria alternata and Verticillium albo-atrum, the causal organisms of Fusarium wilt, stem canker and Verticillium wilt diseases of tomato. Application of S. plicatus to the root system of tomato plants before transplantation markedly protected tomato plants against the tested phytopathogenic fungi in vivo.
Sayre, R. M.
Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...
Martin J Loessner
Full Text Available Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology.
Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.
Mei, Li; Xu, Sanger; Lu, Peng; Lin, Haiping; Guo, Yanbin; Wang, Yongjun
Rahnella aquatilis is ubiquitous and its certain strains have the applicative potent as a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. R. aquatilis HX2 is a biocontrol agent to produce antibacterial substance (ABS) and showed efficient biocontrol against crown gall caused by Agrobacterium vitis on sunflower and grapevine plants. The regulatory network of the ABS production and biocontrol activity is still limited known. In this study, a transposon-mediated mutagenesis strategy was used to investigate the regulators that involved in the biocontrol activity of R. aquatilis HX2. A 366-nt noncoding RNA CsrB was identified in vitro and in vivo, which regulated ABS production and biocontrol activity against crown gall on sunflower plants, respectively. The predicted product of noncoding RNA CsrB contains 14 stem-loop structures and an additional ρ-independent terminator harpin, with 23 characteristic GGA motifs in the loops and other unpaired regions. CsrB is required for ABS production and biocontrol activity in the biocontrol regulation by a two-component regulatory system BarA/UvrY in R. aquatilis HX2. The noncoding RNA CsrB regulates BarA-dependent ABS production and biocontrol activity in R. aquatilis HX2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of noncoding RNA as a regulator for biocontrol function in R. aquatilis.
Ehlers, R U
In Europe total revenues in the biocontrol market have reached approximately 200 million Euros. The sector with the highest turn-over is the market for beneficial invertebrates with a 55% share, followed by microbial agents with approximately 25%. Annual growth rates of up to 20% have been estimated. Besides microbial plant protection products that are currently in the process of re-registration, several microbial products have been registered or are in the process of registration, following the EU directive 91/414. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are exceptionally safe biocontrol agents. Until today, they are exempted from registration in most European countries, the reason why SMEs were able to offer economically reasonable nematode-based products. The development of technology for mass production in liquid media significantly reduced the product costs and accelerated the introduction of nematode products in tree nurseries, ornamentals, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus and turf. Progress in storage and formulation technology has resulted in high quality products which are more resistant to environmental extremes occurring during transportation to the user. The cooperation between science, industry and extension within the EU COST Action 819 has supported the development of quality control methods. Today four companies produce EPN in liquid culture, offering 8 different nematode species. Problems with soil insects are increasing. Grubs, like Melolontha melolontha and other scarabaeidae cause damage in orchards and turf. Since the introduction of the Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera into Serbia in 1992, this pests as spread all over the Balkan Region and has reached Italy, France and Austria. These soil insect pests are potential targets for EPN. The development of insecticide resistance has opened another sector for EPN. Novel adjuvants used to improve formulation of EPN have enabled the foliar application against Western Flower Thrips and Plutella
A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...
Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.
Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering
Morita, Tomotake; Takashima, Masako; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai
The producers of glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B), were isolated from leaves of Perilla frutescens on Ibaraki in Japan. Four isolates, 1D9, 1D10, 1D11, and 1E5, were identified as basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis by rDNA sequence and biochemical properties. The structure of MEL-B produced by these strains was analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as the diastereomer MEL-B produced by P. tsukubaensis NBRC 1940. Of these isolates, P. tsukubaensis 1E5 (JCM 16987) is capable of producing the largest amount of the diastereomer MEL-B from vegetable oils. In order to progress the diastereomer MEL-B production by strain 1E5, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and organic nutrient sources, were further examined. Olive oil and yeast extract were the best carbon and nutrient sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient of 73.1 g/L, 10.4 g L(-1) day(-1), and 43.5 g/g were achieved by feeding of olive oil in a 5-L jar-fermenter culture using strain 1E5.
Bateman, H.L.; Merritt, D.M.; Glenn, E.P.; Nagler, P.L.
The biological control agent (tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda spp.) is actively being used to defoliate exotic saltcedar or tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in riparian ecosystems in western USA. The Virgin River in Arizona and Nevada is a system where tamarisk leaf beetle populations are spreading. Saltcedar biocontrol, like other control methods, has the potential to affect non-target species. Because amphibians and reptiles respond to vegetation changes in habitat and forage in areas where beetles are active, herpetofauna are model taxa to investigate potential impacts of biocontrol defoliation. Our objectives related herpetofauna abundance to vegetation cover and indices (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and timing of biocontrol defoliation. We captured herpetofauna and ground-dwelling arthropods in trap arrays and measured vegetation using remotely sensed images and on-the-ground measurements at 16–21 sites 2 years before (2009–2010) and 2 years following (2011–2012) biocontrol defoliation. Following defoliation, riparian stands (including stands mixed with native and exotic trees and stands of monotypic exotic saltcedar) had significantly lower NDVI and EVI values and fewer captures of marked lizards. Total captures of herpetofauna (toads, lizards, and snakes) were related to higher vegetation cover and sites with a lower proportion of saltcedar. Our results suggest that effects of biocontrol defoliation are likely to be site-specific and depend upon the proportion of native riparian trees established prior to biocontrol introduction and defoliation. The mechanisms by which habitat structure, microclimate, and ultimately vertebrate species are affected by exotic plant biocontrol riparian areas should be a focus of natural-resource managers.
Buxdorf, Kobi; Rahat, Ido; Gafni, Aviva; Levy, Maggie
Pseudozyma spp. are yeast-like fungi, classified in the Ustilaginales, which are mostly epiphytic or saprophytic and are not pathogenic to plants. Several Pseudozyma species have been reported to exhibit biological activity against powdery mildews. However, previous studies have reported that Pseudozyma aphidis, which can colonize plant surfaces, is not associated with the collapse of powdery mildew colonies. In this report, we describe a novel P. aphidis strain and study its interactions with its plant host and the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. This isolate was found to secrete extracellular metabolites that inhibit various fungal pathogens in vitro and significantly reduce B. cinerea infection in vivo. Moreover, P. aphidis sensitized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants’ defense machinery via local and systemic induction of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) and PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) expression. P. aphidis also reduced B. cinerea infection, locally and systemically, in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Thus, in addition to direct inhibition, P. aphidis may inhibit B. cinerea infection via induced resistance in a manner independent of SA, JA, and Nonexpressor of PR1 (NPR1). P. aphidis primed the plant defense machinery and induced stronger activation of PDF1.2 after B. cinerea infection. Finally, P. aphidis fully or partially reconstituted PR1 and PDF1.2 expression in npr1-1 mutant and in plants with the SA hydroxylase NahG transgene, but not in a jasmonate resistant1-1 mutant, after B. cinerea infection, suggesting that P. aphidis can bypass the SA/NPR1, but not JA, pathway to activate PR genes. Thus, either partial gene activation is sufficient to induce resistance, or the resistance is not directed solely through PR1 and PDF1.2 but probably through other pathogen-resistance genes or pathways as well. PMID:23388119
Buxdorf, Kobi; Rahat, Ido; Gafni, Aviva; Levy, Maggie
Pseudozyma spp. are yeast-like fungi, classified in the Ustilaginales, which are mostly epiphytic or saprophytic and are not pathogenic to plants. Several Pseudozyma species have been reported to exhibit biological activity against powdery mildews. However, previous studies have reported that Pseudozyma aphidis, which can colonize plant surfaces, is not associated with the collapse of powdery mildew colonies. In this report, we describe a novel P. aphidis strain and study its interactions with its plant host and the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. This isolate was found to secrete extracellular metabolites that inhibit various fungal pathogens in vitro and significantly reduce B. cinerea infection in vivo. Moreover, P. aphidis sensitized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants' defense machinery via local and systemic induction of pathogenesis-related1 (PR1) and plant defensin1.2 (PDF1.2) expression. P. aphidis also reduced B. cinerea infection, locally and systemically, in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) signaling. Thus, in addition to direct inhibition, P. aphidis may inhibit B. cinerea infection via induced resistance in a manner independent of SA, JA, and Nonexpressor of PR1 (NPR1). P. aphidis primed the plant defense machinery and induced stronger activation of PDF1.2 after B. cinerea infection. Finally, P. aphidis fully or partially reconstituted PR1 and PDF1.2 expression in npr1-1 mutant and in plants with the SA hydroxylase NahG transgene, but not in a jasmonate resistant1-1 mutant, after B. cinerea infection, suggesting that P. aphidis can bypass the SA/NPR1, but not JA, pathway to activate PR genes. Thus, either partial gene activation is sufficient to induce resistance, or the resistance is not directed solely through PR1 and PDF1.2 but probably through other pathogen-resistance genes or pathways as well.
Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M
Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.
Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko
Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL.
Full Text Available Phytopathogenic nematodes represent one of the most important groups of pathogens in crops. The use of chemical to control the nematodes attack in crops is decreasing every year due to the concern of the toxicity and side effects of such compounds. In the course for finding alternatives to the use of chemicals, biological control of nematodes is gaining much attention. Some saprotrophic fungi are able to feed on invertebrates, thus becoming efficient agents of control. In this study, three species of basidiomycetes were analyzed for their potential to be used as control agents of phytopathogenic nematodes. Through on in vitro investigation of these potential, one strain – Gymnopilus junonius was further selected for a pot test against Meloidogyne incognita, a very important phytopathogenic species of nematodes. The fungal treatment strongly decreased the M. incognita population on the tested pots, proving the potential of G. junonius strain to be used in biocontrol.
Endophytic Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019: a promising biocontrol agent with hyperosmolar, mycoparasitism, and antagonistic activities of induced volatile organic compounds on root-rot pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng
Conclusion: The results suggest that the endophytic fungus T. gamsii YIM PH30019 may have a good potential as a biological control agent against notoginseng phytodiseases and can provide a clue to further illuminate the interactions between Trichoderma and phytopathogens.
Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a was isolated from the rhizosphere of the tropical tuber crop cocoyam and produces both phenazines and cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) biosurfactants. CMR12a was shown to be an efficient biocontrol agent of P. myriotylum on cocoyam. To assess the importance of phenazine and biosurfact...
M, Hultberg; B, Alsanius
The production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 was studied in nutrient-solution based media with varying nitrogen content. No production of DAPG was observed when organic nitrogen was omitted from the media, regardless of the inorganic nitrogen source used. Furthermore, a micromolar concentration range of organic nitrogen was insufficient to sustain production. When a millimolar concentration range of organic nitrogen was used, DAPG pr...
Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Das, Nilanjana
Organochlorine pesticide residues continue to remain as a major environmental threat worldwide. Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide widely used as an acaricide in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, a new lindane-degrading yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01, was identified as a copious producer of glycolipid biosurfactant. The glycolipid structure and type were elucidated by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS analysis. The surface activity and stability of the glycolipid was analyzed. The glycolipids, characterized as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), exhibited excellent surface active properties and the surface tension of water was reduced to 29 mN/m. The glycolipid was stable over a wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity, showing a very low CMC of 25 mg/l. Bio-microemulsion of olive oil-in-water (O/W) was prepared using the purified biosurfactant without addition of any synthetic cosurfactants, for lindane solubilization and enhanced degradation assay in liquid and soil slurry. The O/W bio-microemulsions enhanced the solubility of lindane up to 40-folds. Degradation of lindane (700 mg/l) by VITJzN01 in liquid medium amended with bio-microemulsions was found to be enhanced by 36% in 2 days, compared with degradation in 12 days in the absence of bio-microemulsions. Lindane-spiked soil slurry incubated with bio-microemulsions also showed 20-40% enhanced degradation compared with the treatment with glycolipids or yeast alone. This is the first report on lindane degradation by Pseudozyma sp., and application of bio-microemulsions for enhanced lindane degradation. MEL-stabilized bio-microemulsions can serve as a potential tool for enhanced remediation of diverse lindanecontaminated environments.
Full Text Available Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.
Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Kenerley, Charles M.
Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species. PMID:20154111
Fan, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhanwei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xun; Duan, Yongming; Wang, Qi
In this study, Bacillus subtilis 9407 showed a strong antibacterial activity against Acidovorax citrulli in vitro and 61.7% biocontrol efficacy on melon seedlings 4 days post inoculation under greenhouse conditions. To understand the biocontrol mechanism of B. subtilis 9407, identify the primary antibacterial compound and determine its role in controlling bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a srfAB deletion mutant (ΔsrfAB) was constructed. The ΔsrfAB which was deficient in production of surfactin, not only showed almost no ability to inhibit growth of A. citrulli but also decreased biofilm formation and reduced swarming motility. Colonization assay demonstrated that B. subtilis 9407 could conlonize on melon roots and leaves in a large population, while ΔsrfAB showed a four- to ten-fold reduction in colonization of melon roots and leaves. Furthermore, a biocontrol assay showed that ΔsrfAB lost the biocontrol efficacy. In summary, our results indicated that surfactin, which consists of C13- to C16-surfactin A was the primary antibacterial compound of B. subtilis 9407, and it played a major role in biofilm formation, swarming motility, colonization and suppressing BFB. We propose that the biocontrol activity of B. subtilis 9407 is the results of the coordinated action of surfactin-mediated antibacterial activity and colonization. This study reveals for the first time that the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent could efficiently control BFB by producing surfactin. PMID:29075242
Apr 30, 2014 ... feed and fibre around the world. Different approaches namely: .... biocontrol agent from the fungus Trichoderma harzianum was also evaluated .... the antibiotic biosynthetic gene transfer (Baltz, 2005). Overall 23,000 bioactive ...
Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei
Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S; Khan, A
The aim was to determine the influence of some Aspergillus species on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Six species of Aspergillus, isolated from the rhizosphere of certain crops, produced a variety of secondary metabolites in vitro. Culture filtrate (CF) obtained from Ps. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant CHA0/pME3424 grown in King's B liquid medium caused significant mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with CF of A. niger enhanced nematicidal and beta-galactosidase activities of fluorescent pseudomonads while A. quadrilineatus repressed such activities. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of the CF of A. niger markedly optimized bacterial efficacy to cause nematode deaths while hexane extract of the fungus had no influence on the nematicidal activity of the bacterial strains. A. niger applied alone or in conjunction with the bacterial inoculants inhibited root-knot nematode galling in tomato. On the other hand, A. quadrilineatus used alone or together with CHA0 did not inhibit nematode galling but when used in combination with strain CHA0/pME3424 did reduce galling intensity. Aspergillus niger enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by Ps. fluorescensin vitro and improves biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants in tomato while A. quadrilineatus reduces bacterial performance to suppress root-knot nematodes. Rhizosphere harbours a variety of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in most agricultural soils and generally produce a variety of secondary metabolites. Such metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species may influence the production of nematicidal agents and subsequent biocontrol performance of the bacterial inoculants against plant-parasitic nematodes. This fact needs to be taken into
Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.
Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha
In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
To determine the influence of soil-borne fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 against Meloidogyne javanica. Amendment of the culture filtrate (CF) or methanol extract of the CF of a T. harzianum strain Th6 to P. fluorescens growth medium enhanced the production of nematicidal compound(s) by bacterial inoculants in vitro. In addition, bacteria overwhelmingly expressed phl'-'lacZ reporter gene when the medium was amended with CF of T. harzianum. Pseudomonas fluorescens and T. harzianum applied together in unsterilized sandy loam soil caused greater reduction in nematode population densities in tomato roots. Trichoderma harzianum improves root-knot nematode biocontrol by the antagonistic rhizobacterium P. fluorescens both in vitro and under glasshouse conditions. The synergistic effect of T. harzianum on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol may improve the efficacy of biocontrol bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes. Considering the inconsistent performance of the biocontrol agents under field conditions, application of a mixture of compatible T. harzianum and P. fluorescens would more closely mimic the natural situation and might broaden the spectrum of biocontrol activity with enhanced efficacy and reliability of control.
Young Cheol Kim
Full Text Available Because bacterial isolates from only a few genera have been developed commercially as biopesticides, discovery and characterization of novel bacterial strains will be a key to market expansion. Our previous screen using plant bioassays identified 24 novel biocontrol isolates representing 12 different genera. In this study, we characterized the 3 isolates showing the best biocontrol activities. The isolates were Pantoea dispersa WCU35, Proteus myxofaciens WCU244, and Exiguobacterium acetylicum WCU292 based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed differential production of extracellular enzymes, antimicrobial activity against various fungal or bacterial plant pathogens, and induced systemic resistance activity against tomato gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. E. acetylicum WCU292 lacked strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but induced systemic resistance against tomato gray mold disease. These results confirm that the trait of biological control is found in a wide variety of bacterial genera
Banerjee Siddhartha S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.
Luo, Yuanli; Dong, Daiwen; Su, Yu; Wang, Xuyi; Peng, Yumei; Peng, Jiang; Zhou, Changyong
Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P. brassicae (P), one inoculated with P. brassica and the biocontrol agent Z. aestuarii at the same time (P + B), and the other was the control (H), in which P. brassicae was replaced by sterile water. A total of 19.94 Gb was generated by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The sequence data were de novo assembled, and 107,617 unigenes were obtained. In total, 5629 differentially expressed genes between biocontrol-treated (P + B) and infected (P) samples were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways. Using multiple testing corrections, 20 pathways were significantly enriched with Qvalue ≤ 0.05. The resistance-related genes, involved in the production of pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and effector-triggered immunity signaling pathways, calcium influx, salicylic acid pathway, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and cell wall modification, were obtained. The various defense responses induced by the biocontrol strain combatted the P. brassicae infection. The genes and pathways involved in plant resistance were induced by a biocontrol strain. The transcriptome data explained the molecular mechanism of the potential biocontrol strain against P. brassicae. The data will also serve as an important public information platform to study B. juncea var. tumida Tsen and will be useful for breeding mustard plants resistant to P. brassicae.
Syed Ab Rahman, Sharifah Farhana; Singh, Eugenie; Pieterse, Corné M J; Schenk, Peer M
To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using "plant-optimized microbiomes" (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of "microbe-optimized crops". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nunik Iriyanti Ramadhan
Full Text Available Shallot is a high-economic value commodity, but so far the supply is still lower than the demand. One of the production problem is “moler” disease of shallot (MDS caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae (FOCe. The aim of this research was to study the potentiality of shallot rhizobacteria (SRB from various soil ordo to inhibit (MDS. This research was held in the Laboratory of Biology and Soil Health and Greenhouse at UNS. This research was carried out by exploring rhizobacteria of shallot planted on Entisols, Andisols, and Vertisols. Rhizobacteria exploration results were tested for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cepae (FOCe. Inhibitory ability test of SRB to FOCe was carried out in vitro and on shallot in the greenhouse. The green house research used a Completely Randomized Design (CDR with two factors. The first factor was rhizobacteria combination and the second factor was various soil ordo (Andisols, Entisols, and Vertisols. Each treatment was replicated three times. It was obtained three rhizobacteria isolates from Vertisols (B15: 70%, Andisols (B12:45,55%, and Entisols (B10:46,67% being the highest inhibition results to FOCe. The combination of rhizobacteria B12 and B10 provided the lowest intensity.
Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S; Pereira, Ramom Vasconcelos; Moino Junior, Alcides; Pareja, Martin; Duncan, Larry W
Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis. We show that adult D. speciosa recruit to aboveground herbivory and methyl salicylate treatment, that larval D. speciosa are relatively indiscriminate, and that H. amazonensis en-tomopathogenic nematodes recruit to corn fed upon by adult D. speciosa. These results suggest that entomopathogenicnematodes belowground can be highly attuned to changes in the aboveground parts of plants and that biological control can be enhanced with induced plant defense in this and similar systems.
Feb 5, 2007 ... Pythium aphanidermaturm. INTRODUCTION. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is one of the most important legumes in Cameroon (Mbouemboue, 1988). The importance of this plant is related to its leaves and seeds which are edible for their protein quality (Borget,. 1989). The cultivation of this plant is ...
Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Pereira, Ramom Vasconcelos; Moino Junior, Alcides; Pareja, Martin; Duncan, Larry W.
Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis. We show that adult D. speciosa recruit to aboveground herbivory and methyl salicylate treatment, that larval D. speciosa are relatively indiscriminate, and that H. amazonensis en-tomopathogenic nematodes recruit to corn fed upon by adult D. speciosa. These results suggest that entomopathogenicnematodes belowground can be highly attuned to changes in the aboveground parts of plants and that biological control can be enhanced with induced plant defense in this and similar systems. PMID:27811992
Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R
Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.
Wheat take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt), has been observed in different areas of Iran in recent years. Current biocontrol studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the. Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. In this study, biocontrol effects of Trichoderma isolates ...
Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko
Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Katoch, Meenu; Pull, Shipra
The Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that every year considerable losses of the food crops occur due to plant diseases. Although fungicides are extensively used for management of plant diseases, they are expensive and hazardous to the environment and human health. Alternatively, biological control is the safe way to overcome the effects of plant diseases and to sustain agriculture. Since Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) is known for its antifungal properties, it was chosen for the study. The isolation of endophytic fungi from M. citriodora and assessing their biocontrol potential. The isolated endophytes were characterized using ITS-5.8 S rDNA sequencing. Their biocontrol potential was assessed using different antagonistic assays against major plant pathogens. Twenty-eight endophytes representing 11 genera were isolated, of which, around 82% endophytes showed biocontrol potential against plant pathogens. MC-2 L (Fusarium oxysporum), MC-14 F (F. oxysporum), MC-22 F (F. oxysporum) and MC-25 F (F. redolens) displayed significant antagonistic activity against all the tested pathogens. Interestingly, MC-10 L (Muscodor yucatanensis) completely inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sp., Colletotrichum capsici, Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in dual culture assay, whereas MC-8 L (A. oryzae) and MC-9 L (Penicillium commune) completely inhibited the growth of the Sclerotinia sp. in fumigation assay. Endophytes MC-2 L, MC-14 F, MC-22 F and MC-25 F could effectively be used to control broad range of phytopathogens, while MC-10 L, MC-8 L and MC-9 L could be used to control specific pathogens. Secondly, endophytes showing varying degrees of antagonism in different assays represented the chemo-diversity not only as promising biocontrol agents but also as a resource of defensive and bioactive metabolites.
Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs belong to the glycolipid biosurfactants and are produced by various fungi. The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis produces diastereomer type of MEL-B, which contains 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2R,3S-erythritol (R-form as the sugar moiety. In this respect it differs from conventional type of MELs, which contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(2S,3R-erythritol (S-form as the sugar moiety. While the biosynthetic gene cluster for conventional type of MELs has been previously identified in Ustilago maydis and Pseudozyma antarctica, the genetic basis for MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis is unknown. Here, we identified a gene cluster involved in MEL biosynthesis in P. tsukubaensis. Among these genes, PtEMT1, which encodes erythritol/mannose transferase, had greater than 69% identity with homologs from strains in the genera Ustilago, Melanopsichium, Sporisorium and Pseudozyma. However, phylogenetic analysis placed PtEMT1p in a separate clade from the other proteins. To investigate the function of PtEMT1, we introduced the gene into a P. antarctica mutant strain, ΔPaEMT1, which lacks MEL biosynthesis ability owing to the deletion of PaEMT1. Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified the biosynthetic product as MEL-A with altered sugar conformation. These results indicate that PtEMT1p catalyzes the sugar conformation of MELs. This is the first report of a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of diastereomer type of MEL.
Budi, Ismed Setya; Mariana, Mariana
The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was ap...
Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung
Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown less efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobialresistant Salmonella , new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in the food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products. The treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases, and ultimately promotes safe environments for animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. After an extensive investigation of the current literature, this review focuses predominantly on the efficacy of phages for the successful control of Salmonella spp. in foods. This review also addresses the current knowledge on the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella , the prevalence of emerging Salmonella outbreaks, the isolation and characterization of Salmonella -specific phages, the effectiveness of Salmonella -specific phages as biocontrol agents, and the prospective use of Salmonella -specific phages in the food industry.
Heyse, Serena; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Charbonneau, Duane
Human salmonellosis has been associated with contaminated pet foods and treats. Therefore, there is interest in identifying novel approaches for reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination within pet food manufacturing environments. The use of lytic bacteriophages shows promise as a safe and effective way to mitigate Salmonella contamination in various food products. Bacteriophages are safe, natural, highly targeted antibacterial agents that specifically kill bacteria and can be targeted to kill food pathogens without affecting other microbiota. In this study, we show that a cocktail containing six bacteriophages had a broadspectrum activity in vitro against a library of 930 Salmonella enterica strains representing 44 known serovars. The cocktail was effective against 95% of the strains in this tested library. In liquid culture dose-ranging experiments, bacteriophage cocktail concentrations of ≥10(8) PFU/ml inactivated more than 90% of the Salmonella population (10(1) to 10(3) CFU/ml). Dried pet food inoculated with a mixture containing equal proportions of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis (ATCC 4931), Montevideo (ATCC 8387), Senftenberg (ATCC 8400), and Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) and then surface treated with the six-bacteriophage cocktail (≥2.5 ± 1.5 × 10(6) PFU/g) achieved a greater than 1-log (P contamination in samples taken from an undistributed lot of commercial dried dog food that tested positive for Salmonella. Our results indicate that bacteriophage biocontrol of S. enterica in dried pet food is technically feasible.
Full Text Available roles and interactions in the ecosystem . There are distinct uses of bacterial supplements in aqua‐ culture for bio-augmentation as probiotics and as biocontrol and bioremediation agents . Bio-augmentation refers to the augmentation... of the environment and/or the microbes to result in enhanced fish health while probiotics are normally associated with feed and digestion. A strict definition of biocontrol agents are microorganisms that are antagonistic to pathogens. In some instances however...
M. Belén Rubio
Full Text Available Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 (mbf1 homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO and Botrytis cinerea (BC in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control (cpc1. Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the
Rubio, M Belén; Pardal, Alonso J; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa
Trichoderma harzianum is a filamentous fungus well adapted to different ecological niches. Owing to its ability to antagonize a wide range of plant pathogens, it is used as a biological control agent in agriculture. Selected strains of T. harzianum are also able to increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the regulatory elements of the T. harzianum transcriptional machinery and their role in the biocontrol by this species. We had previously reported the involvement of the transcription factor THCTF1 in the T. harzianum production of the secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-pyrone, an important volatile compound related to interspecies cross-talk. Here, we performed a subtractive hybridization to explore the genes regulated by THCTF1, allowing us to identify a multiprotein bridging factor 1 ( mbf1 ) homolog. The gene from T. harzianum T34 was isolated and characterized, and the generated Thmbf1 overexpressing transformants were used to investigate the role of this gene in the biocontrol abilities of the fungus against two plant pathogens. The transformants showed a reduced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (FO) and Botrytis cinerea (BC) in confrontation assays on discontinuous medium, indicating that the Thmbf1 gene could affect T. harzianum production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with antifungal activity. Moreover, cellophane and dialysis membrane assays indicated that Thmbf1 overexpression affected the production of low molecular weight secreted compounds with antifungal activity against FO. Intriguingly, no correlation in the expression profiles, either in rich or minimal medium, was observed between Thmbf1 and the master regulator gene cross-pathway control ( cpc1 ). Greenhouse assays allowed us to evaluate the biocontrol potential of T. harzianum strains against BC and FO on susceptible tomato plants. The wild type strain T34 significantly reduced the necrotic leaf
Ueda, Hirokazu; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Tabata, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Kitamoto, Hiroko
Aerial plant surface (phylloplane) is a primary key habitat for many microorganisms but is generally recognized as limited in nutrient resources. Pseudozyma antarctica, a nonpathogenic yeast, is commonly isolated from plant surfaces and characterized as an esterase producer with fatty acid assimilation ability. In order to elucidate the biological functions of these esterases, culture filtrate with high esterase activity (crude enzyme) of P. antarctica was applied onto leaves of tomato and Arabidopsis. These leaves showed a wilty phenotype, which is typically associated with water deficiency. Furthermore, we confirmed that crude enzyme-treated detached leaves clearly lost their water-holding ability. In treated leaves of both plants, genes associated to abscisic acid (ABA; a plant stress hormone responding osmotic stress) were activated and accumulation of ABA was confirmed in tomato plants. Microscopic observation of treated leaf surfaces revealed that cuticle layer covering the aerial epidermis of leaves became thinner. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis exhibited that fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon chains were released in larger amounts from treated leaf surfaces, indicating that the crude enzyme has ability to degrade lipid components of cuticle layer. Among the three esterases detected in the crude enzyme, lipase A, lipase B, and P. antarctica esterase (PaE), an in vitro enzyme assay using para-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate demonstrated that PaE was the most responsible for the degradation. These results suggest that PaE has a potential role in the extraction of fatty acids from plant surfaces, making them available for the growth of phylloplane yeasts.
Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...
Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael
Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.
Müller, Maren Stella; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre
Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin (PRN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks), as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.
Maren Stella Müller
Full Text Available Some soil bacteria protect plants against soil-borne diseases by producing toxic secondary metabolites. Such beneficial biocontrol bacteria can be used in agricultural systems as alternative to agrochemicals. The broad spectrum toxins responsible for plant protection also inhibit predation by protozoa and nematodes, the main consumers of bacteria in soil. Therefore, predation pressure may favour biocontrol bacteria and contribute to plant health. We analyzed the effect of Acanthamoeba castellanii on semi-natural soil bacterial communities in a microcosm experiment. We determined the frequency of culturable bacteria carrying genes responsible for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG, pyrrolnitrin (PRN and hydrogen cyanide (HCN in presence and absence of A. castellanii. We then measured if amoebae affected soil suppressiveness in a bioassay with sugar beet seedlings confronted to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Amoebae increased the frequency of both DAPG and HCN positive bacteria in later plant growth phases (2 and 3 weeks, as well as the average number of biocontrol genes per bacterium. The abundance of DAPG positive bacteria correlated with disease suppression, suggesting that their promotion by amoebae may enhance soil health. However, the net effect of amoebae on soil suppressiveness was neutral to slightly negative, possibly because amoebae slow down the establishment of biocontrol bacteria on the recently emerged seedlings used in the assay. The results indicate that microfaunal predators foster biocontrol bacterial communities. Understanding interactions between biocontrol bacteria and their predators may thus help developing environmentally friendly management practices of agricultural systems.
Ismed Setya Budi
Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.
Sarwar, Ambrin; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Majeed, Saima; Brader, Günter; Sessitsch, Angela; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf
The potential of the Bacillus genus to antagonize phytopathogens is associated with the production of cyclic lipopeptides. Depending upon the type of lipopeptide, they may serve as biocontrol agents that are eco-friendly alternatives to chemical fertilizers. This study evaluates the biocontrol activity of surfactin-producing Bacillus (SPB) strains NH-100 and NH-217 and purified surfactin A from these strains against rice bakanae disease. Biologically active surfactin fractions were purified by HPLC, and surfactin A variants with chain lengths from C12 to C16 were confirmed by LCMS-ESI. In hemolytic assays, a positive correlation between surfactin A production and halo zone formation was observed. The purified surfactin A had strong antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. solani, Trichoderma atroviride and T. reesei. Maximum fungal growth suppression (84%) was recorded at 2000 ppm against F. moniliforme. Surfactin A retained antifungal activity at different pH levels (5-9) and temperatures (20, 50 and 121 °C). Hydroponic and pot experiments were conducted to determine the biocontrol activity of SPB strains and the purified surfactin A from these strains on Super Basmati rice. Surfactin production in the rice rhizosphere was detected by LCMS-ESI at early growth stages in hydroponics experiments inoculated with SPB strains. However, the maximum yield was observed with a consortium of SPB strains (T4) and purified surfactin A (T5) treatments in the pot experiment. The outcomes of the present study revealed that surfactin A significantly reduced rice bakanae disease by up to 80%. These findings suggest that purified surfactin A could be an effective biocontrol agent against bakanae disease in rice and should be incorporated into strategies for disease management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.
Full Text Available The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a sedentary endoparasitic plant pathogen with a very wide host range, which causes annual crop losses amounting to millions of dollars. The small number of available nematicides and restrictions on the use of non-fumigant nematicides due to high toxicity to humans and non-target organisms hinder effective nematode control. A possible alternative to chemical nematicides is the use of biological control agents for the management of this nematode. In the present study, the efficacy of four biocontrol agents was tested against M. incognita at different doses. The biocontrol agents Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum were mass produced and mixed with the formalin sterilized soil at the rates of 2 × 103, 4 × 103, 6 × 103, 8 × 103, and 1 × 104 endospores/chlamydospores/cfu per g of soil. Okra seeds (cv. Sabz Pari were sown in pots of soil amended with the different agents, and 10 d after emergence, the plants were inoculated with 2000 freshly hatched second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Data on plant growth parameters and nematode infestations were recorded 7 weeks after inoculation. The antagonists varied significantly in enhancing various growth parameters and reducing nematode infestations in a dose-responsive manner. Both P. penetrans and P. lilacinus were equally effective and caused maximum reductions in number of galls, egg masses, nematode fecundity and build up as compared with T. harzianum and P. chlamydosporia. Reductions in these parameters at the concentration of 8 × 103 were statistically similar with those caused at the concentration of 1 × 104 chlamydospores/ endospores/cfu. Our results indicate that application of antagonists can suppress galling and reproduction of M. incognita resulting in enhancement of plant growth.
Full Text Available Tritrophic interaction among host plant-herbivore-parasitoid involves chemical cues. The infested plant by herbivores has been reacted to produce volatiles which is a cue used by the herbivore parasitoids for host location. These volatiles can be developed to enhance natural control of insect pests, especially by optimally use of parasitoids. Egg parasitoids are biocontrol agents that play an important role in natural control of herbivores. This research used a tritrophic interaction model of rice plant-brown plant hopper (BPH-egg parasitoid of BPH. Research on analysis of chemical cues in tritrophic interactions was aimed to identify volatiles that are used by the parasitoid to find its host. The volatiles that effectively affect the parasitoid orientation behavior could be developed into a parasitoid attractant. Extraction of volatiles as the egg parasitoid cues was done using soxhlet, and identification of the volatiles using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Bioassay of the volatiles on the BPH parasitoid orientation behavior was performed using Y-tube olfactometry. The volatiles that are used for host location cues by the parasitoid affect the parasitoid orientation behavior by showing the preference of the parasitoid females to the odor of volatile. Volatiles extracted from BPH-egg-infested plants and uninfested plants contain alcohol, hydrocarbon, and ester compounds. Based on the difference of the compound composition of both extractions, five compounds of long-chain hydrocarbon, both branched and unsaturated compounds are the main volatile components which caused positive orientation behavior of the egg parasitoid. The egg parasitoids showed positive behavior orientation toward the volatiles extracted from BPH-egg-infested plant. Those hydrocarbon compounds are potential materials to be developed into bio attractants of BPH egg parasitoid.
Full Text Available Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2. Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2. Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.
Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong
The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.
Full Text Available Rhodococcus erythropolis is an environmental Gram-positive Actinobacterium with a versatile metabolism involved in various bioconversions and degradations. Rhodococci are best known for their great potential in numerous decontamination and industrial processes. However, they can also prevent plant disease by disrupting quorum sensing-based communication of Gram-negative soft-rot bacteria, by degrading N-acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules. Such biocontrol activity results partly from the action of the γ-lactone catabolic pathway. This pathway is responsible for cleaving the lactone bond of a wide range of compounds comprising a γ-butyrolactone ring coupled to an alkyl or acyl chain. The aliphatic products of this hydrolysis are then activated and enter fatty acid metabolism. This short pathway is controlled by the presence of the γ-lactone, presumably sensed by a TetR-like transcriptional regulator, rather than the presence of the pathogen or the plant-host in the environment of the Rhodococci. Both the density and biocontrol activity of R. erythropolis may be boosted in crop systems. Treatment with a cheap γ-lactone stimulator, for example, the food flavoring γ-caprolactone, induces the activity in the biocontrol agent, R. erythropolis, of the pathway degrading signaling molecules; such treatments thus promote plant protection.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of various Fusarium solani strains on the production of nematicidal agent(s) in vitro and biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CHA0 and CHA0/pME3424. Culture filtrates (CF) of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 and its diacetylphloroglucinol-overproducing derivative CHA0/pME3424 caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Bacterial growth medium amended with the growth medium of F. solani repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria. Methanol extract of F. solani CF resulting from Czapek's Dox liquid (CDL) medium without zinc amendment repressed the nematicidal activity of the bacteria while the CF obtained from CDL medium amended with zinc did not. Conidial suspension of F. solani strain Fs5 (repressor strain for the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in P. fluorescens) reduced biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants against M. javanica in tomato while strain Fs3 (non-repressor) did not. Fusarium solani strains with increased nematicidal activity repress the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds by P. fluorescens strains in vitro and greatly alter its biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode under natural conditions. Fusarium solani strains are distributed worldwide and found in almost all the agricultural fields which suggest that some mycotoxin-producing strains will also be found in almost any soil sample taken. Besides the suppressive effect of these metabolite-producing strains on the production of nematicidal compound(s) critical in biocontrol, F. solani strains may also affect the performance of mycotoxin-sensitive biocontrol bacteria effective against plant-parasitic nematodes.
Beom Ryong Kang
Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LM11 was isolated from the feces of larvae of the rhino beetle and showed strong antifungal activities against various phytopathogenic fungi by producing biosurfactants. In this study, our overall goal was to determine relationship between biosurfactants produced from the LM11 strain and its role in growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. Production and expression levels of B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 biosurfactants were significantly differed depending on growth phases. Transcriptional and biochemical analysis indicated that the biosurfactants of the LM11 strain were greatly enhanced in late log-phase to stationary phase. Inhibitions of phytopathogenic mycelial growth and spore germination were directly correlated (P<0.001, R=0.761 with concentrations of the LM11 cell-free culture filtrates. The minimum inhibitory surface tension of the culture filtrate of the B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 grown in stationary phase to inhibit mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi was 38.5 mN/m (P<0.001, R=0.951–0.977. Our results indicated that the biosurfactants of B. amyloliquefaciens LM11 act as key antifungal metabolites in biocontrol of plant diseases, and measuring surface tension of the cell-free culture fluids can be used as an easy indicator for optimal usage of the biocontrol agents.
Tomar, Sonica; Singh, B P; Lal, Mehi; Ma, Khan; Hussain, Touseef; Sharma, Sanjeev; Kaushik, S K; Kumar, Satish
In the present study, 95 isolates of bacteria were tested for their biosurfactant as well as biocontrol activity against Phytophthora infestans. The results revealed that only 15.8% isolates showed biosurfactant activity. The emulsification index ranged from 0-68% and 24.2% isolates showed positive reaction for biosurfactant properties. In emulsification assay and oil spreading test, 18.95% and 5.26% isolates, respectively scored positive for biosurfactant production. Among all, only five isolates were found effective against P. infestans, for biocontrol properties. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-1 showed 62.22% inhibition zone after 72 hrs while P. aeruginosa-3 showed 46.42%. Forty-eight hrs old culture supernatants were highly effective in food-poisoning test, tuber slice test and detached leaf method against P. infestans. In whole potato plant test, bacterial cell based formulation, culture supernatant and bacterial cell suspension of P. aeruginosa-1 showed 10.42%, 9.94% and 17.96% diseases severity respectively, as against 53.96% in control. This isolate holds promise as biological control agent against P. infestans in field.
Kim, Seon Hwa; Vujanovic, Vladimir
Global food security research is seeking eco-friendly solutions to control mycotoxins in grain infected by fungi (molds). In particular, mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. outbreak is a chronic threat for cereal grain production, human, and animal health. In this review paper, we discuss up-to-date biological control strategies in applying mycoparasites as biological control agents (BCA) to prevent plant diseases in crops and mycotoxins in grain, food, and feed. The aim is to increase food safety and to minimize economic losses due to the reduced grain yield and quality. However, recent papers indicate that the study of the BCA specialists with biotrophic lifestyle lags behind our understanding of the BCA generalists with necrotrophic lifestyle. We examine critical behavioral traits of the two BCA groups of mycoparasites. The goal is to highlight their major characteristics in the context of future research towards an efficient biocontrol strategy against mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. The emphasis is put on biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, and F. culmorum causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals and their mycotoxins.
Gunasekera, T S; Holland, R J; Gillings, M R; Briscoe, D A; Neethling, D C; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M
Efficient selection of fungi for biological control of nematodes requires a series of screening assays. Assessment of genetic diversity in the candidate species maximizes the variety of the isolates tested and permits the assignment of a particular genotype with high nematophagous potential using a rapid novel assay. Molecular analyses also facilitate separation between isolates, allowing the identification of proprietary strains and trace biocontrol strains in the environment. The resistance of propagules to UV radiation is an important factor in the survival of a biocontrol agent. We have analyzed 15 strains of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus using these principles. Arbitrarily primed DNA and allozyme assays were applied to place the isolates into genetic clusters, and demonstrated that some genetically related P. lilacinus strains exhibit widespread geographic distributions. When exposed to UV radiation, some weakly nematophagous strains were generally more susceptible than effective isolates. A microtitre tray-based assay used to screen the pathogenic activity of each isolate to Meloidogyne javanica egg masses revealed that the nematophagous ability varied between 37%-100%. However, there was no clear relationship between nematophagous ability and genetic clusters. Molecular characterizations revealed sufficient diversity to allow tracking of strains released into the environment.
Soumitra ePaul Chowdhury
Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a gram-positive model bacterium for unraveling plant-microbe interactions in Bacilli. In addition, FZB42 is used commercially as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture. Genome analysis of FZB42 revealed that nearly 10% of the FZB42 genome is devoted to synthesizing antimicrobial metabolites and their corresponding immunity genes. However, recent investigations in planta demonstrated that - except surfactin - the amount of such compounds found in vicinity of plant roots is relatively low, making doubtful a direct function in suppressing competing microflora including plant pathogens. These metabolites have been also suspected to induce changes within the rhizosphere microbial community, which might affect environment and plant health. However, sequence analysis of rhizosphere samples revealed only marginal changes in the root microbiome, suggesting that secondary metabolites are not the key factor in protecting plants from pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, adding FZB42 to plants compensate, at least in part, changes in the community structure caused by the pathogen, indicating an interesting mechanism of plant protection by beneficial Bacilli.Sub-lethal concentrations of cyclic lipopeptides and volatiles produced by plant-associated Bacilli trigger pathways of induced systemic resistance (ISR, which protect plants against attacks of pathogenic microbes, viruses and nematodes. Stimulation of ISR by bacterial metabolites is likely the main mechanism responsible for biocontrol action of FZB42.
Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Hartmann, Anton; Gao, XueWen; Borriss, Rainer
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a Gram-positive model bacterium for unraveling plant-microbe interactions in Bacilli. In addition, FZB42 is used commercially as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture. Genome analysis of FZB42 revealed that nearly 10% of the FZB42 genome is devoted to synthesizing antimicrobial metabolites and their corresponding immunity genes. However, recent investigations in planta demonstrated that - except surfactin - the amount of such compounds found in vicinity of plant roots is relatively low, making doubtful a direct function in suppressing competing microflora including plant pathogens. These metabolites have been also suspected to induce changes within the rhizosphere microbial community, which might affect environment and plant health. However, sequence analysis of rhizosphere samples revealed only marginal changes in the root microbiome, suggesting that secondary metabolites are not the key factor in protecting plants from pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, adding FZB42 to plants compensate, at least in part, changes in the community structure caused by the pathogen, indicating an interesting mechanism of plant protection by beneficial Bacilli. Sub-lethal concentrations of cyclic lipopeptides and volatiles produced by plant-associated Bacilli trigger pathways of induced systemic resistance (ISR), which protect plants against attacks of pathogenic microbes, viruses, and nematodes. Stimulation of ISR by bacterial metabolites is likely the main mechanism responsible for biocontrol action of FZB42.
Baffoni, Loredana; Gaggia, Francesca; Dalanaj, Nereida; Prodi, Antonio; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Biavati, Bruno; Di Gioia, Diana
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a severe disease caused by different Fusarium species, which affects a wide range of cereal crops, including wheat. It determines from 10 to 30% of yield loss in Europe. Chemical fungicides are mainly used to reduce the incidence of FHB, but low environmental impact solutions are looked forward. Applications of soil/rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents against FHB in wheat are described in literature, whereas the potential use of lactobacilli in agriculture has scarcely been explored. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effect of two bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum SLG17 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FLN13, against Fusarium spp. in vitro and to assess their efficacy in field, coupled to the study of the microbial community profile of wheat seeds. Antimicrobial assays were performed on agar plates and showed that the two antagonistic strains possessed antimicrobial activity against Fusarium spp. In the field study, a mixture of the two strains was applied to durum wheat i) weekly from heading until anthesis and ii) at flowering, compared to untreated and fungicide treated plots. The FHB index, combining both disease incidence and disease severity, was used to evaluate the extent of the disease on wheat. A mixture of the two microorganisms, when applied in field from heading until anthesis, was capable of reducing the FHB index. Microbial community profile of seeds was studied via PCR-DGGE, showing the presence of L. plantarum SLG17 in wheat seeds and thus underlining an endophytic behavior of the strain. L. plantarum SLG17 and B. amyloliquefaciens FLN13, applied as biocontrol agents starting from the heading period until anthesis of wheat plants, are promising agents for the reduction of FHB index.
Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit; Jensen, Søren Dan Funck
Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two endoglucan......Clonostachys rosea is a well-known biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold in strawberry. The activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes might play a significant role for successful biocontrol by C. rosea. The expression pattern of four chitinases, and two...... endoglucanase genes from C. rosea strain IK726 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR in vitro and in strawberry leaves during interaction with B. cinerea. Specific primers were designed for ß-tubulin genes from C. rosea and B. cinerea, respectively, and a gene encoding a DNA-binding protein (DBP) from strawberry......, allowing in situ activity assessment of each fungus in vitro and during their interaction on strawberry leaves. Growth of B. cinerea was inhibited in all pathogen-antagonist interactions while the activity of IK726 was slightly increased. In all in vitro interactions, four of the six genes were upregulated...
Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...
Knudsen, I.M.B.; Skou, J.P.
Tilletiopsis albescens grows well on powdery mildew fungi inoculated on barley or cucumber leaves and causes collapse of the colonies. Application of ballistospores or cut mycelium was equally effective for biocontrol, and the effectiveness tended to increase exponentially with the concentration ...
Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R
Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.
Peter J Mumby
Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.
Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...
Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M
Small-mammal seed predation is an important force structuring native-plant communities that may also influence exotic-plant invasions. In the intermountain West, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are prominent predators of native-plant seeds, but they avoid consuming seeds of certain widespread invasives like spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). These mice also consume the biological-control insects Urophora spp. introduced to control C. maculosa, and this food resource substantially increases deer mouse populations. Thus, mice may play an important role in the invasion and management of C. maculosa through food-web interactions. We examined deer mouse seed predation and its effects on seedling emergence and establishment of a dominant native grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata, and forb, Balsamorhiza sagittata, in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands that were treated with herbicide to suppress C. maculosa or left untreated as controls. Deer mice readily took seeds of both native plants but removed 2-20 times more of the larger B. sagittata seeds than the smaller P. spicata seeds. Seed predation reduced emergence and establishment of both species but had greater impacts on B. sagittata. The intensity of seed predation corresponded with annual and seasonal changes in deer mouse abundance, suggesting that abundance largely determined mouse impacts on native-plant seeds. Accordingly, herbicide treatments that reduced mouse abundance by suppressing C. maculosa and its associated biocontrol food subsidies to mice also reduced seed predation and decreased the impact of deer mice on B. sagittata establishment. These results provide evidence that Urophora biocontrol agents may exacerbate the negative effects of C. maculosa on native plants through a form of second-order apparent competition-a biocontrol indirect effect that has not been previously documented. Herbicide suppressed C. maculosa and Urophora, reducing mouse populations and moderating seed predation on native plants
Variabilidade genética na região its do rDNA de isolados de trichoderma spp. (Biocontrolador e Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi Genetic variability in rDNA ITS region of Trichoderma spp. (biocontrole agent and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi isolates
Josiane Pacheco Menezes
Full Text Available A análise de características morfológicas e culturais podem não ser suficientes para uma caracterização precisa das espécies de Trichoderma e Fusarium. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, caracterizar a região do Espaço Interno Transcrito (ITS do rDNA dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma spp. utilizados no biocontrole de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi (isolado UFSMF6. A extração de DNA de cada isolado foi realizada a partir de micélio produzido em meio líquido Batata-Dextrose. As amostras de DNA genômico foram submetidas à Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores universais ITS1 e ITS4 e o produto gerado foi sequenciado. Os fragmentos gerados pela amplificação da PCR foram tratados com as enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI. As regiões ITS1, ITS2 e 5.8S do rDNA desses isolados fúngicos foram amplificadas com sucesso. A região ITS dos isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 e UFSMT17 de Trichoderma e o isolado UFSMF6 de Fusarium apresentaram uma banda simples com um fragmento de aproximadamente 600 pares de base (pb. As enzimas de restrição HaeIII, HinfI e MboI geraram polimorfismo de bandas entre os isolados. Com base nas análises da sequência de DNA, os isolados UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16, UFSMT17 e UFSMF6 apresentaram maior similaridade com as espécies Trichoderma koningiopsis, Hypocrea virens, Hypocrea lixii e Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente.The analysis of morphological and cultural characteristics may not enough for the characterization of the species of Trichoderma and Fusarium. The aim of this work was to characterize the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the rDNA of UFSMT15.1, UFSMT16 and UFSMT17 isolates of Trichoderma spp. used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi UFSMF6. DNA extraction of each isolate was accomplished starting from hyphae produced in liquid medium Potato-Dextrose-Agar. The samples of genomic DNA were submitted to
Isolation and Selection of Epiphytic Yeast for Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea Pers. on Table Grapes Aislación y Selección de Levaduras Epífitas para el Biocontrol de Botrytis cinerea Pers. en Uva de Mesa
Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers., the causal agent of gray mold, infects more than 200 plant species. This pathogen has traditionally been controlled by fungicides. However, with the increasing demand for pesticide-free foods new control strategies are needed. The objective of this study was to isolate and select grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. epiphytic yeasts for the biocontrol of B. cinerea in table grapes. Of the total isolated yeasts (n = 256, 32 exhibited mycelial growth inhibition in dual cultures with a halo > 4 mm, and eight of these isolates inhibited > 90% of conidial germination. When evaluating increasing concentrations on conidial germination inhibition, a dose-dependent response was observed with EC90 values from 0.45 x 10(5 to 0.22 x 10(8 cells mL-1. The antagonistic activity of six yeasts against B. cinerea in table grape berries 'Flame Seedless' increased as the yeast colonization time increased from 1 to 24 h on the berries, resulting in a higher biocontrol activity on B. cinerea. These results show the effectiveness of grapevine epiphytic yeasts as biocontrol agents of B. cinerea on table grapes.Botrytis cinerea Pers., agente causal de la pudrición gris, infecta a más de 200 especies vegetales. Tradicionalmente, este patógeno ha sido controlado con fungicidas; sin embargo, la creciente demanda de alimentos libres de pesticidas hace necesario el uso de nuevas estrategias de control. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y seleccionar levaduras epífitas de vid (Vitis vinifera L. para el biocontrol de B. cinerea en uva de mesa. Del total de levaduras aisladas (n = 256, 32 presentaron inhibición del crecimiento micelial, en cultivos duales, con un halo > 4 mm y ocho de estos aislamientos inhibieron la germinación de conidias > 90%. Al evaluar concentraciones crecientes de levaduras sobre la inhibición de la germinación de conidias, se observó una respuesta dosis-dependiente, con valores de CE90 de 0,45 x 10(5 a 0,22 x 10(8 c
Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L
Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.
Full Text Available The present study was performed in order to determine the efficiency of the fungi Aspergillus alliaceus in fighting broomrape by the pesta-tablet trials under below- and above-ground conditions and to determine the appropriate tablet formulations for both conditions. For this purpose, different tablets were used in different experimental steps and their efficiencies were evaluated. The results showed that the tablets T-1, T-2, T-3, T-5, T-12 and T-13 greatly reduced the amount of broomrape in below-ground conditions, particularly with previous and high amount or crushed-tablet applications before crop-sowing. In above-ground conditions, any tablet formulation or directly sclerotial contacting were very effective in broomrape control and it was determined that close presence to or direct contact with broomrape is essential for successful biocontrol. In conclusion, considering the durability of the fungal agent against harsh environmental conditions and its sclerotial structure, it was deduced that if the fungi could be implemented in a stand-alone or especially integrated with each other, it will provide long-term, high-level broomrape biocontrol, indicating the advantages of A. alliaceus against other alternative fungal agents.
de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel
Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula
Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shah; Aebi; Tuor
Erynia neoaphidis is an important fungal pathogen of aphid pests worldwide. There have been few reported attempts to formulate this natural agent for use in biocontrol. In the current study, factors involved in the immobilization of E. neoaphidis hyphae in an alginate matrix were investigated. Hyphae of two isolates cultured in liquid medium were 220 to 620 &mgr;m in length and 7 to 19 &mgr;m in diameter with a 74 to 83% cytoplasmic content. The optimal concentration of low-viscosity sodium alginate for production of conidia from entrapped hyphae was 1.5% (wt/vol), and 0.1 and 0.25 M calcium chloride were equally suitable for use as the gelling solution. Alginate beads were rinsed with 10% sucrose after gelling. However, beads should not be left for longer than 40 min in 0.1 M calcium chloride or 10% sucrose to prevent a 10% loss in conidial production. A 40% (vol/vol) concentration of fungal biomass produced significantly more conidia than either 20% or the standard concentration of 10%. This effect persisted even after beads were dried overnight in a laminar flow hood and stored at 4 degreesC for 4 days. Conidia from freshly produced alginate beads caused 27 to 32% infection in Pea aphids as determined by standardized laboratory bioassays. This finding was not significantly different from infections in aphids inoculated with fresh mycelial mats or plugs from Petri dish cultures. In conclusion, algination appears to be a promising technique for utilizing E. neoaphidis in the biocontrol of aphid pests.
Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele
Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Qian; Hu, Chunjin; Ke, Fanggang; Huang, Siliang; Li, Qiqin
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. is a main disease in citrus production. To develop an effective biocontrol measure against citrus postharvest anthracnose, we screened antagonistic microbes and obtained a bacterial strain 1404 from the rhizospheric soil of chili plants in Nanning city, Guangxi, China. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) identify and characterize the antagonistic bacterium; and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the antagonistic strain in controlling citrus postharvest anthracnose disease. Strain 1404 was identified by comparing its 16S rDNA sequence with related bacteria from GenBank database, as well as analyzing its morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. The antagonistic stability of the strain 1404 was determined by continuously transferring it on artificial media. The effect of the strain on suppressing citrus anthracnose at postharvest stage was tested by stab inoculation method. The 16S rDNA of strain 1404 was amplified with primers PF1 (5'-AGAGTTTGATCATGGCTCAG-3') and PR1 (5'-TACGGTTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3') and its sequence submitted to GenBank (accession number: GU361113). Strain 1404 clustered with the GenBank-derived Brevibacillus brevis strains in the 16S-rDNA-sequence-based phylogenetic tree at 100% bootstrap level. The morphological traits, physiological and biochemical characters of strain 1404 agreed with that of Brevibacillus brevis. Less change in the suppressive ability of antagonist against growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was observed during four continuous transfers on artificial media. The average control efficacy of the strain was 64. 9 % against the disease 20 days after the antagonist application. Strain 1404 was identified as Brevibacillus brevis based on its morphological traits, phyiological and biochemical characters as well as 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The antagonist was approved to be a promising biocontrol agent. This is the first report of
Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Barret, Matthieu; Morrisey, John P.; Germaine, Kieran; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Moynihan, Jennifer A.; Giddens, Stephen R.; Coppoolse, Eric R.; Muriel, Candela; Stiekema, Willem J.; Rainey, Paul B.; Dowling, David; O'Gara, Fergal; Martín, Marta
Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that has biocontrol activity against fungal plant pathogens and is a model for rhizosphere colonization. Here, we present its complete genome sequence, which shows that besides a core genome very similar to those of other strains sequenced within this species, F113 possesses a wide array of genes encoding specialized functions for thriving in the rhizosphere and interacting with eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22328765
Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F
Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.
Assessinent of streptomycesgriseo viridis (mycostop as a biocontrol agent for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiin two cultivars of standard carnation under commercial conditions Evaluación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (MYCOSTOP en el control de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, en dos variedades de clavel estándar bajo condiciones comerciales
Ortega Luis Miguel
Full Text Available The research was carried out in a commercial farm, located in Madrid, Cundinamarca. The purpose of the study was to established the rate and irequency of application of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop in the control of vascular wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Two experiments were conducted to compare three rates of application (0,025;0,05 and 0,01 g/m2 and
three intervals of application (1,2 and 4 weeks of
Mycostop, in two standard carnation varieties. Disease
progress data were analized by comparing their godness of fit to Gompertz and Monomolecular epidemiological models. By using the simpler linear regression model, the rate of inlection (k and the coefficient of determination (Al were calculated.
Inlection rates were subjected to analysis of variance.
The results showed no satislactory control of the disease. Rates and frecuencies of applícation of Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop did not show appreciable differences. Epidemiologically, "k" values were highly homogeneous among the different Mycostop treatments. Streptomyces
griseoviridisis highly dependent upon culture media
pH, and it grows only at a pH 016,4 or higher, with an optimal growth at a pH 7,0. No relation was detected between growth of the biocontrol organism and levels of electrical conductivity.La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel localizado en el municipio de Madrid (Cundinamarca, con el objetivo de determinar la dosis y la frecuencia de aplicación de Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop en el control del
marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporom lsp. dianthi. En el campo, se realizaron dos experimentos simultáneos, para probar diferentes dosis (0,025; 0,05 y 0,1 g/m2 y frecuencias (1, 2 y 4 semanas de aplicación de
Streptomyces griseoviridis Mycostop en dos variedades de clavel estándar. El análisis estadístico consistió en utilizar algunos
Full Text Available The virulence of numerous Gram-negative bacteria is under the control of a quorum sensing process based on synthesis and perception of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Rhodococcus erythropolis, a Gram-positive bacterium, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent for plant protection against soft-rot bacteria, including Pectobacterium. Here, we show that the γ-lactone catabolic pathway of R. erythropolis disrupts Pectobacterium communication and prevents plant soft-rot. We report the first characterization and demonstration of N-acyl homoserine lactone quenching in planta. In particular, we describe the transcription of the R. erythropolis lactonase gene, encoding the key enzyme of this pathway, and the subsequent lactone breakdown. The role of this catabolic pathway in biocontrol activity was confirmed by deletion of the lactonase gene from R. erythropolis and also its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The γ-lactone catabolic pathway is induced by pathogen communication rather than by pathogen invasion. This is thus a novel and unusual biocontrol pathway, differing from those previously described as protecting plants from phytopathogens. These findings also suggest the existence of an additional pathway contributing to plant protection.
Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella
Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1 were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity.
Nuno C. de Sá
Full Text Available Invasion by alien species is a worldwide phenomenon with negative consequences at both natural and production areas. Acacia longifolia is an invasive shrub/small tree well known for its negative ecological impacts in several places around the world. The recent introduction of a biocontrol agent (Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, an Australian bud-galling wasp which decreases flowering of A. longifolia, in Portugal, demands the development of a cost-efficient method to monitor its establishment. We tested how unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV can be used to map A. longifolia flowering. Our core assumption is as the population of the biocontrol agent increases, its impacts on the reduction of A. longifolia flowering will be increasingly visible. Additionally, we tested if there is a simple linear correlation between the number of flowers of A. longifolia counted in field and the area covered by flowers in the UAV imagery. UAV imagery was acquired over seven coastal areas including frontal dunes, interior sand dunes and pine forests considering two phenological stages: peak and off-peak flowering season. The number of flowers of A. longifolia was counted, in a minimum of 60 1 m2 quadrats per study area. For each study area, flower presence/absence maps were obtained using supervised Random Forest. The correlation between the number of flowers and the area covered by flowering plants could then be tested. The flowering of A. longifolia was mapped using UAV mounted with RGB and CIR Cannon IXUS/ELPH cameras (Overall Accuracy > 0.96; Cohen’s Kappa > 0.85 varying according to habitat type and flowering season. The correlation between the number of flowers counted and the area covered by flowering was weak (r2 between 0.0134 and 0.156. This is probably explained, at least partially, by the high variability of A. longifolia in what regards flowering morphology and distribution. The very high accuracy of our approach to map A. longifolia flowering proved to
Full Text Available Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is a major disease of Pinus radiata currently controlled to some extent in nurseries by good hygiene and application of synthetic fungicides. The aim of this study was to evaluate alternative strategies to control fungal infections in nurseries and young pine plantations. The antagonistic effects of biocontrol bacteria and essential oils against F. circinatum in vitro and in young P. radiata trees were assessed. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia billingiae, and Bacillus simplex reduced the growth of the fungus in vitro by 17%–29%, and decreased the density of the mycelial mat. In young P. radiata trees, the length of F. circinatum lesions was reduced by 22%–25% by the same bacterial strains. Direct application of cinnamon and/or clove essential oils to wounds in stems of two-year-old P. radiata trees also limited the damage caused by F. circinatum. Lesion length was reduced by 51% following treatment with cinnamon oil (10% v/v, and by 45% following treatment with clove oil (15% v/v or a combination of both oils. However, the oils were toxic to younger trees. The biocontrol bacteria and essential oils show promise as prophylactic treatments to reduce the devastating effects of F. circinatum on P. radiata.
Full Text Available Studies of interactions between crops, additional plants, pests and beneficial organisms already exist as well as studies of natural enemy preference, dispersal, and abundance. However, these studies focus on tri-trophic interactions from an "arthropod" point of view. We think that in order to optimize crop protection methods we need to understand the effects that plant structures have on the various arthropods and on subsequent tri-trophic interactions. Although studies and reviews describing the role of secondary plants in Integrated Pest Management (IPM exist, to date a general term which encompasses all plants added to a cropping system with the aim of enhancing IPM strategies has yet to be formulated. Therefore, we suggest a new term, "biocontrol plants", which we define as plants that are intentionally added to a crop system with the aim of enhancing crop productivity through pest attraction and/or pest regulation; a term that will promote the use of biocontrol services, and can ultimately lead to an increase in the sustainability of cropping systems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. Results The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore bacillibactin. Beside these non-ribosomaly synthetised peptides, three additional gene clusters directing the synthesis of the antibacterial polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, hence demonstrating that the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters are functional in strain GA1. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin were highlighted. However, only its chlorinated derivative, chlorotetaine, could be detected in culture supernatants. On the contrary, genes involved in ribosome-dependent synthesis of bacteriocin and other antibiotic peptides were not detected as compared to the reference strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Conclusion The production of all of these antibiotic compounds highlights B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 as
Elsen, A; Gervacio, D; Swennen, R; De Waele, D
Although mycorrhizal colonization provides a bioprotectional effect against a broad range of soil-borne pathogens, including plant parasitic nematodes, the commercial use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biocontrol agents is still in its infancy. One of the main reasons is the poor understanding of the modes of action. Most AMF mode of action studies focused on AMF-bacterial/fungal pathogens. Only few studies so far examined AMF-plant parasitic nematode interactions. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether the AMF Glomus intraradices was able to incite systemic resistance in banana plants towards Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae, two plant parasitic nematodes using a split-root compartmental set-up. The AMF reduced both nematode species by more than 50%, even when the AMF and the plant parasitic nematodes were spatially separated. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time that AMF have the ability to induce systemic resistance against plant parasitic nematodes in a root system.
Anne J. Anderson
Full Text Available Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, isolated from the roots of dryland, field-grown commercial wheat in the USA, enhances plant health and therefore it is used in agriculture as a biofertilizer and biocontrol agent. The metabolites produced by this pseudomonad stimulate plant growth through direct antagonism of pathogens and by inducing systemic resistance in the plant. Studies upon P. chlororaphis O6 identify the pathways through which defined bacterial metabolites generate protection against pathogenic microbes, insects, and nematodes. P. chlororaphis O6 also triggers plant resistance to drought and salinity stresses. The beneficial determinants are produced from bacterial cells as they form biofilms during root colonization. Molecular control these processes in P. chlororaphis O6 involves the global regulatory Gac/Rsm signaling cascade with cross-talk between other global regulatory pathways. The Gac/Rsm regulon allows for coordinate phasing of expression of the genes that encode these beneficial traits among a community of cells. This review provides insights on the Gac/Rsm regulon in expression of beneficial traits of the P. chlororaphis O6 which can contribute to help yield enhancement and quality in agricultural production.
Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey
Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...
Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Weinert, Joachim; Brunotte, Joachim
L. terrestris revealed a considerable potential as an effective biocontrol agent contributing to a sustainable control of a Fusarium plant pathogen in wheat straw, thus reducing the infection risk for specific plant diseases in arable fields.
defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. ... it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III ... depending on the response speed and magnitude in contrast.
Athina, Zampara; Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Elsser-Gravesen, Anne
Poultry meat is the main source of Campylobacter jejuni foodborne disease. Currently, no effective control measures prevent C. jejuni from contaminating poultry meat. However, post-harvest phage treatment is a promising biocontrol strategy that has not yet been explored. Here we identified phages....... A thorough understanding of phage-host interactions is prerequisite to further advance phage application as a post-harvest biocontrol strategy against C. jejuni....
Carla da Silva Sousa
Full Text Available Studies with streptomycetes in biocontrol programs and plant growth promotion are presented as technological alternatives for environmental sustainable production. This work has the objective of characterizing six isolates of streptomycetes aiming the production of extracellular enzymes, indole acetic acid, capacity for phosphate solubilization, root colonization and growth under different pH and salinity levels. For detection of enzyme activity the isolates were grown in culture media with the enzyme substrates as sole carbon source. The root colonization assay was performed on tomato seedlings grown on 0.6% water-agar medium. Growth under different pH and salinity levels was evaluated in AGS medium with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% NaCl, and pH levels adjusted to 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0. All isolates produced the enzymes amylase, catalase, and lipase, as well as indole acetic acid. With one exception (AC-92, all isolates presented cellulolytic and chitinolytic activity, and only AC-26 did not show xylanolytic activity. The isolates AC-147, AC-95, and AC-29 were the highest producers of siderophores. The isolates AC-26 and AC-29 did not show capacity for phosphate solubilization. All isolates colonized tomato roots in vitro, and AC-92 grew under all pH and salinity levels tested. The streptomycetes tested were considered as potential biocontrol and plant growth promotion agents.Estudos com estreptomicetos em programas de biocontrole e promoção de crescimento de plantas são alternativas tecnológicas de produção sustentáveis ao ambiente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar seis isolados de estreptomicetos quanto à produção de enzimas extracelulares, ácido indolacético e sideróforos, capacidade de solubilização de fosfatos, colonização radicular e de crescimento em diferentes níveis de pH e salinidade. Para detectar a produção das enzimas extracelulares, os isolados foram cultivados em meio de cultura contendo
Habiba, A.; Noreen, R.; Ali, S. A.; Sultana, V.; Ara, J.
Endophytic and rhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas have widely been used as biological control agents against soilborne plant pathogens. In this study, fifteen epiphytic fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from the surfaces of citrus (grapefruit, orange and lemon) melon and tomato fruits were characterized for their in vitro activity against root rotting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani and nematicidal activity against the second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. Out of fifteen Pseudomonas isolates HAB-16, HAB-1 and HAB-25 inhibited the growth of all the test fungi and showed maximum nematicidal activity against second stage juvenile of M. javanica. Based on their effective in vitro activity nine epiphytic fluorescent Pseudomonas were evaluated for their growth promoting ability and biocontrol activity in screen house on mungbean. Pseudomonas isolates (HAB-13, HAB-2, HAB-4, HAB-1, HAB-14, HAB-9, HAB-7 and HAB-25) used as soil drench greatly reduced the root rot-root knot infection and thereby enhanced plant growth, root nodulation and yield in mungbean. Besides, rhizospheric and endophytic, epiphytic fluorescent Pseudomonas associated with healthy fruits may be used as biocontrol agent against root rotting fungi, besides, using for the mangemnet of postharvest diseases. (author)
Wanessa Altimiras Costa
Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou um sistema de biocontrole para inibição de Listeria monocytogenes em couve minimamente processada, objetivando sua segurança durante estocagem sob refrigeração e em condições de abuso de temperatura. O potencial inibitório de bactérias láticas tolerantes ao sal e psicrotróficas contaminantes naturais da couve e Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649 e Lactobacillus casei CCT 1465 foram avaliadas contra L. monocytogenes. O isolado de couve identificado como P. acidilactici CCA3 inibiu L. monocytogenes a 10 e 15 °C em ágar MRS e foi selecionado como possível agente de biocontrole. O número de L. monocytogenes na couve minimamente processada aumentou 3,7 e 4,7 ciclos logarítmicos a 5 e 10 °C, respectivamente, após 20 dias de armazenamento e 4,6 ciclos logarítmicos após oito dias a 15 °C. Entretanto, quando 10(8 UFC.g-1 de P. acidilactici CCA3 foram inoculados no produto processado, o crescimento de L. monocytogenes reduziu 2,3 ciclos logarítmicos sob temperatura abusiva de 15 °C. A acidez titulável e as características sensoriais da couve não foram alteradas pela presença de CCA3 ao longo do período de vida útil. Estes resultados sugerem o potencial de aplicação dos bioconservantes na couve minimamente processada, que necessitam estar associados à refrigeração e sanitização para garantir segurança.This study evaluated a biological control system for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed kale focusing on its freshness under refrigeration and extreme temperatures. The inhibitory potential of salt and cold tolerant lactic bacteria from natural microflora of kale, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei CCT 1465 strains were evaluated against L. monocytogenes. Pediococcus acidilactici CCA3 isolated from kale exhibited a large inhibition zone of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 15 °C in MRS agar and was
Kalia, Vinay; Sharma, Garima; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Ganguly, Sudershan
Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host). In terms of host susceptibility of lepidopteran larvae to S. thermophilum, based on the LC50 36 hr after treatment, G. mellonella (LC50 = 16.28 IJ/larva) was found to be more susceptible than S. litura (LC50 = 85 IJ/larva), whereas neither host was found to be significantly different from H. armigera (LC50 = 54.68 IJ/larva). In addition to virulence to the larval stages, ovicidal activity up to 84% was observed at 200 IJ/50 and 100 eggs of H. armigera and S. litura, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first report of entomopathogenic nematode pathogenicity to lepidopteran eggs. Production of infective juvenile (IJ) nematodes/insect larva was also measured and found to be positively correlated with rate of IJ for H. armigera (r = 0.990), S. litura (r = 0.892), as well as G. mellonella (r = 0.834). Both Phase I and Phase II of symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus indica were tested separately against neonates of H. armigera and S. litura by feeding assays and found to be virulent to the target pests; phase variation did not affect the level of virulence. Thus S. thermophilum as well as the nematode's symbiotic bacteria applied separately have the potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for key lepidopteran pests.
Carmen eGómez-Lama Cabanás
Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets, many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR experiments aiming to: (i validate the induction of these genes, and (ii shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days. Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lypoxigenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e. jerf, bHLH, WRKYs, as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mount a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves. This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the ‘non-hostile’ colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.
Girlanda, M; Perotto, S; Moenne-Loccoz, Y; Bergero, R; Lazzari, A; Defago, G; Bonfante, P; Luppi, A M
Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day
Indigenous strains of Trichoderma viride (ITCC No. 6889), Pseudomonas fluorescens (ITCC No. B0034) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (ITCC No.6887) were isolated from undisturbed forest eco-system of Southern India. These three bio-mediators were evaluated for their antagonism towards root knot nematode, ...
Kavitha, P.G.; Jonathan, E.I.; Nakkeeran, S.
Bacillus subtilis, an endophytic bacteria that lives inside the plant system is viewed as a potential source of novel genes with antimicrobial activity. B. subtilis strain Bs5 isolated from noni was found to be antagonistic to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognitainvitro. The endophytic nature of the bacteria was ascertained by labeling the bacteria with radioactive 32 P and introduced in to the plant system. Autoradiograph of young noni seedlings was developed 28 days after exposure period in the X-ray film. The work was carried out in the Radioisotope Laboratory, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Autoradiography indicated a difference in intensity of darkening of photographic emulsion. A closer scrutiny of the autoradiograph showed intensity of the film darkening to be accentuated in the top leaves. It revealed that the radio labelled bacteria effectively translocated from root to shoot and colonized the stem, mid ribs and actively growing regions. From the study it becomes evident that the radio labelling and tracer analysis is an effective tool for tracking the movement and colonization of endophytic bacteria which are potential candidates for combating plant pathogens including plant parasitic nematodes. (author)
Full Text Available A total of 35 endophytic actinomycetes strains was isolated from the roots, stems and leaves tissues of healthy wheat plants and identified as Streptomyces sp. (24, Actinopolyspora sp. (3, Nocardia sp. (4, Saccharopolyspora sp. (2 Pseudonocardia (1 and Micromonospora sp. (1. Seventeen endophytic actinomycetes isolate showed abilities to solubilize phosphate and produce IAA in the range of 5 to 42mg/100ml and 18-42µg/ml respectively. Nineteen isolates produced catechol-type of siderophore ranging between 1.3-20.32µg/ml. Also, hydroxamate-type siderophore produced by 9 isolates in the range of 13.33-50.66µg/ml. Maximum catechol-type of siderophore production was observed in Streptomyces roseosporus W9 (20.32µg/ml which was also displaying maximum antagonistic activity against ten different pathogenic fungi. The results indicated that internal tissues of healthy wheat plants exhibited endophytic actinomycetes diversity not only in terms of different types of isolates but also in terms of functional diversity.
Full Text Available Predation experiment using Betta splendens, Pseudotropheus tropheops, Osphronemus gorami and Pterophyllum scalare were conducted against IVth instar Anopheline larvae and pupae with varying prey and predator densities. Ranking of individual predatory efficacy showed the sequence: P. tropheops > B. splendens > O. gorami > P. scalare against larva/form and B. splendens > O. gorami > P. tropheops > P. scalare against pupal form of Anopheles stephensi during 24 hours experiment in laboratory condition. Predation under co-existence in interspecific and intraspecific combinations revealed the significance of predatory efficacy with reference to prey density and water volume (search area.
taxonomists for full identification. Chironomid larvae damaging tips and emerging adults were collected from hydrilla at Chetian Town, Lizui Town, and...R. S. Arias, B. E. Scheffler, S. O. Duke, M. Netherland, F. E. Dayan. 2004. Somatic mutation-mediated evolution of herbicide resistance in the
Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture.
Zhu, Ming Liang; Mo, Ming He; Xia, Zhen Yuan; Li, Yun Hua; Yang, Shu Jun; Li, Tian Fei; Zhang, Ke Qin
The strain ZK7 of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia and IPC of Paecilomyces lilacinus are highly effective in the biological control against root-knot nematodes infecting tobacco. When applied, they require a specific monitoring method to evaluate the colonization and dispersal in soil. In this work, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to differentiate between the two individual strains and 95 other isolates, including isolates of the same species and common soil fungi. This approach allowed the selection of specific fragments of 1.2 kb (Vc1200) and 2.0 kb (Vc2000) specific for ZK7, 1.4 kb (P1400) and 0.85 kb (P850) specific for IPC, using the random Primers OPL-02, OPD-05, OPD-05 and OPC-11, respectively. These fragments were cloned, sequenced, and used to design sequence-characterized amplification region (SCAR) primers specific for the two strains. In classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with serial dilution of ZK7 and IPC pure culture DNAs template, the detection limits of these oligonucleotide SCAR-PCR primers were found to be 10, 1000, 500, 100 pg, respectively. In the dot blotting, digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled amplicons from these four primers specifically recognized the corresponding fragments in the DNAs template of these two strains. The detection limit of these amplicons were 0.2, 0.2, 0.5, 0.5 mug, respectively.
May 11, 2016 ... fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in vitro. Rajinikanth Rompalli ... Indigenous strains of Trichoderma viride (ITCC No. 6889), Pseudomonas ..... antibiotic rather than protein might be responsible for the nematicidal ...
Foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella are responsible for frequent occurrences of illnesses and mortality in humans and produce losses. Pre-harvest yield losses and post-harvest decay on minimally processed produce (fruits, vegetables...
Cole, Benjamin J.; Fletcher, Meghan; Waters, Jordan; Wetmore, Kelly; Blow, Matthew J.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Dangl, Jeffry L.; Visel, Axel
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a critical component of plant root ecosystems. PGPR promote plant growth by solubilizing inaccessible minerals, suppressing pathogenic microorganisms in the soil, and directly stimulating growth through hormone synthesis. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-established PGPR isolated from wheat roots that can also colonize the root system of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We have created barcoded transposon insertion mutant libraries suitable for genome-wide transposon-mediated mutagenesis followed by sequencing (TnSeq). These libraries consist of over 105 independent insertions, collectively providing loss-of-function mutants for nearly all genes in the P.fluorescens genome. Each insertion mutant can be unambiguously identified by a randomized 20 nucleotide sequence (barcode) engineered into the transposon sequence. We used these libraries in a gnotobiotic assay to examine the colonization ability of P.fluorescens on A.thaliana roots. Taking advantage of the ability to distinguish individual colonization events using barcode sequences, we assessed the timing and microbial concentration dependence of colonization of the rhizoplane niche. These data provide direct insight into the dynamics of plant root colonization in an in vivo system and define baseline parameters for the systematic identification of the bacterial genes and molecular pathways using TnSeq assays. Having determined parameters that facilitate potential colonization of roots by thousands of independent insertion mutants in a single assay, we are currently establishing a genome-wide functional map of genes required for root colonization in P.fluorescens. Importantly, the approach developed and optimized here for P.fluorescens>A.thaliana colonization will be applicable to a wide range of plant-microbe interactions, including biofuel feedstock plants and microbes known or hypothesized to impact on biofuel-relevant traits including biomass productivity and pathogen resistance.
Mnyone, L.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Nchimbi, N.; Hancock, P.A.; Russell, T.L.; Kirby, M.J.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.
Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these
Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C
Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The agricultural based economy is a core business in Thailand and food export is one of the main sources of income for the Thai population. However, pesticides are overused and misused. As a result there is an urgent need to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Biological control offers an alternative to the use of pesticides. Mango (Mangifera indica L. is widely planted in Thailand and is one of the major cash crops for international export. However, mango suffers from various diseases especially anthracnose, a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One hundred and twelve isolates of epiphytic microbes were isolated from healthy leaves and fruits of mangoes; this included 93 and 19 isolates of epiphytic bacteria and yeasts, respectively. They were screened for bioactivity against a pathogenic strain of C. gloeosporioides isolated from diseased mangoes using a dual culture technique. Out of 112 isolates, eight isolates exhibited at least 60% inhibition. These isolates were further screened for their inhibition on mango using fruit inoculation. Two isolates reduced the lesion sizes caused by C. gloeosporioides compared to control treatment. These two isolates, based on phenotypical and biochemical tests, were identified as Bacillus sp. MB61 and Bacillus sp. LB72.
Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods.
Pallister, Jackie A; Halliday, Damien C T; Robinson, Anthony J; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D; Boyle, Donna G; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M; Siddon, Nicole A; Hyatt, Alex D
The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.
Beck, Bert; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Brusselman, Eva; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Nuyttens, David
The potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema feltiae Filipjev as a biocontrol agent against the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.), was assessed in three field tests, focusing on EPN dosage, application technique and timing. Spraying cabbage plant trays with different doses of infective juveniles (IJs) (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 per plant) generated a similar reduction of plant mortality. Spraying plant trays with 200,000 IJs of Steinernema feltiae per plant temporarily reduced the number of maggots around the plants' roots, while neither spraying a lower dose (50,000 IJs/plant) nor soil drenching with 200,000 or 50,000 IJs/plant) reduced maggot numbers. When applied as a plant tray spray, IJs of S. feltiae took 1-2 weeks to spread through the soil surrounding the roots. The pathogenicity of the EPNs, as evaluated by a Galleria mellonella bait test, was highest (up to 100% mortality) until up to five weeks after application, and declined to control levels after 4-7 weeks. Follow-up drench applications with EPNs, applied one and/or two weeks after the first EPN application, did not influence control of Delia radicum. Plant tray spraying provides better placement of Steinernema feltiae than soil drench treatments for control of Delia radicum. Plant mortality was not dose-dependent in the presented trials, unlike the reduction of maggot numbers. Further research into timing and application technique of follow-up treatments with S. feltiae is required to increase efficacy to commercial standards. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Jackie A Pallister
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.
Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok
We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.
Biocontrol of Aspergillus flavus using inoculated bioplastic granules has been proven to be effective under laboratory and field conditions. In the present study, the use of low-density pellets from recycled bioplastic as a biocontrol strain carrier was evaluated. Applying recycled bioplastic pell...
Biocontrol measures may enhance postharvest interventions, however; published research on process-based models for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens on produce is limited. The aim of this research was to develop cost model estimates for competitive exclusion process using Pseudomonas fluorescens and...
Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. The tick Boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to EPNs than Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. Preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. The mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed males, and engorged females. The virulence of nematodes to ticks varied greatly among different nematode strains. In most cases, the Heterorhabditis sp. strains were the most virulent strains tested in petri dishes. In buckets containing sandy soil sprayed with 50 nematodes/cm2 and engorged B. annulatus females, the LT50 of the ticks was less than five days. The addition of manure to soil or a manure extract to petri dishes reduced nematode virulence. Since ticks spend most of their life cycle in the upper humid layer of the ground, and many nematode strains share this same ecological niche, the use of EPNs for biocontrol of ticks appears promising.
Full Text Available Grape berries attacked by Lobesia botrana larvae are more easily infected by Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli ochratoxigenic species. Two-year field trials were carried out in Apulia (Italy to evaluate a bioinsecticide control strategy against L. botrana and the indirect effect on reducing ochratoxin A (OTA contamination in vineyards. A commercial Bacillus thuringiensis formulate and an experimental Beauveria bassiana (ITEM-1559 formulate were tested in two vineyards cultivated with the same grape variety, Negroamaro, but with two different training systems (espalier and little-arbor techniques. In both years and training systems the treatments by B. bassiana ITEM-1559 significantly controlled L. botrana larvae attacks with effectiveness similar to B. thuringensis (more than 20%. A significant reduction of OTA concentrations (up to 80% compared to untreated controls was observed only in the first year in both training systems, when the metereological parameters prior to harvest were more favorable to the insect attack. Results of field trials showed that B. bassiana ITEM-1559 is a valid bioinsecticide against L. botrana and that grape moth biocontrol is a strategy to reduce OTA contamination in vineyard in seasons with heavy natural infestation.
Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture
Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Olsson, Stefan
reads per sample. RESULTS: No significant changes in global gene expression were recorded during dual-culture of P. fluorescens In5 with any of the two pathogens but rather each pathogen appeared to induce expression of a specific set of genes. A particularly strong transcriptional response to R. solani...... and in particular the fungus R. solani. This highlights the importance of studying microbe-microbe interactions to gain a better understanding of how different systems function in vitro and ultimately in natural systems where biocontrol agents can be used for the sustainable management of plant diseases....
Jafra, S.; Przysowa, J.; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.
Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were
Li, Guangkun; Chi, Mengshan; Chen, Huizhen; Sui, Yuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jia
As an eco-friendly management method, biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic receiving considerable attention. Detailed knowledge on the biology of yeast antagonists is crucial when considering their potential application and development as biocontrol products. Changes in the growth form, such as single-cell to pseudohyphae, have been associated with the mode of action in postharvest biocontrol yeasts. In this study, the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa, reversibly shifted from a single-cell morphology on yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) medium with 2 % agar to a pseudohyphal morphology on YPD with 0.3 % agar. The tolerance of the pseudohyphal form to heat and oxidative stresses, as well as the biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea on apple and kiwifruit stored at 25 and 4 °C, was significantly higher as compared to the single-cell form. This study provides new information on the ability of C. diversa to change its morphology and the impact of the morphology shift on stress tolerance and biocontrol performance.
Increasing the habitat diversity of agricultural fields can lead to more effective biocontrol of arthropod pests. Annual cropping systems are exposed to frequent disturbance and lack habitat diversity; therefore it is important to develop strategies that can improve ecosystem services such as bioco...
Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic and eco-friendly management approach that has received considerable attention. A few yeast-based biocontrol products are available in the market. Ecological fitness, stress to...
Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.
Bosmans, Lien; De Bruijn, I.; de Mot, Rene; Readers, Hans; Lievens, Bart
Agar-based screening assays are the method of choice when evaluating antagonistic potential of bacterial biocontrol-candidates against pathogens.Weshowed thatwhen using the samemedium, but different agar compositions, the activity of a bacterial antagonist against Agrobacteriumwas strongly affected.
Rajesh Kumari Manhas
Full Text Available Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10% and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75-80% and vigour index (1167-1538. Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers.
Full Text Available This research investigated the Eucalyptus cinerea leaves efficiency in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biocontrol, the causative agent of crown gall. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil (EO showed that the main components were 1,8-cineole (61% and camphene (15.13%. Thanks to its polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, alkaloids, and tannins richness, the EtOAc-F exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity in vitro. Indeed, compared to the other fractions, it has the lowest MIC and MBC values of 0.312 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of EtOAc-F confirmed its richness in antibacterial compounds including gallic acid (7.18%, shikimic acid (5.07%, and catechin (3.12%. The time-kill curve assay of EtOAc-F (2.5 mg/mL showed a potent bactericidal effect after 20 min of direct contact with A. tumefaciens. In planta experiments, gall weights were significantly reduced when EtOAc-F was applied at 0.625 and 2.5 mg/wounds. Besides, the disease reduction rates in gall weight were 95% and 97.5%, respectively. Interestingly, no phytotoxic effect was observed since tomato seeds germinated in the presence of the different concentrations of EtOAc-F. These results suggest that EtOAc-F has a good potential to be a curative biocontrol agent for crown gall disease.
Le, H T T; Black, L L; Sikora, R A
Tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. The plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. Occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of Pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees C). Several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. Three Trichoderma harzianum and two Trichoderma virens isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of the disease in the greenhouse and in the field T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were separately used to treat the seed, potting medium and also incorporated into the soil before transplanting. Field soil was naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum, while greenhouse soil was inoculated with the pathogen 10 days after transplanting. All treatments were flooded for 48 hrs at 32 degrees C soil temperature. Results from this study show that most tested T. harzianum and T. virens isolates have little promise for control of tomato sudden death following flooding. The percentage of tomato plants that wilted after growing in soil treated with either T. harzianum or T. virens and P. aphanidermatum was not significantly different when compared to the soil treated with P. aphanidermatum alone. No wilted plants were observed in the control (non treated soil).
Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia
The soils ecosystem plays an important role in the epidemiology of geohelminth diseases of humans and animals. Soil contamination with ova of the parasitic geohelminths represents a global public health-hazard issue. Biological agents have been thought to control the infective forms of parasites present in the soil. Biocontrol of geohelminths represents an alternative to pesticides (i.e., nematicides), which are not efficient in killing infective nematode forms and, additionally, result in the environment pollution and long-term disturbances in the soil ecosystem homeostasis. The degree of the inhibiting effect of soil saprotrophic fungi on geohelminth embryonic development varies and depends on the species. A number of fungi cause various morphological disorders in the embryos of developing parasitic nematodes, but also have an ovicidal effect. Although the nature of the antagonism between fungi and other living organisms has not been fully explained, it is certain that mycotoxins and fungal enzymes constitute its important components. Considering the studies carried out so far, the antagonistic effect of mold fungi against the infective stages of geohelminths can be fully recommended as a real control factor, especially as these saprotrophs represent a natural factor within the soil environment, that is of particular biochemical activity.
Medeiros, Hugo Agripino de; Araújo Filho, Jerônimo Vieira de; Freitas, Leandro Grassi de; Castillo, Pablo; Rubio, María Belén; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%). The first generation (F1) of Ta-primed tomato plants inherited resistance to RKN; although, the induction of defenses occurred through different mechanisms, and in varying degrees, depending on the Ta-Mj interaction. Plant growth promotion induced by Ta was inherited without compromising the level of resistance to Mj, as the progeny of Ta-primed plants displayed increased size and resistance to Mj without fitness costs. Gene expression results from the defense inductions in the offspring of Ta-primed plants, suggested that an auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production promoted by Ta may act as a major defense strategy during plant growth.
Full Text Available A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA and phenylacetic acid (PA. The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M, M plus zoospore inoculation (MP, MPC-7 cultured broth (B and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP. With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants.
Shen, Zhenyu; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi; Zheng, Guolu
inhibition against the S. enterica cocktails by a reduction of about 1.1-1.4lg CFU/g of seeds by day 5. Results of this study suggest that the source (native vs. alien) of B. subtilis isolates may not affect the efficacy of the inhibition, but it might be affected by the production of antimicrobial substance and/or nutrition/space competition. The results also indicate that strain LCA1 may be useful as a biocontrol agent to reduce Salmonella and EHEC contamination in seed sprouts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hajji Lobna; Chattaoui Mayssa; Regaieg Hajer; M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima; Rhouma Ali; Horrigue-Raouani Najet
In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rat...
Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum of Ophiocordycipitaceae is one of the most promising and commercialized agents for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, as well as other insects and plant pathogens. However, how the fungus functions at the molecular level remains unknown. Here, we sequenced two isolates (PLBJ-1 and PLFJ-1 of P. lilacinum from different places Beijing and Fujian. Genomic analysis showed high synteny of the two isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated they were most related to the insect pathogen Tolypocladium inflatum. A comparison with other species revealed that this fungus was enriched in carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes, proteases and pathogenesis related genes. Whole genome search revealed a rich repertoire of secondary metabolites (SMs encoding genes. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetase LcsA, which is comprised of ten C-A-PCP modules, was identified as the core biosynthetic gene of lipopeptide leucinostatins, which was specific to P. lilacinum and T. ophioglossoides, as confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, gene expression level was analyzed when PLBJ-1 was grown in leucinostatin-inducing and non-inducing medium, and 20 genes involved in the biosynthesis of leucionostatins were identified. Disruption mutants allowed us to propose a putative biosynthetic pathway of leucinostatin A. Moreover, overexpression of the transcription factor lcsF increased the production (1.5-fold of leucinostatins A and B compared to wild type. Bioassays explored a new bioactivity of leucinostatins and P. lilacinum: inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora infestans and P. capsici. These results contribute to our understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of leucinostatins and may allow us to utilize P. lilacinum better as bio-control agent.
Julie S. Denslow; Carla M. D' Antonio
Development of biological control agents for weeds has been motivated by the need to reduce the abundance and distribution of a pest plant where chemical and mechanical control were not cost effective. Primary objectives have been direct reduction in abundance of the target and, secondarily, the increase of desirable species. Recently, wildland weeds have become a...
Postharvest biological control agents as a viable alternative to the use of synthetic chemicals have been the focus of considerable research for the last 30 years by many scientists and several commercial companies worldwide. Several antagonists of postharvest pathogens have been identified and tes...
Benjamin, Emmanuel O.; Wesseler, Justus H.H.
European regulations on the sustainable use of pesticides aim to promote integrated pest management (IPM) strategy and the use of biological control agents. However, uncertainty over benefits and costs, irreversibility effects as well as flexibility in adoption of this technology needs to be
Juliana Soler Arango
Full Text Available Título en ingles: Evaluation of microorganisms with potential for plant growth promotion and biological control of Spongospora subterranea Resumen: La sarna polvosa de la papa es causada por el patógeno Spongospora subterranea, que disminuye la calidad y producción de tubérculos y facilita la entrada de otros patógenos. Esta enfermedad afecta las principales zonas productoras del mundo, debido a la falta de tratamientos efectivos contra el patógeno y al comercio de tubérculos-semilla infectados. Algunas investigaciones indican que los agentes biocontroladores podrían contribuir a reducir la actividad de S. subterranea a través de efectos sobre la viabilidad de sus quistosoros o mediante efectos estimulantes del crecimiento de la planta. En este estudio se emplearon bacterias aisladas del interior de raíz, rizósfera y superficie de tubérculos de un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro y seleccionadas por su capacidad para producir indoles totales y quitinasas. En estudios paralelos se determinó su capacidad para promover la velocidad de germinación en brotes de tubérculos o para controlar S. subterranea en raíces y promover el crecimiento vegetal de plántulas en invernadero. La mayoria de los aislamientos evaluados incrementraron la longitud de brotes de tubérculos en el laboratorio. En el invernadero, en suelo no estéril y en presencia del patógeno, se encontró que 2 de los 10 aislamientos seleccionados por su capacidad para producir indoles totales y quitinasas, presentaron promoción de crecimiento vegetal y posible biocontrol del patógeno. Estos resultados sugieren un gran potencial para la selección de microorganismos biocontroladores y desarrollo de bioproductos a partir de recursos microbiológicos locales. Palabras clave: sarna polvosa de la papa; indoles totales; quitinasas; control biológico. Abstract: The powdery scab of potato is caused by the pathogen Spongospora
YUSMINAH H ALA
Full Text Available Rifampicin-resistant marker w as empl oyed as a repor ter t o detect the ad here nce and colonization of V. harve yi in s hrimp larvae. Vibri o h arve yi P1B and YA3 2. 2 were isolated f rom dead s hrimp la rv ae i n Besuki, Norther n C oast of East Jav a, while V. harveyi HB3, was isolated from pris tine sea water in Pacita n, S outhe rn Coast of E ast Ja va . Vi brio metsc hnikovii used a s bioc ontr ol a gent was i solated fr om healthy shrimp larvae in Serang, We st Java. Spontane ous mutation was c onducted to generate V. harveyi P1B, YA32.2 and HB3 resistant to rifampi cin. These mutants exhibit ed similar survival ability to t heir parent al (wild type strai ns. Signifi cant larval mortalit y was o bserv ed i n s hrimp l arv ae i noculated with YA32.2 than that of larvae ino culated with P1B. Larvae inoculated with H B 3 showed the lo w est mortality. Bacterial cell c ount of Vi brio Rf* in dead larvae w ere 103-104 cells/larvae. Isolates of Vi brio metschnikovii Z an d M as biocontrol candid ates effectively r educed the growth a nd a dherence ability of YA32.2 t o shrimp larvae. Larval mort ality in rearing water inoculat ed simultaneousl y w ith YA32.2 and V. metschnikovii was lower than the one inoculated with YA32.2 alone. Therefore, Vibrio metschnikovii Z or M could be develope d as an effective pro biotic or biocontrol agent for V. harvey i in shrimp hatcheri es.
Ward, Elaine; Kerry, Brian R; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Mutua, Gerald; Devonshire, Jean; Kimenju, John; Hirsch, Penny R
The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers) may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.
Full Text Available The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.
Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan; Liu, Changhong; Xue, Yarong
Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B.?velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and vo...
Cai, Xunchao; Kang, Xingxing; Xi, Huan; Liu, Changhong; Xue, Yarong
Bacillus velezensis is a heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, and Bacillus oryzicola, and has been used to control plant fungal diseases. In order to fully understand the genetic basis of antimicrobial capacities, we did a complete genome sequencing of the endophytic B. velezensis strain CC09. Genes tightly associated with biocontrol ability, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases, polyketide synthetases, iron acquisition, colonization, and volatile organic compound synthesis were identified in the genome. Copyright © 2016 Cai et al.
Jessica A. Gray
Full Text Available High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol
D'Attoma G., Morelli M., Cicco S., Saponari M. and Saldarelli P.
X. fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium, which is causing the ‘Olive Quick Decline Syndrome’ (OQDS), on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region. The knowledge of mechanisms regulating olive- X. fastidiosa interactions is fundamental to develop biocontrol strategies. In Pierce’s Disease (PD) the pathogen virulence relies on a fine balance between motile cells, which move and proliferate in xylem vessels, and sticky cells forming a biofilm and responsible for vessels...
Gray, Jessica A; Chandry, P Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P; Fox, Edward M
High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their
?lvarez, Bel?n; Biosca, Elena G.
Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the a...
Gray, Jessica A.; Chandry, P. Scott; Kaur, Mandeep; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Bowman, John P.; Fox, Edward M.
High mortality and hospitalization rates have seen Listeria monocytogenes as a foodborne pathogen of public health importance for many years and of particular concern for high-risk population groups. Food manufactures face an ongoing challenge in preventing the entry of L. monocytogenes into food production environments (FPEs) due to its ubiquitous nature. In addition to this, the capacity of L. monocytogenes strains to colonize FPEs can lead to repeated identification of L. monocytogenes in FPE surveillance. The contamination of food products requiring product recall presents large economic burden to industry and is further exacerbated by damage to the brand. Poor equipment design, facility layout, and worn or damaged equipment can result in Listeria hotspots and biofilms where traditional cleaning and disinfecting procedures may be inadequate. Novel biocontrol methods may offer FPEs effective means to help improve control of L. monocytogenes and decrease cross contamination of food. Bacteriophages have been used as a medical treatment for many years for their ability to infect and lyse specific bacteria. Endolysins, the hydrolytic enzymes of bacteriophages responsible for breaking the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, are being explored as a biocontrol method for food preservation and in nanotechnology and medical applications. Antibacterial proteins known as bacteriocins have been used as alternatives to antibiotics for biopreservation and food product shelf life extension. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials formed by plants and have been used as food additives and preservatives for many years and more recently as a method to prevent food spoilage by microorganisms. Competitive exclusion occurs naturally among bacteria in the environment. However, intentionally selecting and applying bacteria to effect competitive exclusion of food borne pathogens has potential as a biocontrol application. This review discusses these novel biocontrol methods and their
Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu
Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Chen, Jian; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping
The use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. The effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effects of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the yeast cells with or without H₂O₂ treatment. We found that the viability of R. glutinis decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress. Compared to the control, yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited more accumulation of ROS and higher levels of protein oxidative damage, but showed lower efficacy for biocontrol of Penicillium expansum causing blue mold rot on peach fruit. The results indicate that apoptosis is a main cause of the cell viability loss in R. glutinis, which is attributed to ROS accumulation under oxidative stress. These findings offer a plausible explanation that oxidative stress affects biocontrol efficacy of R. glutinis via regulating its viability and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis, not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta. Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.
Álvarez, Belén; Biosca, Elena G
Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum , R. pseudosolanacearum , and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis , not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta . Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.
Webster, John M.
A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.
Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.
With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.
Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan
Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays. The endophyte T. harzianum TharDOB-31 showed significant in vitro mycelial growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum (76.0%) and R. solani (76.9%) when tested by dual culture method. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed morphological abnormalities like parasitism, shriveling, breakage and lysis of hyphae of the pathogens by endophyte TharDOB-31. Selected endophytic isolates recorded multiple plant growth promoting traits in in vitro studies. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of endophyte TharDOB-31 showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 13.8 and 11.6% respectively. The treatment of TharDOB-31 exhibited significant increase in plant height (85 cm) and fresh rhizome yield/plant (425 g) in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. The confocal microscopy validates the colonization of the TharDOB-31 in turmeric rhizomes. The secondary metabolites in ethyl acetate extract of TharDOB-31 were found to contain higher number of antifungal compounds by high resolution liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis. Thereby, endophyte T. harzianum isolate can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.
Full Text Available Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous, beneficial, plant-associated bacterium emerging as a novel biological control agent. It has the potential to become a new source of antimicrobial secondary metabolites such as the Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF, which is a broad-spectrum antimycotic with a novel mode of action. However, very little information about how L. enzymogenes detects and responds to fungi or oomycetes has been reported. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum and the biocontrol bacterial strain L. enzymogenes OH11 was used to analyze the transcriptional changes in the bacteria that were induced by the oomycetes. Analysis was performed at three time points of the interaction, starting before inhibition zone formation until inhibition zone formation. A L. enzymogenes OH11 DNA microarray was constructed for the analysis. Microarray analysis indicated that a wide range of genes belonging to 14 diverse functions in L. enzymogenes were affected by P. aphanidermatum as critical antagonistic effects occurred. L. enzymogenes detected and responded to the presence of P. aphanidermatum early, but alteration of gene expression typically occurred after inhibition zone formation. The presence of P. aphanidermatum increased the twitching motility and HSAF production in L. enzymogenes. We also performed a contact interaction between L. enzymogenes and P. aphanidermatum, and found that HSAF played a critical role in the interaction. Our experiments demonstrated that L. enzymogenes displayed transcriptional and antagonistic responses to P. aphanidermatum in order to gain advantages in the competition with this oomycete. This study revealed new insights into the interactions between bacteria and oomycete.
Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease.
Phenylacetic acid-producing Rhizoctonia solani represses the biosynthesis of nematicidal compounds in vitro and influences biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its GM derivatives.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of Rhizoctonia solani and its pathogenicity factor on the production of nematicidal agent(s) by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its GM derivatives in vitro and nematode biocontrol potential by bacterial inoculants in tomato. One (Rs7) of the nine R. solani isolates from infected tomato roots inhibited seedling emergence and caused root rot in tomato. Thin layer chromatography revealed that culture filtrates of two isolates (Rs3 and Rs7) produced brown spots at Rf-values closely similar to synthetic phenylacetic acid (PAA), a phytotoxic factor. Filtrates from isolate Rs7, amended with the growth medium of P. fluorescens, markedly repressed nematicidal activity and PhlA'-'LacZ reporter gene expression of the bacteria in vitro. On the contrary, isolate Rs4 enhanced nematicidal potential of a 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol overproducing mutant, CHA0/pME3424, of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 in vitro. Therefore, R. solani isolates Rs4 and Rs7 were tested more rigorously for their potential to influence biocontrol effectiveness of the bacterial agents. Methanol extract of the culture filtrates of PAA-producing isolate Rs7 resulting from medium amended with phenylalanine enhanced fungal repression of the production of nematicidal agents by bacteria, while amendments with zinc or molybdenum eliminated such fungal repression, thereby restoring bacterial potential to cause nematode mortality in vitro. A pot experiment was carried out, 3-week-old tomato seedlings were infested with R. solani isolates Rs4 or Rs7 and/or inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita, the root-knot nematode. The infested soil was treated with aqueous cell suspensions (10(8) CFU) of P. fluorescens strain CHA0 or its GM derivatives or left untreated (as a control). Observations taken 45 days after nematode inoculation revealed that, irrespective of the bacterial treatments, galling intensity per gram of fresh tomato roots was markedly
Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K
Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hu, Hao; Wisniewski, Michael E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Zheng, Xiaodong
Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase. The better oxidative stress tolerance was another characteristic of LB2. Maybe because of the ideal culture condition, there was no obvious difference between these two yeasts in the growth in vitro test at low temperature. Although the same phenomenon existed in the low pH stress test, LB2 still had higher cell concentration under this stress. Comparative transcriptomics method was also applied to analyze the cell activity of LB2 and C. laurentii at different temperatures. The results showed that more active response in the intracellular structure and intracellular metabolic process to cold temperature made LB2 had a better activity. The present study indicated a possibility to select cold-adapted biocontrol yeast from Tibet and also showed its primary action mechanism.
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Gerasimos F Kremmydas
Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens strain X, a bacterial isolate from the rhizosphere of bean seedlings, has the ability to suppress damping-off caused by the oomycete Pythium ultimum. To determine the genes controlling the biocontrol activity of strain X, transposon mutagenesis, sequencing and complementation was performed. Results indicate that, biocontrol ability of this isolate is attributed to gcd gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase, genes encoding its co-enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, and two genes (sup5 and sup6 which seem to be organized in a putative operon. This operon (named supX consists of five genes, one of which encodes a non-ribosomal peptide synthase. A unique binding site for a GntR-type transcriptional factor is localized upstream of the supX putative operon. Synteny comparison of the genes in supX revealed that they are common in the genus Pseudomonas, but with a low degree of similarity. supX shows high similarity only to the mangotoxin operon of Ps. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of supX is strongly reduced in the gcd and PQQ-minus mutants of Ps. fluorescens strain X. On the contrary, transcription of supX in the wild type is enhanced by glucose and transcription levels that appear to be higher during the stationary phase. Gcd, which uses PQQ as a cofactor, catalyses the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, which controls the activity of the GntR family of transcriptional factors. The genes in the supX putative operon have not been implicated before in the biocontrol of plant pathogens by pseudomonads. They are involved in the biosynthesis of an antimicrobial compound by Ps. fluorescens strain X and their transcription is controlled by glucose, possibly through the activity of a GntR-type transcriptional factor binding upstream of this putative operon.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1 × 109 cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables.
Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan
In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170
João Carlos de Oliveira
Full Text Available Nematode-trapping fungi have been studied as a promising alternative to control bovine gastrointestinal parasites and plant parasitic nematodes. Some encouraging results have been achieved with some species, by many researchers. Nematophagous fungi such as Arthrobotrys javanica, Dactylella leptospora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, M. robustum e Nematoctonus campylosporus were isolated from soil samples collected from different crops and agronomic environments proceeding from varies places in Brazil, making use of soil spreading methods. These fungi species were isolated at the Center of Animal Parasitology (CPPAR at UNESP/FCAV, Campus Jaboticabal – SP. The predatory ability of these fungi, on free living nematodes (Panagrellus sp. was documented at the Scanning Electron Microscopy Lab. The objectives of this work were to document, through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, the morphological structures of these fungi, such as: capturing structures, size, form, septation of the conidia, connection clamp, exclusively on N. campylosporus, as well as the free-living nematodes captured by these fungi.Fungos nematófagos têm sido estudados como uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de nematóides de plantas e parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Resultados encorajadores têm sido obtidos com algumas espécies, por vários pesquisadores. A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em diferentes culturas e agroecossistemas provenientes de diversas localidades do Brasil, foram isolados, pelo método de espalhamento de solo, os fungos nematófagos Arthrobotrys javanica, Dactylella leptospora, Monacrosporium eudermatum, M. robustum e Nematoctonus campylosporus, no Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal (CPPAR da UNESP/FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP, e a habilidade predatória destes fungos sobre o nematóide de vida livre Panagrellus sp. foi estudada no Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo documentar ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV estruturas morfológicas desses fungos tais como: estruturas de captura, tamanho, forma e septação dos conídios, grampos de conexão em N. campylosporus, assim como os nematóides de vida livre capturados por estes fungos.
Adjuvantes e herbicidas e a infectividade de Fusarium graminearum, agente potencial de biocontrole de Egeria densa e Egeria najas Adjuvants and herbicides and the infectivity of Fusarium graminearum, a potential biocontrol agent of Egeria densa and Egeria najas
C.R. Borges Neto
Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos da adição de adjuvantes e a associação com herbicidas na infectividade do fungo dentro do patossistema Fusarium graminearum x Egeria spp. Foram utilizadas plantas sadias de Egeria densa e E. najas inoculadas com uma suspensão de arroz moído colonizado por F. graminearum, na concentração de 0,7 g L-1. Os tubos de ensaio contendo as plantas imersas na referida suspensão foram mantidos em incubadora à temperatura de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas diárias de luz, por oito dias, durante os quais foram avaliados os sintomas nas plantas a cada dois dias e o crescimento destas através do incremento de matéria fresca ao final do experimento. O efeito de 14 adjuvantes e 6 herbicidas, adicionados à suspensão de inóculo, sobre a ação de F. graminearum em E. densa e E. najas foi avaliado. De modo geral, os adjuvantes melhoraram a eficiência do bioerbicida e a associação herbicida + fungo proporcionou maior severidade de doença e controle do crescimento das plantas.The effects of adding adjuvants and their association with herbicides on fungus infectivity were studied in the Fusarium graminearum x Egeria spp. pathosystem. Healthy Egeria densa and E. naja plants were inoculated with suspension of ground rice with F. graminearum, at a concentration of 0.7 g L-1. The assay tubes with the plants immersed in the suspension were kept in the incubator at the temperature of 25 ºC and photoperiod of 12 hours daily, with plant symptoms being evaluated every two hours and plant growth monitored based on fresh matter increase at the end of the experiment. The effect of 14 adjuvants and 6 herbicides added to the inoculum on the action of F. graminearum against E. densa and E. najas was evaluated. In general, the adjuvants improved bioherbicide efficiency and the herbicide + fungus association increased disease severity and plant growth control.
Full Text Available The biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens represents a promising approach from the environ- mental and practical points of view. Fluorescent pseudomonad rhizobacteria are well known by their antagonis- tic capacity towards several plant pathogens due to a diversity of antimicrobial metabolites they produce. This study was conceived to select and characterize rhizobacteria having antagonistic potential towards the patho- genic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. A total of 94 bacterial strains isolated from the rhizospheres of four vegetable species under organic cultivation were evaluated. Twenty-two strains which predominate in lettuce and rudbeckia rhizospheres showed identical biochemical profiles to Pseudomonas fluo- rescens, while in kale and parsley rhizospheres identical profiles to Pseudomonas putida (subgroups A and B strains prevailed. Two types of antagonism were verified in vitro and defined as competition and inhibition of mycelial growth. Sixty percent of the evaluated strains showed antagonistic potential and, among those, 24 strains expressed antagonism to both target fungi, with P. fluorescens being the most representative bacterial species. This work clearly identified a number of strains with potential for use as plant growth-promoting and biocontrol of the two soilborne fungal pathogens in vegetable crops production systems.
Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J.
Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture ‘T. harzianum T22’ was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. PMID:25661720
Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruiyan; Ni, Mi; Yu, Jia; Li, Yaqian; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Ren, Jianhong; Chen, Jie
Due to its efficient broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, Trichoderma has been established as an internationally recognized biocontrol fungus. In this study, we found and identified a novel strain of Trichoderma asperellum, named GDFS1009. The mycelium of T. asperellum GDFS1009 exhibits a high growth rate, high sporulation capacity, and strong inhibitory effects against pathogens that cause cucumber fusarium wilt and corn stalk rot. T. asperellum GDFS1009 secretes chitinase, glucanase, and protease, which can degrade the cell walls of fungi and contribute to mycoparasitism. The secreted xylanases are good candidates for inducing plant resistance and enhancing plant immunity against pathogens. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that T. asperellum GDFS1009 produces primary metabolites that are precursors of antimicrobial compounds; it also produces a variety of antimicrobial secondary metabolites, including polyketides and alkanes. In addition, this study speculated the presence of six antimicrobial peptides via ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Future studies should focus on these antimicrobial metabolites for facilitating widespread application in the field of agricultural bio-control.
Gauri A. Achari
Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.
Chaverri, Priscila; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J
Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture 'T. harzianum T22' was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.
Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373
The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the
Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jianfeng; Yang, Tianjie; Jousset, Alexandre; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong; Friman, Ville Petri
Microbe-based biocontrol applications hold the potential to become an efficient way to control plant pathogen disease outbreaks in the future. However, their efficiency is still very variable, which could be due to their sensitivity to the abiotic environmental conditions. Here, we assessed how
Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.
The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus ...
Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. All bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which...
Ghorbani, R.; Scheepens, P.C.; Zweerde, van der W.; Leifert, C.; McDonald, A.J.S.; Seel, W.
Common lambsquarters is an annual weed of many important crops. Ascochyta caulina is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes necrotic lesions on the leaves and stems of common lambsquarters. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of plant N supply on the biocontrol activity of
Four commercial biocontrol formulations (Bacillus subtilis GB03, Burkholderia ambifaria type Wisconsin isolate J82, Trichoderma virens Gl-21, and Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), a chemical seed treatment (Topsin, mancozeb, and cymoxanil mixture, TMC), and a combination chemical/biological treatm...
Perneel, M.; Heyrman, J.; Adiobo, A.; Maeyer, de K.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Vos, de P.; Höfte, M.
Aim: To screen for novel antagonistic Pseudomonas strains producing both phenazines and biosurfactants that are as effective as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PNA1 in the biocontrol of cocoyam root rot caused by Pythium myriotylum. Material and Results: Forty pseudomonads were isolated from the rhizosphere
Control of Salmonella Typhimurium on sprouts and minimally processed produce is crucial for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess natural microflora populations on soybean and evaluate the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and biocontrol Pseudomonas on the surviva...
Control of Salmonella enterica on sprouts and minimally processed, ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables is important for food and consumer safety. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide(ClO2)and biocontrol microorganisms (Pseudomonas chlororaphis and P. fluoresc...
Donald D. Davis; Matthew Kasson; Mark. Schall
Extensive, unprecedented wilt and mortality of the highly invasive, exotic tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) occurred recently within mixed hardwood forests in south-central Pennsylvania. Until this study, the cause of the epidemic was unknown.
Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.
Macrophomina phaseolina is a destructive pathogen causing charcoal rot of cowpea and other crops in the semi- arid areas of the Sahel (north-west Africa). Chemical management is not feasible in conditions of subsistence farming, and the plurivorous nature of the fungus limits the effectiveness of
King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J
Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats.
Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene
Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of...
By the year 2050 there will be 9 to 11 billion people on earth to feed using the same amount or less land and water as is currently available for agricultural production. The United Nations estimated that global food production will need to increase by 70% by 2050. Currently, about one-third of all ...
Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.
A filamentous, nonsporulating fungus, designated Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from 9 of 95 populations of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, in Arkansas. In petri dishes, ARF18 parasitized 89% of H. glycines eggs in cysts. The fungus also infected eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and eggs in cysts of Cactodera betulae, H. graminophila, H. lespedezae, H. leuceilyma, H. schachtii, and H. trifolii. In pot tests, reproduction of SCN was 70% less in untreated field soil that was naturally infested by ARF18 than in autoclaved field soil. Although ARF18 grew well at 25 C on cornmeal agar over a wide pH range, it did not sporulate on 28 media and thus could not be identified to genus or species. PMID:19283127
Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.
A filamentous, nonsporulating fungus, designated Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from 9 of 95 populations of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, in Arkansas. In petri dishes, ARF18 parasitized 89% of H. glycines eggs in cysts. The fungus also infected eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and eggs in cysts of Cactodera betulae, H. graminophila, H. lespedezae, H. leuceilyma, H. schachtii, and H. trifolii. In pot tests, reproduction of SCN was 70% less in untreated field soil that ...
Kim, D G; Riggs, R D
A filamentous, nonsporulating fungus, designated Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from 9 of 95 populations of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, in Arkansas. In petri dishes, ARF18 parasitized 89% of H. glycines eggs in cysts. The fungus also infected eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and eggs in cysts of Cactodera betulae, H. graminophila, H. lespedezae, H. leuceilyma, H. schachtii, and H. trifolii. In pot tests, reproduction of SCN was 70% less in untreated field soil that was naturally infested by ARF18 than in autoclaved field soil. Although ARF18 grew well at 25 C on cornmeal agar over a wide pH range, it did not sporulate on 28 media and thus could not be identified to genus or species.
Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.
With increased demand on water sources for human use and likely diminished supplies due to climate change, it is important to understand the variation in evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation water use by transpiration (T) in arid and semi-arid zone riparian areas in the western U.S. Understanding riparian plant water use is critical for accuracy of climate models, predictions used in water resources management, and assessment of land use change impacts on the water balance of ecosystems. Moore and Heilman (2011) suggested the following three principles for predicting when vegetation changes will impact the local or regional water budget: (i) variation will result if energy balance partitioning has been altered, (ii) if deeper or shallower active rooting depth has changed the amount of soil moisture accessible to plants, or (iii) if temporary changes in water use add up over longer time scales. They note that large changes in vegetation types do not necessarily result in changes in water discharge. We will use these principles to consider the case of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on western U.S. rivers. Once considered a high-water-use plant that out-competed native trees, research over the past two decades has shown that saltcedar water use is low to moderate, and less than native trees. Consequently, the prospects of salvaging water for human use by replacing saltcedar with native trees, once thought to be bright, now appear questionable. Furthermore, saltcedar has come to occupy ecohydrological niches on altered river systems that are no longer available to native plants. However, with the widespread introduction and spread of saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) on western rivers, introduced in part to reduce riparian water use through reduction of saltcedar abundance, saltcedar ecology has now entered a new phase. The talk will present a synthesis of the recent literature on saltcedar water use and provide an overview of saltcedar ecohydrology in terms of the principles set forth in Moore and Heilman for determining when vegetation changes will lead to changes in the local water balance. Such an analysis is needed to develop adaptive management practices for maintaining riparian ecological values while providing water for human and ecosystem needs over the next 50 years. So far, none of the three principles for change in the riparian water balance through reduction of saltcedar cover has been fulfilled, and riparian water use is relatively unchanged following introduction of saltcedar leaf beetles.
Kozdroj, J; Trevors, JT; van Elsas, JD
Two species of Pseudomonas chromosomally tagged with gfp, which had shown antagonistic activity against the tomato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in a previous study, were assessed for their impact in the rhizosphere of maize. Plant growth characteristics, numbers of indigenous heterotrophic
antibiotics or phage therapy, the selective pressure of predation does not generate genetically stable resistant variants in the host. Since the...bacteria as a live antibiotic , examining the potential risk of predatory bacteria on non-microbial host is essential for the development of a safe...profile, and mice wound size. These experiments use either cyclophosphamide treated mice ( immunocompromised model) or normal mice. Treatment was done
Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D
ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.
Fischhoff, Ilya R; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S
Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control). Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray), habitat (lawn vs. forest), and treatment (Met52 vs. control), versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.
Ilya R Fischhoff
Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control. Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray, habitat (lawn vs. forest, and treatment (Met52 vs. control, versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.
90°49.38"W Keyhole Lake, Bonnet Carré Spillway, LA (Open release) 32°20.01"N 10/10/2010 200 90°59.73"W Delta, LA (Open release) 32...28.642’W Lake St. Joseph, LA (Single cage) 31°54.43"N 9/15/2011 200 91°14.99"W TOTAL 2011 9,400 Gramercy, LA (Two cages in close ...proximity) 30°11.48" N 6/12/2012 625 (Range 500- 750) 90°48.45"W Alligator Bayou, LA (Two cages in close proximity) 30°18’31.46”N 6/12
Yu, Ziquan; Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Qiaoni; Luo, Haiyan; Hu, Shengbiao; Xia, Liqiu; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yu, Ziniu
Cry6A toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is a representative nematicidal crystal protein with a variety of nematicidal properties to free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cry6A shares very low homology and different structure with Cry5B, another representative nematicidal crystal protein, and probably acts in a distinct pathway. All these strongly indicate that Cry6A toxin is likely a potent candidate for nematicide. The present study dealt with global investigation to determine the detrimental impacts of Cry6Aa2 toxin on Meloidogyne hapla, a root-knot nematode, and evaluated its biocontrol efficacy in pot experiment. Obtained results indicated that Cry6Aa2 toxin exhibits obvious toxicity to second-stage juvenile of M. hapla, and significantly inhibits egg hatch, motility, and penetration to host plant. Pot experiment suggested that soil drenching with spore-crystal mixture of Cry6Aa2 can clearly lighten the disease of root-knot nematode, including reduction of galling index and egg masses on host plant root, decreasing final population of nematode in soil. Moreover, application of Cry6Aa2 can obviously promote plant growth. These results demonstrated that Cry6Aa2 toxin is a promising nematicidal agent, and possesses great potential in plant-parasitic nematode management and construction of transgenic crop with constant resistance to nematode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong
Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.
Tchameni, Séverin Nguemezi; Mbiakeu, Staelle Njamou; Sameza, Modeste Lambert; Jazet, Pierre Michel Dongmo; Tchoumbougnang, François
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of leaves and epicarp of Citrus aurantifolia essential oil against Phytophthora colocasiae, the causative agent of taro leaf blight. Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested in vitro against mycelium growth and sporangium production. In situ tests were done on healthy taro leaves, and the necrosis symptoms were evaluated. Results showed that the essential oil extraction yields from leaves and epicarp were 0.61 and 0.36%, respectively. Limonene (48.96%), bornyl acetate (14.18%), geraniol (10.53%), geranial (3.93%), and myrcene (3.14%) were the main components in leaf oil, while limonene (59.09%), cis-hydrate sabinene (7.53%), geranial (5.61%), myrtenol (5.02%), and terpinen-4-ol (3.48%) were the main components in epicarp oil. Both oils exhibited antimicrobial activities with total inhibition of the mycelium growth at 500 and 900 ppm for leaf and epicarp, respectively. The highest inhibitory concentration of sporangium production was 400 (72.84%) and 800 ppm (80.65%) for leaf and epicarp oil, respectively. For the standard fungicide (metalaxyl), the total inhibition value of mycelial growth and sporangium production was 750 ppm. In situ tests showed that, at 5000 ppm, total inhibition (100%) was obtained for a preventive test, while 50% of the inhibition was observed for a curative test when leaf oil was applied. When epicarp essential oil was applied at 5000 ppm, 47.5 and 16.66% of the reduction of leaf necrosis were observed for the preventive and curative test, respectively. There were positive correlations between both the oil concentration and the reduction of necrosis caused by P. colocasiae. These findings suggest that the C. aurantifolia essential oil could serve as an eco-friendly biocontrol for the management of taro
Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst
Molecular and biochemical characterization of Iranian surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates and evaluation of their biocontrol potential against Aspergillus flavus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Mohammadipour, Matin; Mousivand, Maryam; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed
The characterization of surfactin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolates collected from different ecological zones of Iran is presented. Characterization was performed using blood agar, PCR, drop-collapse, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, and the isolates' biocontrol effects against the aflatoxin-producing agent Aspergillus flavus and the citrus antracnosis agent Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. In total, 290 B. subtilis isolates were isolated from phylosphere and rhizosphere samples collected from fields and gardens of 5 provinces of Iran. Blood agar assays showed that 185 isolates produced different biosurfactants. Isolates containing the sfp gene, coding for surfactin, were detected using the PCR method. It was found that 14 different isolates contained the sfp gene. Drop-collapse assays, which detect isolates with high production of surfactin, showed that 7 isolates produced high levels of surfactin. It was found from HPLC analysis that the isolates containin the sfp gene produced between 55 and 1610 mg of surfactin per litre of broth medium. Four isolates, named BS119m, BS116l, N3dn, and BS113c, produced more than 1000 mg of surfactin per litre of broth. The highest surfactin production level was observed for isolate BS119m (1610 mg/L). The antagonistic potential of the sfp gene-containing isolates was determined using dual culture and chloroform vapour methods. Our bioassay results indicated that isolate BS119m showed high inhibitory effects against A. flavus (100%) and C. gloeosporioides (88%). Furthermore, the effect of purified surfactin on the growth of A. flavus was evaluated. Mycelia growth was considerably reduced with increasing concentration of surfactin, and 36%, 54%, 84%, and 100% inhibitions of mycelia growth were, respectively, observed at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L after 7 days of incubation.
Full Text Available Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies.This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans on hard surfaces in a hospital setting.The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected.Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3-4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities.This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost
Vandini, Alberta; Temmerman, Robin; Frabetti, Alessia; Caselli, Elisabetta; Antonioli, Paola; Balboni, Pier Giorgio; Platano, Daniela; Branchini, Alessio; Mazzacane, Sante
Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans) on hard surfaces in a hospital setting. The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy) and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected. Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3-4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities. This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost-effective strategy
Full Text Available Species of Trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to these abilities, Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. Here we study the role in biocontrol of the T. parareesei Tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (CM, a shikimate pathway branch point leading to the production of aromatic amino acids, which are not only essential components of protein synthesis but also the precursors of a wide range of secondary metabolites. We isolated T. parareesei transformants with the Tparo7 gene silenced. Compared with the wild-type, decreased levels of Tparo7 expression in the silenced transformants were accompanied by reduced CM activity, lower growth rates on different culture media, and reduced mycoparasitic behavior against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures. By contrast, higher amounts of the aromatic metabolites tyrosol, 2-phenylethanol and salicylic acid were detected in supernatants from the silenced transformants, which were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. In in vitro plant assays, Tparo7-silenced transformants also showed a reduced capacity to colonize tomato roots. The effect of Tparo7-silencing on tomato plant responses was examined in greenhouse assays. The growth of plants colonized by the silenced transformants was reduced and the plants exhibited an increased susceptibility to B. cinerea in comparison with the responses observed for control plants. In addition, the plants turned yellowish and were defective in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated signaling pathways which was seen by expression analysis of lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1, ethylene-insensitive protein 2 (EIN2 and
Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.
Wan, Nian Feng; Ji, Xiang Yun; Deng, Jian Yu
Ecological niche indicators have been scarcely adopted to assess the biological control of insect herbivores by their natural enemies. We hypothesize that plant diversification promotes the biocontrol services by narrowing the niches of herbivores and broadening the niches of natural enemies....... Our study reveals that plant diversification promotes the biocontrol services by shaping the niche of herbivores and natural enemies, and provides a new assessment method to understand the biodiversity-niche-ecosystem management interactions........ In a large-scale experiment, we found that the abundance of natural enemies was increased by 38.1%, and the abundance of insect herbivores was decreased by 16.9% in peach orchards with plant diversification (treatment) compared to ones with monoculture (control). Stratified sampling indicated...
Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant parasitic nematode (PPN infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are not yet widely used in conventional agriculture, recent data help to develop a better insight into the modes of action, which will eventually lead towards future field applications of AMF against PPN. The scientific community has entered an exciting era that provide the tools to actually unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms, making this a timely opportunity for a review of our current knowledge and the challenges ahead.
Schouteden, Nele; De Waele, Dirk; Panis, Bart; Vos, Christine M
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are not yet widely used in conventional agriculture, recent data help to develop a better insight into the modes of action, which will eventually lead toward future field applications of AMF against PPN. The scientific community has entered an exciting era that provides the tools to actually unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms, making this a timely opportunity for a review of our current knowledge and the challenges ahead.
Schouteden, Nele; De Waele, Dirk; Panis, Bart; Vos, Christine M.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are not yet widely used in conventional agriculture, recent data help to develop a better insight into the modes of action, which will eventually lead toward future field applications of AMF against PPN. The scientific community has entered an exciting era that provides the tools to actually unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms, making this a timely opportunity for a review of our current knowledge and the challenges ahead. PMID:26635750
Claire L Jeffries
Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted by the infectious bite of Culex mosquitoes. The virus causes the development of the disease Japanese encephalitis (JE in a small proportion of those infected, predominantly affecting children in eastern and southern Asia. Annual JE incidence estimates range from 50,000-175,000, with 25%-30% of cases resulting in mortality. It is estimated that 3 billion people live in countries in which JEV is endemic. The virus exists in an enzootic transmission cycle, with mosquitoes transmitting JEV between birds as reservoir hosts and pigs as amplifying hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs as a result of spillover events from the main transmission cycle. The reservoir avian hosts include cattle egrets, pond herons, and other species of water birds belonging to the family Ardeidae. Irrigated rice fields provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes and attract migratory birds, maintaining the transmission of JEV. Although multiple vaccines have been developed for JEV, they are expensive and require multiple doses to maintain efficacy and immunity. As humans are a "dead-end" host for the virus, vaccination of the human population is unlikely to result in eradication. Therefore, vector control of the principal mosquito vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, represents a more promising strategy for reducing transmission. Current vector control strategies include intermittent irrigation of rice fields and space spraying of insecticides during outbreaks. However, Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus is subject to heavy exposure to pesticides in rice fields, and as a result, insecticide resistance has developed. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the potential use of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia for mosquito biocontrol. The successful transinfection of Wolbachia strains from Drosophila flies to Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes has resulted in the generation of "dengue-refractory" mosquito
Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Blackburn, Dana; Duncan, Larry; El-Borai, Fahiem E; Koppenhöfer, Heather; Tailliez, Patrick; Adams, Byron J
Biological characteristics of two strains of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis floridensis (332 isolated in Florida and K22 isolated in Georgia) were described. The identity of the nematode's symbiotic bacteria was elucidated and found to be Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens. Beneficial traits pertinent to biocontrol (environmental tolerance and virulence) were characterized. The range of temperature tolerance in the H. floridensis strains was broad and showed a high level of heat tolerance. The H. floridensis strains caused higher mortality or infection in G. mellonella at 30°C and 35°C compared with S. riobrave (355), a strain widely known to be heat tolerant, and the H. floridensis strains were also capable of infecting at 17°C whereas S. riobrave (355) was not. However, at higher temperatures (37°C and 39°C), though H. floridensis readily infected G. mellonella, S. riobrave strains caused higher levels of mortality. Desiccation tolerance in H. floridensis was similar to Heterorhabditis indica (Hom1) and S. riobrave (355) and superior to S. feltiae (SN). H. bacteriophora (Oswego) and S. carpocapsae (All) exhibited higher desiccation tolerance than the H. floridensis strains. The virulence of H. floridensis to four insect pests (Aethina tumida, Conotrachelus nenuphar, Diaprepes abbreviatus, and Tenebrio molitor) was determined relative to seven other nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Oswego), H. indica (Hom1), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (4-8 and Vs strains), and S. riobrave (355). Virulence to A. tumida was similar among the H. floridensis strains and other nematodes except S. glaseri (Vs), S. feltiae, and S. riobrave failed to cause higher mortality than the control. Only H. bacteriophora, H. indica, S. feltiae, S. riobrave, and S. glaseri (4-8) caused higher mortality than the control in C. nenuphar. All nematodes were pathogenic to D. abbreviatus though S. glaseri (4-8) and S. riobrave (355) were the most virulent
Distribución Diferencial de Bacterias con Potencial Biocontrolador de Spongospora subterranea en Plantas de Papa (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro Differential Distrubution of Candidadate Biocontrol Bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro
Juliana Soler Arango
farmers field, in this research we obtained bacteria from inside roots, rhizosphere, tubers peel or bulk soil, and determined in them the production of indol and chitinases. In general, bacteria isolated form inside the roots showed the highest production of total indols and chitinases. Simultaneous high production of both compounds was not detected in these isolates, and the frecuency of bacteria producing both, indol and chitinases was higher in roots and rhizosphere, compared to tubers peel and bulk soil samples. These results suggest that in soil, the distribution of microorganisms and functions linked to biocontrol are not randomly distributed. These findings might be usefull to guide the search for biocontrol agents, optimize resource use and speed up the development of new bioproducts.
Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M
Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.
D'aes, Jolien; De Maeyer, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Höfte, Monica
Production of biosurfactants is a common feature in bacteria, and in particular in plant-associated species. These bacteria include many plant beneficial and plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., which produce primarily cyclic lipopeptide and rhamnolipid type biosurfactants. Pseudomonas-derived biosurfactants are involved in many important bacterial functions. By modifying surface properties, biosurfactants can influence common traits such as surface motility, biofilm formation and colonization. Biosurfactants can alter the bio-availability of exogenous compounds, such as nutrients, to promote their uptake, and of endogenous metabolites, including phenazine antibiotics, resulting in an enhanced biological activity. Antibiotic activity of biosurfactants towards microbes could play a role in intraspecific competition, self-defence and pathogenesis. In addition, bacterial surfactants can affect plants in different ways, either protecting them from disease, or acting as a toxin in a plant-pathogen interaction. Biosurfactants are involved in the biocontrol activity of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strains. Consequently, further insight into the roles and activities of surfactants produced by bacteria could provide means to optimize the use of biological control as an alternative crop protection strategy. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sung Chul Yun
Full Text Available Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the colony of Escherichia coli as a nutrient source, it did not control the disease when it was pre-applied in soil. Before the bioassay of a liquid culture filtrate of KYC 1126 was conducted, its antifungal activity was confirmed on the seedlings applying with the mixture of the pathogen`s zoospore suspension and KYC 1126 filtrate. On greenhouse experiments with five and four replications, the control value of KYC 1126 on phyllosphere and rhizosphere was 88% and 36%, respectively. Whereas, the control value of dimetnomorph+propineb on phyllosphere was 100% and that of propamorcarb on rhizosphere was 44%. There was a phytotoxicity of the myxobacterial filtrate when seedlings were washed and soaked for 24 hours. Gummy materials were covered with roots. And stem and petiole were constricted, then a whole seedling was eventually blighted.
Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Guleria, Shiwani; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, C K
An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 which was involved in effective biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum. We investigated the antagonistic capacity of protease of B. amyloliquifaciens SP1, under in vitro conditions. The 5.62 fold purified enzyme with specific activity of 607.69U/mg reported 24.14% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. However, no antagonistic activity was found after addition of protease inhibitor i.e. PMSF (15mM) to purified enzyme. An 1149bp nucleotide sequence of protease gene encoded 382 amino acids of 43kDa and calculated isoelectric point of 9.29. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed high homology (86%) with subtilisin E of Bacillus subtilis. The B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 protease gene was expressed in Escherichiax coli BL21. The expressed protease was secreted into culture medium by E. coli and exhibited optimum activity at pH8.0 and 60°C. The most reliable three dimensional structure of alkaline protease was determined using Phyre 2 server which was validated on the basis of Ramachandran plot and ERRAT value. The expression and structure prediction of the enzyme offers potential value for commercial application in agriculture and industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae cause the postharvest crown rot disease complex of banana. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. from the soil of organic banana orchards (‘native isolates’ and eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. from culture collections (‘introduced isolates’ on the two pathogens. The native and introduced Trichoderma spp. had varied antagonistic effects against the two pathogens. Eight Trichoderma spp. isolates effective in the in vitro assays were evaluated singly on fruits both at room temperature and in cold storage. Single antagonists did not satisfactorily control crown rot on the fruits as compared with the fungicide carbendazim. However, two isolates of T. viride, one of T. harzianum and one of T. koningii performed well when applied singly, and these were selected for evaluation in isolate mixtures. There was very little antagonism between these isolates. Of 11 two-way, three-way and four-way mixtures of these isolates, the four-way and a three-way mixtures reduced crown rot incidence, both at room temperature and in cold storage, giving better control than carbendazim. The study identified consortia of compatible Trichoderma antagonists with superior biocontrol potential for the management of the postharvest crown rot complex of banana.
Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Ge, Lingling; Zhang, Guochao; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaoyun
Biological control using microbial antagonists is a promising alternative approach to synthetic fungicides. However, effective biological control requires enhancing the consistency and efficacy of the antagonists used to control postharvest diseases. This study investigated the effect of chitin on the biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against blue mold and Rhizopus decay of peaches and on the protein expression profiles of R. mucilaginosa. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa harvested from the nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) with 0.5% chitin added was significantly improved compared with culture in NYDB without chitin. The R. mucilaginosa population cultured in chitin-supplement NYDB and nutrient yeast chitin borth (NYCB) harvested from peach wounds was more than that of R. mucilaginosa cultured in NYDB without chitin throughout the storage period except at 1 d. The protein expression profiles findings revealed that there were several differentially expressed proteins of R. mucilaginosa in the 0.5% chitin-supplemented NYDB and NYCB compared with that of R. mucilaginosa in NYDB. Most of these were cellular proteomes relating to the primary metabolic reactions such as glycoside hydrolases, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, and NADH dehydrogenases. Some proteins were also related to signal transmission and stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A partir de un largo proceso de investigación etnográfica con usuarios de drogas en situación de extrema pobreza, presento un recorrido del tratamiento que distintos sectores del Estado uruguayo otorgan a los ciudadanos que se encuentran en sus márgenes: personas en situación de pobreza extrema, encarceladas o con usos problemáticos de drogas. Uruguay, un país entendido como progresista y liberal, con leyes que en los últimos años han regulado el acceso de las personas al cannabis, al matrimonio igualitario y de las mujeres a la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo, tiene una contracara tutelar y vigilante que exige la obediencia de los sujetos para otorgar el ejercicio de los derechos y los cuidados. Al igual que en otras partes, el Estado uruguayo se debate entre las amenazas a su soberanía y el ejercicio de formas contemporáneas del biocontrol.
B. W. LAY
Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia. Pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays. These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10" CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus.
Bouizgarne, Brahim; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Madiona, Karine; Biligui, Bernadette; Monestiez, Michèle; Pennarun, Anne Marie; Amiar, Zahia; Rona, Jean Pierre; Ouhdouch, Yedir; El Hadrami, Ismaïl; Bouteau, François
Fusarium spp. are ubiquitous fungi found in soil worldwide as both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. The signals leading to disease or the absence of disease are poorly understood. We recently showed that fusaric acid (FA), a nonspecific toxin produced by most Fusarium spp., could elicit various plant defense responses at 100 nM without toxic effect. In this study, we checked for the effect of FA on root and root hairs, probable first site of contact between the fungi and the host. Large FA concentrations reduce root and root-hair growth and induce a rapid transient membrane hyperpolarization, followed by a large depolarization, due to the inhibition of H(+)-ATPase currents. Nanomolar concentrations of FA induced only an early transient membrane hyperpolarization of root hairs compatible with the induction of a signal transduction pathway. FA at 10(-7) M failed to induce salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent defense-related genes but inhibited the germination of the angiosperm parasite Orobanche ramosa in contact of FA-pretreated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. These data suggest that FA at nontoxic concentrations could activate signal transduction components necessary for plant-defense responses that could contribute to biocontrol activity of Fusarium spp.
Roberto Lanna Filho
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocontrol of bacterial spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria and early blight (Alternaria solani by the epiphytic bacteria Paenibacillus macerans and Bacillus pumilus. Tomato plants were previously sprayed with epiphytic bacteria, benzalkonium chloride and PBS buffer and, after four days, they were inoculated with A. solani and X. vesicatoria. To determine the phytopathogenic bacteria population, leaflet samples were collected from each treatment every 24 hours, for seven days, and plated on semi-selective medium. The effect of epiphytic bacteria over phytopathogens was performed by the antibiosis test and antagonistic activity measured by inhibition zone diameter. The epiphytic and benzalkonium chloride drastically reduced the severity of early blight and bacterial spot in comparison to the control (PBS. In detached leaflets, the epiphytic bacteria reduced in 70% the number of phytopathogenic bacteria cells in the phylloplane. The antibiosis test showed that the epiphytic bacteria efficiently inhibit the phytopathogens growth. In all the bioassays, the epiphytic bacteria protect tomato plants against the phytopathogens
Felipe Alberto Jimenez-Terry
Full Text Available The employment of biological controls of pests and diseases is a technology with trends to increase at present for being economic, lasting and of beneficial results, related to the stability that they offer the ecosystem; avoiding the pollution of the environment produced by the application of pesticides. The present work was realized to evaluate the phytosanitary control on pests and diseases in the production of potato minitubers in acclimatization conditions. Combinations of agents Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus turhingiensis, Verticillum lecanii, Thrichoderma harzianum and Gliocladium viridens, were applied comparatively with the utilization of chemical products and a control without application. The results gave an efficient control of the chemical products and on the other hand, the biocontrol agents also exercised their role with valuable performance for the combinations of Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma harzianum + Bacillus thuringiensis + Verticillum lecanii, in which the yields of minitubers per plant were superior with significant differences to the control. Evidently these results allowed the proposal of using these biocontrol agents for the acclimatization of potato vitroplants. Key words: Beauveria, control phytosanitary, in vitro plants, Ttrichoderma, Verticillum
Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.
Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response
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Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M
The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.
Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K
To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p > 0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan
In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...
Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.
Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W
Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.
Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ( Moniliophthora roreri es la principal limitante parasítica de la producción de cacao ( Theobroma cacao en México. Una alternativa sostenible para el control de la enfermedad es el uso del hongo Trichoderma . El objetivo del presente estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma con las mejores características antagónicas y fisiológicas in vitro, para el control de M. roreri . Para ello, se caracterizaron 50 aislamientos de Trichoderma , obtenidos del agroecosistema cacao. El crecimiento micelial y la producción de conidios a 25, 30 y 35 °C se consideraron variables fisiológicas. El micoparasitismo, antibiosis y antagonismo potencial fueron las variables antagónicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas ( P = 0.0001 en todas las variables evaluadas . El intervalo de temperatura óptima para el crecimiento micelial y producción de conidios fue de 25 a 30 °C. El micoparasitismo varió de 0 a 100 % y solo los aislamientos de seis especies mostraron esta característica. La antibiosis osciló entre 6.8 y 55.5 %, y el antagonismo potencial varió de 3.4 a 69 %. Trichoderma virens (TTC017 y T. harzianum (TTC090, TTC039, TTC073 mostraron el mejor biocontrol potencial in vitro , por lo que son cepas prometedoras para futuras investigaciones sobre control biológico de la moniliasis del cacao.
Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.
Guenther, Susanne; Loessner, Martin J
Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 10(1)-10(3) cfu/cm(2)L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 10(3)/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2). With Scott A (10(3) cfu/cm(2)) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 10(8) pfu/cm(2)) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2)) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (10(1)-10(2) cfu/cm(2)), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese.
In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.
Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz
In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees ( Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas , Stenotrophomonas , Bacillus , Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea , Bacillus , Pseudomonas , Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity.
Etminani, Faegheh; Harighi, Behrouz
In this study, samples were collected from the leaves and stems of healthy wild Pistachio trees (Pistacia atlantica L.) from various locations of Baneh and Marivan regions, Iran. In total, 61 endophytic bacteria were isolated and grouped according to phenotypic properties. Ten selected isolates from each group were further identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the results, isolates were identified as bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pantoea and Serratia genus. The ability of these isolates was evaluated to phytohormone production such as auxin and gibberellin, siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, protease and hydrogen cyanide production. All strains were able to produce the plant growth hormone auxin and gibberellin in different amounts. The majority of strains were able to solubilize phosphate. The results of atmospheric nitrogen fixation ability, protease and siderophore production were varied among strains. Only Ba66 could produce a low amount of hydrogen cyanide. The results of biocontrol assay showed that Pb78 and Sp15 strains had the highest and lowest inhibition effects on bacterial plant pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss20 and Pseudomonas tolaasii Pt18 under in vitro condition. Pb3, Pb24 and Pb71 strains significantly promote root formation on carrot slices. To our knowledge this is the first report of the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains belonging to Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas genus from wild pistachio trees with plant growth promoting potential and biocontrol activity. PMID:29887777
Nally, M C; Pesce, V M; Maturano, Y P; Rodriguez Assaf, L A; Toro, M E; Castellanos de Figueroa, L I; Vazquez, F
The aim of this study was to determine the putative modes of action of 59 viticultural yeasts (31 Saccharomyces and 28 non-Saccharomyces) that inhibited fungi isolated from sour and grey rot in grapes. Inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, enzyme activities (laminarinases, chitinases), antifungal volatiles, competition for nutrients (siderophores, Niche Overlap Index (NOI)), inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length and induction of resistance were assayed. Biofungicide yeasts were classified into "antifungal patterns", according to their mechanisms of action. Thirty isolates presented at least two of the mechanisms assayed. We propose that inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, laminarinases, competition for nutrients, inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length, and antifungal volatiles by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces viticultural yeasts is used as putative biocontrol mechanisms against phytopathogenic fungi. Twenty-four different antifungal patterns were identified. Siderophore production (N)and a combination of siderophore production and NOI>0.92 (M)were the most frequent antifungal patterns observed in the biofungicide yeasts assayed. Elucidation of these mechanisms could be useful for optimization of an inoculum formulation, resulting in a more consistent control of grey and sour rot with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces biocontrol yeasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1% to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of P. expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples.
Full Text Available The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.
Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation
Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...
Lübeck, M.; Knudsen, I.M.B.; Jensen, B.
Marker genes were introduced in the biocontrol strain Clonostachys rosea IK726 (IBT 9371) as a tool for monitoring the strain in ecological studies. The beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and a gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were, in separate experiments, integrated into th...
Ruocco, Michelina; Lanzuise, Stefania; Vinale, Francesco; Marra, Roberta; Turrà, David; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Lorito, Matteo
Successful biocontrol interactions often require that the beneficial microbes involved are resistant or tolerant to a variety of toxicants, including antibiotics produced by themselves or phytopathogens, plant antimicrobial compounds, and synthetic chemicals or contaminants. The ability of Trichoderma spp., the most widely applied biocontrol fungi, to withstand different chemical stresses, including those associated with mycoparasitism, is well known. In this work, we identified an ATP-binding cassette transporter cell membrane pump as an important component of the above indicated resistance mechanisms that appears to be supported by an extensive and powerful cell detoxification system. The encoding gene, named Taabc2, was cloned from a strain of Trichoderma atroviride and characterized. Its expression was found to be upregulated in the presence of pathogen-secreted metabolites, specific mycotoxins and some fungicides, and in conditions that stimulate the production in Trichoderma spp. of antagonism-related factors (toxins and enzymes). The key role of this gene in antagonism and biocontrol was demonstrated by the characterization of the obtained deletion mutants. They suffered an increased susceptibility to inhibitory compounds either secreted by pathogenic fungi or possibly produced by the biocontrol microbe itself and lost, partially or entirely, the ability to protect tomato plants from Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani attack.
Marco Masia; Susan Meyer; Suzette Clement; Anna Andolfi; Alessio Cimmino; Antonio. Evidente
A novel spirocyclic γ-lactam, named spirostaphylotrichin W (1), was isolated together with the well known and closely related spirostaphylotrichins A, C, D, R and V, as well as triticone E, from the liquid cultures of Pyrenophora semeniperda (anamorph: Drechslera), a seed pathogen proposed for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) biocontrol. Spirostaphylotrichin W was...
Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...
Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav
Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.
McSpadden Gardener, Brian B; Gutierrez, Laura J; Joshi, Raghavendra; Edema, Richard; Lutton, Elizabeth
these findings to natural and augmentative biocontrol of root pathogens by these bacteria is discussed.
Wang, Luyao; Wang, Ning; Mi, Dandan; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jianhua
In this study, we investigate the relationship between γ-PGA productivity and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1; one bacterial isolate displayed 62.14% biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium root rot. The γ-PGA yield assay, motility assay, wheat root colonization assay, and biological control assay were analysed in different γ-PGA yield mutants of BsE1. The pgsB (PGA-synthase-CapB gene) deleted mutant of BsE1 reduced γ-PGA yield and exhibited apparent decline of in vitro motile ability. Deletion of pgsB impaired colonizing capacity of BsE1 on wheat root in 30 days, also lowered biocontrol efficacies from 62.08% (wild type BsE1) to 14.22% in greenhouse experiment against Fusarium root rot. The knockout of pgdS and ggt (genes relate to two γ-PGA degrading enzymes) on BsE1, leads to a considerable improvement in polymer yield and biocontrol efficacy, which attains higher level compared with wild type BsE1. Compared with ΔpgsB mutant, defense genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytoalexin expressed changes by notable levels on wheat roots treated with BsE1, demonstrating the functional role γ-PGA plays in biocontrol against Fusarium root rot. γ-PGA is not only important to the motile and plant root colonization ability of BsE1, but also essential to the biological control performed by BsE1 against Fusarium root rot. Our goal in this study is to reveals a new perspective of BCAs screening on bacterial isolates, without good performance during pre-assays of antagonism ability.
Chailleux, A.; Mohl, E.K.; Teixeira Alves, M.; Messelink, G.J.; Desneux, N.
Understanding how arthropod pests and their natural enemies interact in complex agroecosystems is essential for pest management programmes. Theory predicts that prey sharing a predator, such as a biological control agent, can indirectly reduce each other's density at equilibrium (apparent
This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents
The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...
Krummheuer, Antonia Lina
Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...
Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus
Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.
In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in
This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents
Arturo Angel Lara Rivero
Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.
Wilis Ari Setyati
Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture is an activity that potentially generates organic waste. The accumulation of organic matter is becoming one of the main factors causing the emergence of disease. Problem-solving approach that is most effective is through bioremediation. The aims of this study were to select, identify and cultivate bacteria from mangrove sediments from Cilacap, Rembang and Banyuwangi which potentially as probiotic consortium of bioremediation activity and biocontrol. The results showed that total of 45 isolates (proteolytic, 35 isolates (amylolytic, 35 isolates (lipolytic, and 18 isolates (cellulolytic. There were 59 bacterial isolates had antibacterial activity of vibrio (V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguilarum. Based on the identification of 16 S-rRNA genes, 4 isolates showed that the C2 isolate was identified as Bacillus subtilis, C11 isolate was identified as Bacillus firmus, C13 and C14 isolates were identified as B. Flexus. This study concluded that cultivation of Bacillus subtilis C2 optimum at 2% molase and yeast extract 0.5% at pH 8 and 30 0C. Bacillus firmus C11 optimum at 2% molase and yeast extract 0.5% at pH 8 and 30 0C. Bacillus flexus C13 optimum at 2% glucose and yeast extract 0.5% at pH 8 and 30 0C. Bacillus flexus C14 optimum at 4% molase and yeast extract 0.25% at pH 8 and 30 0C. The result of culture applications of 4 isolates showed an effect of increasing shrimp weight by 141, 9% compared by the control.Keywords: sediment, mangrove, bioremediation, biocontrol
Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi
Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison
People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.
Bosmans, Lien; de Bruijn, Irene; Gerards, S.; Moerkens, Rob; Van Looveren, Lore; Wittemans, Lieve; Van Calenberge, Bart; Paeleman, Anneleen; Van Kerckhove, Stef; Rozenski, Jef; de Mot, Rene; Rediers, Hans; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Lievens, Bart
Rhizogenic Agrobacterium biovar 1 is the causative agent of hairy root disease (HRD) in the hydroponic cultivation of tomato and cucumber causing significant losses in marketable yield. In order to prevent and control the disease chemical disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorite are
Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua
A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.
Ernesto Juniors Pérez Torres
Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the antagonistic activity of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on the causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea, were developed several in vitro experiments. It was evaluated the biocontrol mechanisms such as competition through mounted the percent inhibition of radial growth of hyphae of P. grisea from 24 to 240 hours and the antagonistic capacity. In addition, was evaluated micoparasitism to inclination the observation of events Microscopy winding, penetration, vacuolization, lysis, and antibiosis by observing 24 hours a confrontation between the hyphae of the phytopathogenic fungus and biological control agent. It was obtained at 120 hours 100 % inhibition of micelial growth of causal agent, what corresponded with the degree 1 of antagonistic capacity (scale and is recorded as a hyperparasitic action on P. grisea. It was evidenced an antibiotic effect of metabolites produced by T. harzianum (strain A-34 to 24 hours of confrontation, where there was time interaction between the hyphae of microorganisms with 14,3 % inhibition, also was evidence the micoparasitism events by penetration, vacuolization and lysis in the cells of phytopathogenic fungus. These results demonstrated the ability of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea.
Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent
Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...
Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum
Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed
Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em
Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ma Shuang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Yu Lixia; Liu Jing
BJ1 of Bacillus subtilis is an important biocontrol factor in control of fungus disease. In order to improve the antagonistic ability of the strain,and obtain high-efficiency strains, 12 C 6+ of different doses and linear energy transfer (LET) was used to irradiate the biocontrol bacterium BJ1. The optimum dose and LET of ion beam irradiation for the BJ1 are 200-400 Gy and 60 keV/μm,respectively. The antagonistic ability is increased by 2%-21%. The control effect of mutation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucunerinum is increased by 17.48% over that of BJ1, and mutation also has better plant growth-promoting effect. (authors)
Martínez-Raudales, Inés; De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Yumiko; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Fraire-Mayorga, Atzin; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Balderas-Hernández, Victor; Gómez-Soto, José Manuel; Fraire-Velázquez, Saúl
Here, we present the draft genome of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, which totaled 4.01 Mb with 36 contigs, 3,948 genes, and a GC content of 46.34%. This strain, which demonstrates biocontrol activity against root rot causal phytopathogens in horticultural crops and friendly interactions in roots of pepper plantlets, was obtained from grassland soil in Zacatecas Province, Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Martínez-Raudales et al.
Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S
To assess the effects of various carbon and mineral sources on the nematicidal potential of biocontrol inoculants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IE-6S+ and Ps. fluorescens CHA0 under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Culture filtrates of strains IE-6S+ and CHA0, cultured in nutrient yeast extract broth, caused substantial mortality of the juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. The nematicidal activities of the culture filtrates were altered after amendment with various carbon and mineral sources. Soil amendment with zinc alone or in combination with glycerol improved the biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode, promoted tomato plant growth and enhanced bacterial rhizosphere and endophytic colonization. Appropriate quantities of glycerol and zinc alone or in combination enhance the nematicidal activity of Ps. aeruginosa and Ps. fluorescens. Glucose reduces the activity of these bacteria against nematodes. Minerals and carbon sources are appealing because they are easy and economical to provide during liquid fermentation of inoculants or as fertilizer amendments to improve the biocontrol activity of indigenous and introduced bacteria.
Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús
Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Compatibilidade de Dicyma pulvinata com defensivos agrícolas e eficiência do biocontrole do mal-das-folhas da seringueira em campo Compatibility of Dicyma pulvinata with pesticides and biocontrol efficiency of South American leaf blight of rubber tree under field conditions
Débora Ferreira Melo
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar quatro isolados do fungo antagonista Dicyma pulvinata quanto à compatibilidade com defensivos agrícolas e adjuvantes, e a eficiência desses isolados no controle do mal-das-folhas (Microcyclus ulei da seringueira (Hevea sp. em campo. A compatibilidade dos isolados com defensivos e adjuvantes foi avaliada com base no crescimento micelial e na esporulação do fungo, em testes conduzidos in vitro. Para avaliação da eficiência do antagonista contra M. ulei, em campo, os quatros isolados do antagonista foram comparados ao controle exercido pelo tratamento com os fungicidas propiconazol + mancozeb. Os ensaios conduzidos em laboratório indicaram a incompatibilidade de D. pulvinata com os fungicidas benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol e, ainda, com o inseticida acaricida endosulfan. Dois dos adjuvantes testados (Tween 20 e Tween 80 não afetaram o desenvolvimento do fungo. Foi comprovada a ação do antagonista D. pulvinata sobre M. ulei, em campo, com destaque para os isolados CEN 62 e CEN 93, que apresentaram eficiência de controle semelhante ao tratamento fungicida padrão.The objective of this work was to evaluate four isolates of the antagonist fungus Dicyma pulvinata in terms of its compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants products, and the efficiency of these isolates as biocontrol agent against South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei of rubber tree (Hevea sp. under field conditions. Isolates compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants was evaluated on mycelial growth and fungus sporulation in vitro. To assess the efficiency of the antagonist against M. ulei under field conditions, the four isolates were compared to the control by the fungicide mixture propiconazol + mancozeb. The assays showed incompatibility of the antagonistic fungus with the fungicides benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol, besides the insecticide-acaricide endosulfan. Two of the adjuvants
Dunbar, Folwell L.
Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…
Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John
course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....
British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.
Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…
A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)
A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de
Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution
Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.
The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents
Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.
Zamani, M; Tehrani, A Sharifi; Ahmadzadeh, M; Abadi, A Alizadeh Ali
Citrus green mold (Penicillium digitatum) causes economic losses. Chemical fungicides such as imazalil provide the primary means for controlling green mold decay of citrus fruits. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles- increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by usage of biocontrol agent alone or in combination with low dosage of imazalil or sodium bicarbonate. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, P. fluorescens isolate PS and Trichoderma virens isolate TE were evaluated as potential biological agents for control of green mold of oranges caused by P. digitatum. Increasing concentration of SB decreased spore germination of P. digitatum. In laboratory tests, a cell suspension (10(8) cells per ml.) of bacterial strains reduced the incidence of green mold. On fruits surface biocontrol activity of antagonistic isolates was significantly increased when combined with low dosage of imazalil (500ppm) or sodium carbonate (5%). Effect of Trichoderma virens on controlling P. digitatum was better than others with or without these chemicals.
Czajkowski, R.L.; Wolf, van der J.M.
A Serratia plymuthica-specific TaqMan® assay was designed based on the consensus nucleotide sequence from the 3'- end of the luxS gene present in all S. plymuthica strains tested. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing 21 Serratia spp. strains and 30 isolates belonging to various
Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Schausberger, Peter
Spanish clementine orchards are frequently infested by the two-spotted spider mte Tetranychus urticae. Natural control of T. urticae is insufficient despite the presence of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis. The phytoseiid community is dominated by the generalist Euseius stipulatus which is poorly adapted to exploit T. urticae. Having the intention to promote biological control of T. urticae by augmentative releases we were interested whether P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by intraguild (IG) interactions with E. stipulatus. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, we assessed female aggressiveness (quantified as combination of attack probability and latency) in IG predation on larvae. Secondly, we measured mortality, escaping rate and developmental time of immature IG prey in presence and absence of an adult IG predator female. Euseius stipulatus appeared the strongest IG opponent but microhabitat structure modulated the IG interactions and the advantage of E. stipulatus was partially offset when spider mite webbing was present. Implications of these IG interactions for natural and biological control of T. urticae in clementine orchards are discussed.
Petti, Carloalberto; Reiber, Kathrin; Ali, Shahin S; Berney, Margaret; Doohan, Fiona M
Abstract Background Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontr...
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens, are notorious for hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and causing high mortality among children and the elder population after infection. Besides O157 STEC, non-O157 STEC—particularly serogroup O145—is commonly associat...
213: 428–431. 21. Dwidar M, Monnappa AK, Mitchell RJ (2012) The dual probiotic and antibiotic nature of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. BMB Rep 45: 71–78...and characterization of two bacteriophages with strong in vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with ocular...infections. Am J Vet Res 72: 1079–1086. 4. Dwidar M, Monnappa AK, Mitchell RJ (2012) The dual probiotic and antibiotic nature of Bdellovibrio
Pallipparambil, Godshen R; Sayler, Ronald J; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Thomas, Jean M G; Kring, Timothy J; Goggin, Fiona L
Mi-1.2 is a single dominant gene in tomato that confers race-specific resistance against certain phloem-feeding herbivores including aphids, whiteflies, psyllids, and root-knot nematodes. Few prior studies have considered the potential non-target effects of race-specific resistance genes (R genes), and this paper evaluates the compatibility of Mi-mediated resistance in tomato with a beneficial zoophytophagous predator, Orius insidiosus (Say). In addition to preying on aphids and other pests, this piercing-sucking insect also feeds from the xylem, epidermis, and/or mesophyll, and oviposits within plant tissues. Comparison of O. insidiosus confined to isogenic tomato plants with and without Mi-1.2 revealed that immatures of O. insidiosus had lower survival on resistant plants even when the immatures were provisioned with prey that did not feed on the host plant. Molecular gut content analysis confirmed that adults and immatures of O. insidiosus feed on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2-) genotypes, and bioassays suggest that resistance does not affect oviposition rates, plant sampling, or prey acceptance by O. insidiosus adults. These results demonstrate a direct negative impact of R-gene-mediated host plant resistance on a non-target beneficial species, and reveal that Mi-mediated resistance can impact organisms that do not feed on phloem sap. Through laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR, Mi-1.2 transcripts were detected in the epidermis and mesophyll as well as the phloem of tomato plants, consistent with our observations that Mi-mediated resistance is active outside the phloem. These results suggest that the mode of action and potential ecological impacts of Mi-mediated resistance are broader than previously assumed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Perazzolli, M.; Herrero, Noemi; Sterck, L.; Lenzi, L.; Pellegrini, A.; Puopolo, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Pertot, I.
Roč. 17, OCT 27 (2016), č. článku 838. ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil microbial community * soil transcriptome * biological control Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016 https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-016-3174-4
Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.
Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In
Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.
Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In
Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.
Tamreihao, K; Ningthoujam, Debananda S; Nimaichand, Salam; Singh, Elangbam Shanta; Reena, Pascal; Singh, Salam Herojeet; Nongthomba, Upendra
Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16, obtained from rice rhizospheric soils showed antifungal activities against 6 major rice fungal pathogens by diffusible and volatile compounds production. The strain was found positive for production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase, lipase and protease. The strain was also positive for plant growth promoting traits. It produced up to 30.5μg/ml of IAA and solubilized a significant amount of inorganic phosphate (up to 102μg/ml). It also produced 69% siderophore units. The strain also produced ammonia and gave positive result for ACC deaminase activity. Highest vigor index of inoculated seedlings was observed when rice seeds were treated with cell suspension of UCR3-16 corresponding to 4.5×10(8)cfu/ml. Bioinoculant-treated seeds also showed similar results under pathogen challenged conditions. In pot trial experiments, UCR3-16-treated rice plants showed significantly increased growth and grain yield production. Powder formulation of the strain was developed using talcum and corn starch as carriers and the shelf-lives were monitored. Talcum formulation showed higher cell-count than corn starch even after 6 months of storage, and optimum condition for storage of the powder formulation were found to be at 4°C. Pot trial experiments using talcum powder formulation also showed significant positive effects on growth of rice plants. Field trial using talcum powder formulation also exhibited significant enhancement in shoot length and weight of shoot and root, and total grain yield and weight of grains in rice plants. Talcum formulation also significantly reduced the sheath blight disease in rice leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Mukesh K Dubey
Full Text Available The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase-type activity. Intracellular ENGase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. The present work is a functional study of the T. atroviride B5-group gene Eng18B, with emphasis on its role in fungal growth and antagonism. A homology model of T. atroviride Eng18B structure predicts a typical glycoside hydrolase family 18 (αβ(8 barrel architecture. Gene expression analysis shows that Eng18B is induced in dual cultures with the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, although a basal expression is observed in all growth conditions tested. Eng18B disruption strains had significantly reduced growth rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B disruption strains compared to the wild-type strain. No difference in spore germination, germ-tube morphology or in hyphal branching was detected. Disruption strains produced less biomass in liquid cultures than the wild-type strain when grown with chitin as the sole carbon source. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus B. cinerea in dual cultures and that this reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway of endogenous glycoproteins in T. atroviride is discussed in relation to the observed phenotypes.
Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...
Czajkowski, R.L.; Van der Wolf, J.M.
A Serratia plymuthica-specific TaqManA (R) assay was designed based on the consensus nucleotide sequence from the 3'- end of the luxS gene present in all S. plymuthica strains tested. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing 21 Serratia spp. strains and 30 isolates belonging to
and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...
Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.
Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan
The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313
Bateman, Heather L.; Dudley, Tom L.; Bean, Dan W.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Kuehn, Michael J.
Throughout riparian areas of the southwestern United States, non-native saltcedar (also known as tamarisk; Tamarix spp.) can form dense, monotypic stands and is often reported to have detrimental effects on native plants and habitat quality (Everitt 1980; Shafroth et al. 2005). Natural resource managers of these riparian areas spend considerable time and resources controlling saltcedar using a variety of techniques, including chemical (Duncan and McDaniel 1998), mechanical, and burning methods (Shafroth et al. 2005). Approximately one billion dollars are spent each year on river restoration projects nationally (Bernhardt et al. 2005), and a majority of these projects focus on invasive species control in the Southwest (Follstad Shah et al. 2007). A technique that has drawn much attention is the use of the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a specialist herbivore, as biological control of saltcedar (Lewis et al. 2003). Research testing was conducted with beetles housed in secure enclosures in six states in 1998 and 1999 (Dudley et al. 2001), followed by open release at some of those sites starting in 2001 (DeLoach et al. 2004). By 2005, full-scale saltcedar biocontrol was implemented in 13 states, led by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the agency that oversees biological control programs, and with the participation and support of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Despite the widespread application of Diorhabda, however, only limited research has quantified the consequences (benefits and costs) on biotic communities and ecosystem services. Alterations to riparian areas caused by various non-native species control activities have the potential to affect a variety of habitat types used by wildlife (Bateman et al. 2008a); processes like water availability, fluvial deposition, and erosion; and the establishment of other non-native species (Carruthers and D'Antonio 2005, Shafroth et al. 2005, DeLoach et al. 2006). Similarly
Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko
Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...
Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz
This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.
of ABC transporters in mycoparasitic fungi focused on C. rosea and Trichoderma spp. We showed that expression of zhd101 depended on concentrations of ZEA and that the gene was not induced by other agents, suggesting specificity of the enzyme towards ZEA and its derivates. To investigate effects of ZEA...... identified expansion of ABC transporter families in C. rosea as in Trichoderma virens and T. harzianum, but not in T. reesei and T. atroviridae. The expansion was profoundly observed in the subfamily G of C. rosea ABC transporters and the subfamily C of Trichoderma spp, repectively. The subfamilies C and G...
Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.
.... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...
Jaqueline Rabelo de Lima
Full Text Available To identify formulations of biological agents that enable survival, stability and a good surface distribution of the antagonistic agent, studies that test different application vehicles are necessary. The efficiency of two killer yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (strain 422 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (strain 443, associated with five different application vehicles, was assessed for the protection of postharvest papayas. In this study, after 90 days of incubation at 4ºC, W. anomalus (strain 422 and M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were viable with all application vehicles tested. Fruits treated with different formulations (yeasts + application vehicles had a decreased severity of disease (by at least 30% compared with untreated fruits. The treatment with W. anomalus (strain 422 + 2% starch lowered disease occurrence by 48.3%. The most efficient treatments using M. guilliermondii (strain 443 were those with 2% gelatin or 2% liquid carnauba wax, both of which reduced anthracnose by 50% in postharvest papayas. Electron micrographs of the surface tissues of the treated fruits showed that all application vehicles provided excellent adhesion of the yeast to the surface. Formulations based on starch (2%, gelatin (2% and carnauba wax (2% were the most efficient at controlling fungal diseases in postharvest papayas.
agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB
Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.
The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055
Charley E. Westbrook
Full Text Available We investigate the survivorship, growth and diet preferences of hatchery-raised juvenile urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, to evaluate the efficacy of their use as biocontrol agents in the efforts to reduce alien invasive algae. In flow-through tanks, we measured urchin growth rates, feeding rates and feeding preferences among diets of the most common invasive algae found in Kāneʻohe Bay, Hawaiʻi: Acanthophora spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus clade B. Post-transport survivorship of outplanted urchins was measured in paired open and closed cages in three different reef environments (lagoon, reef flat and reef slope for a month. Survivorship in closed cages was highest on the reef flat (∼75%, and intermediate in the lagoon and reef slope (∼50%. In contrast, open cages showed similar survivorship on the reef flat and in the lagoon, but only 20% of juvenile urchins survived in open cages placed on the reef slope. Urchins grew significantly faster on diets of G. salicornia (1.58 mm/week ± 0.14 SE and Kappaphycus clade B (1.69 ± 0.14 mm/wk than on E. denticulatum (0.97 ± 0.14 mm/wk, with intermediate growth when fed on A. spicifera (1.23 ± 0.11 mm/wk. Interestingly, urchins display size-specific feeding preferences. In non-choice feeding trials, small urchins (17.5–22.5 mm test diameter consumed G. salicornia fastest (6.08 g/day ± 0.19 SE, with A. spicifera (4.25 ± 0.02 g/day and Kappaphycus clade B (3.83 ± 0.02 g/day intermediate, and E. denticulatum was clearly the least consumed (2.32 ± 0.37 g/day. Medium-sized (29.8–43.8 mm urchins likewise preferentially consumed G. salicornia (12.60 ± 0.08 g/day, with less clear differences among the other species in which E. denticulatum was still consumed least (9.35 ± 0.90 g/day. In contrast, large urchins (45.0–65.0 mm showed no significant preferences among the different algae species at all (12.43–15.24 g/day. Overall consumption rates in non
Ji Soo Kim
Full Text Available The GacS/GacA two component system regulates various traits related to the biocontrol potential of plant-associated pseudomonads. The role of the sensor kinase, GacS, differs between strains in regulation of motility. In this study, we determined how a gacS mutation changed cell morphology and motility in Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. The gacS mutant cells were elongated in stationary-phase compared to the wild type and the complemented gacS mutant, but cells did not differ in length in logarithmic phase. The gacS mutant had a two-fold increase in the number of flagella compared with the wild type strain; flagella number was restored to that of the wild type in the complemented gacS mutant. The more highly flagellated gacS mutant cells had greater swimming motilities than that of the wild type strain. Enhanced flagella formation in the gacS mutant correlated with increased expression of three genes, fleQ, fliQ and flhF, involved in flagellar formation. Expression of these genes in the complemented gacS mutant was similar to that of the wild type. These findings show that this root-colonizing pseudomonad adjusts flagella formation and cell morphology in stationary-phase using GacS as a major regulator.
Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin
Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago
Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA
Full Text Available The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP and without white mold (SP, evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to verify the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma spp. microbi- olized lettuce seeds, growing in substrate infested with S. sclerotiorum . Trichoderma spp. isolates were obtained from areas with and without history of white mold or stored in water. Mycelial growth rate and sporu- lation of the Trichoderma spp. isolates and control of Trichoderma spp. versus S. sclerotiorum in the in vitro essays. For the in vivo essay, lettuce seeds were microbiolized with Trichoderma spp. and the substrate was infested with S. sclerotiorum . The native isolates of Trichoderma identified belong to T. koningiopsis and T. asperellum species. The CP isolates had higher mycelial growth rates when compared to the SP isolates and stored while the stored isolates showed better responses in confrontation. The application of Trichoderma spp. promoted higher seedlings quality compared to control, as well as good seedlings development in the presence of the pathogen.
Elizabeth M Siameto
Full Text Available Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes, biofungicides, and growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T .viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatogonistic action against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici using dual culture assay and through production of non-volatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibition occurred in Pythium sp-055E interaction (73%.The culture filtrates obtained from Czapekâ€™s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jaccardâ€™s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they should be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the greenhouse and under field conditions.
Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000
Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000
Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Jensen, Dan Funck
control. A series of laboratory, growth chamber, semi-field and field experiments using strawberry as a model plant focusing on commercial microbial pest control products (MPCPs) or laboratory MPCAs expected to be on the market within 10 years served as our experimental platform. Initially the background...... level of indigenous microbial communities and their mycotoxins/metabolites on strawberries was examined in a field survey with 4 conventional and 4 organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. Culturable bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated...... and identified using both chemotaxonomy (fatty acids and metabolite profiling) and morphological characteristics. Microbial communities on strawberries were complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. Bacteria were the most...
Davis, William S.
Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.
Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N
This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.
Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John
This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...
Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f
Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita
Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 106 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected
Full Text Available Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6 colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they
Schreiter, Susanne; Sandmann, Martin; Smalla, Kornelia; Grosch, Rita
Rhizosphere competence of bacterial inoculants is assumed to be important for successful biocontrol. Knowledge of factors influencing rhizosphere competence under field conditions is largely lacking. The present study is aimed to unravel the effects of soil types on the rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of the two inoculant strains Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 in field-grown lettuce in soils inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB or not. Two independent experiments were carried out in 2011 on an experimental plot system with three soil types sharing the same cropping history and weather conditions for more than 10 years. Rifampicin resistant mutants of the inoculants were used to evaluate their colonization in the rhizosphere of lettuce. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA to get insights into the effects of the inoculants and R. solani on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial communities. Both inoculants showed a good colonization ability of the rhizosphere of lettuce with more than 10(6) colony forming units per g root dry mass two weeks after planting. An effect of the soil type on rhizosphere competence was observed for 3Re4-18 but not for RU47. In both experiments a comparable rhizosphere competence was observed and in the presence of the inoculants disease symptoms were either significantly reduced, or at least a non-significant trend was shown. Disease severity was highest in diluvial sand followed by alluvial loam and loess loam suggesting that the soil types differed in their conduciveness for bottom rot disease. Compared to effect of the soil type of the rhizosphere bacterial communities, the effects of the pathogen and the inoculants were less pronounced. The soil types had a surprisingly low influence on rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity while they significantly affected
Full Text Available LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis. This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.
Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum, the causal of pine pitch canker disease (PPC, is now considered among the most important pathogens of Pinaceae in the world. Although in Europe PPC is only established in the Iberian Peninsula, the potential endangered areas cover over 10 million hectares under the current host distribution and climatic conditions. It is therefore a priority to test the susceptibility of those species and their provenances, within Central and Northern Europe and find biological control agents (BCAs against the disease. In this study, the susceptibility of Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo and Picea abies Romanian provenances to F. circinatum was tested using three inoculum doses. In parallel, the potential use of Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma viride as BCAs against F. circinatum was also tested. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of P. mugo to F. circinatum. Likewise, the susceptibility of P. abies was also confirmed. The fact that the Romanian provenance of P. sylvestris has not been susceptible to F. circinatum suggests genetic resistance as a potential tool to manage the disease. This, together with the apparent effectiveness of Trichoderma species as BCAs, seems to indicate that an integrated management of the disease might be feasible.
Tunaz, Hasan; Stanley, David
Insect immunology is an active research arena, however, the vast majority of research in the area is conducted on model species taken from laboratory cultures. We tested the hypothesis that insects are regularly exposed to infections or invasions in nature and here report results of a field study designed to assess the extent of natural infections in insects collected from agrarian fields surrounding Kahramanmaraş, Turkey. Specimens were dissected to assess numbers of nodules. Formation of darkened, melanotic nodules is the predominant cellular immune reaction to microbial and parasitic infection, and once formed, the nodules are permanently attached to internal surfaces. The collected insects were healthy. Of the >400 examined specimens, at least some nodules were found in 98%. Numbers of nodules ranged from ˜2/individual to >100 nodules/individual. We conclude that insects are regularly challenged by microbial and parasitic infections from which they recover. The novel implication of our data is that insect immune systems may limit the host range and effectiveness of agents deployed in biological control programs. Knowledge of insect immune systems may contribute to increased use of biopesticides globally.
Lian, Qinggui; Zhang, Jing; Gan, Liang; Ma, Qing; Zong, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yang
LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis . This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.
Population dynamics of epiphytic mycoparasites of the genera Clonostachys and Fusarium for the biocontrol of black pod (Phytophthora palmivora) and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
Hoopen, G Martijn ten; Rees, Robert; Aisa, Philo; Stirrup, Tim; Krauss, Ulrike
Mycoparasites collected from aerial parts of the cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao) have shown great promise in the control of black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, and moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri. However, the ecology of epiphytic mycoparasites is still poorly understood although it has a direct bearing on applied biocontrol practices, ranging from the identification and isolation of promising biocontrol candidates to formulation needs and required application frequency. One objective of this study was to determine the natural abundance of mycoparasites on cocoa flowers and pods in relation to crop development stage and cultivar. For this purpose, native mycoparasites were detected on cocoa flowers and pods using the precolonised plate baiting technique. Furthermore, the survival of an applied Clonostachys rosea isolate on cocoa pods on shaded and non-shaded trees was compared as well as the recolonisation patterns of surface-sterilised pods by native mycoparasites under these conditions. Clonostachys spp. were the most commonly isolated native mycoparasites, followed by Fusarium spp. No differences in the occurrence of native, epiphytic mycoparasites were observed between the three main cocoa cultivars, 'Criollo', 'Forastero' and 'Trinitario', nor between clones within these groups. Thus, a single biocontrol inoculum can be suitable for application to cultivar mixtures of cocoa commonly grown together in a field. Different susceptibility classes of segregating F1 populations of hybrids with resistance against M. roreri and P. palmivora supported similar population levels and taxonomic assemblages of mycoparasites. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that these antagonists mediate resistance. Mycoparasite abundance and genetic disease resistance to black pod and moniliasis are independent phenomena and should lead to additive effects if employed simultaneously in an integrated disease management programme. The survival of applied C. rosea was not
Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng
Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.
Palazzini, Juan; Roncallo, Pablo; Cantoro, Renata; Chiotta, Maria; Yerkovich, Nadia; Palacios, Sofia; Echenique, Viviana; Torres, Adriana; Ramírez, María; Karlovsky, Petr; Chulze, Sofia
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h), as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h), revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%), severity (up to 25%) and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51%) on durum wheat under field conditions.
Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h, as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h, revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%, severity (up to 25% and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51% on durum wheat under field conditions.
Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki
The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.
Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life
Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas
Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables
Full Text Available Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 are three mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases constituting cell wall integrity (CWI pathway that may control multi-stress responses via crosstalk with high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway in budding yeast. In this study, Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 orthologues in Beauveria bassiana were confirmed as the three-module cascade essential for CWI because cell wall impairment occurred in the hyphae and conidia of Δbck1, Δmkk1 and Δslt2 examined in multiple experiments. Strikingly, all the deletion mutants became more sensitive to hyperosmotic NaCl and sorbitol with the Western blot of Hog1 phosphorylation being weakened in Δbck1 and absent in Δmkk1 and Δslt2. Apart from crossing responses to cell wall perturbation and high osmolarity, three deletion mutants exhibited faster growth and conidiation on nutrition-rich medium, much less virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae, and higher sensitivity to nutritional, fungicidal, thermal and UV-B irradiative stresses, accompanied with less accumulation of intracellular mannitol and trehalose. Moreover, Δmkk1 and Δslt2 were equally more sensitive to all the stresses of different types except wet-heat stress than wild type and more or less different from Δbck1 in sensitivity to most of the stresses despite their null responses to two oxidants. All the changes in three deletion mutants were restored by each targeted gene complementation. Taken together, the CWI-required Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 are all positive, but differential, regulators of multi-stress tolerance and virulence perhaps due to interplay with the HOG pathway essential for osmoregulation, thereby contributing greatly to the biocontrol potential of the fungal entomopathogen.
SPL - SERVICES ACHATS
Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...
Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.
Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied
Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...
In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...
A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)
Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.
A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.
Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola
In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...
Gregg, Dawn G.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…
Pedler, Reece D; Brandle, Robert; Read, John L; Southgate, Richard; Bird, Peter; Moseby, Katherine E
Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression. We compared the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of 4 extant species of small mammals before and after RHDV outbreak, relative to rainfall, sampling effort, and rabbit and predator populations. Despite low rainfall during the first 14 years after RHDV, 2 native rodents listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the dusky hopping-mouse (Notomys fuscus) and plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), increased their extent of occurrence by 241-365%. A threatened marsupial micropredator, the crest-tailed mulgara (Dasycercus cristicauda), underwent a 70-fold increase in extent of occurrence and a 20-fold increase in area of occupancy. Both bottom-up and top-down trophic effects were attributed to RHDV, namely decreased competition for food resources and declines in rabbit-dependent predators. Based on these sustained increases, these 3 previously threatened species now qualify for threat-category downgrading on the IUCN Red List. These recoveries are on a scale rarely documented in mammals and give impetus to programs aimed at targeted use of RHDV in Australia, rather than simply employing top-down threat-based management of arid ecosystems. Conservation programs that take big-picture approaches to addressing threatening processes over large spatial scales should be prioritized to maximize