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Sample records for biocompatible synthetic non-biodegradable

  1. Biocompatible Synthetic and Semi-synthetic Polymers - A Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Balu; Miller, Charles; Sinskey, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Bioengineering has come of ages by setting up spare parts manufacturing units to be used in human body such as invasive implants and interventional controlled drug delivery in vivo systems. As a matter of fact patients on basis of their fiscal strength have the option to undergo prophylactic tactical manoeuvre for longer life spans. In this sphere of invasive implants, biocompatible polymer implants are a state of the art cutting edge technology with outstanding innovations leading to number of very successful start-up companies with a plethora of patent portfolios. From 2000 onwards, patent filings and grants for biocompatible polymers are expanding. Currently definition of biocompatibility is quite ambiguous with respect to the use of FDA approved polymeric materials. This article analysed patent portfolios for the trend patterns of prolific biocompatible polymers for capitalization and commercialization in the forthcoming years. Pair Bulk Data (PBD) portal was used to mine patent portfolios. In this patent preliminary analysis report, patents from 2000 to 2015 were evaluated using 317(c) filings, grants and classifications data for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA). This patent portfolio preliminary analysis embarks into patent analysis for New Product Development (NPD) for corporate R&D investment managerial decisions and on government advocacy for federal funding which is decisive for developmental advances. An in-depth patent portfolio investigation with return of investment (RoI) is in the pipeline. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  3. In vivo analysis of biocompatibility and vascularization of the synthetic bone grafting substitute NanoBone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshagen, K; Schrodi, I; Gerber, T; Vollmar, B

    2009-11-01

    One of the major challenges in the application of bone substitutes is adequate vascularization and biocompatibility of the implant. Thus, the temporal course of neovascularization and the microvascular inflammatory response of implants of NanoBone (fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone grafting material) were studied in vivo by using the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model. Angiogenesis, microhemodynamics, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction were analyzed repetitively after implantation in the center and in the border zone of the implant up to 15 days. Both NanoBone granules and plates exhibited high biocompatibility comparable to that of cancellous bone, as indicated by a lack of venular leukocyte activation after implantation. In both synthetic NanoBone groups, signs of angiogenesis could be observed even at day 5 after implantation, whereas granules showed higher functional vessel density compared with NanoBone plates. The angiogenic response of the cancellous bone was markedly accelerated in the center of the implant tissue. Histologically, implant tissue showed an ingrowth of vascularized fibrous tissue into the material combined with an increased number of foreign-body giant cells. In conclusion, NanoBone, particularly in granular form, showed high biocompatibility and high angiogenic response, thus improving the healing of bone defects. Our results underline that, beside the composition and nanostructure, the macrostructure is also of importance for the incorporation of the biomaterial by the host tissue. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Efficacy Evaluation of Synthetic Biocompatible Polymers Linking Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevio Picci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was the synthesis, characterization and efficacy evaluation of new biocompatible antioxidant polymers linking trans-ferulic acid or a-lipoic acid. In particular, ferulic or lipoic acid were introduced in the preformed polymeric backbone. The new antioxidant biopolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The degree of functionalization (moles of antioxidant per gram of polymer was determined by the Gaur-Gupta method for free amino group determination and by the Folin method for the phenolic groups. Their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation were estimated in rat liver microsomal membranes induced in vitro by tert-BOOH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, as a source of free radicals. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect was also evaluated. The obtained systems, with different solubility, showed strong antioxidant and antiradical activities, suggesting potential use as packaging materials for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the synthesized polymers was also evaluated on Caco-2 cell cultures in order to verify their biocompatibility when exposed to an absorptive epithelial cell line.

  5. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  6. Synthetic biocompatible polymers are an effective delivery platform that elicits potent antibody responses against HIV-1 glycopeptide immunogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francica, J.; Lynn, G.; Laga, Richard; Aussedat, B.; Meyerhoff, R.; Alam, M.; Danishefsky, S.; Haynes, B.; Seder, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, Supplement 1 (2016), s. 221-P07.27 ISSN 0889-2229. [Conference on HIV Research for Prevention - HIV R4P. 17.10.2016-21.10.2016, Chicago] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biocompatible polymers * druh delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  8. A study on the treatment of non-biodegradable wastewater by using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Ju; Jin, Joon Ha; Yoon, Byung Mok; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Lim, Moon Ho

    1995-09-01

    This study was carried out for decomposition of dye wastewater which has been called non-biodegradable wastewater by using gamma radiation combined with ozone. When dye wastewater was oxidized by ozone combined with irradiation, a large amount of dye wastewater could be easily oxidized to final products. The irradiation acts an important roll of production of O 2 - radical which is essential in decomposition of tert-butanol. 2 tabs., 22 figs. (Author)

  9. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-PTFE...... that e-PTFE was well tolerated and encapsulated by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. There was capsule formation around Resolut and Vicryl and around Bio-Gide in the early phase there was a wide inflammatory zone already. e-PTFE and Vicryl were stable materials while Resolut and Bio-Gide fragmented...

  10. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Sohail [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Shahzadi, Lubna [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Nasir [Department of Allied Health Sciences and Chemical Pathology, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rauf, Abdul [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rehman, Ihtesham ur [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Yar, Muhammad, E-mail: drmyar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. - Highlights: • Development of a new synthetic methodology • Synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan (CS) derivatives • VERO cells proliferation • Nanofibrous membranes from the synthesized chitosan derivatives and polycaprolactone.

  11. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  12. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Lectin Pathway of Complement and Biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Estrid; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In modern health technologies the use of biomaterials in the form of stents, haemodialysis tubes, artificial implants, bypass circuits etc. is rapidly expanding. The exposure of synthetic, foreign surfaces to the blood and tissue of the host, calls for strict biocompatibility in respect to contac...

  14. Biocompatibility of Poly(ester amide (PEA Microfibrils in Ocular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kropp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems (DDS are able to deliver, over long periods of time, therapeutic concentrations of drugs requiring frequent administration. Two classes of DDS are available, biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The larger non-biodegradable implants ensure long-term delivery, but require surgical interventions. Biodegradable biomaterials are smaller, injectable implants, but degrade hydrolytically and release drugs in non-zero order kinetics, which is inefficient for long-term sustained drug release. Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs may overcome these difficulties. To assess their ocular biocompatibility and long-term behavior, PEA fibrils were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, incubation in vitreous humor changes to PEA structure, suggests degradation by surface erosion, enabling drug release with zero order kinetics. Clinical and histological analysis of PEA fibrils implanted subconjunctivally and intravitreally showed the absence of an inflammatory response or other pathological tissue alteration. This study shows that PEA fibrils are biocompatible with ocular environment and degrade by surface erosion.

  15. Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vidya; Lakshmi, T

    2013-04-01

    Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass) as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as "bioactive glass-bioglass." It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as "bioactive ceramics." The aim of this article is to give a bird's-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone.

  16. Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as "bioactive glass-bioglass." It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as "bioactive ceramics." The aim of this article is to give a bird′s-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone.

  17. Biocompatibility of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, 7/8 (2012), s. 722-727 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * biocompatibility Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.109, year: 2012

  18. Biocompatibility of individually designed scaffolds with human periosteum for use in tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.T.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Acil, Y.; Seitz, H.; Sivananthan, S.; Wiltfang, J.; Warnke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biocompatibility of computer-assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalciumphosphate (TCP) blocks and natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks for augmentations and endocultivation by supporting and promoting the proliferation

  19. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

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    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  1. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  2. Biocompatible electrospun polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munj, Hrishikesh Ramesh; Nelson, M Tyler; Karandikar, Prathamesh Sadanand; Lannutti, John Joseph; Tomasko, David Lane

    2014-10-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers have received considerable attention as biomaterials due to the potential to optimize both mechanical and bioactive properties. Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers is an efficient method producing biomimetic topographies suited to various applications. In the ultimate application, electrospun scaffolds must also incorporate drug/protein delivery for effective cell growth and tissue repair. This study explored the suitability of a ternary Polymethylmethacrylate-Polycaprolactone-gelatin blend in the preparation of electrospun scaffolds for biomedical applications. Tuning the blend composition allows control over scaffold mechanical properties and degradation rate. Significant improvements were observed in the mechanical properties of the blend compared with the individual components. In order to study drug delivery potential, triblends were impregnated with the model compound Rhodamine-B using sub/supercritical CO₂ infusion under benign conditions. Results show significantly distinct release profiles of the impregnated dye from the triblends. Specific factors such as porosity, degradation rate, stress relaxation, dye-polymer interactions, play key roles in impregnation and release. Each polymer component of the triblends shows distinct behavior during impregnation and release process. This affects the aforementioned factors and the release profiles of the dye. Careful control over blend composition and infusion conditions creates the flexibility needed to produce biocompatible electrospun scaffolds for a variety of biomedical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of biodegradable and non-biodegradable scintillation liquids on the counting of tritium- and [14C]-labeled compounds

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    Medeiros R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of ³H and 14C in research has generated a large volume of waste mixed with scintillation liquid, requiring an effective control and appropriate storage of liquid radioactive waste. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of three commercially available scintillation liquids, Optiphase HiSafe 3, Ultima-Gold(TM AB (biodegradable and Insta-Gel-XF (non-biodegradable, in terms of [14C]-glucose and [³H]-thymidine counting efficiency. We also analyzed the effect of the relative amount of water (1.6 to 50%, radioisotope concentration (0.1 to 100 nCi/ml, pH (2 to 10 and color of the solutions (samples containing 0.1 to 1.0 mg/ml of Trypan blue on the counting efficiency in the presence of these scintillation liquids. There were few significant differences in the efficiency of 14C and ³H counting obtained with biodegradable or non-biodegradable scintillation liquids. However, there was an 83 and 94% reduction in the efficiency of 14C and ³H counting, respectively, in samples colored with 1 mg/ml Trypan blue, but not with 0.1 mg/ml, independent of the scintillation liquid used. Considering the low cost of biodegradable scintillation cocktails and their efficacy, these results show that traditional hazardous scintillation fluids may be replaced with the new safe biodegradable fluids without impairment of ³H and 14C counting efficiency. The use of biodegradable scintillation cocktails minimizes both human and environmental exposure to hazardous solvents. In addition, some biodegradable scintillation liquids can be 40% less expensive than the traditional hazardous cocktails.

  4. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    OpenAIRE

    Nuss, Katja MR; Auer, Joerg A; Boos, Alois; Rechenberg, Brigitte von

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Result...

  5. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  6. Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Slepička, P.; Bačáková, Lucie; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 15 (2013), s. 642-646 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biopolymer * plasma treatment * biocompatibility Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2013

  7. Biocompatible polysaccharide-based cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, Senta, E-mail: senta.reichelt@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Becher, Jana; Weisser, Jürgen [Innovent e.V., Pruessingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Prager, Andrea; Decker, Ulrich [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Möller, Stephanie; Berg, Albrecht; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [Innovent e.V., Pruessingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on the development of novel biocompatible macroporous cryogels by electron-beam assisted free-radical crosslinking reaction of polymerizable dextran and hyaluronan derivatives. As a main advantage this straightforward approach provides highly pure materials of high porosity without using additional crosslinkers or initiators. The cryogels were characterized with regard to their morphology and their basic properties including thermal and mechanical characteristics, and swellability. It was found that the applied irradiation dose and the chemical composition strongly influence the material properties of the resulting cryogels. Preliminary cytotoxicity tests illustrate the excellent in vitro-cytocompatibility of the fabricated cryogels making them especially attractive as matrices in tissue regeneration procedures. - Graphical abstract: Electron-beam initiated synthesis of biocompatible cryogels based on natural polymers. - Highlights: • Successful electron-beam induced synthesis of dextran and hyaluronan cryogels. • Mechanical and thermal stable cryogels were obtained. • Excellent cytocompatibility of the materials was proven. • Promising materials for tissue engineering were developed.

  8. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  9. Synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation of biocompatible ferrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Lopez, M.T., E-mail: modesto@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Rodriguez, I.A. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Department of Histology (Tissue Engineering Group), University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Rodriguez-Arco, L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Carriel, V. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Department of Histology (Tissue Engineering Group), University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Bonhome-Espinosa, A.B. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Campos, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain); Department of Histology (Tissue Engineering Group), University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Zubarev, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Duran, J.D.G. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    A hydrogel is a 3-D network of polymer chains in which water is the dispersion medium. Hydrogels have found extensive applications in the biomedical field due to their resemblance to living tissues. Furthermore, hydrogels can be endowed with exceptional properties by addition of synthetic materials. For example, magnetic field-sensitive gels, called ferrogels, are obtained by embedding magnetic particles in the polymer network. Novel living tissues with unique magnetic field-sensitive properties were recently prepared by 3-D cell culture in biocompatible ferrogels. This paper critically reviews the most recent progress and perspectives in their synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation. Optimization of ferrogels for this novel application requires low-density, strongly magnetic, multi-domain particles. Interestingly, the rheological properties of the resulting ferrogels in the absence of field were largely enhanced with respect to nonmagnetic hydrogels, which can only be explained by the additional cross-linking imparted by the embedded magnetic particles. Remarkably, rheological measurements under an applied magnetic field demonstrated that ferrogels presented reversibly tunable mechanical properties, which constitutes a unique advantage with respect to nonmagnetic hydrogels. In vivo evaluation of ferrogels showed good biocompatibility, with only some local inflammatory response, and no particle migration or damage to distant organs.

  10. Comparison of in vitro biocompatibility of NanoBone(®) and BioOss(®) for human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Douglas, Timothy; Zamponi, Christiane; Becker, Stephan T; Sherry, Eugene; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Warnke, Frauke; Wiltfang, Jörg; Warnke, Patrick H

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering seeded with the patient's own cells might be used as a preferable method to repair bone defects in the future. With the emerging new technologies of nanostructure design, new synthetic biomaterials are appearing on the market. Such scaffolds must be tested in vitro for their biocompatibility before clinical application. However, the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial might be challenging for the doctor and the patient. In this study, we compared the biocompatibility of a synthetic bone substitute, NanoBone(®) , to the widely used natural bovine bone replacement material BioOss(®) . The in vitro behaviour of human osteoblasts on both materials was investigated. Cell performance was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell vitality staining and four biocompatibility tests (LDH, MTT, WST, BrdU). We found that both materials showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. The MTT proliferation test was superior for Nanobone(®) . Both scaffolds caused only little damage to human osteoblasts and justify their clinical application. However, NanoBone(®) was able to support and promote proliferation of human osteoblasts slightly better than BioOss(®) in our chosen test set-up. The results may guide doctors and patients when being challenged with the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial. Further experiments are necessary to determine the comparison of biocompatibility in vivo. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Design Concept of Dialyzer Biomaterials: How to Find Biocompatible Polymers Based on the Biointerfacial Water Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Although various types of materials have been used widely in dialyzers, most biomaterials lack the desired functional properties to interface with blood and have not been engineered for optimum performance. Therefore, there is increasing demand to develop novel materials to address such problems in the dialysis arena. Numerous parameters of polymeric biomaterials can affect biocompatibility in a controlled manner. The mechanisms responsible for the biocompatibility of polymers at the molecular level have not been clearly demonstrated, although many theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to try and understand them. Moreover, water interactions have been recognized as fundamental for the blood response to contact with polymers. We have proposed the 'intermediate water' concept and hypothesized that intermediate water, which prevents the proteins and blood cells from directly contacting the polymer surface, or nonfreezing water on the polymer surface, plays an important role in the biocompatibility of polymers. This chapter provides an overview of the recent experimental progress of biocompatible polymers measured by thermal, spectroscopic, and surface force techniques. Additionally, it highlights recent developments in the use of biocompatible polymeric biomaterials for dialyzers and provides an overview of the progress made in the design of multifunctional biomedical polymers by controlling the biointerfacial water structure through precision polymer synthesis. Key Messages: Intermediate water was found only in hydrated biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids, DNA and RNA) and hydrated biocompatible synthetic polymers. Intermediate water could be one of the main screening factors for the design of appropriate dialyzer materials. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/026/07/0655-0660. Keywords. Bioceramics; hyperthermia; ferrite; biocompatible coating. Abstract. Ferrite particles coated with biocompatible phases can be used for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. We have synthesized substituted calcium hexaferrite, which is not stable on its own ...

  14. Polycrystalline Silicon: a Biocompatibility Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheva, E.; Fingarova, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Hikov, T.; Laquerriere, P.; Bouthors, Sylvie; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Montgomery, P.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers were functionalized through the growth of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) on their surface. HA is the mineral component of bones and teeth and thus possesses excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on both HA-coated and un-coated poly-Si surfaces for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days and toxicity, proliferation and cell morphology were investigated. The results revealed that the poly-Si layers were bioactive and compatible with the osteoblast-like cells. Nevertheless, the HA coating improved the cell interactions with the poly-Si surfaces based on the cell affinity to the specific chemical composition of the bone-like HA and/or to the higher HA roughness.

  15. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Katja M R; Auer, Joerg A; Boos, Alois; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2006-08-15

    The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. This present sheep model allows the placing of up to 8 different test materials within one animal and because of the standardization of the bone defect, routine evaluation by means of histomorphometry is easily conducted. This method was used successfully in 66 White Alpine Sheep. When the drill holes were correctly placed no complications such as spontaneous fractures were encountered. This experimental animal model serves an excellent basis for testing the biocompatibility of novel biomaterials to be used as bone replacement or new bone formation enhancing materials.

  16. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Katja MR; Auer, Joerg A; Boos, Alois; Rechenberg, Brigitte von

    2006-01-01

    Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Results This present sheep model allows the placing of up to 8 different test materials within one animal and because of the standardization of the bone defect, routine evaluation by means of histomorphometry is easily conducted. This method was used successfully in 66 White Alpine Sheep. When the drill holes were correctly placed no complications such as spontaneous fractures were encountered. Conclusion This experimental animal model serves an excellent basis for testing the biocompatibility of novel biomaterials to be used as bone replacement or new bone formation enhancing materials. PMID:16911787

  17. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  18. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sankalp [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Curtin, James [School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Duffy, Brendan [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Jaiswal, Swarna, E-mail: swarna.jaiswal@dit.ie [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  19. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  20. Biocompatible nanomaterials based on dendrimers, hydrogels and hydrogel nanocomposites for use in biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa Nguyen, Cuu; Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Phuong Nguyen, Thi; Hai Nguyen, Dai

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, biopolymer-based nanomaterials have been developed to overcome the limitations of other macro- and micro- synthetic materials as well as the ever increasing demand for the new materials in nanotechnology, biotechnology, biomedicine and others. Owning to their high stability, biodegradability, low toxicity, and biocompatibility, biopolymer-based nanomaterials hold great promise for various biomedical applications. The pursuit of this review is to briefly describe our recent studies regarding biocompatible biopolymer-based nanomaterials, particularly in the form of dendrimers, hydrogels, and hydrogel composites along with the synthetic and modification approaches for the utilization in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biomedical implants. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies for the toxicity evaluation are also discussed.

  1. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortiz, Marlen; Acosta-Torres, Laura S; Hernández-Padrón, Genoveva; Mendieta, Alicia I; Bernal, Rodolfo; Cruz-Vázquez, Catalina; Castaño, Victor M

    2012-10-22

    Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells.

  2. Biocompatibility evaluation of magnetosomes formed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lei; Yue Xiaoxuan; Zhang Shuang; Chen Peng; Xu Zhiliang; Li Yang; Li Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Magnetite nanocrystal has been extensively used in biomedical field. Currently, an interesting alternative to synthetic magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, called magnetosome, has been found in magnetotactic bacteria. It has been reported that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) has a potential to synthesize magnetosome. In this study, transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to analyze the magnetite particles in At. ferrooxidans BY-3. The magnetosomes formed by this bacterium were isolated by a method combining ultracentrifugation and magnetic separation. Crystalline phase and surface functional group of the magnetosomes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Biocompatibility of the magnetosomes was systematically evaluated at various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/ml). MTT test, hemolysis assay and Micronucleus Test were carried out to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity, blood toxicity and genotoxicity of magnetosomes, respectively. Under these conditions, magnetosomes showed no cytotoxic, genotoxic and hemolytic effects up to 4.0 mg/ml indicating good biocompatibility of these biological nanoparticles. These revealed that the magnetosomes might have a potential for biotechnological and biomedical applications in the future. - Highlights: ► The production of magnetosomes from At. ferrooxidans has been easily available. ► Several techniques are used to characterize properties of the magnetosomes. ► The magnetosomes have no cytotoxicity, no hemolysis activity and no genotoxicity.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India. MS received 25 March 2003 ... being given the advantage of a biocompatible coating. The purpose of this work is ..... Financial support from CSIR, New Delhi, is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8 and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4, respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  5. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  6. Manipulation of chemical composition and architecture of non-biodegradable poly(ethylene terephthalate)/chitosan fibrous scaffolds and their effects on L929 cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleirinho, Beatriz; Berti, Fernanda V.; Dias, Paulo F.; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Microporous, non-woven fibrous scaffolds made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and chitosan were produced by electrospinning. Fiber morphology, diameter, pore size, and wettability were manipulated by varying the chemical composition of the electrospinning solution, i.e. chitosan concentration and molecular weight, and by post-electrospinning treatment with glutaraldehyde. In vitro studies were conducted using a fibroblast cell line toward a comprehensive understanding of how scaffolds characteristics can modulate the cell behavior, i.e. viability, adhesion, proliferation, extracellular matrix secretion, and three-dimensional colonization. Substantial differences were found as a result of scaffold morphological changes. Higher levels of adhesion, spreading, and superficial proliferation were achieved for scaffolds with smaller fiber and pore diameters while cell penetration and internal colonization were enhanced for scaffolds with larger pores. Additionally, the available area for cell adhesion, which is related to fiber and pore size, was a crucial factor for the viability of L929 cells. This paper provides significant insights for the development and optimization of electrospun scaffolds toward an improved biological performance. Highlights: ► Hybrid PET/chitosan mats were produced by electrospinning. ► Scaffold architecture was manipulated by changing composition of the spun solution. ► The scaffolds showed in vitro biocompatibility to L929 cells. ► Smaller fiber diameters and pore areas allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. ► A 3D cell colonization was achieved for scaffolds with higher fiber diameters.

  7. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  8. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  9. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  10. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Manipulation of chemical composition and architecture of non-biodegradable poly(ethylene terephthalate)/chitosan fibrous scaffolds and their effects on L929 cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleirinho, Beatriz [QOPNA Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Berti, Fernanda V. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis (Brazil); Dias, Paulo F. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis (Brazil); Maraschin, Marcelo [Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis (Brazil); Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M. [Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis (Brazil); Lopes-da-Silva, Jose A., E-mail: jals@ua.pt [QOPNA Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Microporous, non-woven fibrous scaffolds made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and chitosan were produced by electrospinning. Fiber morphology, diameter, pore size, and wettability were manipulated by varying the chemical composition of the electrospinning solution, i.e. chitosan concentration and molecular weight, and by post-electrospinning treatment with glutaraldehyde. In vitro studies were conducted using a fibroblast cell line toward a comprehensive understanding of how scaffolds characteristics can modulate the cell behavior, i.e. viability, adhesion, proliferation, extracellular matrix secretion, and three-dimensional colonization. Substantial differences were found as a result of scaffold morphological changes. Higher levels of adhesion, spreading, and superficial proliferation were achieved for scaffolds with smaller fiber and pore diameters while cell penetration and internal colonization were enhanced for scaffolds with larger pores. Additionally, the available area for cell adhesion, which is related to fiber and pore size, was a crucial factor for the viability of L929 cells. This paper provides significant insights for the development and optimization of electrospun scaffolds toward an improved biological performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid PET/chitosan mats were produced by electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffold architecture was manipulated by changing composition of the spun solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scaffolds showed in vitro biocompatibility to L929 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller fiber diameters and pore areas allowed for higher levels of cell adhesion and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 3D cell colonization was achieved for scaffolds with higher fiber diameters.

  12. Limitation of biocompatibility of hydrated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaychev, V. V.; Teleshev, A. T.; Gorshenev, V. N.; Yakovleva, M. A.; Fomichev, V. A.; Pankratov, A. S.; Menshikh, K. A.; Fadeev, R. S.; Fadeeva, I. S.; Senotov, A. S.; Kobyakova, M. I.; Yurasova, Yu B.; Akatov, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of hydrated paste is considered to be a promising material for a minor-invasive surgical curing of bone tissue injure. However questions about adhesion of cells on this material and its biocompatibility still remain. In this study biocompatibility of paste-formed nanosized HA (nano-HA) by in vitro methods is investigated. Nano-HA (particles sized about 20 nm) was synthesized under conditions of mechano-acoustic activation of an aqueous reaction mixture of ammonium hydrophosphate and calcium nitrate. It was ascertained that nanocrystalline paste was not cytotoxic although limitation of adhesion, spreading and growth of the cells on its surface was revealed. The results obtained point on the need of modification of hydrated nano-HA in the aims of increasing its biocompatibility and osteoplastic potential.

  13. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  15. Study of biocompatible and biological materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pecheva, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an overview on biomineralization, biological, biocompatible and biomimetic materials. It reveals the use of biomaterials alone or in composites, how their performance can be improved by tailoring their surface properties by external factors and how standard surface modification techniques can be applied in the area of biomaterials to beneficially influence their growth on surfaces.

  16. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  17. Designing synthetic RNA for delivery by nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrzejczyk, Dominika; Pawlowska, Roza; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of synthetic biology and nanobiotechnology has led to the construction of various synthetic RNA nanoparticles of different functionalities and potential applications. As they occur naturally, nucleic acids are an attractive construction material for biocompatible nanoscaffold and nanomachine design. In this review, we provide an overview of the types of RNA and nucleic acid’s nanoparticle design, with the focus on relevant nanostructures utilized for gene-expression regulation in cellular models. Structural analysis and modeling is addressed along with the tools available for RNA structural prediction. The functionalization of RNA-based nanoparticles leading to prospective applications of such constructs in potential therapies is shown. The route from the nanoparticle design and modeling through synthesis and functionalization to cellular application is also described. For a better understanding of the fate of targeted RNA after delivery, an overview of RNA processing inside the cell is also provided. (topical review)

  18. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity according to DIN EN ISO 10993 for long time applications. The results showed that uncured residual monomers are the determining factor on the biocompatible properties of the photopolymeric system. Strategies to reduce these residual monomers in the cured photopolymer are presented.

  19. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Corporate Research Labs.; Iwaki, Masaya

    1992-07-01

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 10[sup 15] to 3 x 10[sup 17] ions/cm[sup 2] to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author).

  20. Electroactive biocompatible materials for nerve cell stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mei; Liang, Youlong; Gui, Qingyuan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, great efforts have been developed for neurobiologists and neurologists to restore nervous system functions. Recently much attention has been paid to electrical stimulation (ES) of the nervous system as a potential way to repair it. Various conductive biocompatible materials with good electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and long-term ES or electrical stability have been developed as the substrates for ES. In this review, we summarized different types of materials developed in the purpose for ES of nervous system, including conducting polymers, carbon nanomaterials and composites from conducting polymer/carbon nanomaterials. The present review will give our perspective on the future research directions for further investigation on development of ES particularly on the nerve system. (topical review)

  1. Chemically resistant, biocompatible and microstructured surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.; Pham, M.T.; Hueller, J.

    1984-01-01

    Subject of the invention are chemicallly resistant, biocompatible, and microstructured surface protective coatings of electronic elements and sensors including chemical sensors. Such coatings consist of a radiation-modified organic substance made of a microlithographic material. Modification can be achieved by irradiation with ions, atoms or molecules having an energy between 1 KeV and 1 MeV and a flux between 10 13 and 10 18 particles per cm 2

  2. Biocompatibility of photopolymers for additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt Stefan; Klare Martin; Scheer Maurice; Fischer Theresa; Cordes Burghard; Eblenkamp Markus

    2016-01-01

    To establish photopolymers for the production of class II or class III medical products by additive manufacturing it is essential to know which components of photopolymeric systems, consisting of monomers, photoinitiators and additives, are the determining factors on their biocompatible properties. In this study the leachable substances of a cured photopolymeric system were eluted and identified by HPLC-MS detection. In addition the cured photopolymer was testes for cytotoxicity and genotoxic...

  3. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-30

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  4. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Perez, Jose E.; Ivanov, Yurii; Bertoncini, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  5. Immobilisation of a fibrillin-1 fragment enhances the biocompatibility of PTFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Hamid; Wise, Steven G; Bax, Daniel V; Kondyurin, Alexey; Waterhouse, Anna; Dunn, Louise L; Kielty, Cay M; Yu, Young; Weiss, Anthony S; Bilek, Marcela M M; Bannon, Paul G; Ng, Martin K C

    2014-04-01

    Current vascular biomaterials exhibit poor biocompatibility characterised by failure to promote endothelialisation, predisposition to neoinitmal hyperplasia and excessive thrombogenicity. Fibrillin-1, a major constituent of microfibrils is associated with elastic fibres in the arterial wall. Fibrillin-1 binds to endothelial cells through an RGD cell adhesion motif in the fourth TB module. The RGD motif is present in PF8, a recombinant fibrillin-1 fragment. We investigated the potential of PF8 to improve the biocompatibility of PTFE. PF8 enhanced endothelial cell attachment and cell proliferation to a greater extent than fibronectin (pPTFE using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), retained these favourable cell interactive properties, again promoting endothelial cell attachment and proliferation. The thrombogenicity of covalently bound PF8 on PTFE was assessed in both static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions, uncoated PIII treated PTFE was more thrombogenic than untreated PTFE, while PF8 coating reduced thrombogenicity. Under flow, there was no difference in the thrombogenicity of PF8 coated PTFE and untreated PTFE. Immobilised PF8 shows a striking ability to promote attachment and growth of endothelial cells on PTFE, while providing a non-thrombogenic surface. These features make PF8 a promising candidate to improve the biocompatibility of current synthetic vascular grafts. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boos Alois

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Results This present sheep model allows the placing of up to 8 different test materials within one animal and because of the standardization of the bone defect, routine evaluation by means of histomorphometry is easily conducted. This method was used successfully in 66 White Alpine Sheep. When the drill holes were correctly placed no complications such as spontaneous fractures were encountered. Conclusion This experimental animal model serves an excellent basis for testing the biocompatibility of novel biomaterials to be used as bone replacement or new bone formation enhancing materials.

  7. Flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on biocompatible silk fibroin substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yuemin; Liu, Yuan; Song, Tao; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Liao, Liangsheng; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-10-01

    Flexible and biodegradable electronics are currently under extensive investigation for biocompatible and environmentally-friendly applications. Synthetic plastic foils are widely used as substrates for flexible electronics. But typical plastic substrates such as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) could not be degraded in a natural bio-environment. A great demand still exists for a next-generation biocompatible and biodegradable substrate for future application. For example, electronic devices can be potentially integrated into the human body. In this work, we demonstrate that the biocompatible and biodegradable natural silk fibroin (SF) films embedded with silver nanowires (AgNWs) mesh could be employed as conductive transparent substrates to fabricate flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Compared with commercial PEN substrates coated with indium tin oxide, the AgNWs/SF composite substrates exhibit a similar sheet resistance of 12 Ω sq-1, a lower surface roughness, as well as a broader light transmission range. Flexible OLEDs based on AgNWs/SF substrates achieve a current efficiency of 19 cd A-1, demonstrating the potential of the flexible AgNWs/SF films as conductive and transparent substrates for next-generation biodegradable devices.

  8. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Liu, Ru-Shi; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  9. Flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on biocompatible silk fibroin substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yuemin; Liu, Yuan; Song, Tao; Liao, Liangsheng; Sun, Baoquan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Flexible and biodegradable electronics are currently under extensive investigation for biocompatible and environmentally-friendly applications. Synthetic plastic foils are widely used as substrates for flexible electronics. But typical plastic substrates such as polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) could not be degraded in a natural bio-environment. A great demand still exists for a next-generation biocompatible and biodegradable substrate for future application. For example, electronic devices can be potentially integrated into the human body. In this work, we demonstrate that the biocompatible and biodegradable natural silk fibroin (SF) films embedded with silver nanowires (AgNWs) mesh could be employed as conductive transparent substrates to fabricate flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Compared with commercial PEN substrates coated with indium tin oxide, the AgNWs/SF composite substrates exhibit a similar sheet resistance of 12 Ω sq −1 , a lower surface roughness, as well as a broader light transmission range. Flexible OLEDs based on AgNWs/SF substrates achieve a current efficiency of 19 cd A −1 , demonstrating the potential of the flexible AgNWs/SF films as conductive and transparent substrates for next-generation biodegradable devices. (paper)

  10. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of porous titanium scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Frith, Jessica Ellen; Dehghan-Manshadi, Ali; Attar, Hooyar; Kent, Damon; Soro, Nicolas Dominique Mathieu; Bermingham, Michael J; Dargusch, Matthew S

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human cortical bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 44.2GPa, 24.7GPa and 15.4GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 221.7MPa and 117MPa are superior to that of human cortical bone (130-180MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Liu, Ru-Shi [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Yeu-Kuang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Din Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S, E-mail: rsliu@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhsiao@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  12. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Enriquez, M.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.; Morales, J.; Olayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible surfaces by nanotechnology methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alekhin , A. ,; Boleiko , G. ,; Gudkova , S. ,; Markeev , A. ,; Sigarev , A. ,; Toknova , V. ,; Kirilenko , A. ,; Lapshin , R. ,; Kozlov , E. ,; Tetyukhin , D. ,

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The modification of the surface of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyurethane (PU) by means of the pulsed ion-plasma deposition of nanostructural carbon coatings at 20–60°C has been studied. The effect of this low-temperature treatment on the biocompatibility of the LDPE and PU has been assessed. Optimum technological parameters for the formation of mosaic carbon nanostructures with a thickness of 0.3–15 nm and a cluster lateral size of 10–500 nm are determined. ...

  15. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  17. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  18. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-08-21

    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  19. Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids: Clinical Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoungjee Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is a preferred home dialysis modality and has a number of added advantages including improved initial patient survival and cost effectiveness over haemodialysis. Despite these benefits, uptake of PD remains relatively low, especially in developed countries. Wider implementation of PD is compromised by higher technique failure from infections (e.g., PD peritonitis and ultrafiltration failure. These are inevitable consequences of peritoneal injury, which is thought to result primarily from continuous exposure to PD fluids that are characterised by their “unphysiologic” composition. In order to overcome these barriers, a number of more biocompatible PD fluids, with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product content, and bicarbonate buffer have been manufactured over the past two decades. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated their benefit in terms of improvement in host cell defence, peritoneal membrane integrity, and cytokine profile. This paper aims to review randomised controlled trials assessing the use of biocompatible PD fluids and their effect on clinical outcomes.

  20. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  1. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF AZITROMICYN ON CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafira Kurnia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: periodontal disease is commonly caused by bacteria, especially actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans and porphyromonas gingivalis have an abilty enter epithelial cells objectives: to investigate systemic azithromycin as the antibiotic of choice for periodontal disease based on biocomptability test in connective tissue. Material and Methods: BHK 21 cell lines were exposed to 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, and 0.1% azithromycin solution for seven times. Samples were put in incubator for 24 hours. Result: Azitrromycin 0.050%-0.1% showed significant difference between life cells percentage and control, however, azithromycin 0.025% revealed insignificant difference with control. Conclusion: 0.025% azithromycin was considered biocompatible with connective tissue and 0.050% was not.

  2. Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2014-03-25

    In the last years, health care professionals faced with an increasing number of patients suffering from wounds and burns difficult to treat and heal. During the wound healing process, the dressing protects the injury and contributes to the recovery of dermal and epidermal tissues. Because their biocompatibility, biodegradability and similarity to macromolecules recognized by the human body, some natural polymers such as polysaccharides (alginates, chitin, chitosan, heparin, chondroitin), proteoglycans and proteins (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, keratin, silk fibroin, eggshell membrane) are extensively used in wounds and burns management. Obtained by electrospinning technique, some synthetic polymers like biomimetic extracellular matrix micro/nanoscale fibers based on polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polyacrylic acid, poly-ɛ-caprolactone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, exhibit in vivo and in vitro wound healing properties and enhance re-epithelialization. They provide an optimal microenvironment for cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, peculiar structure and good mechanical properties. Thus, synthetic polymers are used also in regenerative medicine for cartilage, bone, vascular, nerve and ligament repair and restoration. Biocompatible with fibroblasts and keratinocytes, tissue engineered skin is indicated for regeneration and remodeling of human epidermis and wound healing improving the treatment of severe skin defects or partial-thickness burn injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A historical perspective of synthetic ceramic and traditional feldspathic porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan

    2005-10-01

    Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.

  4. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  5. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  7. Overview of Stabilizing Ligands for Biocompatible Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clapp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs possess numerous advantages as fluorophores in biological applications. However, a principal challenge is how to retain the desirable optical properties of quantum dots in aqueous media while maintaining biocompatibility. Because QD photophysical properties are directly related to surface states, it is critical to control the surface chemistry that renders QDs biocompatible while maintaining electronic passivation. For more than a decade, investigators have used diverse strategies for altering the QD surface. This review summarizes the most successful approaches for preparing biocompatible QDs using various chemical ligands.

  8. ADHESION OF BIOCOMPATIBLE TiNb COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kolegar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of a coating with a high quality requires good adhesion of the film to the substrate. The paper deals with the adhesion of biocompatible TiNb coating with different base materials. Several materials such as titanium CP grade 2, titanium alloys Ti6Al4V and stainless steel AISI 316L were measured. Testing samples were made in the shape of small discs. Those samples were coated with a TiNb layer by using the PVD method (magnetron sputtering. Onto the measured layer of TiNb an assistant cylinder was stuck using a high strength epoxy adhesive E1100S. The sample with the assistant cylinder was fixed into a special fixture and the whole assembly underwent pull-off testing for adhesion. The main result of this experiment was determining the strength needed to peel the layer and morphology and size of the breakaway. As a result, we will be able to determine the best base material and conditions where the coating will be remain intact with the base material.

  9. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  10. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nano biomaterials 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Lee, S.Ch.; Zhang, Sh.; Akasaka, T.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that nano materials have developed rapidly over the past few decades. Based on their unique physicochemical properties and special mechanical properties, nano materials have provided application possibility in many different fields. Currently, as nano biomaterials, they are widely used in various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, dental/bone implant, and biosensors. For example, nano biomaterials have been used in tissue engineering because of their satisfactory bioactivity, high mechanical properties, and large surface area to adsorb specific proteins. Many kinds of nano biomaterials are used to prepare composite scaffolds to get better biocompatibility and higher ability in repairing specific tissues. Several antibacterial metallic nano biomaterials are used to coat implant surfaces to improve the speed of healing fractures. In addition, lots of nano biomaterials have the potential to break the limitations of the traditional delivery systems. They can load larger amount of drugs and provide stable drug release for long time at the targeted sites, such as tumors. Moreover, they can combine with polymers to furnish simultaneous drug delivery systems with the controllable release rate. Besides these applications, more and more nano biomaterials show great potential to be applied as highly sensitive biosensors because they have higher ability in loading firmly or interacting completely with recognition aptamers.

  11. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  12. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, M; Garcia-Luis, A; Viviente, J L; Braceras, I; Oñate, J I

    2002-12-01

    DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings have remarkable tribological properties due mainly to their good frictional behavior. These coatings can be applied in many industrial and biomedical applications, where sliding can generate wear and frictional forces on the components, such as orthopaedic metal implants. This work reports on the development and tribological characterization of functionally gradient titanium alloyed DLC coatings. A PVD-magnetron sputtering technique has been used as the deposition method. The aim of this work was to study the tribological performance of the DLC coating when metal to metal contact (cobalt chromium or titanium alloys) takes place under dry and lubricated test conditions. Prior work by the authors demonstrates that the DLC coating reduced considerably the wear of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The DLC coating during mechanical testing exhibited a high elastic recovery (65%) compared to the values obtained from Co-Cr-Mo (15%) and Ti-6Al-4V (23%). The coating exhibited an excellent tribo-performance against the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys, especially under dry conditions presenting a friction value of 0.12 and almost negligible wear. This coating has passed biocompatibility tests for implant devices on tissue/bone contact according to international standards (ISO 10993).

  13. Polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules containing undecylenic acid: Synthesis, biocompatibility and neuroprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Marek; Jantas, Danuta; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the biocompatibility of polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules and to evaluate the neuroprotective action of the nanoencapsulated water-insoluble neuroprotective drug-undecylenic acid (UDA), in vitro. Core-shell nanocapsules were synthesized using nanoemulsification and the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique (by saturation method). The average size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 80 nm and the concentration was 2.5 × 10(10) particles/ml. Their zeta potential values ranged from less than -30 mV for the ones with external polyanion layers through -4 mV for the PEG-ylated layers to more than 30 mV for the polycation layers. Biocompatibility of synthesized nanocarriers was evaluated in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). The results obtained showed that synthesized nanocapsules coated with PLL and PGA (also PEG-ylated) were non-toxic to SH-SY5Y cells, therefore, they were used as nanocarriers for UDA. Moreover, studies with ROD/FITC-labeled polyelectrolytes demonstrated approximately 20% cellular uptake of synthetized nanocapsules. Further studies showed that nanoencapsulated form of UDA was biocompatible and protected SH-SY5Y cells against the staurosporine-induced damage in lower concentrations than those of the same drug added directly to the culture medium. These data suggest that designed nanocapsules might serve as novel, promising delivery systems for neuroprotective agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposites doped with Zn+2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M H; Valerio, P; Goes, A M; Leite, M F; Heneine, L G D; Mansur, H S

    2007-01-01

    In this work, novel composites based on calcium phosphates (CaP)/collagen (COL) doped with Zn +2 have been synthesized. They were characterized by SEM coupled to EDS microprobe in order to evaluate their morphology and chemical composition, respectively. The biocompatibility of these synthetic CaP/COL nanocomposites doped and undoped with Zn +2 was investigated through osteoblast cell culture assay. Calcium phosphates were produced via aqueous precipitation routes where two different phases were obtained, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and biphasic hydroxyapatite-βtricalcium phosphate (HAPβTCP). In the sequence, the type-I collagen (COL) was added to the inorganic phase based on calcium phosphate and the mixture was blended until a homogenous composite was obtained. Zn +2 aqueous solution (1.0 wt%) was used as the doping reagent. The cell viability and the alkaline phosphatase production of osteoblasts in the presence of the composites were evaluated and compared to control osteoblasts. Also, the biocompatibility of the composite was investigated through cell morphological analysis using optical microscopy of osteoblasts. All experiments were performed in triplicates (n = 3) from three different experiments. They were analyzed by variance test (ANOVA) and Bonferroni's post-test with differences statistically significant at p +2 did not present alterations in cell morphology in 72 h and had similar cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity to the control. All the tested CaP/COL composites showed adequate biological properties with the potential to be used in bone tissue replacement applications

  15. Development of biocompatible glycodynameric hydrogels joining two natural motifs by dynamic constitutional chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Luminita; Ailincai, Daniela; Morariu, Simona; Tartau-Mititelu, Liliana

    2017-08-15

    The paper focusses on the synthesis of novel hydrogels by joining natural biodegradable compounds with the aim to achieve biocompatible materials for bio related applications. The hydrogels were prepared from chitosan and citral by constitutional dynamic chemistry, incorporating both molecular and supramolecular dynamic features. The hydrophobic flexible citral has been reversible immobilized onto the hydrophilic chitosan backbone via imine bonds to form amphiphilic glycodynamers, which further self-ordered through supramolecular interactions into a 3D-network of biodynameric hydrogel. The synthetic pathway has been demonstrated by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy. Studies of the hydrogel morphology revealed a 3D porous microstructure, whose pores size correlated with the crosslinking degree. Rheological investigations evidenced high elasticity, thermo-responsiveness and thixotropic behavior. As a proof of the concept, the hydrogels proved in vivo biocompatibility on laboratory mice. The paper successfully implements the constitutional dynamic chemistry in generation of chitosan high performance hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Cadiou, C; Delavoie, F; Molinari, M; Andry, M C; Gafa, V; Chuburu, F

    2010-04-23

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  17. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Andry, M C [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Reims, CNRS UMR 6229, UFR Pharmacie Reims, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, F-51100 Reims (France); Cadiou, C; Chuburu, F [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Reims, CNRS UMR 6229, UFR des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18-Europol' Agro, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Delavoie, F [Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, INSERM UMRS 926, 21 rue Clement Ader, F-51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Molinari, M [Laboratoire de Microscopies et d' Etudes des Nanostructures, UFR des Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, F-51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Gafa, V, E-mail: gaelle.roullin@univ-reims.fr, E-mail: francoise.chuburu@univ-reims.fr [EA4303 ' Inflammation et Immunite de l' Epithelium Respiratoire' , IFR53, UFR de Pharmacie, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, F-51100 Reims (France)

    2010-04-23

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  18. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  19. Vectorization of copper complexes via biocompatible and biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, T; Roullin, V G; Andry, M C; Cadiou, C; Chuburu, F; Delavoie, F; Molinari, M; Gafa, V

    2010-01-01

    A double emulsion-solvent diffusion approach with fully biocompatible materials was used to encapsulate copper complexes within biodegradable nanoparticles, for which the release kinetics profiles have highlighted their potential use for a prolonged circulating administration.

  20. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  1. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  2. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  3. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF TITANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti is a non-essential metal element. TiO2 is used predominantly in the form of micro and nanoparticles in consumer products, including cosmetics and food. Because of its excellent biocompatibility, the trade-pure titan and its alloys are widely used as an alternative to certain metals in invasive medicine, surgery, dental medicine. Contemporary data concerning the sources of exposure to titanium, immune reactions to Ti alloys, current knowledge and perspectives of diagnosis of sensitization or allergic reactions to titanium are discussed. Conclusion: TiO2 is much more stable than pure Ti and alloys used in the implants, that should be taken into account when conducting research and analysing the results. The evidence of possible toxic effects is insufficient. It is difficult to assess the frequency of Ti allergy due to the uncertainty of diagnostic methods, but it is believed that it is very low. This is supported by the evidence that Ti and TiO2 (often as NP doesn’t penetrate through the healthy skin. Skin patch testing with currently available formulations of Ti and TiO2 has no significant value in clinical practice, and currently, it is assumed that there is no reliable method for diagnosis Ti allergy. The functional analysis of cytokine release and investigation of genetic characteristics could be useful for individual risk assessment in dental implantology. Such studies may also help to investigate separately early and late implant loss, as well as to develop new diagnostic tools.

  4. Fibrous scaffolds fabricated by emulsion electrospinning: from hosting capacity to in vivo biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, F.; Quarta, A.; Martelli, C.; Ottobrini, L.; Rossi, R. M.; Gigli, G.; Blasi, L.

    2016-04-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile method for preparing functional three-dimensional scaffolds. Synthetic and natural polymers have been used to produce micro- and nanofibers that mimic extracellular matrices. Here, we describe the use of emulsion electrospinning to prepare blended fibers capable of hosting aqueous species and releasing them in solution. The existence of an aqueous and a non-aqueous phase allows water-soluble molecules to be introduced without altering the structure and the degradation of the fibers, and means that their release properties under physiological conditions can be controlled. To demonstrate the loading capability and flexibility of the blend, various species were introduced, from magnetic nanoparticles and quantum rods to biological molecules. Cellular studies showed the spontaneous adhesion and alignment of cells along the fibers. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated the high biocompatibility and safety of the scaffolds up to 21 days post-implantation.Electrospinning is a versatile method for preparing functional three-dimensional scaffolds. Synthetic and natural polymers have been used to produce micro- and nanofibers that mimic extracellular matrices. Here, we describe the use of emulsion electrospinning to prepare blended fibers capable of hosting aqueous species and releasing them in solution. The existence of an aqueous and a non-aqueous phase allows water-soluble molecules to be introduced without altering the structure and the degradation of the fibers, and means that their release properties under physiological conditions can be controlled. To demonstrate the loading capability and flexibility of the blend, various species were introduced, from magnetic nanoparticles and quantum rods to biological molecules. Cellular studies showed the spontaneous adhesion and alignment of cells along the fibers. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated the high biocompatibility and safety of the scaffolds up to 21 days post

  5. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation techniques in the formulation of synthetic biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, Isao

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the uses of various radiation techniques, such as radiation polymerization, grafting, and crosslinking, for the formulation of synthetic biomaterials. The biomaterials are divided into four categories: Biocompatible polymers, immobilized proteins, immobilized cells, and drug delivery systems. The recent achievements in each category are described, and the contributions of novel radiation techniques to this field are discussed. Work on drug delivery systemsis also reviewed, and the status of the practical applications of drug delivery systems for therapy is summarized. Future trends in the field of radiation-synthesized biomaterials are indicated. (orig.)

  7. Biomimetic modification of synthetic hydrogels by incorporation of adhesive peptides and calcium phosphate nanoparticles: in vitro evaluation of cell behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongio, M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Nejadnik, M.R.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Kinard, L.A.; Kasper, F.K.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this work was to develop a biocompatible and biomimetic in situ crosslinkable hydrogel scaffold with an instructive capacity for bone regenerative treatment. To this end, synthetic hydrogels were functionalized with two key components of the extracellular matrix of native bone

  8. Enamel surface remineralization: Using synthetic nanohydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shanti Swarup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of synthetically processed hydroxyapatite particles in remineralization of the early enamel lesions in comparison with 2% sodium fluoride. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound human premolars were divided into nanohydroxyapatite group (n0 = 15 and the sodium fluoride group (n = 15. The specimens were subjected to demineralization before being coated with 10% aqueous slurry of 20 nm nanohydroxyapatite or 2% sodium fluoride. The remineralizing efficacy of the materials was evaluated using surface microhardness (SMH measurements, scanning microscopic analysis and analysis of the Ca/P ratio of the surface enamel. Data analysis was carried out using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: The results showed that the nanohydroxyapatite group produced a surface morphology close to the biologic enamel, the increase in mineral content (Ca/P ratio was more significant in the nanohydroxyapatite group ( P 0.05. Conclusion: The use of biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite as a remineralizing agent holds promise as a new synthetic enamel biocompatible material to repair early carious lesions.

  9. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  10. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  11. Self-assembly of supramolecular triarylamine nanowires in mesoporous silica and biocompatible electrodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licsandru, Erol-Dan; Schneider, Susanne; Tingry, Sophie; Ellis, Thomas; Moulin, Emilie; Maaloum, Mounir; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Barboiu, Mihail; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting electronic pathways crossing the silica layer. They allow very efficient charge transfer from the redox species in solution to the gold surface. We demonstrate the potential of these hybrid constitutional materials by implementing them as biocathodes and by measuring laccase activity that reduces dioxygen to produce water.Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting

  12. Origanum vulgare mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles simultaneously possessing plasmonic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedec D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Benedec,1,* Ilioara Oniga,1,* Flavia Cuibus,1 Bogdan Sevastre,2 Gabriela Stiufiuc,3 Mihaela Duma,4 Daniela Hanganu,1 Cristian Iacovita,1 Rares Stiufiuc,1,5 Constantin Mihai Lucaciu1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3Faculty of Physics, “Babeş Bolyai” University, 4State Veterinary Laboratory for Animal Health and Safety, 5Department of Bionanoscopy, MedFuture Research Center for Advance Medicine, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The leaves and flowering stem of Origanum vulgare contain essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. We propose a new, simple, one-pot, O. vulgare extract (OVE mediated green synthesis method of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs possessing improved antioxidant, antimicrobial and plasmonic properties.Materials and methods: Different concentrations of OVEs were used to reduce gold ions and to synthetize biocompatible spherical AuNPs. Their morphology and physical properties have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas their plasmonic properties have been tested using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The antioxidant properties of nanoparticles (NPs have been evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and the antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. Their cytotoxicity has been assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.Results: The experimental results confirmed the successful synthesis of biocompatible, spherical, plasmonic NPs having a mean diameter of ~40 nm and an outstanding aqueous

  13. Natural and synthetic biomaterials for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Jee-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Young, Seok-Beom; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of delivery systems have been developed and many products based on the drug delivery technology are commercially available. The development of controlled-release technologies accelerated new dosage form design by altering pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of given drugs, resulting in improved efficacy and safety. Various natural or synthetic polymers have been applied to make matrix, reservoir or implant forms due to the characteristics of polymers, especially ease of control for modifications of biocompatibility, biodegradation, porosity, charge, mechanical strength and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. Hydrogel is a hydrophilic, polymeric network capable of imbibing large amount of water and biological fluids. This review article introduces various applications of natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels from pharmaceutical, biomedical and bioengineering points of view.

  14. Construction of synthetic dermis and skin based on a self-assembled peptide hydrogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bunsho; Kadomatsu, Koichi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2009-09-01

    Using biocompatible peptide hydrogel as a scaffold, we prepared three-dimensional synthetic skin that does not contain animal-derived materials or pathogens. The present study investigated preparation methods, proliferation, and functional expression of fibroblasts in the synthetic dermis and differentiation of keratinocytes in the epidermis. Synthetic dermis was prepared by mixing fibroblasts with peptide hydrogel, and synthetic skin was prepared by forming an epidermal layer using keratinocytes on the synthetic dermis. A fibroblast-rich foamy layer consisting of homogeneous peptide hydrogel subsequently formed in the synthetic dermis, with fibroblasts aggregating in clusters within the septum. The epidermis consisted of three to five keratinocyte layers. Immunohistochemical staining showed human type I collagen, indicating functional expression around fibroblasts in the synthetic dermis, keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis, and expression of basement membrane proteins. The number of fibroblasts tended to increase until the second week and was maintained until the fourth week, but rapidly decreased in the fifth week. In the synthetic dermis medium, the human type I collagen concentration increased after the second week to the fifth week. These findings suggest that peptide hydrogel acts as a synthetic skin scaffold that offers a platform for the proliferation and functional expression of fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  15. Microfabrication of biocompatible hydrogels by proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kimura, Atsushi; Idesaki, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2017-10-01

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials is expected to be widely applied in biomedical engineering and regenerative medicine fields. Hydrogel has been expected as a biocompatible scaffold which support to keep an organ shape during cell multiplying in regenerative medicine. Therefore, it is important to understanding a surface microstructure (minute shape, depth of flute) and a chemical characteristic of the hydrogel affecting the cell culture. Here, we investigate the microfabrication of biocompatible polymeric materials, such as the water-soluble polysaccharide derivatives hydroxypropyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, by use of proton beam writing (PBW). These polymeric materials were dissolved thoroughly in pure water using a planetary centrifugal mixer, and a sample sheet (1 mm thick) was formed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Crosslinking to form hydrogels was induced using a 3.0 MeV focused proton beam from the single-ended accelerator at Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application. The aqueous samples were horizontally irradiated with the proton beam through the PET cover film, and then rinsed with deionized water. Microstructured hydrogels were obtained on the PET film using the PBW technique without toxic crosslinking reagents. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the microfabricated biocompatible hydrogels were investigated. Microfabrication of HPC and CMC by the use of PBW is expected to produce new biocompatible materials that can be applied in biological and medical applications.

  16. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni

    2017-10-12

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  17. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni; Campagnolo, Paola; Perez, Jose E.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Georgiou, Theoni K.; Regoutz, Anna; Payne, David J; Stevens, Molly M.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  18. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  19. Determination of Ca, P, Sr and Mg in the synthetic biomaterial aragonite by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadesse, H.; Derrien, A.C.; Lucas-Girot, A.

    2004-01-01

    In orthopaedic surgery, synthetic biomaterials encountered a great success. In this work, the 'in-vivo' behaviour of aragonite synthesized in our laboratory was studied. The in vivo experiments have been carried out on femurs sites of nine ovine. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the ossification kinetics of synthetic aragonite. The content of several elements (Ca, P, Sr and Mg and phosphorous to calcium ratio) were determined versus time after implantation. Results showed that the biomaterial undergoes a lot of transformations during time. The chemical composition of the aragonite was modified and progress to become close to that of an ovine bone. Biological studies assess its biocompatibility. (author)

  20. Biocompatible Nanoengineering of Graphene based Materials for Sensor Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab

    Personalized healthcare and diagnostics is one of the most active areas of research in both academia and industry. Point-of-care sensing devices for monitoring and regulating from simple ions to large complex molecules are essential in our everyday life. These simple and inexpensive devices permit...... for novel glucose biosensing. In the next step, the pre-synthesized biocompatible graphene was functionalized with a redox active molecule, ferrocene. The as synthesized redox active and biocompatible graphene was further functionalized with enzymes and used for glucose and cholesterol biosensing. Finally...

  1. [Study on biocompatibility of MIM 316L stainless steel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Boyun

    2007-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of metal powder injection molding (MIM) 316L stainless steel. The percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of MIM 316L stainless steel, and titanium implant materials for clinical application were used as control. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out. The statistical analyses show that there are no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05), which demonstrate that MIM 316L stainless steel has good biocompatibility.

  2. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  3. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  4. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  5. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  6. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  7. Immunomodulating activities of soluble synthetic polymer-bound drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríhová, Blanka

    2002-09-13

    The introduction of a synthetic material into the body always affects different body systems, including the defense system. Synthetic polymers are usually thymus-independent antigens with only a limited ability to elicit antibody formation or to induce a cellular immune response against them. However, there are many other ways that they influence or can be used to influence the immune system of the host. Low-immunogenic water-soluble synthetic polymers sometimes exhibit significant immunomodulating activity, mainly concerning the activation/suppression of NK cells, LAK cells and macrophages. Some of them, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide], can be used as effective protein carriers, as they are able to reduce the immunogenicity of conjugated proteins and/or to reduce non-specific uptake of liposome/nanoparticle-entrapped drugs and other therapeutic agents. Recently, the development of vaccine delivery systems prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible water-soluble synthetic polymers, microspheres, liposomes and/or nanoparticles has received considerable attention, as they can be tailored to meet the specific physical, chemical, and immunogenic requirements of a particular antigen and some of them can also act as adjuvants. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Synthesis of biocompatible polymers by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work biocompatible polymers were synthesized by plasma based on pyrrole, ethyleneglycol and allylamine. These monomers are biologically important because they contain oxygen and nitrogen in their structure and they form bonding like; N-H, C-N, C-O and O-H that are also in the human system. The polymers were synthesized with splendor electric discharges to 13.5 MHz, among 10 and 100 W, resistive coupling, pressure of 10 -1 mbar and 180 minutes of reaction. The interaction of the biological systems with biomaterials depends in many cases of the properties that present the surfaces, because the rough and/or porous surfaces favor the adherence of cells. The results indicate that the ruggedness of the polymers can be controlled with the synthesis energy, since when modifying it flat and/or rough surfaces they are obtained. The compatibility of water with other solutions that it is a form of increasing the adhesion of cells with biopolymers. The affinity with water and solutions is evaluated calculating the contact angle of the polymers surface with drops of concentration solutions and similar composition to the extracellular liquid of the spinal marrow of the human body. The solutions that were proven were based on NaCl, NaCl-MgSO 4 , and a mixture Krebs-Ringer that has chemical composition and similar concentration to that of the fluids of the spinal marrow. In the Poly pyrrole (PPy)/Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) copolymer, the biggest angles corresponded to the Krebs-Ringer solution, in the interval of 18 to 14 degrees and those lowest to the NaCl solution, of 14.5 at 11 degrees. The Poly allylamine had the more high values with water in the interval of 16.5 to 12.5 degrees and those lowest with the NaCl solution, of 13 at 9.5 degrees. On the other hand, in the derived polymers of pyrrole the more high values corresponded to the treatment with water, until 37, and those lowest to the NaCl-MgSO 4 solution, up to 10. The solutions where participated NaCl its produced

  9. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.; Rajesh, S.; Jayalakshmi, A.; Mohan, D., E-mail: mohantarun@gmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. Highlights: • Carboxylated PEI was prepared and utilized as hydrophilic modification agent. • CPEI incorporated into PAN to improved biocompatibility and cyto compatibility • Biocompatibility of membranes was correlated with morphology and hydrophilicity. • Antifouling studies of the PAN/CPEI membranes was studied by BSA as model foulant.

  10. Polyaniline cryogels: Biocompatibility of novel conducting macroporous material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíček, P.; Radaszkiewicz, K. A.; Capáková, Z.; Pacherník, J.; Bober, Patrycja; Kašpárková, V.; Rejmontová, P.; Lehocký, M.; Ponížil, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, 09 January (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 135. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * cryogel * biocompatibility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. Heating ability and biocompatibility study of silica-coated magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 6. Heating ability and biocompatibility study of silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as heating mediators for magnetic hyperthermia and magnetically triggered drug delivery systems. Meysam Soleymani Mohammad Edrissi. Volume 38 Issue 6 October 2015 ...

  12. Novel Development of Biocompatible Coatings for Bone Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Yue Hou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged life expectancy also results in an increased need for high-performance orthopedic implants. It has been shown that a compromised tissue-implant interface could lead to adverse immune-responses and even the dislodging of the implant. To overcome these obstacles, our research team has been seeking ways to decrease the risk of faulty tissue-implant interfaces by improving the biocompatibility and the osteo-inductivity of conventional orthopedic implants using ultrafine particle coatings. These particles were enriched with various bioactive additives prior to coating, and the coated biomaterial surfaces exhibited significantly increased biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Physical assessments firstly confirmed the proper incorporation of the bioactive additives after examining their surface chemical composition. Then, in vitro assays demonstrated the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of the coated surfaces by studying the morphology of attached cells and their mineralization abilities. In addition, by quantifying the responses, activities and gene expressions, cellular evaluations confirmed the positive effects of these polymer based bioactive coatings. Consequently, the bioactive ultrafine polymer particles demonstrated their ability in improving the biocompatibility and osteo-inductivity of conventional orthopedic implants. As a result, our research team hope to apply this technology to the field of orthopedic implants by making them more effective medical devices through decreasing the risk of implant-induced immune responses and the loosening of the implant.

  13. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiHua Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs. After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent.

  14. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  15. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  16. Chemical communication between synthetic and natural cells: a possible experimental design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Leoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The bottom-up construction of synthetic cells is one of the most intriguing and interesting research arenas in synthetic biology. Synthetic cells are built by encapsulating biomolecules inside lipid vesicles (liposomes, allowing the synthesis of one or more functional proteins. Thanks to the in situ synthesized proteins, synthetic cells become able to perform several biomolecular functions, which can be exploited for a large variety of applications. This paves the way to several advanced uses of synthetic cells in basic science and biotechnology, thanks to their versatility, modularity, biocompatibility, and programmability. In the previous WIVACE (2012 we presented the state-of-the-art of semi-synthetic minimal cell (SSMC technology and introduced, for the first time, the idea of chemical communication between synthetic cells and natural cells. The development of a proper synthetic communication protocol should be seen as a tool for the nascent field of bio/chemical-based Information and Communication Technologies (bio-chem-ICTs and ultimately aimed at building soft-wet-micro-robots. In this contribution (WIVACE, 2013 we present a blueprint for realizing this project, and show some preliminary experimental results. We firstly discuss how our research goal (based on the natural capabilities of biological systems to manipulate chemical signals finds a proper place in the current scientific and technological contexts. Then, we shortly comment on the experimental approaches from the viewpoints of (i synthetic cell construction, and (ii bioengineering of microorganisms, providing up-to-date results from our laboratory. Finally, we shortly discuss how autopoiesis can be used as a theoretical framework for defining synthetic minimal life, minimal cognition, and as bridge between synthetic biology and artificial intelligence.

  17. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  18. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  19. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  20. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  1. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  2. DENTAL MATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SAVIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of the students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi on the biocompatibility of the dental materials used in current practice. To this end, we elaborated our own questionnaire, including 10 questions to which 92 students from the last 2 years of study answered. The questionnaire cotains assertions on the potential toxic reactions of the most frequently used dental materials. The students answered correctly to the questions related to the biocompatibility of certain dental materials, such as glass-ionomer cement and calcium hydroxide, and they recognized that allergic reactions determined by acrylic resins may occur. We also noticed the lack of knowledge referring to the irreversible modifications produced by the tooth whitening substances on the enamel and dentin, as well as to the side effects produced by dental amalgam.

  3. Biomolecular modification of zirconia surfaces for enhanced biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yao, Chun-Hsu [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Pai-Ling [Taoyuan General Hospital, Taoyuan 33004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Shih-Ching, E-mail: scwu@ctust.edu.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-01

    Yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is a preferred biomaterial due to its good mechanical properties. In order to improve the biocompatibility of zirconia, RGD-peptide derived from extracellular matrix proteins was employed to modify the surface of Y-TZP to promote cell adhesion in this study. The surface of Y-TZP specimens was first modified using a hydrothermal method for different lengths of time. The topographies of modified Y-TZP specimens were analyzed by contact angle, XRD, FTIR, AFM, and FE-SEM. The mechanical properties were evaluated using Vickers hardness and three point bending strength. Then, the RGD-peptide was immobilized on the surface of the Y-TZP by chemical treatment. These RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP specimens were characterized by FTIR and AFM, and then were cocultured with MG-63 osteoblast cells for biocompatibility assay. The cell morphology and proliferation were evaluated by SEM, WST-1, and ALP activity assay. The XRD results indicated that the phase transition, from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase, was increased with a longer incubation time of hydrothermal treatment. However, there were no significant differences in mechanical strengths after RGD-peptide was successfully grafted onto the Y-TZP surface. The SEM images showed that the MG-63 cells appeared polygonal, spindle-shaped, and attached on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP. The proliferation and cellular activities of MG-63 cells on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP were better than that on the unmodified Y-TZP. From the above results, the RGD-peptide can be successfully grafted onto the hydrothermal modified Y-TZP surface. The RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP can increase cell adhesion, and thus, improve the biocompatibility of Y-TZP. - Highlights: • Covalent bonding between peptide and Y-TZP was proposed. • Stable biomimetic structures produced on the surface of zirconia. • The biocompatibility was improved.

  4. Biocompatibility of orthopaedic implants on bone forming cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanen, A. (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer antler was studied for its possible use as a bone implant material. A molecular biological study showed that antler contains a growth factor promoting bone formation. Ectopic bone formation assay showed that antler is not an equally effective inducer as allogenic material. Ectopic bone formation assay was optimised for biocompatibility studies of orthopaedic NiTi implants. Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel were used as reference materials. The assay...

  5. Biocompatibility of Polyhydroxybutyrate Microspheres: in vitro and in vivo Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shishatskaya, Ekaterina I.; Voinova, Olga N.; Goreva, Anastasya V.; Mogilnaya, Olga A.; Volova, Tatiana G.

    2008-01-01

    Microspheres have been prepared from the resorbable linear polyester of β-hydroxybutyric acid (polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB) by the solvent evaporation technique and investigated in vitro and in vivo. Biocompatibility of the microspheres has been proved in tests in the culture of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3Т3 and in experiments on intramuscular implantation of the microspheres to Wistar rats for 3 months. Tissue response to the implantation of polymeric microspheres has been found to consist...

  6. Synthetic Hydroxyapatite as a Biomimetic Oral Care Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Joachim; Epple, Matthias

    Human tooth enamel consists mostly of minerals, primarily hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, and thus synthetic hydroxyapatite can be used as a biomimetic oral care agent. This review describes the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from a chemist's perspective and provides an overview of its current use in oral care, with a focus on dentin hypersensitivity, caries, biofilm management, erosion, and enamel lesions. Reviews and original research papers published in English and German were included. The efficiency of synthetic hydroxyapatite in occluding open dentin tubules, resulting in a protection for sensitive teeth, has been well documented in a number of clinical studies. The first corresponding studies on caries, biofilm management and erosion have provided evidence for a positive effect of hydroxyapatite either as a main or synergistic agent in oral care products. However, more in situ and in vivo studies are needed due to the complexity of the oral milieu and to further clarify existing results. Due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biologically formed hydroxyapatite in natural tooth enamel, synthetic hydroxyapatite is a promising biomimetic oral care ingredient that may extend the scope of preventive dentistry.

  7. Biocompatibility of Chitosan Carriers with Application in Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is one of the most used polysaccharides in the design of drug delivery strategies for administration of either biomacromolecules or low molecular weight drugs. For these purposes, it is frequently used as matrix forming material in both nano and micron-sized particles. In addition to its interesting physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, which include high mucoadhesion and a great capacity to produce drug delivery systems, ensuring the biocompatibility of the drug delivery vehicles is a highly relevant issue. Nevertheless, this subject is not addressed as frequently as desired and even though the application of chitosan carriers has been widely explored, the demonstration of systems biocompatibility is still in its infancy. In this review, addressing the biocompatibility of chitosan carriers with application in drug delivery is discussed and the methods used in vitro and in vivo, exploring the effect of different variables, are described. We further provide a discussion on the pros and cons of used methodologies, as well as on the difficulties arising from the absence of standardization of procedures.

  8. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dephne Jack Xin Leong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL, releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (PLGA, releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology, MTT assay (cell proliferation and a cytokine (IL-8 ELISA test (biocompatibility. Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01 or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01. In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01 and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01. Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes.

  9. Biocompatibility of root filling pastes used in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C C B; Conde Júnior, A M; Rizzo, M S; Moura, R D; Moura, M S; Lima, M D M; Moura, L F A D

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of two pastes designed to fill the root canals of primary teeth. A study group of 54 mice received subcutaneous tissue implants of polyethylene tubes containing CTZ or calcium hydroxide paste or, as a negative control, empty tubes. Biocompatibility was evaluated on days 7, 21 and 63, yielding a total of nine groups of six animals each. Following the experimental intervals, the implant areas were removed and subjected to histologic processing. After the tissues were stained with HE and Masson trichrome, two pathologists performed a histologic analysis of the samples in a blinded manner. Collagen fibre formation, tissue thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration were analysed qualitatively. Quantitative morphometry was performed for the thickness, perimeter length and tissue area of the region in direct contact with the open tube. anova with the Tukey post-test and Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's post-test, with significance established as P tube decreased during the experimental periods in all groups. The CTZ and calcium hydroxide pastes demonstrated biocompatibility with subcutaneous tissue in this experimental model. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Endodontic Sealers Incorporating Antibacterial Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Abramovitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of endodontic disease is bacteria. Disinfection is presently achieved by cleaning the root canal system prior to obturation. Following setting, root canal filling is devoid of any antibacterial effect. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial properties yet biocompatible may enhance root canal therapy. For this purpose, quaternized polyethylenimine nanoparticles which are antibacterial polymers, biocompatible, nonvolatile, and stable may be used. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of added QPEI on the cytotoxicity of AH Plus, Epiphany, and GuttaFlow endodontic sealers. The effect of these sealers on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage and L-929 fibroblast cell lines and on the production of TNFα from macrophages was examined. Cell vitality was evaluated using a colorimetric XTT assay. The presence of cytokines was determined by two-site ELISA. Results show that QPEI at 1% concentration does not impair the basic properties of the examined sealers in both macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. Incorporation of 1% QPEI into the sealers did not impair their biocompatibility. QPEI is a potential clinical candidate to improve antibacterial activity of sealers without increasing cytotoxicity.

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  12. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  13. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  14. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  15. Dynamic and biocompatible thermo-responsive magnetic hydrogels that respond to an alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippa, Federica; Moore, Thomas L.; Mortato, Mariangela; Geers, Christoph; Haeni, Laetitia [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Hirt, Ann M. [Institute for Geophysics, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are a new class of materials that have recently attracted interest in biomedicine due to their ability to change phase upon magnetic stimulation. They have been used for drug release, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and can potentially be engineered as stimuli-responsive substrates for cell mechanobiology. In this regard, we propose a series of magnetic thermo-responsive nanocomposite substrates that undergo cyclical swelling and de-swelling phases when actuated by an alternating magnetic field in aqueous environment. The synthetized substrates are obtained with a facile and reproducible method from poly-N-isopropylacrylamide and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Their conformation and the temperature-related, magnetic, and biological behaviors were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, alternating magnetic field stimulation and indirect viability assays. The nanocomposites showed no cytotoxicity with fibroblast cells, and exhibited swelling/de-swelling behavior near physiological temperatures (around 34 °C). Therefore these magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogels are promising materials as stimuli-responsive substrates allowing the study of cell-behavior by changing the hydrogel properties in situ. - Highlights: • A magnetic thermo-responsive hydrogel for mechanobiology is proposed. • Hydrogels change phase upon magnetic stimulation near physiological temperature. • Phase changes are reversible and triggered in an aqueous environment. • The hydrogels are biocompatible for murine fibroblast cells.

  16. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  17. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  18. Bioprinting synthetic self-assembling peptide hydrogels for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, Yihua; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a disruptive technology for creating organotypic constructs for high-throughput screening and regenerative medicine. One major challenge is the lack of suitable bioinks. Short synthetic self-assembling peptides are ideal candidates. Several classes of peptides self-assemble into nanofibrous hydrogels resembling the native extracellular matrix. This is a conducive microenvironment for maintaining cell survival and physiological function. Many peptides also demonstrate stimuli-responsive gelation and tuneable mechanical properties, which facilitates extrusion before dispensing and maintains the shape fidelity of the printed construct in aqueous media. The inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability bodes well for in vivo applications as implantable tissues and drug delivery matrices, while their short length and ease of functionalization facilitates synthesis and customization. By applying self-assembling peptide inks to bioprinting, the dynamic complexity of biological tissue can be recreated, thereby advancing current biomedical applications of peptide hydrogel scaffolds. (paper)

  19. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  20. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  1. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  2. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  3. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  4. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  6. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  8. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  9. Synthesis of biocompatible polymers by plasma; Sintesis de polimeros biocompatibles por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin O, E

    2007-07-01

    In this work biocompatible polymers were synthesized by plasma based on pyrrole, ethyleneglycol and allylamine. These monomers are biologically important because they contain oxygen and nitrogen in their structure and they form bonding like; N-H, C-N, C-O and O-H that are also in the human system. The polymers were synthesized with splendor electric discharges to 13.5 MHz, among 10 and 100 W, resistive coupling, pressure of 10{sup -1} mbar and 180 minutes of reaction. The interaction of the biological systems with biomaterials depends in many cases of the properties that present the surfaces, because the rough and/or porous surfaces favor the adherence of cells. The results indicate that the ruggedness of the polymers can be controlled with the synthesis energy, since when modifying it flat and/or rough surfaces they are obtained. The compatibility of water with other solutions that it is a form of increasing the adhesion of cells with biopolymers. The affinity with water and solutions is evaluated calculating the contact angle of the polymers surface with drops of concentration solutions and similar composition to the extracellular liquid of the spinal marrow of the human body. The solutions that were proven were based on NaCl, NaCl-MgSO{sub 4}, and a mixture Krebs-Ringer that has chemical composition and similar concentration to that of the fluids of the spinal marrow. In the Poly pyrrole (PPy)/Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) copolymer, the biggest angles corresponded to the Krebs-Ringer solution, in the interval of 18 to 14 degrees and those lowest to the NaCl solution, of 14.5 at 11 degrees. The Poly allylamine had the more high values with water in the interval of 16.5 to 12.5 degrees and those lowest with the NaCl solution, of 13 at 9.5 degrees. On the other hand, in the derived polymers of pyrrole the more high values corresponded to the treatment with water, until 37, and those lowest to the NaCl-MgSO{sub 4} solution, up to 10. The solutions where participated Na

  10. Natural and Synthetic Biohydrogels Design, Characterization, Network Structure Imaging and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorat, Clement

    Biocompatible hydrogels can be derived from materials that are naturally obtained, such as proteins or polysaccharides, or synthetic, such as poloxamers. In order to be classified as biocompatible, these water-swollen networks can not trigger a toxic response once introduced into a biological or physiological environment and, therefore, must be immunoneutral. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels can be great candidates for tissue engineering applications as long as the cross-linking chemistry and process does not affect the biocompatibility of the natural protein matrix. Thermoreversible hydrogels have the advantage of undergoing a sol/gel phase transition at specific temperatures. Thus, they are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing coatings or cellular scaffolds. Although these hydrogels can be used in their natural form without further modification or chemical alteration, the original protein or polymer matrix is often strengthened by the use of a crosslinking agent to achieve a specific set of properties. In the case of gelatin fibril formation at low temperatures or the micellization of triblock copolymers in solution with temperature increase, the natural phase transition is modified when crosslinkers are introduced to alter the biohydrogels properties and, ultimately, disturb the system's equilibrium. By using spectroscopy techniques, rheology and cryo-imaging we investigated several biocompatible polymeric networks in their natural form as well as their engineered structures to better understand the mechanisms of gelation and artificial internal re-organization of the networks. Natural and synthetic biohydrogels were designed and their mechanical properties were characterized before imaging. Models that better describe the relationship between network configuration and resulting mechanical properties showed great agreement with experimental mesh size observations. Finally, a novel set of hybrid gels was developed

  11. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  12. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  13. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  14. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  15. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  16. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  17. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Methods Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene

  18. A rheological and microscopical characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J.; Wolf, D.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in the biomedical area. Those ferrofluids are e.g. used for magnetic resonance imaging and emerging research focuses on employing the fluids for magnetic drug targeting or magnetic particle heating as a potential treatment for cancer. For these applications the knowledge of the suspensions' thermophysical properties is of major interest to guarantee a safe and effective application. Therefore the flow behavior cannot be neglected as it might significantly influence the execution of the aforementioned applications. In this experimental study two biocompatible ferrofluids were investigated. Rheological measurements were carried out using rotational rheometry. To allow an interpretation of the fluids' behavior the microscopic make-up was investigated using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of diluted ferrofluids were carried out as a first step to simulate the rheological behavior reflecting the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles found in blood flow for most biomedical applications of such fluids. The detected strong effects show the potential to significantly influence application and handling of the biocompatible ferrofluids in the medical area and should therefore be taken into account for further research as well as for the application of such fluids. - Highlights: • The rheology of biocompatible multicore ferrofluids is influenced by magnetic fields. • The flow curves can be described by the Herschel–Bulkley model. • A connection between the magnetoviscous effect and the particle size is found. • The strong magnetoviscous effect exists even if the fluids are diluted. • The connection between the effect and the dilution is mathematically described

  19. Ultrasound-assisted fabrication of a biocompatible magnetic hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Song, Wei; Hou, Yongzhao; Li, Qing; Deng, Xuliang; Fan, Yubo

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of a biocompatible magnetic hydroxyapatite (HA) using an ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and chemical composition of the produced samples. The M-H loops of synthesized materials were traced using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and the biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Furthermore, in vivo histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the potential toxicological effects of Fe₃O₄-HA composites on kidney of SD rats injected intraperitoneally with Fe₃O₄-HA particles. The results showed that magnetic iron oxide particles first replace OH ions of HA, which are parallel to the c axis, and then enter the HA crystal lattice which produces changes in the crystal surface of HA. Chemical bond interaction was observed between PO₄³⁻ groups of HA and iron ions of Fe₃O₄. The saturation magnetization (MS ) of Fe₃O₄-HA composites was 46.36 emu/g obtained from VSM data. Cell culture and MTT assays indicated that HA could affect the growth and proliferation of HEK-293 cells. This Fe₃O₄-HA composite produced no negative effects on cell morphology, viability, and proliferation and exhibited remarkable biocompatibility. Moreover, no inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in kidney histopathology slices. Therefore, this study succeeds to develop a Fe₃O₄-HA composite as a prospective biomagnetic material for future applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A capillary viscometer designed for the characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, J., E-mail: johannes.nowak@tu-dresden.de; Odenbach, S.

    2016-08-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles are receiving a growing interest in biomedical research. These ferrofluids can, e.g., be used for the treatment of cancer, making use of the drug targeting principle or using an artificially induced heating. To enable a safe application the basic properties of the ferrofluids have to be well understood, including the viscosity of the fluids if an external magnetic field is applied. It is well known that the viscosity of ferrofluids rises if a magnetic field is applied, where the rise depends on shear rate and magnetic field strength. In case of biocompatible ferrofluids such investigations proved to be rather complicated as the experimental setup should be close to the actual application to allow justified predictions of the effects which have to be expected. Thus a capillary viscometer, providing a flow situation comparable to the flow in a blood vessel, has been designed. The glass capillary is exchangeable and different inner diameters can be used. The range of the shear rates has been adapted to the range found in the human organism. The application of an external magnetic field is enabled with two different coil setups covering the ranges of magnetic field strengths required on the one hand for a theoretical understanding of particle interaction and resulting changes in viscosity and on the other hand for values necessary for a potential biomedical application. The results show that the newly designed capillary viscometer is suitable to measure the magnetoviscous effect in biocompatible ferrofluids and that the results appear to be consistent with data measured with rotational rheometry. In addition, a strong change of the flow behaviour of a biocompatible ferrofluid was proven for ranges of the shear rate and the magnetic field strength expected for a potential biomedical application. - Highlights: • A capillary viscometer to characterize biocompatible ferrofluids is presented. • Shear rates and capillary diameters

  1. Biocompatible implants and methods of making and attaching the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, Adrian P; Laude, Lucien D; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Lotfi, Atoosa; Markland, Jr., Francis S

    2014-10-07

    The invention provides a biocompatible silicone implant that can be securely affixed to living tissue through interaction with integral membrane proteins (integrins). A silicone article containing a laser-activated surface is utilized to make the implant. One example is an implantable prosthesis to treat blindness caused by outer retinal degenerative diseases. The device bypasses damaged photoreceptors and electrically stimulates the undamaged neurons of the retina. Electrical stimulation is achieved using a silicone microelectrode array (MEA). A safe, protein adhesive is used in attaching the MEA to the retinal surface and assist in alleviating focal pressure effects. Methods of making and attaching such implants are also provided.

  2. Histological evaluation of biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa otoliths in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Talita Santos; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Oliveira, Clauberto Rodrigues de; UNIT-Universidade Tiradentes/ ITP- Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Melo, Genecy Calado de; Santos, José Cleveilton dos; Rodrigues, Sheyla Alves; Xavier-Filho, Lauro; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti de

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Cynoscion acoupa´s otoliths by in vivo assays performed in Wistar rats. The material was prepared using 2g of powded Cynoscion acoupa’s otoliths and 0.5g of hydrolyzed collagen diluted in distilled water. The biological tests consisted of the use of 24 Wistar rats, which were implanted in polyethylene tubes containing otoliths (HI) on the right side of the back, empty tubes (IC) on the left. The animals were euthanized 3, 7 and...

  3. Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Cristiana; Nasr, Babak; Hudson, Emma J.; Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian P.; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation. PMID:29657752

  4. Biocompatibility of root-end filling materials: recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Saxena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a root-end filling is to establish a seal between the root canal space and the periradicular tissues. As root-end filling materials come into contact with periradicular tissues, knowledge of the tissue response is crucial. Almost every available dental restorative material has been suggested as the root-end material of choice at a certain point in the past. This literature review on root-end filling materials will evaluate and comparatively analyse the biocompatibility and tissue response to these products, with primary focus on newly introduced materials.

  5. Bulk metallic glass matrix composite for good biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjoub, F; Metiri, W; Doghmane, A; Hadjoub, Z

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement volume fraction effects on acoustical parameters of Zr 41.2 Ti 13.8 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 matrix composites reinforced by Mg, Ag and Cd metals have been studied via a simulation program based on acoustic microscopy technique. Moreover, acoustical parameters of human bone were compared to those of BMGs in both monolithic and reinforced case. It was found that elastic behavior of BMGs matrix composites in high reinforcement volume fraction is similar of that of human bone. This behavior leads to high biocompatibility and good transfer of stress between composite material and human system.

  6. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  7. Science and technology of biocompatible thin films for implantable biomedical devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Kabius, B.; Auciello, O.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reviewing research to develop two critical biocompatible film technologies to enable implantable biomedical devices, namely: (1) development of bioinert/biocompatible coatings for encapsulation of Si chips implantable in the human body (e.g., retinal prosthesis implantable in the human eye) - the coating involves a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film or hybrid biocompatible oxide/UNCD layered films; and (2) development of biocompatible films with high-dielectric constant and microfabrication process to produce energy storage super-capacitors embedded in the microchip to achieve full miniaturization for implantation into the human body.

  8. Stealth Biocompatible Si-Based Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Arnaud; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Angeletti, Bernard; Masion, Armand; Da Silva, Afitz; Daurat, Morgane; Lichon, Laure; Garcia, Marcel; Morère, Alain; El Cheikh, Khaled; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique; Auffan, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    A challenge regarding the design of nanocarriers for drug delivery is to prevent their recognition by the immune system. To improve the blood residence time and prevent their capture by organs, nanoparticles can be designed with stealth properties using polymeric coating. In this study, we focused on the influence of surface modification with polyethylene glycol and/or mannose on the stealth behavior of porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNP, ~200 nm). In vivo biodistribution of pSiNPs formulations were evaluated in mice 5 h after intravenous injection. Results indicated that the distribution in the organs was surface functionalization-dependent. Pristine pSiNPs and PEGylated pSiNPs were distributed mainly in the liver and spleen, while mannose-functionalized pSiNPs escaped capture by the spleen, and had higher blood retention. The most efficient stealth behavior was observed with PEGylated pSiNPs anchored with mannose that were the most excreted in urine at 5 h. The biodegradation kinetics evaluated in vitro were in agreement with these in vivo observations. The biocompatibility of the pristine and functionalized pSiNPs was confirmed in vitro on human cell lines and in vivo by cytotoxic and systemic inflammation investigations, respectively. With their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stealth properties, the pSiNPs functionalized with mannose and PEG show promising potential for biomedical applications. PMID:28946628

  9. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  10. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farquar, G; Leif, R

    2008-09-12

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are being used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres are being produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented and discussed in greater detail along with fluorescent and charge properties of the aerosols. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  11. Biocompatibility and biodegradation studies of subconjunctival implants in rabbit eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    Full Text Available Sustained ocular drug delivery is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Biodegradable subconjunctival implants with controlled drug release may circumvent these two problems. In our study, two microfilms (poly [d,l-lactide-co-glycolide] PLGA and poly[d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone] PLC were developed and evaluated for their degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the biocompatibility of both microfilms. Eighteen eyes (9 rabbits were surgically implanted with one type of microfilm in each eye. Serial anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT scans together with serial slit-lamp microscopy allowed us to measure thickness and cross-sectional area of the microfilms. In vitro studies revealed bulk degradation kinetics for both microfilms, while in vivo studies demonstrated surface erosion kinetics. Serial slit-lamp microscopy revealed no significant inflammation or vascularization in both types of implants (mean increase in vascularity grade PLGA50/50 12±0.5% vs. PLC70/30 15±0.6%; P = 0.91 over a period of 6 months. Histology, immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence also revealed no significant inflammatory reaction from either of the microfilms, which confirmed that both microfilms are biocompatible. The duration of the drug delivery can be tailored by selecting the materials, which have different degradation kinetics, to suit the desired clinical therapeutic application.

  12. Kombucha-synthesized bacterial cellulose: preparation, characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changlai; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xinyang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural biomaterial with unique properties suitable for tissue engineering applications, but it has not yet been used for preparing nerve conduits to repair peripheral nerve injuries. The objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize the Kampuchea-synthesized bacterial cellulose (KBC) and further evaluate the biocompatibility of KBC with peripheral nerve cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo. KBC membranes were composed of interwoven ribbons of about 20-100 nm in width, and had a high purity and the same crystallinity as that of cellulose Iα. The results from light and scanning electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR indicated that no significant differences in the morphology and cell function were observed between Schwann cells (SCs) cultured on KBC membranes and glass slips. We also fabricated a nerve conduit using KBC, which was implanted into the spatium intermusculare of rats. At 1, 3, and 6 weeks post-implantation, clinical chemistry and histochemistry showed that there were no significant differences in blood counts, serum biochemical parameters, and tissue reactions between implanted rats and sham-operated rats. Collectively, our data indicated that KBC possessed good biocompatibility with primary cultured SCs and KBC did not exert hematological and histological toxic effects on nerve tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in biocompatible dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piret, J.-P.; Detriche, S.; Vigneron, R.; Vankoningsloo, S.; Rolin, S.; Mejia Mendoza, J. H.; Masereel, B.; Lucas, S.; Delhalle, J.; Luizi, F.; Saout, C.; Toussaint, O.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their phenomenal electrical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been an area of intense research since their discovery in 1991. Different applications for these nanoparticles have been proposed, among others, in electronics and optics but also in the medical field. In parallel, emerging studies have suggested potential toxic effects of CNT while others did not, generating some conflicting outcomes. These discrepancies could be, in part, due to different suspension approaches used and to the agglomeration state of CNT in solution. In this study, we described a standardized protocol to obtain stable CNT suspensions, using two biocompatible dispersants (Pluronic F108 and hydroxypropylcellulose) and to estimate the concentration of CNT in solution. CNT appear to be greatly individualized in these two dispersants with no detection of remaining bundles or agglomerates after sonication and centrifugation. Moreover, CNT remained perfectly dispersed when added to culture medium used for in vitro cell experiments. We also showed that Pluronic F108 is a better dispersant than hydroxypropylcellulose. In conclusion, we have developed a standardized protocol using biocompatible surfactants to obtain reproducible and stable multi-walled carbon nanotubes suspensions which can be used for in vitro or in vivo toxicological studies.

  14. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  15. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y

    2009-05-01

    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  16. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  17. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na2SeO3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant ( K m) values and maximal reaction velocity ( V max) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  18. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuenan; Zheng, Yufeng; Cheng, Yan; Zhong, Shengping; Xi, Tingfei

    2009-02-01

    As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium alloys are expected to be totally degraded in the body and their biocorrosion products not deleterious to the surrounding tissues. It's critical that the alloying elements are carefully selected in consideration of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. In the present study, nine alloying elements Al, Ag, In, Mn, Si, Sn, Y, Zn and Zr were added into magnesium individually to fabricate binary Mg-1X (wt.%) alloys. Pure magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities (cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility) were evaluated by SEM, XRD, tensile test, immersion test, electrochemical corrosion test, cell culture and platelet adhesion test. The results showed that the addition of alloying elements could influence the strength and corrosion resistance of Mg. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that Mg-1Al, Mg-1Sn and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts showed no significant reduced cell viability to fibroblasts (L-929 and NIH3T3) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1); Mg-1Al and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts indicated no negative effect on viabilities of blood vessel related cells, ECV304 and VSMC. It was found that hemolysis and the amount of adhered platelets decreased after alloying for all Mg-1X alloys as compared to the pure magnesium control. The relationship between the corrosion products and the in vitro biocompatibility had been discussed and the suitable alloying elements for the biomedical applications associated with bone and blood vessel had been proposed.

  19. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  1. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  2. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  4. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  5. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  6. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  7. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Jin-Hoi Kim Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Background: Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs. Methods: Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO from GO using triethylamine (TEA as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO was characterized by ultraviolet (UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results: The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion: This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the

  8. Ocular biocompatibility of gelatin microcarriers functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Ma, David Hui-Kang [Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Given that the presence of aldehyde groups on the oxidized sugar residues may pose toxicity concerns, it is necessary to examine the safety of gelatin microcarriers (GMC) functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid (oHA) for potential ophthalmic applications. In this study, the ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarriers was investigated in vitro using primary rabbit corneal cell cultures and in vivo using the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye model. Our results showed that different types of corneal cells including epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells remain viable and actively proliferate following 2 and 4 days of exposure to test materials. In addition, similar interleukin-6 gene expression levels and comet tail lengths were seen in the presence and absence of biopolymer microcarriers, suggesting no cellular inflammation and genotoxicity. After 7 and 14 days of intracameral injection in the rabbit eyes, both the GMC samples and their counterparts functionalized with oHA were well tolerated in the ocular anterior chamber as demonstrated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Clinical observations including specular microscopic examinations, corneal topography, and corneal thickness measurements also showed that the rabbits bearing biopolymer microcarriers exhibit no signs of corneal edema and astigmatism as well as endothelial damage, indicating the absence of tissue response. It is concluded that the GMC materials functionalized with oHA (oxidation level: 10.4 ± 0.9%) are compatible toward corneal cells and ocular anterior segment tissues at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The information about the effect of coupling of aldehyde-functionalized HA to gelatin on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of biopolymer composites can be used as further development of corneal stromal cell microcarriers for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We examine in vitro and in vivo ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarrier. • Gelatin-oxidized HA

  9. Translational Applications of Nanodiamonds: From Biocompatibility to Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Kent

    Nanotechnology marks the next phase of development for drug delivery, contrast agents and gene therapy. For these novel systems to achieve success in clinical translation we must see that they are both effective and safe. Diamond nanoparticles, also known as nanodiamonds (NDs), have been gaining popularity as molecular delivery vehicles over the last decade. The uniquely faceted, carbon nanoparticles possess a number of beneficial properties that are being harnessed for applications ranging from small-molecule drug delivery to biomedical imaging and gene therapy. In addition to improving the effectiveness of a variety of therapeutics and contrast agents, initial studies indicate that NDs are biocompatible. In this work we evaluate the translational potential of NDs by demonstrating efficacy in molecular delivery and scrutinizing particle tolerance. Previous work has demonstrated that NDs are effective vehicles for the delivery of anthracycline chemotherapeutics and gadolinium(III) based contrast agents. We have sought to enhance the gains made in both areas through the addition of active targeting. We find that ND-mediated targeted delivery of epirubicin to triple negative breast cancers induces tumor regression and virtually eliminates drug toxicities. Additionally, ND-mediated delivery of the MRI contrast agent ProGlo boosts the per gadolinium relaxivity four fold, eliminates water solubility issues and effectively labels progesterone receptor expressing breast cancer cells. Both strategies open the door to the development of targeted, theranostic constructs based on NDs, capable of treating and labeling breast cancers at the same time. Although we have seen that NDs are effective vehicles for molecular delivery, for any nanoparticle to achieve clinical utility it must be biocompatible. Preliminary research has shown that NDs are non-toxic, however only a fraction of the ND-subtypes have been evaluated. Here we present an in depth analysis of the cellular

  10. Ocular biocompatibility of gelatin microcarriers functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Given that the presence of aldehyde groups on the oxidized sugar residues may pose toxicity concerns, it is necessary to examine the safety of gelatin microcarriers (GMC) functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid (oHA) for potential ophthalmic applications. In this study, the ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarriers was investigated in vitro using primary rabbit corneal cell cultures and in vivo using the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye model. Our results showed that different types of corneal cells including epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells remain viable and actively proliferate following 2 and 4 days of exposure to test materials. In addition, similar interleukin-6 gene expression levels and comet tail lengths were seen in the presence and absence of biopolymer microcarriers, suggesting no cellular inflammation and genotoxicity. After 7 and 14 days of intracameral injection in the rabbit eyes, both the GMC samples and their counterparts functionalized with oHA were well tolerated in the ocular anterior chamber as demonstrated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Clinical observations including specular microscopic examinations, corneal topography, and corneal thickness measurements also showed that the rabbits bearing biopolymer microcarriers exhibit no signs of corneal edema and astigmatism as well as endothelial damage, indicating the absence of tissue response. It is concluded that the GMC materials functionalized with oHA (oxidation level: 10.4 ± 0.9%) are compatible toward corneal cells and ocular anterior segment tissues at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The information about the effect of coupling of aldehyde-functionalized HA to gelatin on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of biopolymer composites can be used as further development of corneal stromal cell microcarriers for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We examine in vitro and in vivo ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarrier. • Gelatin-oxidized HA

  11. Synthesis and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of biocompatible branched copolymer nanocontrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson AW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander W Jackson,1,* Prashant Chandrasekharan,2,* Jian Shi,3 Steven P Rannard,4 Quan Liu,5 Chang-Tong Yang,6 Tao He1,7 1Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (ICES, 2Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A* STAR, 3Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; 5School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 7School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, HeFei University of Technology, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Branched copolymer nanoparticles (Dh =20–35 nm possessing 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid macrocycles within their cores have been synthesized and applied as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI nanosized contrast agents in vivo. These nanoparticles have been generated from novel functional monomers via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The process is very robust and synthetically straightforward. Chelation with gadolinium and preliminary in vivo experiments have demonstrated promising characteristics as MRI contrast agents with prolonged blood retention time, good biocompatibility, and an intravascular distribution. The ability of these nanoparticles to perfuse and passively target tumor cells through the enhanced permeability and retention effect is also demonstrated. These novel highly functional nanoparticle platforms have succinimidyl ester-activated benzoate functionalities within their corona, which make them suitable for future peptide conjugation and subsequent active cell-targeted MRI or the conjugation of fluorophores for bimodal imaging. We have also demonstrated that these branched copolymer nanoparticles are able to noncovalently

  12. Mechanical enhancement and in vitro biocompatibility of nanofibrous collagen-chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fengjuan; Li, Runrun; Jiang, Jianjun; Mo, Xiumei; Gu, Guofeng; Guo, Zhongwu; Chen, Zonggang

    2017-12-01

    The collagen-chitosan complex with a three-dimensional nanofiber structure was fabricated to mimic native ECM for tissue repair and biomedical applications. Though the three-dimensional hierarchical fibrous structures of collagen-chitosan composites could provide more adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, migrate and proliferation, and thus have the potential as tissue engineering scaffolding, there are still limitations in their applications due to the insufficient mechanical properties of natural materials. Because poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as biocompatible synthetic polymers can offer excellent mechanical properties, they were introduced into the collagen-chitosan composites to fabricate the mixed collagen/chitosan/PVA fibers and a sandwich structure (collagen/chitosan-TPU-collagen/chitosan) of nanofiber in order to enhance the mechanical properties of the nanofibrous collagen-chitosan scaffold. The results showed that the tensile behavior of materials was enhanced to different degrees with the difference of collagen content in the fibers. Besides the Young's modulus had no obvious changes, both the break strength and the break elongation of materials were heightened after reinforced by PVA. For the collagen-chitosan nanofiber reinforced by TPU, both the break strength and the Young's modulus of materials were heightened in different degrees with the variety of collagen content in the fibers despite the decrease of the break elongation of materials to some extent. In vitro cell test demonstrated that the materials could provide adequate environment for cell adhesion and proliferation. All these indicated that the reinforced collagen-chitosan nanofiber could be as potential scaffold for tissue engineering according to the different mechanical requirements in clinic.

  13. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  14. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  15. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit A. Evrensel...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible... Magneto -rheological Fluid (MRF) iron nano-particles were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique and coated with poly(NIPAAm). The size

  16. Whole genome expression profiling using DNA microarray for determining biocompatibility of polymeric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Wang, Zhenyu; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is an ever increasing need to find surfaces that are biocompatible for applications like medical implants and microfluidics-based cell culture systems. The biocompatibility of five different surfaces with different hydrophobicity was determined using gene expression profiling as well as more...

  17. Silk-polypyrrole biocompatible actuator performance under biologically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Jo'elen; Peterson, Ben; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    Biocompatible actuators that are capable of controlled movement and can function under biologically relevant conditions are of significant interest in biomedical fields. Previously, we have demonstrated that a composite material of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) can be formed into a bilayer device that can bend under applied voltage. Further, these silk-PPy composites can generate forces comparable to human muscle (>0.1 MPa) making them ideal candidates for interfacing with biological tissues. Here silk-PPy composite films are tested for performance under biologically relevant conditions including exposure to a complex protein serum and biologically relevant temperatures. Free-end bending actuation performance, current response, force generation and, mass degradation were investigated . Preliminary results show that when exposed to proteins and biologically relevant temperatures, these silk-PPy composites show minimal degradation and are able to generate forces and conduct currents comparable to devices tested under standard conditions. NSF.

  18. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Tsai, Shih Chang

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  19. Surface functionalized biocompatible magnetic nanospheres for cancer hyperthermia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Novosad, V.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Chen, H.; Yefremenko, V.; Pearson, J.; Torno, M.; Bader, S. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Univ. Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine

    2007-06-01

    We report a simplified single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation protocol to synthesize surface functionalized biocompatible magnetic nanospheres by using highly concentrated hydrophobic magnetite (gel) and a mixture of poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(lactic acid-block-polyethylene glycol-maleimide) (PLA-PEG-maleimide) (10:1 by mass) polymers. The as-synthesized particles are approximately spherical with an average diameter of 360-370 nm with polydispersity index of 0.12-0.18, are surface-functionalized with maleimide groups, and have saturation magnetization values of 25-40 emu/g. The efficiency of the heating induced by 400-kHz oscillating magnetic fields is compared for two samples with different magnetite loadings. Results show that these nanospheres have the potential to provide an efficient cancer-targeted hyperthermia.

  20. Biocompatible yogurt carbon dots: evaluation of utilization for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Saliha; Kara, Meryem; Demirel Kars, Meltem; Aykül, Fatmanur; Çiçekci, Hacer; Akkuş, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, carbon dots (CDs) were produced from yogurt, a fermented milk product, via microwave-assisted process (800 W) in 30 min without using any additional chemical agents. Yogurt CDs had outstanding nitrogen and oxygen ratios. These dots were monodisperse and about 2 nm sized. The toxicological assessments of yogurt carbon dots in human cancer cells and normal epithelial cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. Yogurt carbon dots had intense fluorescent signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability in living cell system. The resulting yogurt carbon dots exhibited high biocompatibility up to 7.1 mg/mL CD concentration which may find utilization in medical applications such as cellular tracking, imaging and drug delivery. Yogurt carbon dots have potential to be good diagnostic agents to visualize cancer cells which may be developed as a therapeutic carrier.

  1. Motion Control of Urea-Powered Biocompatible Hollow Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Xu; Hahn, Kersten; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-03-22

    The quest for biocompatible microswimmers powered by compatible fuel and with full motion control over their self-propulsion is a long-standing challenge in the field of active matter and microrobotics. Here, we present an active hybrid microcapsule motor based on Janus hollow mesoporous silica microparticles powered by the biocatalytic decomposition of urea at physiological concentrations. The directional self-propelled motion lasts longer than 10 min with an average velocity of up to 5 body lengths per second. Additionally, we control the velocity of the micromotor by chemically inhibiting and reactivating the enzymatic activity of urease. The incorporation of magnetic material within the Janus structure provides remote magnetic control on the movement direction. Furthermore, the mesoporous/hollow structure can load both small molecules and larger particles up to hundreds of nanometers, making the hybrid micromotor an active and controllable drug delivery microsystem.

  2. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  3. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu2004@126.com [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) values and maximal reaction velocity (V{sub max}) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  4. Biocompatibility of chitosan/Mimosa tenuiflora scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel-Estrada, Santos Adriana [Instituto de arquitectura diseño y arte, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ave. Del Charro #610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Rodríguez-Espinoza, Brenda [Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Santos-Rodríguez, Elí [ICTP Meso-American Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP-MCTP)/Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Ciudad Universitaria, Carretera Zapata Km. 4, Real del Bosque (Terán), C.P. 29040 Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Jiménez-Vega, Florinda [Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo envolvente del PRONAF y Estocolmo, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E.; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos A. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ave. Del Charro #610 norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32320 Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The porosity of the composites allow biological processes for the cell adaptation on the scaffolds. • The composites improve the viability and proliferation of cells. • Composition of the scaffold plays an important role in the biocompatibility. • The results indicate that Mimosa Tenuiflora can induce the differentiation of osteoblast cells. - Abstract: In search of a plant that exhibits osteogenic activity, Mimosa tenuiflora (M. tenuiflora) cortex represents the opportunity to create a biomaterial that, together with the chitosan, is osteoconductive and promote better and rapid regeneration of bone tissue. Thus, the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex fabricated will have properties of biocompatibility and allow the osteoblast proliferation. Composites were developed with different concentrations of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex (w/w) using thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). To analyze the effects of composite on osteoblasts, primary cultures, each sample was collected on days 1, 3 and 7 after seeding. The evaluation of composites consisted of viability and proliferation tests in which we observed the metabolic activity of the cells using MTT reagent and determined the DNA concentration by means of fluorescence. The expression of the marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was examined, allowing the observation to the activity of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Moreover, an analysis of biomineralization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that 80/20 chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex biocomposite has the best performance with osteoblasts compared to biomaterials 100/0 and 70/30 chitosan/M. tenuiflora composites. Finally, it was determined that the composite of chitosan/M. tenuiflora cortex presents no cytotoxicity and increases the capacity of the osteoblasts

  5. E-beam crosslinked, biocompatible functional hydrogels incorporating polyaniline nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M.A.; Niconov, A.; Chmieliewska, D.; Spadaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective of this research is to develop a functional soft nanocomposites platform that combines the electro-optic properties of conjugated polymer nanoparticles with process flexibility, highly hydrophilic character, 3D structure and biocompatibility of hydrogels, to yield novel soft materials with multi-application potential in diagnostic, therapeutic and regenerative medicine. PANI aqueous nanocolloids in their acid doped, inherently conductive form, are synthesised by means of suitable polymeric stabilisers, i.e. water soluble polymers, that may prevent irreversible PANI particles coalescence and precipitation during synthesis and upon storage. Depending on the nature nad concentration of the polymeric stabiliser, e.g. polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylalcohol (PVA) or chitosan (CT), PANI has been synthesised in form of nanoscalar rods, spherical particles or rice grains, respectively. In the present work, e-beam irradiation with a 12 MeV Linac accelerator has been tested, in alternative to gamma-rays, as a viable industrial methodology to generate hydrogel nanocomposites via in-situ crosslinking of the polymers already used to stabilise polyaniline nanocolloids, at low temperature, with no recourse to further addition of molecular weight chemicals and in a few minutes. In these conditions nanoparticles morphology of PANI should be preserved and interesting electro-optical properties can be imparted. The swelling properties of the different hydrogel nanocomposites have been investigated at the variance of the chemical structure of the matrix material and of the pH of the swelling medium. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies demonstrate the retained optical activity of the dispersed PANI nanoparticles when incorporated in the hydrogels. Selected formulations have been also subjected to MTT assays and absence of cytotoxicity has been ascertained as the first necessary step to assess their biocompatibility.

  6. Biocompatible Poly(catecholamine)-Film Electrode for Potentiometric Cell Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, Taira; Yanagimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Akiko; Sakata, Toshiya

    2018-02-23

    Surface-coated poly(catecholamine) (pCA) films have attracted attention as biomaterial interfaces owing to their biocompatible and physicochemical characteristics. In this paper, we report that pCA-film-coated electrodes are useful for potentiometric biosensing devices. Four different types of pCA film, l-dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, with thicknesses in the range of 7-27 nm were electropolymerized by oxidation on Au electrodes by using cyclic voltammetry. By using the pCA-film electrodes, the pH responsivities were found to be 39.3-47.7 mV/pH within the pH range of 1.68 to 10.01 on the basis of the equilibrium reaction with hydrogen ions and the functional groups of the pCAs. The pCA films suppressed nonspecific signals generated by other ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) and proteins such as albumin. Thus, the pCA-film electrodes can be used in pH-sensitive and pH-selective biosensors. HeLa cells were cultivated on the surface of the pCA-film electrodes to monitor cellular activities. The surface potential of the pCA-film electrodes changed markedly because of cellular activity; therefore, the change in the hydrogen ion concentration around the cell/pCA-film interface could be monitored in real time. This was caused by carbon dioxide or lactic acid that is generated by cellular respiration and dissolves in the culture medium, resulting in the change of hydrogen concentration. pCA-film electrodes are suitable for use in biocompatible and pH-responsive biosensors, enabling the more selective detection of biological phenomena.

  7. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidambe, Alfred T.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing) or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy. PMID:28788296

  8. Designing biocompatible Ti-based metallic glasses for implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calin, Mariana; Gebert, Annett; Ghinea, Andreea Cosmina; Gostin, Petre Flaviu; Abdi, Somayeh; Mickel, Christine; Eckert, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Ti-based metallic glasses show high potential for implant applications; they overcome in several crucial respects their well-established biocompatible crystalline counterparts, e.g. improved corrosion properties, higher fracture strength and wear resistance, increased elastic strain range and lower Young's modulus. However, some of the elements required for glass formation (e.g. Cu, Ni) are harmful for the human body. We critically reviewed the biological safety and glass forming tendency in Ti of 27 elements. This can be used as a basis for the future designing of novel amorphous Ti-based implant alloys entirely free of harmful additions. In this paper, two first alloys were developed: Ti 75 Zr 10 Si 15 and Ti 60 Nb 15 Zr 10 Si 15 . The overheating temperature of the melt before casting can be used as the controlling parameter to produce fully amorphous materials or bcc-Ti-phase reinforced metallic glass nano-composites. The beneficial effect of Nb addition on the glass-formation and amorphous phase stability was assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallization and mechanical behavior of ribbons are influenced by the amount and distribution of the nano-scaled bcc phase existing in the as-cast state. Their electrochemical stability in Ringer's solution at 310 K was found to be significantly better than that of commercial Ti-based biomaterials; no indication for pitting corrosion was recorded. Highlights: ► Link between biocompatibility and glass-forming ability of alloying additions in Ti ► Selection of Ti–Zr–Si and Ti–Zr–Nb–Si glass-forming alloys ► Two novel glassy alloys were developed: Ti 75 Zr 10 Si 15 and Ti 60 Nb 15 Zr 10 Si 15. ► Glass-formation, thermal stability, corrosion and mechanical behavior were studied. ► Assessing the suitability for orthopedic applications.

  9. Radiation synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels of dextran methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafulera, Kamila; Wach, Radosław A.; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulański, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize biocompatible dextran-based hydrogels through crosslinking initiated by ionizing radiation. A series of derivatives of dextran has been synthesized by coupling of methacrylated glycidyl to the structure of this polysaccharide, yielding dextran methacrylate (Dex-MA) of the degree of methacrylate substitution (DS) up to 1.13 as characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Chemically crosslinked hydrogels were formed by electron-beam irradiation of Dex-MA in aqueous solution in the absence of low-molecular-weight additives such as catalysts, monomers or crosslinking agents. Crosslinking of Dex-MA in aqueous solutions of 20 g/l and above was an efficient process, the gels were formed at doses as low as 0.5 kGy (experiments conducted up to 100 kGy) and were characterised by high content of insoluble fraction (70–100%). Due to high crosslinking density the equilibrium degree of swelling of fabricated gels was controlled principally by the initial concentration of Dex-MA solution subjected to irradiation, and it was in the range of 20 to over 100 g of water absorbed by gram of gel. Cytocompatibility of hydrogels was examined using XTT assay through evaluation of the cell viability being in indirect contact with hydrogels. The results indicated that hydrogels of Dex-MA of the average DS below 1 were not cytotoxic. Altogether, our data demonstrate that irradiation of methacrylated dextran in aqueous solution is an efficient method of fabrication of biocompatible hydrogels, which applications in regeneration medicine are anticipated. - Highlights: • Synthesis of dextran methacrylate with various degrees of substitutions. • Synthesis of dextran-based hydrogels through radiation technique. • Gel faction (GF) and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) study. • Cytocompatibility of Dex-MA hydrogels demonstrated (XTT test).

  10. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T. Sidambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.

  11. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidambe, Alfred T

    2014-12-19

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing) or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.

  12. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na 2 SeO 3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K m ) values and maximal reaction velocity (V max ) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  13. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6–9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson’s Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial. PMID:27328066

  14. Radiation synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels of dextran methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafulera, Kamila; Wach, Radosław A.; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulański, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize biocompatible dextran-based hydrogels through crosslinking initiated by ionizing radiation. A series of derivatives of dextran has been synthesized by coupling of methacrylated glycidyl to the structure of this polysaccharide, yielding dextran methacrylate (Dex-MA) of the degree of methacrylate substitution (DS) up to 1.13 as characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Chemically crosslinked hydrogels were formed by electron-beam irradiation of Dex-MA in aqueous solution in the absence of low-molecular-weight additives such as catalysts, monomers or crosslinking agents. Crosslinking of Dex-MA in aqueous solutions of 20 g/l and above was an efficient process, the gels were formed at doses as low as 0.5 kGy (experiments conducted up to 100 kGy) and were characterised by high content of insoluble fraction (70-100%). Due to high crosslinking density the equilibrium degree of swelling of fabricated gels was controlled principally by the initial concentration of Dex-MA solution subjected to irradiation, and it was in the range of 20 to over 100 g of water absorbed by gram of gel. Cytocompatibility of hydrogels was examined using XTT assay through evaluation of the cell viability being in indirect contact with hydrogels. The results indicated that hydrogels of Dex-MA of the average DS below 1 were not cytotoxic. Altogether, our data demonstrate that irradiation of methacrylated dextran in aqueous solution is an efficient method of fabrication of biocompatible hydrogels, which applications in regeneration medicine are anticipated.

  15. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Surface modification of poly(D,L-lactic acid) scaffolds for orthopedic applications: a biocompatible, nondestructive route via diazonium chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubi, Hesameddin; Kinsella, Joseph M; Murshed, Monzur; Cerruti, Marta

    2014-07-09

    Scaffolds made with synthetic polymers such as polyesters are commonly used in bone tissue engineering. However, their hydrophobicity and the lack of specific functionalities make their surface not ideal for cell adhesion and growth. Surface modification of these materials is thus crucial to enhance the scaffold's integration in the body. Different surface modification techniques have been developed to improve scaffold biocompatibility. Here we show that diazonium chemistry can be used to modify the outer and inner surfaces of three-dimensional poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) scaffolds with phosphonate groups, using a simple two-step method. By changing reaction time and impregnation procedure, we were able to tune the concentration of phosphonate groups present on the scaffolds, without degrading the PDLLA matrix. To test the effectiveness of this modification, we immersed the scaffolds in simulated body fluid, and characterized them with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. Our results showed that a layer of hydroxyapatite particles was formed on all scaffolds after 2 and 4 weeks of immersion; however, the precipitation was faster and in larger amounts on the phosphonate-modified than on the bare PDLLA scaffolds. Both osteogenic MC3T3-E1 and chondrogenic ATDC5 cell lines showed increased cell viability/metabolic activity when grown on a phosphonated PDLLA surface in comparison to a control PDLLA surface. Also, more calcium-containing minerals were deposited by cultures grown on phosphonated PDLLA, thus showing the pro-mineralization properties of the proposed modification. This work introduces diazonium chemistry as a simple and biocompatible technique to modify scaffold surfaces, allowing to covalently and homogeneously bind a number of functional groups without degrading the scaffold's polymeric matrix.

  17. Emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-shell nanocapsules: biocompatibility and neuroprotection against SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Marek; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules, designed as water-insoluble neuroprotective drug delivery system, were synthesized using layer-by-layer saturation method. The isopropyl myristate was used as oil phase and docusate sodium salt as emulsifier. For the polyelectrolyte shell preparation, synthetic polyelectrolytes, cationic (PDADMAC, PAH, and PLL) and anionic (PGA) were used. The particle size and zeta potential of nanocapsules were characterized by the dynamic light scattering. The average size of synthesized nanocapsules ranged from ∼80 to ∼100 nm. Zeta potential values ranged from less than approximately −30 mV for the polyanion layers to greater than approximately +30 mV for the polycation layers. Biocompatibilities of the synthesized nanocarriers were evaluated against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells using various biochemical assays. The results obtained show that synthesized nanocapsules coated with PLL and PGA were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and they were used as nanocarriers for model neuroprotective drug (a calpain inhibitor MDL 28170). The neuroprotective action of the encapsulated MDL 28170 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress cytotoxicity was evaluated in the same cell line. The results showed that nanoencapsulated form of MDL 28170 were biocompatible and protected SH-SY5Y cells against the H 2 O 2 (0.5 mM/24 h)-induced damage in 20–40 times lower concentrations than those of the same drug added directly to the culture medium. These data suggest that the nanoscale carriers of neuroprotective drugs might serve as novel promising therapeutic agents for oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative processes

  18. Emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-shell nanocapsules: biocompatibility and neuroprotection against SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Marek, E-mail: ncpiotro@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof [Polish Academy of Sciences, Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry (Poland); Jantas, Danuta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Lasoń, Władysław [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Pharmacology (Poland); Warszyński, Piotr [Polish Academy of Sciences, Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    The emulsion-core and polyelectrolyte-coated nanocapsules, designed as water-insoluble neuroprotective drug delivery system, were synthesized using layer-by-layer saturation method. The isopropyl myristate was used as oil phase and docusate sodium salt as emulsifier. For the polyelectrolyte shell preparation, synthetic polyelectrolytes, cationic (PDADMAC, PAH, and PLL) and anionic (PGA) were used. The particle size and zeta potential of nanocapsules were characterized by the dynamic light scattering. The average size of synthesized nanocapsules ranged from ∼80 to ∼100 nm. Zeta potential values ranged from less than approximately −30 mV for the polyanion layers to greater than approximately +30 mV for the polycation layers. Biocompatibilities of the synthesized nanocarriers were evaluated against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells using various biochemical assays. The results obtained show that synthesized nanocapsules coated with PLL and PGA were nontoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and they were used as nanocarriers for model neuroprotective drug (a calpain inhibitor MDL 28170). The neuroprotective action of the encapsulated MDL 28170 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress cytotoxicity was evaluated in the same cell line. The results showed that nanoencapsulated form of MDL 28170 were biocompatible and protected SH-SY5Y cells against the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (0.5 mM/24 h)-induced damage in 20–40 times lower concentrations than those of the same drug added directly to the culture medium. These data suggest that the nanoscale carriers of neuroprotective drugs might serve as novel promising therapeutic agents for oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative processes.

  19. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  20. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  1. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  2. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Non biodegradable and weakly adsorbing substances in the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Wricke, B.; Sontheimer, H.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of the river Elbe in East Germany has been investigated in a research project subsidized by the German minstry of research and technology, iwth respect to drinking water quality and treatment using laboratory methods similar to the treatment processes in waterworks. The experiments included analysis of sum- and group-parameters before and after biological degradation and a study of adsorption on activated carbon. Comparing these results with data already published from the river Rhine in West Germany, the water of the river Elbe showed approximately double the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbable organic halogen (AOX) and ion-pair-extractable organic sulphur (IOS). Mathematical models have been used to obtain further information from these measurements about the origin of the organic substances in the river Elbe. As a consequence, an important part of the relatively high DOC-concentration in the Elbe-river is due to natural humic substances. Therefore the operation of better waste water treatment plants along the elbe-river might reduce the concentration of organic halogen and sulphur substances in particular, whereas the concentration of DOC will decrease only slightly in the future. (orig.) [de

  4. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  5. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  6. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  8. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  9. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  10. Hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of antibacterial biomimetic hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eckmann, Uriel N. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Composto, Russell J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eckmann, David M., E-mail: eckmanndm@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    In previous work, we developed novel antibacterial hybrid coatings based on dextran containing dispersed Ag NPs (∼ 5 nm, DEX-Ag) aimed to offer dual protection against two of the most common complications associated with implant surgery, infections and rejection of the implant. However, their blood-material interactions are unknown. In this study, we assess the hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of DEX-Ag using fresh blood and two cell lines of the immune system, monocytes (THP-1 cells) and macrophages (PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells). Glass, polyurethane (PU) and bare dextran (DEX) were used as reference surfaces. PU, DEX and DEX-Ag exhibited non-hemolytic properties. Relative to glass (100%), platelet attachment on PU, DEX and DEX-Ag was 15%, 10% and 34%, respectively. Further, we assessed cell morphology and viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNF-α and IL-1β), pro-inflammatory eicosanoid expression (Prostaglandin E{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2}) and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) following incubation of the cells with the surfaces. The morphology and cell viability of THP-1 cells were not affected by DEX-Ag whereas DEX-Ag minimized spreading of PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells and caused a reduction in cell viability (16% relative to other surfaces). Although DEX-Ag slightly enhanced release of ROS, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained minimal with similar levels of PGE{sub 2}, as compared to the other surfaces studied. These results highlight low toxicity of DEX-Ag and hold promise for future applications in vivo. - Highlights: • We examined specific blood-contact reactions of dextran doped with Ag NPs coatings. • Biocompatibility was assessed with THP-1 cells and PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. • Glass, polyurethane and dextran were used as reference surfaces. • Hybrid coatings exhibited non-hemolytic properties. • Low toxicity, inflammatory response and ROS suggest potential for in vivo use.

  11. A New Biocompatible and Antibacterial Phosphate Free Glass-Ceramic for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Belén; Alou, Luís; Cafini, Fabio; Couceiro, Ramiro; Sevillano, David; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Guitián, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-01-01

    In the attempt to find valid alternatives to classic antibiotics and in view of current limitations in the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated or loaded biomaterials, this work is focused on the development of a new glass-ceramic with antibacterial performance together with safe biocompatibility. This bactericidal glass-ceramic composed of combeite and nepheline crystals in a residual glassy matrix has been obtained using an antimicrobial soda-lime glass as a precursor. Its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation were proved against five biofilm-producing reference strains. The biocompatibility tests by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone indicate an excellent biocompatibility. PMID:24961911

  12. A New Biocompatible and Antibacterial Phosphate Free Glass-Ceramic for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Belén; Alou, Luís; Cafini, Fabio; Couceiro, Ramiro; Sevillano, David; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Guitián, Francisco; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S.

    2014-06-01

    In the attempt to find valid alternatives to classic antibiotics and in view of current limitations in the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated or loaded biomaterials, this work is focused on the development of a new glass-ceramic with antibacterial performance together with safe biocompatibility. This bactericidal glass-ceramic composed of combeite and nepheline crystals in a residual glassy matrix has been obtained using an antimicrobial soda-lime glass as a precursor. Its inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation were proved against five biofilm-producing reference strains. The biocompatibility tests by using mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone indicate an excellent biocompatibility.

  13. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  14. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  15. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  17. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  18. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  19. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  20. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  1. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  2. Fabrication and Biocompatibility of Electrospun Silk Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soo Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin has attracted great interest in tissue engineering because of its outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and minimal inflammatory reaction. In this study, two kinds of biocomposites based on regenerated silk fibroin are fabricated by electrospinning and post-treatment processes, respectively. Firstly, regenerated silk fibroin/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS hybrid nanofibers with high hydrophilicity are prepared, which is superior for fibroblast attachment. The electrospinning process causes adjacent fibers to ‘weld’ at contact points, which can be proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The water contact angle of silk/tetramethoxysilane (TMOS composites shows a sharper decrease than pure regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber, which has a great effect on the early stage of cell attachment behavior. Secondly, a novel tissue engineering scaffold material based on electrospun silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA biocomposites is prepared by means of an effective calcium and phosphate (Ca–P alternate soaking method. nHA is successfully produced on regenerated silk fibroin nanofiber within several min without any pre-treatments. The osteoblastic activities of this novel nanofibrous biocomposites are also investigated by employing osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cell line. The cell functionality such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity is ameliorated on mineralized silk nanofibers. All these results indicate that this silk/nHA biocomposite scaffold material may be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Biocompatibility of biodegradable semiconducting melanin films for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Christopher J; Bruggeman, Joost P; Misra, Asish; Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Langer, Robert

    2009-06-01

    The advancement of tissue engineering is contingent upon the development and implementation of advanced biomaterials. Conductive polymers have demonstrated potential for use as a medium for electrical stimulation, which has shown to be beneficial in many regenerative medicine strategies including neural and cardiac tissue engineering. Melanins are naturally occurring pigments that have previously been shown to exhibit unique electrical properties. This study evaluates the potential use of melanin films as a semiconducting material for tissue engineering applications. Melanin thin films were produced by solution processing and the physical properties were characterized. Films were molecularly smooth with a roughness (R(ms)) of 0.341 nm and a conductivity of 7.00+/-1.10 x 10(-5)S cm(-1) in the hydrated state. In vitro biocompatibility was evaluated by Schwann cell attachment and growth as well as neurite extension in PC12 cells. In vivo histology was evaluated by examining the biomaterial-tissue response of melanin implants placed in close proximity to peripheral nerve tissue. Melanin thin films enhanced Schwann cell growth and neurite extension compared to collagen films in vitro. Melanin films induced an inflammation response that was comparable to silicone implants in vivo. Furthermore, melanin implants were significantly resorbed after 8 weeks. These results suggest that solution-processed melanin thin films have the potential for use as a biodegradable semiconducting biomaterial for use in tissue engineering applications.

  4. Effect of surface pre-treatments on biocompatibility of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Carla; Brunner, Johannes G; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Jaafar, Leila; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2009-09-01

    This study reports the influence of Mg surface passivation on the survival rate of human HeLa cells and mouse fibroblasts in cell culture experiments. Polished samples of commercially pure Mg show high reactivity in the cell culture medium, leading to a pH shift in the alkaline direction, and therefore cell adhesion and survival is strongly impaired. Passivation of the Mg surface in 1M NaOH can strongly enhance cell survival. The best initial cell adhesion is observed for Mg samples incubated in simulated body fluid (M-SBF), which leads to the formation of a biomimetic, amorphous Ca/Mg-phosphate layer with high surface roughness. This surface layer, however, passivates and seals the Mg surface only partially. Subsequent Mg dissolution leads to a significantly stronger pH increase compared to NaOH-passivated samples, which prevents long-term cell survival. These results demonstrate that surface passivation with NaOH and M-SBF together with the associated changes of surface reactivity, chemistry and roughness provide a viable strategy to facilitate cell survival on otherwise non-biocompatible Mg surfaces.

  5. Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punuri, Jayasekhar Babu; Sharma, Pragya; Sibyala, Saranya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-08-01

    Here, we report the novel use of the ethonolic leaf extract of Piper betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, and different parameters such as leaf extract concentration (2%), gold salt concentration (0.5 mM), and time (18 s) were optimized. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized with different biophysical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM experiments showed that nanoparticles were of various shapes and sizes ranging from 10 to 35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that AuNPs were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group -NH2, carbonyl group, -OH groups, and other stabilizing functional groups. EDX showed the presence of the elements on the surface of the AuNPs. FT-IR and EDX together confirmed the presence of biomolecules bounded on the AuNPs. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was tested on HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and they were found to be nontoxic, indicating their biocompatibility. Thus, synthesized AuNPs have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  6. Biocompatibility of Er:YSGG laser radiated root surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Thomas P.; Schmidt, Dirk; Purucker, Peter; Bernimoulin, J.-P.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers are well known to be effective instruments for the ablation of dental hard tissues. Developments in the last years made it possible to transmit the laser radiation at these wavelengths with flexible fibers. Therefore the application in the periodontal pocket may be possible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro conditions to generate a bioacceptable root surface. Twenty extracted human teeth, stored in an antibiotic solution, were conventionally scaled, root planed and axially separated into two halves. Two main groups were determined. With the first group laser radiation was carried out without and in the second group with spray cooling. The laser beam was scanned about root surface areas. Laser parameters were varied in a selected range. The biocompatibility was measured with the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts and directly compared to conventionally treated areas of the root surfaces. The fibroblasts were qualified and counted in SEM investigations. On conventionally treated areas gingival fibroblasts show the typical uniform cover. In dependance on the root roughness after laser treatment the fibroblasts loose the typical parallel alignment to the root surface. With spray cooling a better in-vitro attachment could be obtained. Without spray cooling the higher increase in temperature conducted to less bioacceptance by the human gingival fibroblasts to the root surface. These results show the possibility of producing bioacceptable root surfaces with pulsed laser radiation in the range of very high water absorption near 3 micrometer.

  7. New injectable elastomeric biomaterials for hernia repair and their biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobot, J; Zair, L; Ostrowski, M; El Fray, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications associated with implantation of polymeric hernia meshes remain a difficult surgical challenge. We report here on our work, developing for the first time, an injectable viscous material that can be converted to a solid and elastic implant in vivo, thus successfully closing herniated tissue. In this study, long-chain fatty acids were used for the preparation of telechelic macromonomers end-capped with methacrylic functionalities to provide UV curable systems possessing high biocompatibility, good mechanical strength and flexibility. Two different systems, comprising urethane and ester bonds, were synthesized from non-toxic raw materials and then subjected to UV curing after injection of viscous material into the cavity at the abdominal wall during hernioplasty in a rabbit hernia model. No additional fixation or sutures were required. The control group of animals was treated with commercially available polypropylene hernia mesh. The observation period lasted for 28 days. We show here that artificially fabricated defect was healed and no reherniation was observed in the case of the fatty acid derived materials. Importantly, the number of inflammatory cells found in the surrounding tissue was comparable to these found around the standard polypropylene mesh. No inflammatory cells were detected in connective tissues and no sign of necrosis has been observed. Collectively, our results demonstrated that new injectable and photocurable systems can be used for minimally invasive surgical protocols in repair of small hernia defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, W.S.; Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  9. Biocompatibility of Plastic Clip in Neurocranium - Experimental Study on Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibegovic, Samir; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Cickusic, Elmir; Katica, Muhamed; Obhodjas, Muamer; Ocus, Muhamed

    2016-01-01

    A potential advantage of the use of the plastic clips in neurosurgery is their property of causing fewer artifacts than titanium clips as assessed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans. The biocompatibility of plastic clips was demonstrated in the peritoneal cavity, but their behavior in the neurocranium is not known. Twelve aggressive stray dogs designated for euthanasia were taken for this experimental study. The animals were divided into two groups. In all cases, after anesthesia, a craniotomy was performed, and after opening the dura, a proximal part titanium clip was placed on the isolated superficial Sylvian vein (a permanent Yasargil FT 746 T clip at a 90° angle, while a plastic Hem-o-lok clip ML was placed on another part of the vein). The first group of animals was sacrificed on the 7 th postoperative day and the second group on the 60 th postoperative day. Samples of tissue around the clips were taken for a histopathological evaluation. The plastic clip caused a more intensive tissue reaction than the titanium clip on the 7 th postoperative day, but there was no statistical difference. Even on the 60 th postoperative day there was no significant difference in tissue reaction between the titanium and plastic clips. These preliminary results confirm the possibility for the use of plastic clips in neurosurgery. Before their use in human neurosurgery, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of the presence of plastic clips in the neurocranium, as well as studies of the aneurysmal model.

  10. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of biocompatible silver sulfide nanoworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruimin; Liu, Shanhu; Tian, Shufang

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silver sulfide nanoworms were prepared via a rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal method by reacting silver nitrate and thioacetamide in the aqueous solution of the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. The morphology, composition, and crystallinity of the nanoworms were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that the nanoworms were assembled by multiple adjacent Ag2S nanoparticles and stabilized by a layer of BSA attached to their surface. The nanoworms have the sizes of about 50 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers in length. The analyses of high-resolution TEM and their correlative Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) indicate that the adjacent Ag2S nanoparticles grow by misoriented attachment at the connective interfaces to form the nanoworm structure. In vitro assays on the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa show that the nanoworms exhibit good biocompatibility due to the presence of BSA coating. This combination of features makes the nanoworms attractive and promising building blocks for advanced materials and devices.

  11. Structural properties of silver doped hydroxyapatite and their biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, C.S.; Iconaru, S.L.; Pasuk, I.; Vasile, B.S.; Lupu, A.R.; Hermenean, A.; Dinischiotu, A.; Predoi, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a novel hydroxyapatite-based material with high biocompatibility. The structural properties of the samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the characteristic peaks of hydroxyapatite in each sample. Other phases or impurities were not observed. The scanning electron microscopy observations suggest that the doping components have no influence on the surface morphology of the samples, which reveals a homogeneous aspect of the synthesized particles for all samples. The presence of calcium (Ca), phosphor (P), oxygen (O) and silver (Ag) in the Ag:HAp is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analyses. Nanocrystalline silver doped HAp stimulated viability and potentiated the activation of murine macrophages. - Highlights: ► A simple and low cost methodology to obtain Ag:HAp powders was described in this paper. ► Nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with different x Ag from can be obtained at 100 °C by co-precipitation. ► The study aims to understand the effects of Ag:HAp NPs with different x Ag on macrophage cells

  12. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ≈ 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo biocompatibility evaluation of Cibacron blue-agarose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, J M; Rose, R; Yousef, M; Hunter, S K; Rodgers, V G

    1999-12-15

    This study investigated the biocompatibility of Cibacron blue-agarose as a biomaterial for microencapsulation. Cibacron blue-agarose is known to have an affinity for albumin under certain pH conditions and in the proper steric environment. Thus it was postulated that the material's high affinity for host albumin might reduce a secondary immune response and reduce the fibrotic overgrowth that often accompanies transplanted foreign materials. In vivo tests were performed using the Lewis rat model. Both Cibacron blue-agarose and plain agarose disks were prepared, with some disks from each group being pre-exposed to sera from Lewis rats. The disks were transplanted into the peritoneal cavities of Lewis rats. After 115 days the disks were excised. Fibrotic overgrowth was analyzed using light microscopy, and a blind study was used to measure the average growth thickness on each disk. The results demonstrated that all disks developed some fibrotic encapsulation and that the presence of Cibacron blue was not significant in reducing fibrotic overgrowth (p = 0.62). Agarose disks pre-exposed to sera had significantly less average overgrowth than any other group (p = 0. 06). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rehab M; Elfeky, Souad A; Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite-ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λmax=254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm(-2) to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current and future biocompatibility aspects of biomaterials for hip prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Aherwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of biomaterials has turn into an electrifying area because these materials improve the quality and longevity of human life. The first and foremost necessity for the selection of the biomaterial is the acceptability by human body. However, the materials used in hip implants are designed to sustain the load bearing function of human bones for the start of the patient’s life. The most common classes of biomaterials used are metals, polymers, ceramics, composites and apatite. These five classes are used individually or in combination with other materials to form most of the implantation devices in recent years. Numerous current and promising new biomaterials i.e. metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite are discussed to highlight their merits and their frailties in terms of mechanical and metallurgical properties in this review. It is concluded that current materials have their confines and there is a need for more refined multi-functional materials to be developed in order to match the biocompatibility, metallurgical and mechanical complexity of the hip prosthesis.

  16. Deciphering cellular morphology and biocompatibility using polymer microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernagallo, Salvatore; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; DIaz-Mochon, Juan Jose; Bradley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative analysis of cellular adhesion, morphology and viability is essential in understanding and designing biomaterials such as those involved in implant surfaces or as tissue-engineering scaffolds. As a means to simultaneously perform these studies in a high-throughput (HT) manner, we report a normalized protocol which allows the rapid analysis of a large number of potential cell binding substrates using polymer microarrays and high-content fluorescence microscopy. The method was successfully applied to the discovery of optimal polymer substrates from a 214-member polyurethane library with mouse fibroblast cells (L929), as well as simultaneous evaluation of cell viability and cellular morphology. Analysis demonstrated high biocompatibility of the binding polymers and permitted the identification of several different cellular morphologies, showing that specific polymer interactions may provoke changes in cell shape. In addition, SAR studies showed a clear correspondence between cellular adhesion and polymer structure. The approach can be utilized to perform multiple experiments (up to 1024 single experiments per slide) in a highly reproducible manner, leading to the generation of vast amounts of data in a short time period (48-72 h) while reducing dramatically the quantities of polymers, reagents and cells used

  17. Biocompatibility of Portland cement combined with different radiopacifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Marques, Nádia C T; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila O; Duarte, Marco A H; Lima, Marta C; Machado, Maria A A M; Abdo, Ruy C C; Oliveira, Thais M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to Portland cement combined with two different radiopacifying agents, iodoform (CHI3) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2). These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and inflammatory reaction parameters were evaluated by light microscopy. The intensity of the inflammatory response to the sealants was analyzed by two blind calibrated observers throughout the experimental period. Histological analysis showed that all the materials caused a moderated inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which then diminished with time. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent, and fibroblasts and collagen fibers were observed indicating normal tissue healing. The degrees of the inflammatory reaction on different days throughout the experimental period were compared using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences amongst the groups, and Portland cement associated with radiopacifying agents gave satisfactory results. Therefore, Portland cement used in combination with radiopacifying agents can be considered a biocompatible material. Although our results are very encouraging, further studies are needed in order to establish safe clinical indications for Portland cement combined with radiopacifying agents.

  18. Laser synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles in biocompatible polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of Aluminium (Al) in pure water rapidly forms a thin alumina (Al2O3) layer which drastically modifies surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption characteristics in deep-UV region. Initially, pure aluminium nanoparticles (NPs) are generated in water without any stabilizers or surfactants at low laser fluence which gradually transform to stable Al-Al2O3 core-shell nanostructure with increasing either residency time or fluence. The role of laser wavelength and fluence on the SPR properties and oxidation characteristics of Al NPs has been investigated in detail. We also present a one-step in situ synthesis of oxide-free stable Al NPs in biocompatible polymer solutions using laser ablation in liquid method. We have used nonionic polymers (PVP, PVA and PEG) and anionic surfactant (SDS) stabilizer to suppress the Al2O3 formation and studied the effect of polymer functional group, polymeric chain length, polymer concentration and anionic surfactant on the incipient embryonic aluminium particles and their sizes. The different functional groups of polymers resulted in different oxidation states of Al. PVP and PVA polymers resulted in pure Al NPs; however, PEG and SDS resulted in alumina-modified Al NPs. The Al nanoparticles capped with PVP, PVA, and PEG show a good correlation between nanoparticle stability and monomeric length of the polymer chain.

  19. Initial biocompatibility of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films with different wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, N. A.; Toromanov, G.; Hristova, K. T.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Altankov, G. P.; Pramatarova, L. D.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties, behaviour of adsorbed proteins and cellular responses is essential to design optimal material surfaces for tissue engineering. In this study we modify thin layers of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) by ammonia treatment in order to increase surface wettability and the corresponding biological response. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer films were characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as model system for the initial biocompatibility studies following their behavior upon preadsorption of polymer films with three adhesive proteins: fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (FG) and vitronectin (VN). Adhesive interaction of HUVEC was evaluated after 2 hours by analyzing the overall cell morphology, and the organization of focal adhesion contacts and actin cytoskeleton. We have found similar good cellular response on FN and FG coated polymer films, with better pronounced vinculin expression on FN samples while. Conversely, on VN coated surfaces the wettability influenced significantly initial celular interaction spreading. The results obtained suggested that ammonia plasma treatment can modulate the biological activity of the adsorbed protein s on PPHMDS surfaces and thus to influence the interaction with endothelial cells.

  20. Biocompatible Amphiphilic Hydrogel-Solid Dimer Particles as Colloidal Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Amstad, Esther; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Cai, Liheng; Fan, Jing; Chen, Qiushui; Hai, Mingtan; Koehler, Stephan; Zhang, Huidan; Liang, Fuxin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Weitz, David A

    2017-12-26

    Emulsions of two immiscible liquids can slowly coalesce over time when stabilized by surfactant molecules. Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles can be much more stable. Here, we fabricate biocompatible amphiphilic dimer particles using a hydrogel, a strongly hydrophilic material, and achieve large contrast in the wetting properties of the two bulbs, resulting in enhanced stabilization of emulsions. We generate monodisperse single emulsions of alginate and shellac solution in oil using a flow-focusing microfluidics device. Shellac precipitates from water and forms a solid bulb at the periphery of the droplet when the emulsion is exposed to acid. Molecular interactions result in amphiphilic dimer particles that consist of two joined bulbs: one hydrogel bulb of alginate in water and the other hydrophobic bulb of shellac. Alginate in the hydrogel compartment can be cross-linked using calcium cations to obtain stable particles. Analogous to surfactant molecules at the interface, the resultant amphiphilic particles stand at the water/oil interface with the hydrogel bulb submerged in water and the hydrophobic bulb in oil and are thus able to stabilize both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions, making these amphiphilic hydrogel-solid particles ideal colloidal surfactants for various applications.

  1. Biocompatibility of electrospun human albumin: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk, B H; Kowalczyk, T; Łyżniak, M; Zembrzycki, K; Mikułowski, G; Wysocki, J; Kawiak, J; Pojda, Z

    2015-03-02

    Albumin is rarely used for electrospinning because it does not form fibres in its native globular form. This paper presents a novel method for electrospinning human albumin from a solution containing pharmaceutical grade protein and 25% polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the fibre-forming agent. After spontaneous cross-linking at body temperature, with no further chemicals added, the fibres become insoluble and the excess PEO can be washed out. Albumin deposited along the fibres retains its native characteristics, such as its non-adhesiveness to cells and its susceptibility for degradation by macrophages. To demonstrate this we evaluated the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this novel product. After subcutaneous implantation in mice, albumin mats were completely resorbable within six days and elicited only a limited local inflammatory response. In vitro, the mats suppressed cell attachment and migration. As this product is inexpensive, produced from human pharmaceutical grade albumin without chemical modifications, retains its native protein properties and fulfils the specific requirements for anti-adhesive dressings, its clinical use can be expedited. We believe that it could specifically be used when treating paediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa, in whom non-healing wounds occur after minor hand injuries which lead to rapid adhesions and devastating contractures.

  2. Nanomechanics of biocompatible hollow thin-shell polymer microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynos, Emmanouil; Koutsos, Vasileios; McDicken, W Norman; Moran, Carmel M; Pye, Stephen D; Ross, James A; Sboros, Vassilis

    2009-07-07

    The nanomechanical properties of biocompatible thin-shell hollow polymer microspheres with approximately constant ratio of shell thickness to microsphere diameter were measured by nanocompression tests in aqueous conditions. These microspheres encapsulate an inert gas and are used as ultrasound contrast agents by releasing free microbubbles in the presence of an ultrasound field as a result of free gas leakage from the shell. The tests were performed using an atomic force microscope (AFM) employing the force-distance curve technique. An optical microscope, on which the AFM was mounted, was used to guide the positioning of tipless cantilevers on top of individual microspheres. We performed a systematic study using several cantilevers with spring constants varying from 0.08 to 2.3 N/m on a population of microspheres with diameters from about 2 to 6 microm. The use of several cantilevers with various spring constants allowed a systematic study of the mechanical properties of the microsphere thin shell at different regimes of force and deformation. Using thin-shell mechanics theory for small deformations, the Young's modulus of the thin wall material was estimated and was shown to exhibit a strong size effect: it increased as the shell became thinner. The Young's modulus of thicker microsphere shells converged to the expected value for the macroscopic bulk material. For high applied forces, the force-deformation profiles showed a reversible and/or irreversible nonlinear behavior including "steps" and "jumps" which were attributed to mechanical instabilities such as buckling events.

  3. Lactose oleate as new biocompatible surfactant for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, D R; Lucarini, S; Fagioli, L; Campana, R; Vllasaliu, D; Duranti, A; Casettari, L

    2018-03-01

    Sugar fatty acid esters are an interesting class of non-ionic, biocompatible and biodegradable sugar-based surfactants, recently emerged as a valid alternative to the traditional commonly employed (e.g. polysorbates and polyethylene glycol derivatives). By varying the polar head (carbohydrate moiety) and the hydrophobic tail (fatty acid), surfactants with different physico-chemical characteristics can be easily prepared. While many research papers have focused on sucrose derivatives, relatively few studies have been carried out on lactose-based surfactants. In this work, we present the synthesis and the physico-chemical characterization of lactose oleate. The new derivative was obtained by enzymatic mono-esterification of lactose with oleic acid. Thermal, surface, and aggregation properties of the surfactant were studied in detail and the cytotoxicity profile was investigated by MTS and LDH assays on intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements on Caco-2 cells showed a transient and reversible effect on the tight junctions opening, which correlates with the increased permeability of 4 kDa fluorescein-labelled dextran (as model for macromolecular drugs) in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, lactose oleate displayed a satisfactory antimicrobial activity over a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the obtained results are promising for a further development of lactose oleate as an intestinal absorption enhancer and/or an alternative biodegradable preservative for pharmaceutical and food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Effect of Biocompatible Silicon Nanoparticles Activated Using Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Svetlana N; Burkhardt, Markus; Sheval, Eugene V; Natashina, Ulyana A; Grosse, Christina; Nikolaev, Alexander L; Gopin, Alexander V; Neugebauer, Ute; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Sivakov, Vladimir; Osminkina, Liubov A

    2017-03-14

    In this study, we report a method for the suppression of Escherichia coli (E. coli) vitality by means of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation (USI) using biocompatible silicon nanoparticles as cavitation sensitizers. Silicon nanoparticles without (SiNPs) and with polysaccharide (dextran) coating (DSiNPs) were used. Both types of nanoparticles were nontoxic to Hep 2 cells up to a concentration of 2 mg/mL. The treatment of bacteria with nanoparticles and application of 1 W/cm 2 USI resulted in the reduction of their viabilities up to 35 and 72% for SiNPs and DSiNPs, respectively. The higher bacterial viability reduction for DSiNPs as compared with SiNPs can be explained by the fact that the biopolymer shell of the polysaccharide provides a stronger adhesion of nanoparticles to the bacterial surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the bacterial lipid shell was partially perforated after the combined treatment of DSiNPs and USI, which can be explained by the lysis of bacterial membrane due to the cavitation sensitized by the SiNPs. Furthermore, we have shown that 100% inhibition of E. coli bacterial colony growth is possible by coupling the treatments of DSiNPs and USI with an increased intensity of up to 3 W/cm 2 . The observed results reveal the application of SiNPs as promising antimicrobial agents.

  5. Mechanical properties, structure, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility of pectin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Pavel A; Krachkovsky, Nikita S; Durnev, Eugene A; Martinson, Ekaterina A; Litvinets, Sergey G; Popov, Sergey V

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure, biocompatibility, textural, and adhesive properties of calcium hydrogels derived from 1, 2, and 4% solutions of apple pectin were examined in this study. An increase in the pectin concentration in hydrogels was shown to improve their stability toward elastic and plastic deformation. The elasticity of pectin hydrogels, measured as Young's modulus, ranged from 6 to 100 kPa. The mechanical properties of the pectin hydrogels were shown to correspond to those of soft tissues. The characterization of surface roughness in terms of the roughness profile (Ra) and the root-mean-square deviation of the roughness profile (Rq) indicated an increased roughness profile for hydrogels depending on their pectin concentration. The adhesion of AU2% and AU4% hydrogels to the serosa abdominal wall, liver, and colon was higher than that of the AU1% hydrogel. The adhesion of macrophages and the non-specific adsorption of blood plasma proteins were found to increase as the pectin concentration in the hydrogels increased. The rate of degradation of all hydrogels was higher in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) than that in DMEM and a fibroblast cell monolayer. The pectin hydrogel was also found to have a low cytotoxicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2572-2581, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biocompatible and detectable carboxylated nanodiamond on human cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K-K; Cheng, C-L; Chang, C-C; Chao, J-I

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified carboxylated nanometre-sized diamond (cND) has been applied for the conjugation of biological molecules such as DNA and protein. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility and detection of cNDs and carbon nanotubes on human lung A549 epithelial cells and HFL-1 normal fibroblasts. Treatment with 5 or 100 nm cND particles, 0.1-100 μg ml -1 , did not reduce the cell viability and alter the protein expression profile in lung cells; however, carbon nanotubes induced cytotoxicity in these cells. The cNDs particles were accumulated in A549 cells, which were observed by atomic force microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Both 5 and 100 nm cNDs particles exhibited the green fluorescence and were ingested into cells. Moreover, the fluorescence intensities were increased in cells via a concentration-dependent manner after treatment with 5 and 100 nm cNDs, which can be detected by flow cytometer analysis. The fluorescence intensities of 5 nm cNDs were relative higher than 100 nm cNDs in cells at equal concentration treatment. The observation demonstrated that cND-interacting with cell is detectable by a confocal microscope, flow cytometer and atomic force microscope. These nanoparticles may be useful for further biomedical applications based on the properties of uptake ability, detectability and little cytotoxicity in human cells

  7. Biocompatible and detectable carboxylated nanodiamond on human cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K-K [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C-L [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chang, C-C [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Chao, J-I [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China)

    2007-08-15

    Surface-modified carboxylated nanometre-sized diamond (cND) has been applied for the conjugation of biological molecules such as DNA and protein. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility and detection of cNDs and carbon nanotubes on human lung A549 epithelial cells and HFL-1 normal fibroblasts. Treatment with 5 or 100 nm cND particles, 0.1-100 {mu}g ml{sup -1}, did not reduce the cell viability and alter the protein expression profile in lung cells; however, carbon nanotubes induced cytotoxicity in these cells. The cNDs particles were accumulated in A549 cells, which were observed by atomic force microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Both 5 and 100 nm cNDs particles exhibited the green fluorescence and were ingested into cells. Moreover, the fluorescence intensities were increased in cells via a concentration-dependent manner after treatment with 5 and 100 nm cNDs, which can be detected by flow cytometer analysis. The fluorescence intensities of 5 nm cNDs were relative higher than 100 nm cNDs in cells at equal concentration treatment. The observation demonstrated that cND-interacting with cell is detectable by a confocal microscope, flow cytometer and atomic force microscope. These nanoparticles may be useful for further biomedical applications based on the properties of uptake ability, detectability and little cytotoxicity in human cells.

  8. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  9. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  10. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  11. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  12. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  13. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  14. Report: Discussion on the development of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket and its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghe; Zhang, Weiwei; Bai, Xueyan; Song, Xiaotong; Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Xinxin; Tian, Xubiao; Liu, Fengzhen

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket for the common bacteria in oral cavity, and discuss its biocompatibility. Micro morphology in the surface of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface roughness of ordinary mental bracket, nano TiO2 coating bracket and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket were measured. First, antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket on the common bacteria in oral cavity was studied by sticking membrane method. Secondly, bonding strength of nano TiO2 coating and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket in groups were detected by scratching test. The result showed that, the synthetic nano Ag/TiO2 coating was nanogranular films with rigorous organizational structure, presenting as smooth and clean surface, and antibacterial rate of nano Ag/TiO2 coating for the common bacteria in oral cavity for 20 min was more than 79% in the dark. All the findings suggested that, nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket not only has antibacterial effect but also has good biocompatibility, therefore, it can satisfy the clinical request of orthodontic treatment.

  15. Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Alamoudi, Kholod O.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Almuslem, Amani S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Diallo, Elhadj M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage

  16. Development of a discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-12-01

    To develop an enhanced, reproducible and discriminatory biocompatibility testing model for non-precious dental casting alloys, prepared to a clinically relevant surface finishing condition, using TR146 oral keratinocyte cells.

  17. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon-Eui; Suh, Kahp Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive

  18. Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Guan, Ming; Liu, Jia; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Shaw, Leo; McGuire, Allister F; Huang, Tsung-Ching; Shao, Leilai; Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-05-16

    Increasing performance demands and shorter use lifetimes of consumer electronics have resulted in the rapid growth of electronic waste. Currently, consumer electronics are typically made with nondecomposable, nonbiocompatible, and sometimes even toxic materials, leading to serious ecological challenges worldwide. Here, we report an example of totally disintegrable and biocompatible semiconducting polymers for thin-film transistors. The polymer consists of reversible imine bonds and building blocks that can be easily decomposed under mild acidic conditions. In addition, an ultrathin (800-nm) biodegradable cellulose substrate with high chemical and thermal stability is developed. Coupled with iron electrodes, we have successfully fabricated fully disintegrable and biocompatible polymer transistors. Furthermore, disintegrable and biocompatible pseudo-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) flexible circuits are demonstrated. These flexible circuits are ultrathin (<1 μm) and ultralightweight (∼2 g/m 2 ) with low operating voltage (4 V), yielding potential applications of these disintegrable semiconducting polymers in low-cost, biocompatible, and ultralightweight transient electronics.

  19. Bioinspired, Ultrastrong, Highly Biocompatible, and Bioactive Natural Polymer/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Kun; Cong, Huai-Ping; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-09-09

    Tough and biocompatible nanocomposite films: A new type of bioinspired ultrastrong, highly biocompatible, and bioactive konjac glucomannan (KGM)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite film is fabricated on a large scale by a simple solution-casting method. Such KGM-GO composite films exhibit much enhanced mechanical properties under the strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, showing great potential in the fields of tissue engineering and food package. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Graphene Films Show Stable Cell Attachment and Biocompatibility with Electrogenic Primary Cardiac Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taeyong; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Kwanghee; Kim, Do Han

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted substantial attention due to its advantageous materialistic applicability. In the present study, we tested the biocompatibility of graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with electrogenic primary adult cardiac cells (cardiomyocytes) by measuring the cell properties such as cell attachment, survival, contractility and calcium transients. The results show that the graphene films showed stable cell attachment and excellent biocompatibility with the electro...

  1. Fluorescence sensing and photocatalytic properties of a 2D stable and biocompatible Zn(II)-based polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Bao-Hong; Zhong, Hua-Rui; Qiu, Shuo-Wen; Liang, Yi-Wen; Zhuang, Xiao-Yi; Singh, Amita; Kumar, Abhinav

    2018-04-01

    A biocompatible metal-organic framework (MOF) [Zn2(TPL)(FA)(OH)(H2O)] (1) (TPL = theophylline and H2FA = fumaric acid) had been chosen which offers an ideal model for the development of fluorescencent chemosensor using simple synthetic protocol. The MOF 1 have been tested as a fluorescent chemosensor against nitro-aromatics (NACs) and it displayed high selectivity for 4-NT over other NACs as evident by the emission spectroscopy. The alleviation in fluorescence intensity of 1 in presence of different NACs have been explained with the help of theoretical calculations which suggested that there is occurrence of both electron and energy transfer processes, in addition to electrostatic interaction between 1 and NACs which may be responsible for the unprecedented selective alleviation in the fluorescence intensity. Also, 1 had been deployed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl violet (MV) and Rhodamine B (Rh B) in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic results indicated the 1 exhibit 85% photocatalytic efficiency against Rh B in 100 min, while its efficiency against MV was only 50% under the identical experimental conditions. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity has been proposed using density of states (DOS) calculations.

  2. Synthesis of polycarbonate urethane elastomers and effects of the chemical structures on their thermal, mechanical and biocompatibility properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Wang, Yiyu; Zhang, Zongrui; Ma, Daiwei; Wang, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    In this study, to obtain biomedical polyurethane elastomers with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, a series of polycarbonate urethanes were synthesized via a two-step solution of polymerization method using the poly(1,6-hexanediol)carbonate diols (PCDL) as the soft segment, 4,4'-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate) (H12MDI), 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as the hard segment with dibutyltin dilaurate as the catalyst. In this article, we illustrated the physical behaviors were obviously influenced by synthetic routes. And their chemical and physical structures were investigated by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectrography (FT-IR) and mechanical properties tests. The surface wettability were studied by contact angle measurement (CA). As a kind of short-term implant biomaterial, the results of the hemolysis and platelet adhesive tests were recorded by spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicating the materials have a great potential for developments and applications in biomedical field.

  3. Synthesis of polycarbonate urethane elastomers and effects of the chemical structures on their thermal, mechanical and biocompatibility properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to obtain biomedical polyurethane elastomers with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, a series of polycarbonate urethanes were synthesized via a two-step solution of polymerization method using the poly(1,6-hexanediolcarbonate diols (PCDL as the soft segment, 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate (H12MDI, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI and 1,4-butanediol (BDO as the hard segment with dibutyltin dilaurate as the catalyst. In this article, we illustrated the physical behaviors were obviously influenced by synthetic routes. And their chemical and physical structures were investigated by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, fourier transform infrared spectrography (FT-IR and mechanical properties tests. The surface wettability were studied by contact angle measurement (CA. As a kind of short-term implant biomaterial, the results of the hemolysis and platelet adhesive tests were recorded by spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, indicating the materials have a great potential for developments and applications in biomedical field.

  4. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania; Rocchi, A.; Cesca, F.; Tan, H.; Miele, E.; Giugni, Andrea; Orlando, M.; Perrone Donnorso, M.; Perozziello, G.; Benfenati, Fabio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  5. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2018-04-04

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  6. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Rehab M., E-mail: rehabamin@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); Elfeky, Souad A. [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ{sub max} = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm{sup −2} to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  7. Synthesis of biocompatible nanoparticle drug complexes for inhibition of mycobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhave, Tejashree; Ghoderao, Prachi; Sanghavi, Sonali; Babrekar, Harshada; Bhoraskar, S V; Ganesan, V; Kulkarni, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most critical infectious diseases affecting the world today. Current TB treatment involves six months long daily administration of four oral doses of antibiotics. Due to severe side effects and the long treatment, a patient's adherence is low and this results in relapse of symptoms causing an alarming increase in the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Hence, it is imperative to develop a new drug delivery technology wherein these effects can be reduced. Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the widely used anti-tubercular drugs (ATD). The present study discusses the development of biocompatible nanoparticle–RIF complexes with superior inhibitory activity against both Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by gas phase condensation and NP-RIF complexes were tested against M. smegmatis SN2 strain as well as M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. These complexes showed significantly better inhibition of M. smegmatis SN2 strain at a much lower effective concentration (27.5 μg ml −1 ) as compared to neat RIF (125 μg ml −1 ). Similarly M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain was susceptible to both nanoparticle–RIF complex and neat RIF at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.22 and 1 μg ml −1 , respectively. Further studies are underway to determine the efficacy of NPs–RIF complexes in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis as well as MDR isolates. (paper)

  8. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rehab M.; Elfeky, Souad A.; Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ_m_a_x = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm"−"2 to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  9. In Vitro Models in BiocompatibilityAssessment for Biomedical-Grade Chitosan Derivatives in Wound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chin Keong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (b-1,4-D-glucosamine has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.

  10. Novel biocompatible materials for in vivo two-photon polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgersen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Two-photon polymerisation (2PP) is a versatile laser fabrication technique that allows the creation of 3D structures at micro- and nanometre precision. The structures are created additively in direct accordance to a computer-aided design (CAD). It requires tightly focused fs-pulsed light sources usually operating in the near infrared wavelength range. In this region, biological tissues exhibit a window of transparency and only absorb light minimally. When operating below a certain pulse energy threshold, the laser light does not cause any cellular damage. This theoretically allows inducing 2PP in the presence of living biological tissues and cells. Suitable biocompatible formulations that can render bioactive constructs would potentially allow building a dynamic environment with topographical, chemical and mechanical cues similar to that of the natural extracellular matrix. In that way, 2PP would allow to alter key elements of this environment without changing any other influencing factors. To explore these possibilities, 2PP has to overcome two main limitations, the slow process speeds and the lack of available optimised formulations. In this thesis, we report the design and realisation of a 2PP experimental setup, which allows fabricating hydrogel structures from novel water-based formulations. Writing speeds of above 100 mm/s are feasible, which is the highest speed reported in 2PP. Moreover, the presented components have the potential to be formed in vivo, in the presence of living cells and tissues. Using water-soluble two-photon optimised photoinitiators, we could effectively cross-link acrylates in formulations of up to 80% water content. As acrylates show a tendency towards Michael addition to proteins, we explored the use of vinyl ester and vinyl carbonate monomers for 2PP. In contrast to acrylic polymers, which form potentially toxic poly (acrylic acid), vinyl ester and carbonate polymers form biocompatible poly (vinyl alcohol) during degradation

  11. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  12. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  14. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  15. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  16. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  17. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  18. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  20. Neural Implants, Packaging for Biocompatible Implants, and Improving Fabricated Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Elizabeth Rose

    We have completed the circuit design and packaging procedure for an NIH-funded neural implant, called a MOTE (Microscale Optoelectronically Transduced Electrode). Neural recording implants for mice have greatly advanced neuroscience, but they are often damaging and limited in their recording location. This project will result in free-floating implants that cause less damage, provide rapid electronic recording, and increase range of recording across the cortex. A low-power silicon IC containing amplification and digitization sub-circuits is powered by a dual-function gallium arsenide photovoltaic and LED. Through thin film deposition, photolithography, and chemical and physical etching, the Molnar Group and the McEuen Group (Applied and Engineering Physics department) will package the IC and LED into a biocompatible implant approximately 100microm3. The IC and LED are complete and we have begun refining this packaging procedure in the Cornell NanoScale Science & Technology Facility. ICs with 3D time-resolved imaging capabilities can image microorganisms and other biological samples given proper packaging. A portable, flat, easily manufactured package would enable scientists to place biological samples on slides directly above the Molnar group's imaging chip. We have developed a packaging procedure using laser cutting, photolithography, epoxies, and metal deposition. Using a flip-chip method, we verified the process by aligning and adhering a sample chip to a holder wafer. In the CNF, we have worked on a long-term metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor characterization project. Former Fellow and continuing CNF user Kwame Amponsah developed the original procedure for the capacitor fabrication, and another former fellow, Jonilyn Longenecker, revised the procedure and began the arduous process of characterization. MIM caps are useful to clean room users as testing devices to verify electronic characteristics of their active circuitry. This project's objective is to

  1. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Lu, Zaijun

    2009-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid-polyethylene glycol/gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA) nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA-PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd-DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was -12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed ( r = 0.987). The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd-DTPA. PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular targeted imaging contrast agent.

  2. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dexin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid–polyethylene glycol/gadolinium–diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. The PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA–PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd–DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was −12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed (r = 0.987. The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd–DTPA. PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA–PEG/Gd–DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular

  3. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  4. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  5. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  6. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  7. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  8. Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials.

  9. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  10. Firefly Luciferin-Inspired Biocompatible Chemistry for Protein Labeling and In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; An, Ruibing; Luo, Zhiliang; Ye, Deju

    2018-04-17

    Biocompatible reactions have emerged as versatile tools to build various molecular imaging probes that hold great promise for the detection of biological processes in vitro and/or in vivo. In this Minireview, we describe the recent advances in the development of a firefly luciferin-inspired biocompatible reaction between cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) and cysteine (Cys), and highlight its versatility to label proteins and build multimodality molecular imaging probes. The review starts from the general introduction of biocompatible reactions, which is followed by briefly describing the development of the firefly luciferin-inspired biocompatible chemistry. We then discuss its applications for the specific protein labeling and for the development of multimodality imaging probes (fluorescence, bioluminescence, MRI, PET, photoacoustic, etc.) that enable high sensitivity and spatial resolution imaging of redox environment, furin and caspase-3/7 activity in living cells and mice. Finally, we offer the conclusions and our perspective on the various and potential applications of this reaction. We hope that this review will contribute to the research of biocompatible reactions for their versatile applications in protein labeling and molecular imaging. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Araújo, Fernanda Assis; da Costa Dias, Filipi Leles; Russo, Remo Castro; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Barcelos, Luciola Silva

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice. In contrast, the iNOS(-/-) implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice.

  12. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Araújo, Fernanda Assis; da Costa Dias, Filipi Leles; Russo, Remo Castro; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Barcelos, Luciola Silva

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS−/− mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS−/− mice. In contrast, the iNOS−/− implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS−/− mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice. PMID:26106257

  13. Natural-Synthetic Hybrid Polymers Developed via Electrospinning: The Effect of PET in Chitosan/Starch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola-González, Adolfo; Martínez-Hernández, Ana Laura; Fernández-Escobar, Francisco; Castaño, Victor Manuel; Brostow, Witold; Datashvili, Tea; Velasco-Santos, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide found in nature, which is biodegradable, nontoxic and biocompatible. It has versatile features and can be used in a variety of applications including films, packaging, and also in medical surgery. Recently a possibility to diversify chitosan properties has emerged by combining it with synthetic materials to produce novel natural-synthetic hybrid polymers. We have studied structural and thermophysical properties of chitosan + starch + poly(ethylene terephthalate) (Ch + S + PET) fibers developed via electrospinning. Properties of these hybrids polymers are compared with extant chitosan containing hybrids synthesized by electrospinning. Molecular interactions and orientation in the fibers are analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies respectively, morphology by scanning electron microscopy and thermophysical properties by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Addition of PET to Ch + S systems results in improved thermal stability at elevated temperatures. PMID:21673930

  14. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  15. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  17. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  18. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  19. Interaction of derived polymers from pyrrole with biocompatible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a study about the synthesis by plasma, the electric properties and superficial interaction of polymers derived from pyrrole doped with Iodine with potential use as bio material. Poly-pyrrole is a semiconductor and biocompatible polymer with potential application in the development of artificial muscles and implants where the electric interaction between cells and material is an important variable. The syntheses were made at 13.5 MHz in a glass tubular reactor of 1500 cm 3 with electrodes of 6.5 cm diameter and stainless steel flanges. An electrode was connected to the RF terminal of the power supply that is combined with a matching coupling resistance. The monomer and dopant used in this work were pyrrole and Iodine respectively, in closed containers. They were vaporized and injected separately into the reactor at room temperature and 0.1 mbar. The vapors of the reagents mixed freely in the reactor. The synthesis time was 240 min at 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. The polymers were obtained as thin films adhered to the reactor walls. The films were washed and swollen with distilled water and removed from the reactor walls with a small spatula. The polymers were irradiated with gamma rays at 18 and 22 KGy. Due to the fact that the doses are cumulative, the final dose applied was 40 KGy. The polymers characterization was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The analyses indicates that the polymers have very similar structure in almost the entire power range, showing C-O, C=C, C-H, O-H, N-H bonds with a predominantly amorphous structure. The TGA analyses showed that the material has 4 or 5 loses of material. The first one starts after that 115 C except for the material irradiated at 40 KGy, this one begins in 87 C, the second one is in the interval of 196 and 295 C, the third one between 311 and 500 C, and the last

  20. A preclinical evaluation of alternative synthetic biomaterials for fascial defect repair using a rat abdominal hernia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ulrich

    Full Text Available Fascial defects are a common problem in the abdominal wall and in the vagina leading to hernia or pelvic organ prolapse that requires mesh enhancement to reduce operation failure. However, the long-term outcome of synthetic mesh surgery may be unsatisfactory due to post-surgical complications. We hypothesized that mesh fabricated from alternative synthetic polymers may evoke a different tissue response, and provide more appropriate mechanical properties for hernia repair. Our aim was to compare the in vivo biocompatibility of new synthetic meshes with a commercial mesh.We have fabricated 3 new warp-knitted synthetic meshes from different polymers with different tensile properties polyetheretherketone (PEEK, polyamide (PA and a composite, gelatin coated PA (PA+G. The rat abdominal hernia model was used to implant the meshes (25 × 35 mm, n = 24/ group. After 7, 30, 60, 90 days tissues were explanted for immunohistochemical assessment of foreign body reaction and tissue integration, using CD31, CD45, CD68, alpha-SMA antibodies. The images were analysed using an image analysis software program. Biomechanical properties were uniaxially evaluated using an Instron Tensile® Tester.This study showed that the new meshes induced complex differences in the type of foreign body reaction over the time course of implantation. The PA, and particularly the composite PA+G meshes, evoked a milder early inflammatory response, and macrophages were apparent throughout the time course. Our meshes led to better tissue integration and new collagen deposition, particularly with the PA+G meshes, as well as greater and sustained neovascularisation compared with the PP meshes.PA, PA+G and PEEK appear to be well tolerated and are biocompatible, evoking an overlapping and different host tissue response with time that might convey mechanical variations in the healing tissue. These new meshes comprising different polymers may provide an alternative option for future treatment

  1. Ascorbic acid prevents cellular uptake and improves biocompatibility of chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshoky, Hisham A; Salaheldin, Taher A; Ali, Maha A; Gaber, Mohamed H

    2018-04-11

    Chitosan nanoparticles have many applications, such as gene and drug delivery, due to their biocompatibility. Chitosan nanoparticles are currently produced by dissolution in acetic acid that affects the biocompatibility at acidic pH. Here, we synthesized and characterized chitosan (CS) and ascorbate chitosan (AsCS) nanoparticles and investigated their cytotoxic effects, internalization, and distribution in the human colon carcinoma cell line using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CS and AsCS nanoparticles were spherical with average particle sizes of 44±8.4nm and 87±13.6nm, respectively. CS nanoparticles were taken up by the cells and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity. By contrast, AsCS nanoparticles were not internalized and showed no cytotoxicity. Therefore, AsCS nanoparticles are more biocompatible than CS nanoparticles and may be more suitable for extracellular drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    Microencapsulation represents a method for immunoprotecting transplanted therapeutic cells or tissues from graft rejection using a physical barrier. This approach is advantageous in that it eliminates the need to induce long-term immunosuppression and allows the option of transplanting non-cadaveric cell sources, such as animal cells and stem cell-derived tissues. The microcapsules that we have investigated are designed to immunoprotect islets of Langerhans (i.e. clusters of insulin-secreting cells), with the goal of treating insulin-dependent diabetes. With the aid of techniques for physicochemical analysis, this research focused on understanding which properties of the microcapsule are the most important for determining its biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to elucidate correlations between the chemical make-up, physicochemical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of alginate-based microcapsules. Our approach was based on the hypothesis that the immune response to the microcapsules is governed by, and can therefore be controlled by, specific physicochemical properties of the microcapsule and its material components. The experimental work was divided into five phases, each associated with a specific aim : (1) To prove that immunoglobulins adsorb to the surface of alginate-polycation microcapsules, and to correlate this adsorption with the microcapsule chemistry. (2) To test interlaboratory reproducibility in making biocompatible microcapsules, and evaluate the suitability of our materials and fabrication protocols for subsequent studies. (3) To determine which physicochemical properties of alginates affect the in vivo biocompatibility of their gels. (4) To determine which physiochemical properties of alginate-polycation microcapsules are most important for determining their in vivo biocompatibility (5) To determine whether a modestly immunogenic membrane hinders or helps the ability of the microcapsule to immunoprotect islet xenografts in

  3. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  4. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  5. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  6. Functionalization of titanium surface with chitosan via silanation: 3D CLSM imaging of cell biocompatibility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attik, G N; D'Almeida, M; Toury, B; Grosgogeat, B

    2013-09-16

    Biocompatibility ranks as one of the most important properties of dental materials. One of the criteria for biocompatibility is the absence of material toxicity to cells, according to the ISO 7405 and 10993 recommendations. Among numerous available methods for toxicity assessment; 3-dimensional Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (3D CLSM) imaging was chosen because it provides an accurate and sensitive index of living cell behavior in contact with chitosan coated tested implants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of functionalized titanium with chitosan via a silanation using sensitive and innovative 3D CLSM imaging as an investigation method for cytotoxicity assessment. The biocompatibility of four samples (controls cells, TA6V, TA6V-TESBA and TA6V-TESBAChitosan) was compared in vitro after 24h of exposure. Confocal imaging was performed on cultured human gingival fibroblast (HGF1) like cells using Live/Dead® staining. Image series were obtained with a FV10i confocal biological inverted system and analyzed with FV10-ASW 3.1 Software (Olympus France). Image analysis showed no cytotoxicity in the presence of the three tested substrates after 24 h of contact. A slight decrease of cell viability was found in contact with TA6V-TESBA with and without chitosan compared to negative control cells. Our findings highlighted the use of 3D CLSM confocal imaging as a sensitive method to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the biocompatibility behavior of functionalized titanium with chitosan via a silanation. The biocompatibility of the new functionalized coating to HGF1 cells is as good as the reference in biomedical device implantation TA6V.

  7. Interaction of derived polymers from pyrrole with biocompatible solutions; Interaccion de polimeros derivados de pirrol con soluciones biocompatibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, O. G.

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a study about the synthesis by plasma, the electric properties and superficial interaction of polymers derived from pyrrole doped with Iodine with potential use as bio material. Poly-pyrrole is a semiconductor and biocompatible polymer with potential application in the development of artificial muscles and implants where the electric interaction between cells and material is an important variable. The syntheses were made at 13.5 MHz in a glass tubular reactor of 1500 cm{sup 3} with electrodes of 6.5 cm diameter and stainless steel flanges. An electrode was connected to the RF terminal of the power supply that is combined with a matching coupling resistance. The monomer and dopant used in this work were pyrrole and Iodine respectively, in closed containers. They were vaporized and injected separately into the reactor at room temperature and 0.1 mbar. The vapors of the reagents mixed freely in the reactor. The synthesis time was 240 min at 40, 60, 80 and 100 W. The polymers were obtained as thin films adhered to the reactor walls. The films were washed and swollen with distilled water and removed from the reactor walls with a small spatula. The polymers were irradiated with gamma rays at 18 and 22 KGy. Due to the fact that the doses are cumulative, the final dose applied was 40 KGy. The polymers characterization was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, electrical conductivity and X-ray diffraction. The analyses indicates that the polymers have very similar structure in almost the entire power range, showing C-O, C=C, C-H, O-H, N-H bonds with a predominantly amorphous structure. The TGA analyses showed that the material has 4 or 5 loses of material. The first one starts after that 115 C except for the material irradiated at 40 KGy, this one begins in 87 C, the second one is in the interval of 196 and 295 C, the third one between 311 and 500 C, and the

  8. Glycoproteins functionalized natural and synthetic polymers for prospective biomedical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasum, Shazia; Noreen, Aqdas; Kanwal, Arooj; Zuber, Mohammad; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2017-05-01

    Glycoproteins have multidimensional properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, antimicrobial and adsorption properties; therefore, they have wide range of applications. They are blended with different polymers such as chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), heparin, polystyrene fluorescent nanoparticles (PS-NPs) and carboxyl pullulan (PC) to improve their properties like thermal stability, mechanical properties, resistance to pH, chemical stability and toughness. Considering the versatile charateristics of glycoprotein based polymers, this review sheds light on synthesis and characterization of blends and composites of glycoproteins, with natural and synthetic polymers and their potential applications in biomedical field such as drug delivery system, insulin delivery, antimicrobial wound dressing uses, targeting of cancer cells, development of anticancer vaccines, development of new biopolymers, glycoproteome research, food product and detection of dengue glycoproteins. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed; highlighting the recent advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectroscopic synthetic optimizations monitoring of silver nanoparticles formation from Megaphrynium macrostachyum leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Eya'ane Meva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nanobiotechnology is one of the most promising areas in modern nanoscience and technology. Metallic nanoparticles have found uses in many applications in different fields, such as catalysis, photonics, electronics, medicine and agriculture. Synthesized nanoparticles through chemical and physical methods are expensive and have low biocompatibility. In the present study, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized from Megaphrynium macrostachyum (Benth. & Hook. f. Milne-Redh., Marantaceae, leaf extract. Megaphrynium macrostachyum is a plant with large leaves found in the rainforest of West and Central Africa. Synthetic optimizations following factors such as incubation time, temperature, pH, extract and silver ion concentration during silver formation are discussed. UV–visible spectra gave surface plasmon resonance for synthesized silver nanoparticles based Megaphrynium macrostachyum peaks at 400–450 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed the average size of pure crystallites composed from Ag and AgCl.

  10. Laser surface modification of polyethersulfone films: effect of laser wavelength on biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazokian, H; Jelvani, S; Mollabashi, M; Barzin, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper laser ablation of polyethersulfone (PES) films regarding to the change in biocompatibility of the surface is investigated at 3 different wavelengths of 193nm (ArF), 248 nm (KrF) and 308 nm (XeCl). The optimum laser fluence and number of pulses for the improvement of the surface biocompatibility is found by examination of the surface behavior in contact with platelets and fibroblasts cells at 3 wavelengths. These biological modifications are explained by alteration of the surface morphology and chemistry following irradiation. The results show that the KrF laser is the best choice for treatment of PES in biological applications.

  11. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Biocompatibility Study of Highly Crystalline Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Caibao; Chen, Yingzhi; Huang, Yongzhuo; Zhu, Peizhi

    2015-08-01

    Highly crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanorods with different carbonate contents were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. The crystallinity and chemical structure of synthesized nanorods were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo-electronic spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The biocompatibility of synthesized CHA nanorods was evaluated by cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG-63 cell line. The biocompatibility evaluation results show that these CHA nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopedic application.

  12. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  13. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  14. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  15. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  16. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  17. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  18. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  20. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  1. Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold–Raman-probe–silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Lankford, Jessica; Wu, Nianqiang; Zhang Jianming; Ma Dongling; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement of Raman probes (labels) for biocompatible applications, a synthetic approach has been developed to sandwich the Raman-probe (malachite green isothiocyanate, MGITC) molecules between the gold core and the silica shell in gold–SiO 2 composite nanoparticles. The gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched structure not only prevents the Raman probe from leaking out but also improves the solubility of the nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions even with high ionic strength. To amplify the Raman signal, three types of core, gold nanospheres, nanorods and nanostars, have been chosen as the substrates of the Raman probe. The effect of the core shape on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated. The colloidal nanostars showed the highest SERS enhancement factor while the nanospheres possessed the lowest SERS activity under excitation with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation showed significant differences in the local electromagnetic field distributions surrounding the nanospheres, nanorods, and nanostars, which were induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The electromagnetic field was enhanced remarkably around the two ends of the nanorods and around the sharp tips of the nanostars. This local electromagnetic enhancement made the dominant contribution to the SERS enhancement. Both the experiments and the simulation revealed the order nanostars > nanorods > nanospheres in terms of the enhancement factor. Finally, the biological application of the nanostar–MGITC–SiO 2 nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the monitoring of DNA hybridization. In short, the gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched nanoparticles can be used as a Raman probe that features high sensitivity, good water solubility and stability, low-background fluorescence, and the absence of photobleaching for future biological applications. (paper)

  2. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  3. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  4. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  5. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  6. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  7. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  8. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  9. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  10. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  11. Modified titanium surface with gelatin nano gold composite increases osteoblast cell biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Bhattarai, Govinda; Aryal, Santosh; Lee, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Tae-Gun; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gelatin nano gold (GnG) composite for surface modification of titanium in addition to insure biocompatibility on dental implants or biomaterials. The GnG composite was constructed by gelatin and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate in presence of reducing agent, sodium borohydrate (NabH 4 ). The GnG composite was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A dipping method was used to modify the titanium surface by GnG composite. Surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The MC-3T3 E1 cell viability was assessed by trypan blue and the expression of proteins to biocompatibility were analyzed by Western blotting. The GnG composite showed well dispersed character, the strong absorption at 530 nm, roughness, regular crystal and clear C, Na, Cl, P, and Au signals onto titanium. Further, this composite allowed MC-3T3 E1 growth and viability compared to gelatin and pure titanium. It induced ERK activation and the expression of cell adherent molecules, FAK and SPARC, and growth factor, VEGF. However, GnG decreased the level of SAPK/JNK. This shows that GnG composite coated titanium surfaces have a good biocompatibility for osteoblast growth and attachment than in intact by simple and versatile dipping method. Furthermore, it offers good communication between cell and implant surfaces by regulating cell signaling and adherent molecules, which are useful to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces.

  12. Membrane biocompatibility does not affect whole body protein metabolism during dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Stellaard, F; de Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    2005-01-01

    Background: Protein-calorie malnutrition is present in 30-50% of dialysis patients. The lack of biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, which results in low-grade inflammation, could be responsible for this malnutrition. We investigated whether protein-energy malnutrition could be partly due to

  13. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-01-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The

  14. In vivo biocompatibility of p(HPMAm-lac)-PEG hydrogels hybridized with hyaluronan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabbieti, Maria Giovanna; Dubbini, Alessandra; Laus, Fulvio; Paggi, Emanuele; Marchegiani, Andrea; Capitani, Melania; Marchetti, Luigi; Dini, Fabrizio; Vermonden, Tina; Di Martino, Piera; Agas, Dimitrios; Censi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on the biocompatibility in vivo after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in Balb/c mice of vinyl sulphone bearing p(HPMAm-lac1-2)-PEG-p(HPMAm-lac1-2)/thiolated hyaluronic acid hydrogels, designed as novel injectable biomaterials for potential application in the

  15. Use of SU8 as a stable and biocompatible adhesion layer for gold bioelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarèse, Bruno F E; Feyen, Paul L C; Falco, Aniello; Benfenati, Fabio; Lugli, Paolo; deMello, John C

    2018-04-03

    Gold is the most widely used electrode material for bioelectronic applications due to its high electrical conductivity, good chemical stability and proven biocompatibility. However, it adheres only weakly to widely used substrate materials such as glass and silicon oxide, typically requiring the use of a thin layer of chromium between the substrate and the metal to achieve adequate adhesion. Unfortunately, this approach can reduce biocompatibility relative to pure gold films due to the risk of the underlying layer of chromium becoming exposed. Here we report on an alternative adhesion layer for gold and other metals formed from a thin layer of the negative-tone photoresist SU-8, which we find to be significantly less cytotoxic than chromium, being broadly comparable to bare glass in terms of its biocompatibility. Various treatment protocols for SU-8 were investigated, with a view to attaining high transparency and good mechanical and biochemical stability. Thermal annealing to induce partial cross-linking of the SU-8 film prior to gold deposition, with further annealing after deposition to complete cross-linking, was found to yield the best electrode properties. The optimized glass/SU8-Au electrodes were highly transparent, resilient to delamination, stable in biological culture medium, and exhibited similar biocompatibility to glass.

  16. In vitro and in vivo studies on biocompatibility of carbon fibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajzer, I.; Menaszek, E.; Bačáková, Lucie; Rom, M.; Blazewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 9 (2010), s. 2611-2622 ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : carbon fibres * biocompatibility Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2010

  17. Long-term biocompatibility, chemistry, and function of microencapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; van Hoogmoed, CG; van Zanten, J; Netter, S; Strubbe, JH; Busscher, HJ

    Transplantation of encapsulated living cells is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. In the present study, we have implemented new as well as previously

  18. In vivo study on the biocompatibility of chitosan-hydroxyapatite film depending on degree of deacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ki-Jae; Song, Younseong; Shin, Hye-Ri; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeonghyo; Sun, Fangfang; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Jaebeom

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan, produced from chitin, is one of the polymers with promising applications in various fields. However, despite diverse research studies conducted on its biocompatibility, its uses are still limited. The main reason is the degree of deacetylation (DOD), which represents the proportion of deacetylated units in the polymer and is directly correlated with its biocompatibility property. In this article, the in vivo biocompatibility of three chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite films composed of chitosan with different DOD values was investigated by traditional biological protocols and novel optical spectroscopic analyses. The DOD of the chitosan obtained from three different manufacturers was estimated and calculated by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chitosan with the higher DOD induced a higher incidence of inflammation in skin cells. The amino group density, biodegradability, and crystallinity of chitosan are the three possible factors that need to be considered when determining the biocompatibility of the films for in vivo application, as they led to complicated biological results, resulting in either better or worse inflammation even when using chitosan products with the same DOD. This basic study on the relationship between the DOD and inflammation is valuable for the development of further chitosan-based researches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1637-1645, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun

    2009-01-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  20. In vivo qualitative analysis of the biocompatibility of different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tobias Moretti Neto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanocrylates have been widely used in the medical and dental fields for several years. In Dentistry, cyanoacrylates have been used for suturing, pulp capping, as retrofilling material in endodontic surgeries, and as cervical plug for pulpless teeth bleaching. The biocompatibility of these adhesives has been the topic of many researches and subcutaneous implantation is an effective methodology for these studies. The present study evaluated the biocompatibility of three different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives. Thirty-six Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups of 9 animals each: A (control - distilled water, B - cyanoacrylate ester (Super Bonder, C - n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl and D - alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond. The materials were dispensed in sponges of polyvinyl chloride, the animals were incised and the sponges were inserted in the subcutaneous tissue and sutured. Each group was sub-divided according to the time of sacrifice of the animals: 7, 21 and 45 days. Subjective analysis of the histologic material showed that all groups presented some degree of irritability, but the inflammatory reaction decreased with the experimental time in all groups. Group D showed an inflammatory reaction which was closer to that of the control group and was considered to have good biocompatibility. Groups B and C were similar and presented more aggressive inflammatory reactions when compared to the control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond was the most biocompatible adhesive because it caused the lowest levels of inflammation.

  1. Synthesis of microbial elastomers based on soybean oily acids. Biocompatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Hazer, Baki; Kaymaz, Figen

    2009-01-01

    Biocompatibility studies of the autoxidized and unoxidized unsaturated medium-long chain length (m-lcl) co-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (m-lclPHAs) derived from soya oily acids have been reported. Pseudomonas oleovorans was grown on a series of mixtures of octanoic acid (OA) and soya oily acids (Sy) with weight ratios of 20:80, 28:72 and 50:50 in order to obtain unsaturated m-lcl copolyesters coded PHO-Sy-2080, PHO-Sy-2872 and PHO-Sy-5050, respectively. The PHA films were obtained by solvent cast from CHCl 3 . They were all originally sticky and waxy except PHO-Sy-5050. Autoxidation of the unsaturated copolyester films was carried out on exposure to air at room temperature in order to obtain crosslinked polymers. They became a highly flexible elastomer after being autoxidized (about 40 days of autoxidation). The in vivo tissue reactions of the autoxidized PHAs were evaluated by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The rats appeared to be healthy throughout the implantation period. No symptom such as necrosis, abscess or tumorigenesis was observed in the vicinity of the implants. Retrieved materials varied in their physical appearance after 6 weeks of implantation. In vivo biocompatibility studies of the medical applications indicated that the microbial copolyesters obtained were all biocompatible and especially the PHOSy series of copolyesters had the highest biocompatibility among them.

  2. Nanoparticle-cell interactions: surface chemistry effects on the cellular uptake of biocompatible block copolymer assemblies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Castro, C. E.; Ribeiro, C. A. S.; Alavarse, A. C.; Albuquerque, L. J. C.; da Silva, M. C. C.; Jäger, Eliezer; Surman, František; Schmidt, V.; Giacomelli, C.; Giacomelli, F. C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2018), s. 2180-2188 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09998S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biocompatibility * block copolymers * controlled drug delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  3. Controllable synthesis of functional nanocomposites: Covalently functionalize graphene sheets with biocompatible L-lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Zunli; Gou, Hao; He, Jingxian; Yang, Peipei; Feng, Chao; Guo, Ruibin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The biocompatible L-lysine functionalized graphene sheets (Gs/Lys) were synthesized controllably using a novel method. ► The Gs/Lys nanocomposites are water-soluble, biocompatible and chiral. ► A chiral graphene derivative was proposed. - Abstract: In this paper a novel method to synthesize functionalize graphene sheets (Gs) by biocompatible L-lysine (Gs/Lys) is reported. The method was composed of two steps: (1) we controllably synthesized self-assembly Gs/Lys-Cu-Lys through the terminal amino of copper L-lysine (Lys-Cu-Lys) attaching to graphite oxide (GO) and then reducing. (2) Obtained the Gs/Lys by eliminating the copper ion. This method could also be used to functionalize other nanomaterials by L-lysine. The Gs/Lys nanocomposites are water-soluble, biocompatible, and above all, it is a chiral material of graphene, which is proposed by us. This novel material will be promising for more applications of graphene. The formation of Gs/Lys nanocomposites were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis.

  4. BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND TISSUE REGENERATING CAPACITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  5. DNA nanosensor based on biocompatible graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhao Sheng; Shan, Xiao Yue; Chai, Lu Jing; Ma, Juan Juan; Chen, Jian Rong; Feng, Hui

    2014-10-15

    An ultrasensitive nanosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between biocompatible graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes for DNA detection was reported. We take advantage of good biocompatibility and strong fluorescence of graphene quantum dots, base pairing specificity of DNA and unique fluorescence resonance energy transfer between graphene quantum dots and carbon nanotubes to achieve the analysis of low concentrations of DNA. Graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield up to 0.20 were prepared and served as the fluorophore of DNA probe. FRET process between graphene quantum dots-labeled probe and oxidized carbon nanotubes is easily achieved due to their efficient self-assembly through specific π-π interaction. This nanosensor can distinguish complementary and mismatched nucleic acid sequences with high sensitivity and good reproducibility. The detection method based on this nanosensor possesses a broad linear span of up to 133.0 nM and ultralow detection limit of 0.4 nM. The constructed nanosensor is expected to be highly biocompatible because of all its components with excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermodynamics of non-bridging oxigen in silica bio-compatible glass-ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koga, N.; Strnad, Z.; Šesták, Jaroslav; Strnad, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2003), s. 927-937 ISSN 1418-2874 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4010101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : bio-compatible * bone-like apatite * glass-ceramics * mimetic material * thermodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2002

  7. 75 FR 13556 - Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... filed a petition proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...] Biocompatibles UK Ltd.; Filing of Color Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... polyvinyl alcohol as a color additive in vascular embolization devices. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  8. Magnesium alloys for temporary implant applications: stress corrosion cracking and biocompatible coating

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have emerged as potential candidate materials for construction of biodegradable temporary implant devices particularly due to advantages of favourable mechanical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, the poor corrosion resistance of Mg alloys in the physiological environment presents a major challenge to their use as biodegradable temporary implants. Furthermore, complex interaction of mechanical loading and aggressive physiological environment may ...

  9. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Cancer therapy by localized immune response, Magneto -rehological Fluids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit Evrensel...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing

  10. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles (NZVI) Synthesized using tea-polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A “green” protocol was used for the rapid generation of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles using tea polyphenols. The NZVI particles were subsequently examined for in vitro biocompatibility using the human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) line as a skin exposure model. The cell...

  11. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  12. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  14. Biocompatibility of various hydoxyapatite scaffolds evaluated by proliferation of rat’s bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad F. Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaffold (biomaterial biocompatibility test should be performed in vitro prior to in vivo stem cell application in animal or clinical trial. These test consists of direct and indirect toxicity test (MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. Those tests were used to identify cell morphological changes, cell-substrate adhesion impairment, and reduction in cell proliferation activity.Methods: The tested scaffolds were hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate (HA-CaSO4 (scaffold I, nano-particular HA paste (scaffold II, synthetic HA granule (scaffold III, bovine HA granule (scaffold IV, and morsellized bovine xenograft (scaffold V. Direct contact toxicity test and MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] were performed on those groups. In direct contact toxicity test, we put granules of various scaffolds within plates and incubated together with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In MTT assay we included phenol 20 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL group as positive control. Morphology, cell adhesion impairment, and cell growth were monitored daily until day-7. Cells counting in the direct contact toxicity test was conducted on day-7.Results: There were no changes on 24 hours observation after direct contact. On day-7, an impairment of cell adhesion to plastic substrates, changes in cell morphology, and cell death were observed, especially in scaffold I, scaffold II, and scaffold V. In MTT assay, only scaffold I, phenol 20 mg/mL, and phenol 100 mg/mL showed more than 50% inhibition at 24-hour and 7-day-observation. Extracts from scaffold II, III, IV, and V did not affect the viability and proliferation of bone marrow MSCs (inhibition value < 50%. Scaffold II, III, IV and V were proven non-cytotoxic and have good biocompatibility in vitro,  no statistical significant differences were observed among the scaffold groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: We understand which scaffold was nontoxic or the least toxic to

  15. Correlation between the physicochemical properties of organic solvents and their biocompatibility toward epoxide hydrolase activity in whole-cells of a yeast, Rhodotorulasp

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotter, J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available in whole-cells of the yeast Rhodotorula sp. UOFS Y-0448 was investigated. No formal correlation between solvent biocompatibility and physicochemical properties was deductible, although the introduction of hydroxyl groups increased biocompatibility. 1...

  16. Biocompatibility of biomaterials - Lessons learned and considerations for the design of novel materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-04-01

    Biocompatibility of dental materials has gained increasing interest during recent decades. Meanwhile, legal regulations and standard test procedures are available to evaluate biocompatibility. Herein, these developments will be exemplarily outlined and some considerations for the development of novel materials will be provided. Different aspects including test selection, release of substances, barriers, tissue healing, antibacterial substances, nanoparticles and environmental aspects will be covered. The provided information is mainly based on a review of the relevant literature in international peer reviewed journals, on regulatory documents and on ISO standards. Today, a structured and systematic approach for demonstrating biocompatibility from both a scientific and regulatory point of view is based on a clinical risk assessment in an early stage of material development. This includes the analysis of eluted substances and relevant barriers like dentin or epithelium. ISO standards 14971, 10993, and 7405 specify the modes for clinical risk assessment, test selection and test performance. In contact with breached tissues, materials must not impair the healing process. Antibacterial effects should be based on timely controllable substances or on repellant surfaces. Nanoparticles are produced by intraoral grinding irrespective of the content of nanoparticles in the material, but apparently at low concentrations. Concerns regarding environmental aspects of mercury from amalgam can be met by amalgam separating devices. The status for other materials (e.g. bisphenol-A in resin composites) needs to be evaluated. Finally, the public interest for biocompatibility issues calls for a suitable strategy of risk communication. A wise use of the new tools, especially the clinical risk assessment should aim at preventing the patients, professionals and the environment from harm but should not block the development of novel materials. However, biocompatibility must always be

  17. Tantalum, Niobium and Titanium Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metals have a wide range of applications in implant and prosthetic materials in dentistry.Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of metals should be improved in order to utilizethem as biomaterials. The aim of this work was to prepare metallic coatings on 316L stainless steel dental implants, to evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the uncoated and metallic coated dentalimplants as an indication of biocompatibility and, to compare the effect of the type of the coatings on biocompatibility.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro evaluation, three types of metallic coatings including tantalum, niobium and titanium coatings were compared using a physical vapor deposition process on 316L stainless steel dental implants. Structural characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were utilized to investigatethe microstructure and morphology of the coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed in two types of physiological solutions at 37±1°C in order to determine and compare the corrosioncurrent density and corrosion potential characteristics. The mean values were statistically compared by ANOVA at a 95% level of confidence.Results: the findings showed that all of the three types of metallic coatings had a positive effect on improvement of the corrosion behavior. The coatings could increase the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel and this trend was independent of the type of physiological environment.Conclusion: The biocompatible metallic coatings could decrease the corrosion current density and is a distinct advantage for prevention of ion release. Decreasing ion release can improve the biocompatibility of the dental implant, and consequently can prevent tissue damage, tissue inflammation and irritation, and can also lead to obtaining a desirable histopathological response.

  18. Biofabrication of a novel biomolecule-assisted reduced graphene oxide: an excellent biocompatible nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan2 1College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene has been shown much interest, both in academics and industry due to its extraordinary physical, chemical, and biological proprieties. It shows great promises in biotechnological and biomedical applications as an antibacterial and anticancer agent, nanocarrier, sensor, etc. However, many studies demonstrated the toxicity of graphene in several cell lines, which is an obstacle to its use in biomedical applications. In this study, to improve the biocompatibility of graphene, we used nicotinamide (NAM as a reducing and stabilizing agent to catalyze the reduction of graphene oxide (GO to reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The resulted smaller-sized GO (NAM-rGO showed excellent biocompatibility with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, evidenced by various cellular assays. Furthermore, NAM-rGO had no effect on mitochondrial membrane permeability and caspase-3 activity compared to GO. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis allowed us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for NAM-rGO-induced biocompatibility. NAM-rGO significantly induced the expression of genes encoding tight junction proteins (TJPs such as zona occludens-1 (Tjp1 and claudins (Cldn3 without any effect on the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. Furthermore, NAM-rGO enhances the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP gene, and it does this in a time-dependent manner. Overall, our study depicted the molecular mechanisms underlying NAM-rGO biocompatibility depending on upregulation of TJPs and ALP. This potential quality of graphene could be used in diverse applications including tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. Keywords: biocompatibility, graphene oxide, nicotinamide, reduced

  19. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  20. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  1. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  2. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  3. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  4. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  5. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  6. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  7. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  8. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  9. CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Shaw, David Martin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  11. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic Sediments and Stochastic Groundwater Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    For over twenty years the groundwater community has pursued the somewhat elusive goal of describing the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on subsurface flow and chemical transport. While small perturbation stochastic moment methods have significantly advanced theoretical understanding, why is it that stochastic applications use instead simulations of flow and transport through multiple realizations of synthetic geology? Allan Gutjahr was a principle proponent of the Fast Fourier Transform method for the synthetic generation of aquifer properties and recently explored new, more geologically sound, synthetic methods based on multi-scale Markov random fields. Focusing on sedimentary aquifers, how has the state-of-the-art of synthetic generation changed and what new developments can be expected, for example, to deal with issues like conceptual model uncertainty, the differences between measurement and modeling scales, and subgrid scale variability? What will it take to get stochastic methods, whether based on moments, multiple realizations, or some other approach, into widespread application?

  13. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  14. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  15. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  16. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  17. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  18. Synthetic biology era: Improving antibiotic's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Ceapa, Corina D; Manzo-Ruiz, Monserrat; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules have made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions. Among many other biotechnological approaches, the advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to design and construct novel biological systems in order to look for new drugs with increased bioactivity. Advancements have also been made in the redesigning of RNA and DNA molecules in order to engineer antibiotic clusters for antibiotic overexpression. As for the production of these antibacterial compounds, yeasts and filamentous fungi as well as gene therapy are utilized to enhance protein solubility. Specific delivery is achieved by creating chimeras using plant genes into bacterial hosts. Some of these synthetic systems are currently in clinical trials, proving the proficiency of synthetic biology in terms of both pharmacological activities as well as an increase in the biosafety of treatments. It is possible that we may just be seeing the tip of the iceberg, and synthetic biology applications will overpass expectations beyond our present knowledge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhan; Choi, Yunkyoung; Lee, Myungjae; Jeon, Heonsu; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-12-01

    A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures.A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The incident angle dependence of reflectance spectra and the atomic force microscopy image of the Au nanoparticle array on a silk film after 1 hour of ultrasonication. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05172f

  1. Biodegradability and Biocompatibility Study of Poly(Chitosan-g-lactic Acid Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid (PCLA scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The biodegradabilty was determined by mass loss in vitro, and degradation in vivo as a function of feed ratio of LA/CS. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC culture experiments and histological examination were performed to evaluate the PCLA scaffolds’ biocompatibility. The results indicated that PCLA was promising for tissue engineering application.

  2. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  3. The Influence of Surface Treatment by Hydrogenation on the Biocompatibility of Different Hydroxyapatite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcevskis, E; Dindune, A; Dekhtyar, Y; Polyaka, N; Veljovic, D; Sammons, R L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of hydrogenation on the biocompatibility of different hydroxyapatite (HAP) materials was tested. Materials consisted of pure HAP, HAP substituted with manganese (Mn +2 ) and with magnesium (Mg +2 ) - all axially pressed and conventionally sintered for 2 h at 1200 deg. C; pure HAP isostatic pressed and sintered by a microwave technique for 15 min at temperature of 1200 deg. C. Biocompatibility was compared by enumeration of the number of osteoblast-like cells to the materials before and after hydrogenation. Obtained results show that the osteoblastic cells demonstrated a higher ability to attach to HAP if its surface was negatively charged. Hydrogenation altered the surface potential; HAP substituted with manganese - HAP(Mn) and with magnesium - HAP(Mg) demonstrated the highest ability to engineer the charge.

  4. Mechanical properties of biocompatible clay/P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) nanocomposite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hengxue; Xia, Mengge; Cunningham, Alexander; Chen, Wei; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of crosslinking density, polymer concentration and monomer ratio on the mechanical properties (tensile and compressive properties) of biocompatible clay/P(MEO 2 MA-co-OEGMA) nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels were investigated. These novel NC hydrogels, composed of inorganic/organic networks, were prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization. The results showed that with increasing inorganic crosslinking agent, i.e. clay concentration, an increase in the tensile strength, elongation at break and compressive strength was observed. Similarly, with increasing polymer concentration, the tensile strength and compressive strength of the NC hydrogels increased while the elongation at break decreased. Increasing the molar concentration of OEGMA in the comonomer led to an increase in the tensile strength of the NC hydrogels but a reduction in the compressive strength. Moreover, clay/P(MEO 2 MA-co-OEGMA) NC hydrogels presented good biocompatibility bolstering their application as tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies to optimize the biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles - ;SPIONs safe by design;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Christina; Zaloga, Jan; Pöttler, Marina; Dürr, Stephan; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Various nanoparticle systems have been developed for medical applications in recent years. For constant improvement of efficacy and safety of nanoparticles, a close interdisciplinary interplay between synthesis, physicochemical characterizations and toxicological investigations is urgently needed. Based on combined toxicological data, we follow a ;safe-by design; strategy for our superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Using complementary interference-free toxicological assay systems, we initially identified agglomeration tendencies in physiological fluids, strong uptake by cells and improvable biocompatibility of lauric acid (LA)-coated SPIONs (SPIONLA). Thus, we decided to further stabilize those particles by an artificial protein corona consisting of serum albumin. This approach finally lead to increased colloidal stability, augmented drug loading capacity and improved biocompatibility in previous in vitro assays. Here, we show in whole blood ex vivo and on isolated red blood cells (RBC) that a protein corona protects RBCs from hemolysis by SPIONs.

  6. Biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

    2011-01-01

    In this study, biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical implant applications was investigated. 17-4 PH stainless steel foams having porosities in the range of 40-82% with an average pore size of around 600 μm were produced by space holder-sintering technique. Sintered foams were precipitation hardened for times of 1-6 h at temperatures between 450-570 °C. Compressive yield strength and Young's modulus of aged stainless steel foams were observed to vary between 80-130 MPa and 0.73-1.54 GPa, respectively. Pore morphology, pore size and the mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to cancellous bone. In vitro evaluations of cytotoxicity of the foams were investigated by XTT and MTT assays and showed sufficient biocompatibility. Surface roughness parameters of the stainless steel foams were also determined to characterize the foams.

  7. Effect of biocompatible polymers on the structural integrity of lipid bilayers under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Kausik, Ravinath; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Han, Song-I.; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee

    2010-03-01

    Cell membrane dysfunction due to loss of structural integrity is the pathology of tissue death in trauma and common diseases. It is now established that certain biocompatible polymers, such as Poloxamer 188, Poloxamine 1107 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), are effective in sealing of injured cell membranes, and able to prevent acute necrosis. Despite these broad applications of these polymers for human health, the fundamental mechanisms by which these polymers interact with cell membranes are still under debate. Here, the effects of a group of biocompatible polymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic and oxidative stress were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles as model cell membranes. Our results suggest that the adsorption of the polymers on the membrane surface is responsible for the cell membrane resealing process due to its capability of slowing down the surface hydration dynamics.

  8. Zwitterionic Nanofibers of Super-Glue for Transparent and Biocompatible Multi-Purpose Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Elisa; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Ciofani, Gianni; Genchi, Giada G.; Ceseracciu, Luca; Davis, Alexander; Papadopoulou, Evie L.; Barthel, Markus J.; Marini, Lara; Ruffilli, Roberta; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that macrozwitterions of poly(ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate), commonly called Super Glue, can easily assemble into long and well defined fibers by electrospinning. The resulting fibrous networks are thermally treated on glass in order to create transparent coatings whose superficial morphology recalls the organization of the initial electrospun mats. These textured coatings are characterized by low liquid adhesion and anti-staining performance. Furthermore, the low friction coefficient and excellent scratch resistance make them attractive as solid lubricants. The inherent texture of the coatings positively affects their biocompatibility. In fact, they are able to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast stem cells. Optically-transparent and biocompatible coatings that simultaneously possess characteristics of low water contact angle hysteresis, low friction and mechanical robustness can find application in a wide range of technological sectors, from the construction and automotive industries to electronic and biomedical devices.

  9. Zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets: a biocompatible nanomaterial for drug delivery to cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vipin; Diaz, Agustin; Clearfield, Abraham; Batteas, James D.; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets (NPs), and their use in drug delivery. ZrP and doxorubicin-intercalated ZrP (DOX:ZrP) NPs were characterized by using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Transmission Electron Micrography (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility of ZrP NPs was evaluated in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293), breast cancer (MCF-7), metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3), resistant cancer (NCI-RES/ADR) cells and mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell lines. Hemocompatibility of ZrP NPs was evaluated with human red blood cells. Simulated body fluid (SBF) of pH 7.4 was used to determine the in vitro release of doxorubicin from DOX:ZrP NPs. Cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity studies of DOX:ZrP NPs were determined in MDA-MB-231. The ZrP nanomaterial can be prepared in the 100-200 nm size range with a platelet-like shape. The ZrP NPs themselves are biocompatible, hemocompatible and showed no toxicity to the macrophage cells. ZrP NPs can intercalate high loads (35% w/w) of doxorubicin between their layers. The release of DOX was sustained for about 2 weeks. DOX:ZrP NPs showed higher cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity than free DOX in MDA-MB-231 cells. ZrP NPs are highly biocompatible, can intercalate large amounts of drugs and sustain the release of drugs. ZrP NPs improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX to MDA-MB-231 cells. ZrP NPs are promising nanocarriers for drug delivery in cancer therapy.The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets (NPs), and their use in drug delivery. ZrP and doxorubicin-intercalated ZrP (DOX:ZrP) NPs were characterized by using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Transmission Electron Micrography (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  10. Influence of surface treatment on the biocompatibility of aluminum substrates promising for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiradzhiyska, D. D., E-mail: denica.kiradjiiska@gmail.com; Mantcheva, R. D., E-mail: r-manch@abv.bg [Medical University - Plovdiv, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Chemical Science15A Vassil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Feodorova, Y. N.; Draganov, M. M. [Medical University - Plovdiv, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Biology, 15A Vassil Aprilov blvd., 4002 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. A. [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy -Sofia, Department of Chemical Science, Subdepartment of Physical Chemistry, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd. 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Viraneva, A. P.; Yovcheva, T. A. [University of Plovdiv “Paisiy Hilendarski”, Faculty of Physics, Department of Experimental Physic, 24 Tsar Assen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2016-03-25

    Materials for medical implants should have suitable mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. They should not stimulate allergic and immunologic reactions and should not cause cancer. The use of aluminum as a construction material in implantology is continuously expanding. There are various methods for surface treatment to improve its biocompatibility. In this study aluminum samples anodized in 15% H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} or treated with positive or negative corona discharge were investigated. PDL-cell line of immortalized cells, precursors of periodontal ligament and RAW 264.7 cell line from mouse macrophages are used for the bioassays. The results show that 10 and 20 μm thick oxide film provides better development of the PLD cells, compared to untreated aluminum. Metal surfaces with 10 μm thick oxide film show the best properties in terms of cells vitality, proliferation and growth. Polymer treated but uncharged samples show good results.

  11. In vitro calcification and in vivo biocompatibility of the cross-linked polypentapeptide of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, S.A.; Lemons, J.E.; Prasad, K.U.; Urry, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro calcifiability and molecular weight dependence of calcification of the polypentapeptide, (L X Val1-L X Pro2-Gly3-L X Val4-Gly5)n, which had been gamma-irradiation cross-linked have been determined when exposed to dialyzates of normal, nonaugmented fetal bovine serum. The material was found to calcify: calcifiability was found to be highly molecular weight dependent and to be most favored when the highest molecular weight polymers (n approximately equal to 240) had been used for cross-linking. The in vivo biocompatibility, biodegradability, and calcifiability of the gamma-irradiation cross-linked polypentapeptide were examined in rabbits in both soft and hard tissue sites. The material was found to be biocompatible irrespective of its physical form and to be biodegradable but with n of 200 or less it was not shown to calcify or ossify in the rabbit tibial nonunion model

  12. Fabrication and wireless micromanipulation of magnetic-biocompatible microrobots using microencapsulation for microrobotics and microfluidics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Nannan; Kershaw, Joe; Wang, Lei

    2016-12-01

    It is important to fabricate biocompatible and chemical-resistant microstructures that can be powered and controlled without a tether in fluid environment for applications when contamination must be avoided, like cell manipulation, and applications where connecting the power source to the actuator would be cumbersome, like targeted delivery of chemicals. In this work, a novel fabrication method was described to encapsulate magnetic composite into pure SU-8 structures, enabling the truly microscale ferromagnetic microrobots biocompatible and chemical resistant. The microrobots were developed using the simple multilayer photolithography that allows us to mass produce and were actuated contact-free by external magnetic field to complete micromanipulations of micro-objects. The microrobots were actuated moving along a preplanned path to transport a glass microsphere object at an approximately average speed of 1.1 mm/sec and can be operated to rotate, aim at targets and collect objects.

  13. A study on the characterisation and biostability of used and virgin dialysis membranes and biocompatibility of the composite biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konduk, B.A.; Ucisik, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    alumina exists only in the form of corundum. As the amount of zircon increased, mullite formations became visible on the particle boundaries. Animal studies revealed that these ceramic composites do not have any adverse effect on the tissues investigated histologically. Herein it is postulated that composite systems consisting of basic polymers either, polysulfone or cellulose, and additives (ceramic) may improve the biostability and biocompatibility of the membranes used for hemodialysis or their respective degraded products as explained to different degrees after use, or may serve as new biomaterials. Hence, this study is partly aiming at improving the quality of membranes and formation of new biomaterials for biomedical applications. In future polymers mentioned such as cellulosic or synthetic ones reinforced with ceramics may create new benefits in the area of nephrology, whereas alumina-zircon reinforced by polymers may do the same in dentistry and orthopedics. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  14. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Artur Moreira; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Gonçalves, Inês; Gama, F. M.; Mendes, Adélio; Magalhães, Fernão D.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials – graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) – were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  15. Biocompatibility of single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Liberati, T A; Verhulst, S J; Main, B J; Roberts, M H; Potty, A G R; Pylawka, T K; El-Amin Iii, S F

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo biocompatibility of novel single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) composites for applications in bone and tissue regeneration. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats (125 g to 149 g) were implanted subcutaneously with SWCNT/PLAGA composites (10 mg SWCNT and 1gm PLAGA 12 mm diameter two-dimensional disks), and at two, four, eight and 12 weeks post-implantation were compared with control (Sham) and PLAGA (five rats per group/point in time). Rats were observed for signs of morbidity, overt toxicity, weight gain and food consumption, while haematology, urinalysis and histopathology were completed when the animals were killed. No mortality and clinical signs were observed. All groups showed consistent weight gain, and the rate of gain for each group was similar. All groups exhibited a similar pattern for food consumption. No difference in urinalysis, haematology, and absolute and relative organ weight was observed. A mild to moderate increase in the summary toxicity (sumtox) score was observed for PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA implanted animals, whereas the control animals did not show any response. Both PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA showed a significantly higher sumtox score compared with the control group at all time intervals. However, there was no significant difference between PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA groups. Our results demonstrate that SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited in vivo biocompatibility similar to the Food and Drug Administration approved biocompatible polymer, PLAGA, over a period of 12 weeks. These results showed potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for bone regeneration as the low percentage of SWCNT did not elicit a localised or general overt toxicity. Following the 12-week exposure, the material was considered to have an acceptable biocompatibility to warrant further long-term and more invasive in vivo studies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:70-7. ©2015 The British Editorial

  16. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-07-28

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive at optimal conditions for the dry adhesive skin patch, the proper design of various structural and material parameters of micropillars is investigated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. What is biocompatibility?: a new definition based on the latest technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, L

    2013-07-01

    Biomaterials have been evolving for a number of decades, and it is about time that better categorizations of biocompatibility were devised to describe them. At least that is the view of Buddy Ratner, professor of bioengineering and chemical engineering, and Michael L. and Myrna Darland Endowed Chair in Technology Commercialization at the University of Washington, as well as director of University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB), the university's engineered biomaterials program.

  18. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • a-C:Ti nanocomposite coatings were prepared on 316L stainless steel by using R.F. magnetron sputtering method. • Properties of the nanocomposite coatings were analyzed with respect to titanium content. • Corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and hydrophobicity of nanocomposite coating were enhanced with increasing titanium content. • Coating with 2.33 at.% titanium showed superior tribological properties compared to other coatings. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp"2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  19. Mechanical properties, corrosion, and biocompatibility of Mg-Zr-Sr-Dy alloys for biodegradable implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2017-11-28

    This study investigates the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, and biocompatibility of magnesium (Mg)-based Mg1Zr2SrxDy (x = 0, 1, 1.63, 2.08 wt %) alloys for biodegradable implant applications. The corrosion behavior of the Mg-based alloys has been evaluated in simulated body fluid using an electrochemical technique and hydrogen evolution. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys has been assessed using SaSO2 cells. Results indicate that the addition of Dy to Mg-Zr-Sr alloy showed a positive impact on the corrosion behavior and significantly decreased the degradation rates of the alloys. The degradation rate of Mg1Zr2Sr1.0Dy decreased from 17.61 to 12.50 mm year -1 of Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy based on the hydrogen evolution. The ultimate compressive strength decreased from 270.90 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr1Dy to 236.71 MPa for Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy. An increase in the addition of Dy to the Mg-based alloys resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the Mg 2 Dy phase, which mitigated the galvanic effect between the Mg 17 Sr 2 phase and the Mg matrix, and led to an increase in the corrosion resistance of the base alloy. The biocompatibility of the Mg-based alloys was enhanced with decreasing corrosion rates. Mg1Zr2Sr2.08Dy exhibited the lowest corrosion rate and the highest biocompatibility compared with the other Mg-based alloys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of PMBN as A Biocompatible Nanopolymer for Bio-Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Puria Motamed Fath; Fatemeh Yazdian; Rogayyeh Jamjah; Bahman Ebrahimi Hosseinzadeh; Maede Rahimnezhad; Razi Sahraeian; Ashrafalsadat Hatamian

    2017-01-01

    Objective Poly [2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphoryl choline (MPC)-co-n-buthyl methacrylate (BMA)-co-p-nitrophenyl-oxycrabonyl poly ethylene glycol-methacrylate (ME- ONP)] (PMBN), a biocompatible terpolymer, is a unique polymer with applications that range from drug delivery systems (DDS) to scaffolds and biomedical devices. In this research, we have prepared a monomer of p-nitrophenyl-oxycarbonyl poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (MEONP) to synthesize this polymer. Next, we designed and prepa...

  1. Biocompatibility study on Ni-free Ti-based and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.H. [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wong, P.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, S.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, P.H. [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jang, J.S.C., E-mail: jscjang@ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.C. [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    Safety and reliability are crucial issues for medical instruments and implants. In the past few decays, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have drawn attentions due to their superior mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance, antibacterial and good biocompatibility. However, most Zr-based and Ti-based BMGs contain Ni as an important element which is prone to human allergy problem. In this study, the Ni-free Ti-based and Zr-based BMGs, Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 36}Pd{sub 14}, and Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8}, were selected for systematical evaluation of their biocompatibility. Several biocompatibility tests, co-cultural with L929 murine fibroblast cell line, were carried out on these two BMGs, as well as the comparison samples of Ti6Al4V and pure Cu. The results in terms of cellular adhesion, cytotoxicity, and metallic ion release affection reveal that the Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 36}Pd{sub 14} BMG and Ti6Al4V exhibit the optimum biocompatibility; cells still being attached on the petri dish with good adhesion and exhibiting the spindle shape after direct contact test. Furthermore, the Ti{sub 40}Zr{sub 10}Cu{sub 36}Pd{sub 14} BMG showed very low Cu ion release level, in agreement with the MTT results. Based on the current findings, it is believed that Ni-free Ti-based BMG can act as an ideal candidate for medical implant. - Highlight: • Ni-free bulk metallic glass is promising material for medical implants. • Ni-free Ti-based BMG presents similar cellular adhesion as Ti6Al4V. • Ni-free Ti-based BMG shows less cytotoxicity, and metallic ion release than Ti6Al4V.

  2. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  3. Material properties and in vitro biocompatibility of a newly developed bone cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Mitzner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mechanical properties and biocompatibility (In Vitro of a new bone cement were investigated. A new platform technology named COOL is a variable composite of dissolved, chemically modified PMMA and different bioceramics. COOL cures at body temperature via a classical cementation reaction. Compressive strengths ranging from 3.6 ± 0.8 to 62.8 ± 1.3 MPa and bending strengths ranging from 9.9 ± 2.4 to 26.4 ± 3.0 MPa were achieved with different COOL formulations. Porosity varied between 31 and 43%. Varying the components of each formulation mechanical properties and porosity could be adjusted. In Vitro biocompatibility studies with primary human osteoblasts (pHOB in direct contact with different COOL formulations, did not reveal any signs of toxicity. In contrast to Refobacin® R, cells incubated with COOL showed similar density, viability and ALP activity compared to control, if specimen were added immediately to the cell monolayer after preparation. In conclusion, COOL has promising mechanical properties in combination with high biocompatibility In Vitro and combines different advantages of both CPCs and PMMA cements by avoiding some of the respective shortcomings.

  4. Modification of bone graft by blending with lecithin to improve hydrophilicity and biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Cui, F Z; Jiao, Y P; Hu, K; Fan, D D

    2008-01-01

    Lecithin was blended to improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of bone graft containing poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). Solution blending and freeze drying were used to fabricate symmetrical scaffolds containing different percentages of lecithin (lecithin: PLLA = 0, 5, 10 wt%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the scaffolds maintained the three-dimensional porous structure. A water uptake experiment proved the significant improvement of hydrophilicity of the blend scaffold. With the addition of lecithin, the compressive strength and compressive modulus decreased. When the weight ratio of lecithin to PLLA was up to 10%, the compressive strength was still more than the lower limit of natural cancellous bone. To test the biocompatibility of the scaffolds, cell culture in vitro and subcutaneous implantation in vivo were performed. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells were cultured on the scaffolds for 7 days. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to exhibit proliferation and morphology of the cells. The subcutaneous implantation in rats tested inflammatory response to the scaffolds. The results proved the better biocompatibility and milder inflammatory reactions of the blend scaffold (lecithin: PLLA = 5%) compared with the scaffold without lecithin. The modified scaffold containing lecithin is promising for bone tissue engineering

  5. A novel fabrication process for out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Manhee; Hyun, Dong-Hun; Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Kim, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Changgyou

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents a novel process for fabricating out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer using in-plane microneedles. This process comprises four steps: (1) fabrication of in-plane microneedles using inclined UV lithography and electroforming, (2) conversion of the in-plane microneedles to an out-of-plane microneedle array, (3) fabrication of a negative PDMS mold and (4) fabrication of out-of-plane microneedle sheets of biocompatible polymer by hot embossing. The in-plane microneedles are fabricated with a sharp tip for low insertion forces and are made long to ensure sufficient penetration depth. The in-plane microneedles are converted into an out-of-plane microneedle array to increase the needle density. The negative mold is fabricated for mass-production using a polymer molding technique. The final out-of-plane microneedle sheets are produced using polycarbonate for biocompatibility by employing the hot embossing process. The height of the fabricated needles ranges from 500 to 1500 µm, and the distance between the needles is 500 to 2000 µm. The radii of curvature are approximately 2 µm, while the tip angles are in the range of 39-56°. Most of the geometrical characteristics of the out-of-plane microneedles can be freely controlled for real life applications such as drug delivery, cosmetic delivery and mesotherapy. Since it is also possible to mass-produce the microneedles, this novel process holds sufficient potential for applications in industrial fields.

  6. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-03

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  7. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Himani, E-mail: hkalita74@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Prashanth Kumar, B.N., E-mail: prasanthkumar999@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Konar, Suraj, E-mail: suraj.konar@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Tantubay, Sangeeta, E-mail: sang.chem2@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Mahto, Madhusudan Kr., E-mail: mahtomk0@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Mandal, Mahitosh, E-mail: mahitosh@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Pathak, Amita, E-mail: ami@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~ 48 nm and 206.51 m{sup 2}/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. - Highlights: • Biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple sonochemical approach. • Curcumin was rapidly loaded onto the particles by the aid by hydrogen bond formation. • The curcumin loaded zirconium phosphate nanoparticles depict pH triggered drug release phenomenon. • The nanoformulated curcumin showed enhanced anti-tumor activity as compared to the native curcumin.

  8. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B.N.; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Mahto, Madhusudan Kr.; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~ 48 nm and 206.51 m"2/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. - Highlights: • Biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple sonochemical approach. • Curcumin was rapidly loaded onto the particles by the aid by hydrogen bond formation. • The curcumin loaded zirconium phosphate nanoparticles depict pH triggered drug release phenomenon. • The nanoformulated curcumin showed enhanced anti-tumor activity as compared to the native curcumin.

  9. Biocompatible polymer microneedle for topical/dermal delivery of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Machekposhti, S; Soltani, M; Najafizadeh, P; Ebrahimi, S A; Chen, P

    2017-09-10

    Recently-introduced biocompatible polymeric microneedles offer an efficient method for drug delivery. Tranexamic acid is a novel drug for treating melasma that is administered both locally and orally and inhibits excessive melanin via melanocyte. The tranexamic acid biocompatible polymer microneedle used in this study was fabricated from PVP and methacrylic acid, using the lithography method. The required mechanical strength to pierce skin was attained by optimizing the ratio of PVP to methacrylic acid. Acute dermal toxicity was done, and drug diffusion in skin layers was simulated by calculating the diffusion coefficient of tranexamic acid in interstitial fluid (plasma). The biocompatible polymer microneedle was fabricated at 60°C. Needles could sustain 0.6N that is enough to pierce stratum corneum. 34% of the released drug was locally effective and the rest permeated through the skin. The pyramidal polymer microneedle in this study was fully released in skin in approx. 7h. This polymer microneedle has no dermal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaijayanthimala, Vairakkannu; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Li, Chung-Leung

    2009-01-01

    The labeling of cells with fluorescent nanoparticles is promising for various biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility and the mechanism of the cellular uptake of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) in cancer cells (HeLa) and pre-adipocytes (3T3-L1). With flow cytometry and the use of a battery of metabolic and cytoskeletal inhibitors, we found that the mechanism of the FND uptake in both cells is by energy-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, the surface charge of FND influences its cellular uptake, as the uptake of poly-L-lysine-coated FNDs is better than that of oxidative-acid-purified FNDs at the same concentration in regular medium with or without serum. We also confirm that the proliferative potential of FND-treated and untreated cells does not exhibit any significant differences when measured at bulk cultures, and more stringently at clonal cell density. Further biocompatibility studies indicate that the in vitro differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and 489-2 osteoprogenitors is not affected by the FND treatment. Our results show that FNDs are biocompatible and ideal candidates for potential applications in human stem cell research.

  11. The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaijayanthimala, Vairakkannu; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Chang, Huan-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Chung-Leung, E-mail: hcchang@po.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: chungL@gate.sinica.edu.t [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-21

    The labeling of cells with fluorescent nanoparticles is promising for various biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility and the mechanism of the cellular uptake of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) in cancer cells (HeLa) and pre-adipocytes (3T3-L1). With flow cytometry and the use of a battery of metabolic and cytoskeletal inhibitors, we found that the mechanism of the FND uptake in both cells is by energy-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, the surface charge of FND influences its cellular uptake, as the uptake of poly-L-lysine-coated FNDs is better than that of oxidative-acid-purified FNDs at the same concentration in regular medium with or without serum. We also confirm that the proliferative potential of FND-treated and untreated cells does not exhibit any significant differences when measured at bulk cultures, and more stringently at clonal cell density. Further biocompatibility studies indicate that the in vitro differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and 489-2 osteoprogenitors is not affected by the FND treatment. Our results show that FNDs are biocompatible and ideal candidates for potential applications in human stem cell research.

  12. Fabrication of biocompatible free-standing nanopatterned films for primary neuronal cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Cesca, F.; Limongi, T.; Accardo, A.; Rocchi, A.; Orlando, M.; Shalabaeva, V.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Benfenati, F.

    2014-01-01

    Devising and constructing biocompatible devices for nervous system regeneration is an extremely challenging task. Besides tackling the issue of biocompatibility, biomaterials for neuroscience applications should mimic the complex environment of the extracellular matrix, which in vivo provides neurons with a series of cues and signals to guide cells towards their appropriate targets. In this work, a novel nanopatterned biocompatible poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) film is realized to assist the attachment and growth of primary hippocampal neurons. Costly and time-consuming processes can be avoided using plasma-surface nanotexturing obtained by a mixed gas SF6/Ar at −5 °C. The intrinsic composition and line topography of nanopatterned PCL ensure healthy development of the neuronal network, as shown by confocal microscopy, by analysing the expression of a range of neuronal markers typical of mature cultures, as well as by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we show that surface nanopatterning improves differentiation of neurons compared to flat PCL films, while no neural growth was observed on either flat or nanopatterned substrates in the absence of a poly-D-lysine coating. Thus, we successfully optimized a nanofabrication protocol to obtain nanostructured PCL layers endowed with several mechanical and structural characteristics that make them a promising, versatile tool for future tissue engineering studies aimed at neural tissue regeneration.

  13. Biocompatibility and osteoconduction of macroporous silk fibroin implants in cortical defects in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebersax, Lorenz; Apfel, Tanja; Nuss, Katja M R; Vogt, Rainer; Kim, Hyoen Yoo; Meinel, Lorenz; Kaplan, David L; Auer, Joerg A; Merkle, Hans P; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the presented study was to compare the biocompatibility and cellular responses to porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds produced in a water-based (UPW) or a solvent based process (HFIP) using two different SF sources. For that reason, four different SF scaffolds were implanted (n=6) into drill hole defects in the cancellous bone of the sheep tibia and humerus. The scaffolds were evaluated histologically for biocompatibility, cell-material interaction, and cellular ingrowth. New bone formation was observed macroscopically and histologically at 8 weeks after implantation. For semiquantitative evaluation, the investigated parameters were scored and statistically analyzed (factorial ANOVA). All implants showed good biocompatibility as evident by low infiltration of inflammatory cells and the absent encapsulation of the scaffolds in connective tissue. Multinuclear foreign body giant cells (MFGCs) and macrophages were present in all parts of the scaffold at the material surface and actively degrading the SF material. Cell ingrowth and vascularization were uniform across the scaffold. However, in HFIP scaffolds, local regions of void pores were present throughout the scaffold, probably due to the low pore interconnectivity in this scaffold type in contrast to UPW scaffolds. The amount of newly formed bone was very low in both scaffold types but was more abundant in the periphery than in the center of the scaffolds and for HFIP scaffolds mainly restricted to single pores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  15. Sutureless closure of scleral wounds in animal models by the use of laser welded biocompatible patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The common procedures used to seal the scleral or conjunctival injuries are based on the traditional suturing techniques, that may induce foreign body reaction during the follow up, with subsequent inflammation and distress for the patient. In this work we present an experimental study on the laser welding of biocompatible patches onto ocular tissues, for the closure of surgical or trauma wounds. The study was performed ex vivo in animal models (porcine eyes). A penetrating perforation of the ocular tissue was performed with a surgical knife. The wound walls were approximated, and a biocompatible patch was put onto the outer surface of the tissue, in order to completely cover the wound as a plaster. The patches were prepared with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, showing high mechanical strength, good elasticity, high permeability for vapour and gases and rather low biodegradation. During preparation, Indocyanine Green (ICG) was included in the biopolymeric matrix, so that the films presented high absorption at 810 nm. Effective adhesion of the membranes to the ocular tissues was obtained by using diode laser light emitted from an 810 nm diode laser and delivered by means of a 300 μm core diameter optical fiber, to produce spots of local film/tissue adhesion, due to the photothermal effect at the interface. The result is an immediate closure of the wound, thus reducing post-operative complications due to inflammation.

  16. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of a coating material for an implantable bladder volume sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the applications for implantable medical devices have increased, the need for biocompatible packaging materials has become important. Recently, we reported an implantable sensor for real-time monitoring of the changes in bladder volume, which necessitated finding a safe coating material for use in bladder tissue. At present, materials like polyethylene glycol (PEG, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and parylene-C are used in biomedical devices or as coating materials, owing to their excellent safety in various medical fields. However, few studies have assessed their safety in bladder tissue, therefore, we evaluated the biocompatibility of PEG, PDMS and parylene-C in the bladder. All three materials turned out to be safe in in vitro tests of live/dead staining and cell viability. In vivo tests with hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining with MAC387 showed no persistent inflammation. Therefore, we consider that the three materials are biocompatible in bladder tissue. Despite this safety, however, PEG has biodegradable characteristics and thus is not suitable for use as packaging. We suggest that PDMS and parylene-C can be used as safe coating materials for the implantable bladder volume sensor reported previously.

  17. Surface Modification of SiO2 Microchannels with Biocompatible Polymer Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuro; Momose, Takeshi; Hoshi, Toru; Takai, Madoka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2010-11-01

    The surface of 500-mm-long microchannels in SiO2 microchips was modified using supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a biocompatible polymer was coated on it to confer biocompatibility to the SiO2 surface. In this method, the SiO2 surface of a microchannel was coated with poly(ethylene glycol monomethacrylate) (PEGMA) as the biocompatible polymer using allyltriethoxysilane (ATES) as the anchor material in scCO2 as the reactive medium. Results were compared with those using the conventional wet method. The surface of a microchannel could not be modified by the wet method owing to the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid, but it was modified uniformly by the scCO2 method probably owing to the near-zero surface tension, low viscosity, and high diffusivity of scCO2. The effect of the surface modification by the scCO2 method to prevent the adsorption of protein was as high as that of the modification by the wet method. Modified microchips can be used in biochemical and medical analyses.

  18. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  19. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  20. Biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girija Aswathy, Ravindran; Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Brahatheeswaran, Dhandayudhapani; Fukuda, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles. Zein is the storage protein in corn kernels that has a variety of unique characteristics and functionalities that makes zein valuable in various commercial applications. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We synthesized zein nanoparticles of around 800 nm in size and conjugated with quantum dot ZnS:Mn. The nanoparticle was in turn encapsulated with the drug 5-FU. The luminescent properties of these nanoparticles were studied by using fluorescence microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized and the drug release profile was studied. The biocompatibility of zein nanoparticle and the cytotoxicity with drug-loaded nanoparticle was studied in L929 and MCF-7 cell lines. The nanoparticles were successfully employed for cellular imaging. In vitro drug release studies were also performed. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticle showed that nanoparticles at higher concentrations are compatible for cells and are expected to be promising agents for the targeted delivery of drugs in the near future

  1. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  2. Rheological, biocompatibility and osteogenesis assessment of fish collagen scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Jeevithan; Zhang, Jingyi; Bao, Bin; Palaniyandi, Krishnamoorthy; Wang, Shujun; Wenhui, Wu; Robinson, Jeya Shakila

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to find an alternative to mammalian collagen with better osteogenesis ability. Three types of collagen scaffolds - collagen, collagen-chitosan (CCH), and collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) - were prepared from the cartilage of Blue shark and investigated for their physico-functional and mechanical properties in relation to biocompatibility and osteogenesis. CCH scaffold was superior with pH 4.5-4.9 and viscosity 9.7-10.9cP. Notably, addition of chitosan and HA (hydroxyapatite) improved the stiffness (11-23MPa) and degradation rate but lowered the water binding capacity and porosity of the scaffold. Interestingly, CCH scaffolds remained for 3days before complete in-vitro biodegradation. The decreased amount of viable T-cells and higher level of FAS/APO-1 were substantiated the biocompatibility properties of prepared collagen scaffolds. Osteogenesis study revealed that the addition of CH and HA in both fish and mammalian collagen scaffolds could efficiently promote osteoblast cell formation. The ALP activity was significantly high in CHA scaffold-treated osteoblast cells, which suggests an enhanced bone-healing process. Therefore, the present study concludes that the composite scaffolds prepared from fish collagen with higher stiffness, lower biodegradation rate, better biocompatible, and osteogenesis properties were suitable biomaterial for a bone tissue engineering application as an alternative to mammalian collagen scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polybiguanide (PHMB) loaded in PLA scaffolds displaying high hydrophobic, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Elena; Calderón, Silvia [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Valle, Luis J. del, E-mail: luis.javier.del.valle@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, Jordi [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering (CrNE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Edifici C, C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a low molecular weight polymer related to chlorohexidine (CHX), is a well-known antibacterial agent. In this study, polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with PHMB were produced by electrospinning to obtain 3D biodegradable scaffolds with antibacterial properties. PLA fibers loaded with CHX were used as control. The electrospun fibers were studied and analyzed by SEM, FTIR, DSC and contact angle measurements. PHMB and CHX release from loaded scaffolds was evaluated, as well as their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The results showed that the nanofibers became smoother and their diameter smaller with increasing the amount of loaded PHMB. This feature led to an increase of both surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the scaffold. PHMB release was highly dependent on the hydrophilicity of the medium and differed from that determined for CHX. Lastly, PHMB-loaded PLA scaffolds showed antibacterial properties since they inhibited adhesion and bacterial growth, and exhibited biocompatible characteristics for the adhesion and proliferation of both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. - Highlights: • Nanofibers of PLA-PHMB (antibacterial polymer) were prepared by electrospinning. • PHMB has hydrophilic character but the PLA-PHMB scaffolds were highly hydrophobic. • The high-hydrophobicity of the new scaffolds conditioned the release of PHMB. • The controlled release of PHMB inhibited the growth and bacterial adhesion. • PLA-PHMB scaffolds have biocompatibility with fibroblast and epithelial cells.

  4. In vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility of surface modified hemodialysis polysulfone hollow fibers in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganpat J Dahe

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (Psf hollow fiber membranes (HFMs have been widely used in blood purification but their biocompatibility remains a concern. To enhance their biocompatibility, Psf/TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate composite HFMs and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC coated Psf HFMs have been prepared. They have been evaluated for in vivo biocompatibility and graft acceptance and compared with sham and commercial membranes by intra-peritoneal implantation in rats at day 7 and 21. Normal body weights, tissue formation and angiogenesis indicate acceptance of implants by the animals. Hematological observations show presence of post-surgical stress which subsides over time. Serum biochemistry results reveal normal organ function and elevated liver ALP levels at day 21. Histological studies exhibit fibroblast recruitment cells, angiogenesis and collagen deposition at the implant surface indicating new tissue formation. Immuno-histochemistry studies show non-activation of MHC molecules signifying biocompatibilty. Additionally, Psf/TPGS exhibit most favorable tissue response as compared with other HFMs making them the material of choice for HFM preparation for hemodialysis applications.

  5. Impregnation of silver sulfadiazine into bacterial cellulose for antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jiabin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Yudong; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Jia; Ding, Xun; Song, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a useful antimicrobial agent for wound treatment. However, recent findings indicate that conventional SSD cream has several drawbacks for use in treatments. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising material for wound dressing due to its outstanding properties of holding water, strength and degradability. Unfortunately, BC itself exhibits no antimicrobial activity. A combination of SSD and BC is envisaged to form a new class of wound dressing with both antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, which has not been reported to date. To achieve antimicrobial activity, SSD particles were impregnated into BC by immersing BC into SSD suspension after ultrasonication, namely SSD–BC. Parameters influencing SSD–BC impregnation were systematically studied. Optimized conditions of sonication time for no less than 90 min and the proper pH value between 6.6 and 9.0 were suggested. The absorption of SSD onto the BC nanofibrous network was revealed by XRD and SEM analyses. The SSD–BC membranes exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus evaluated by the disc diffusion method. In addition, the favorable biocompatibility of SSD–BC was verified by MTT colorimetry, epidermal cell counting method and optical microscopy. The results demonstrate the potential of SSD–BC membranes as a new class of antimicrobial and biocompatible wound dressing. (paper)

  6. Alternating Magnetic Field Controlled, Multifunctional Nano-Reservoirs: Intracellular Uptake and Improved Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhoshMitra Somesree

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles hold great therapeutic potential, but conventional particles can be toxic. Here, we report the synthesis and alternating magnetic field dependent actuation of a remotely controllable, multifunctional nano-scale system and its marked biocompatibility with mammalian cells. Monodisperse, magnetic nanospheres based on thermo-sensitive polymer network poly(ethylene glycol ethyl ether methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate were synthesized using free radical polymerization. Synthesized nanospheres have oscillating magnetic field induced thermo-reversible behavior; exhibiting desirable characteristics comparable to the widely used poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-based systems in shrinkage plus a broader volumetric transition range. Remote heating and model drug release were characterized for different field strengths. Nanospheres containing nanoparticles up to an iron concentration of 6 mM were readily taken up by neuron-like PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and had reduced toxicity compared to other surface modified magnetic nanocarriers. Furthermore, nanosphere exposure did not inhibit the extension of cellular processes (neurite outgrowth even at high iron concentrations (6 mM, indicating minimal negative effects in cellular systems. Excellent intracellular uptake and enhanced biocompatibility coupled with the lack of deleterious effects on neurite outgrowth and prior Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of PEG-based carriers suggest increased therapeutic potential of this system for manipulating axon regeneration following nervous system injury.

  7. The biocompatibility of modified experimental Portland cements with potential for use in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of a group of new potential dental materials and their eluants by assessing cell viability. Calcium sulpho-aluminate cement (CSA), calcium fluoro-aluminate cement (CFA) and glass-ionomer cement (GIC; Ketac Molar), used as the control, were tested for biocompatibility. Using a direct test method cell viability was measured quantitatively using alamarBluetrade mark dye, and an indirect test method where cells were grown on material elutions and cell viability was assessed using methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay as recommended by ISO 10 993-Part 5 for in vitro testing. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance and Tukey multi-comparison test method. Elution collected from the prototype cements and the GIC cured for 1 and 7 days allowed high cell activity after 24 h cell exposure, which reduced after 48 h when compared to the nontoxic glass-ionomer control, but increased significantly after 72 h cell contact. Elutions collected after 28 days revealed reduced cell activity at all cell exposure times. Cells placed in direct contact with the prototype materials showed reduced cell activity when compared with the control. Cell growth was poor when seeded in direct contact with the prototype cements. GIC encouraged cell growth after 1 day of contact. The eluted species for all the cements tested exhibited adequate cell viability in the early ages with reduced cell activity at 28 days. Changes in the production of calcium hydroxide as a by-product of cement hydration affect the material biocompatibility adversely.

  8. Chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Kim, Do-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Song, Sun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2011-01-01

    An experimental Portland cement was manufactured with pure raw materials under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement with those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement. The composition of the cements was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The setting time and compressive strength were tested. The biocompatibility was evaluated by using SEM and XTT assay. SEM and EDAX revealed the experimental Portland cement to have a similar composition to Portland cement. The setting time of the experimental Portland cement was significantly shorter than that of MTA and Portland cement. The compressive strength of the experimental Portland cement was lower than that of MTA and Portland cement. The experimental Portland cement showed a similar biocompatibility to MTA. The experimental Portland cement might be considered as a possible substitute for MTA in clinical usage after further testing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biocompatibility effects of biologically synthesized graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Due to unique properties and unlimited possible applications, graphene has attracted abundant interest in the areas of nanobiotechnology. Recently, much work has focused on the synthesis and properties of graphene. Here we show that a successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using spinach leaf extract (SLE) as a simultaneous reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared SLE-reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to determine the average size of GO and S-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images provide clear surface morphological evidence for the formation of graphene. The resulting S-rGO has a mostly single-layer structure, is stable, and has significant water solubility. In addition, the biocompatibility of graphene was investigated using cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (PMEFs) cells. The results suggest that the biologically synthesized graphene has significant biocompatibility with PMEF cells, even at a higher concentration of 100 μg/mL. This method uses a `green', natural reductant and is free of additional stabilizing reagents; therefore, it is an environmentally friendly, simple, and cost-effective method for the fabrication of soluble graphene. This study could open up a promising view for substitution of hydrazine by a safe, biocompatible, and powerful reduction for the efficient deoxygenation of GO, especially in large-scale production and potential biomedical applications.

  10. Biocompatibility study of protein capped and uncapped silver nanoparticles on human hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Amit Kumar; Kanti Samanta, Pijus; Aich, Debasish; Saha, Satyajit; Kamilya, Tapanendu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions of human hemoglobin with protein capped silver nanoparticles and bare silver nanoparticles were studied to understand fundamental perspectives about the biocompatibility of protein capped silver nanoparticles compared with bare silver nanoparticles. Bare silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the chemical reduction method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis along with absorption at ~390 nm indicated the formation of bare Ag NPs. Protein coated Ag NPs were prepared by a green synthesis method. Absorption at ~440 nm along with ~280 nm indicated the formation of protein coated Ag NPs. The biocompatibility of the above mentioned Ag NPs was studied by interaction with human hemoglobin (Hb) protein. In presence of bare Ag NPs, the Soret band of Hb was red shifted. This revealed the distortion of iron from the heme pockets of Hb. Also, the fluorescence peak of Hb was quenched and red shifted which indicated that Hb became unfolded in the presence of bare Ag NPs. No red shift of the absorption of Soret, along with no shift and quenching of the fluorescence peak of Hb were observed in the presence of protein coated Ag NPs. A hemolysis assay suggested that protein coated Ag NPs were more biocompatible than bare one.

  11. PEGylation of carbon nanotubes via mussel inspired chemistry: Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Guangjian; Tian, Jianwen; Wan, Qing; Huang, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qingsong [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Meiying; Deng, Fengjie [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: Water dispersible and biocompatible PEGylated carbon nanotubes were prepared via a novel mussel inspired strategy for the first time. - Highlights: • Surface modification of CNTs via bioinspired chemistry. • CNTs with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • PEGytion of CNTs via Michael addition reaction. • Preparation of aminated PEG molecules via chain transfer polymerization. - Abstract: A novel strategy for surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was developed via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and Michael addition reaction. In this procedure, pristine MWCNT were first coated with polydopamine (PDA) through self polymerization of dopamine. The PDA functionalized CNT (CNT-PDA) were further functionalized with amino-terminated polymers (polyPEGMA), which were synthesized via free radical polymerization using cysteamine hydrochloride as the chain transfer agent and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacylate as the monomer. The successful modification of CNT was ascertained by a series of characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The polymer modified CNT showed enhanced dispersibility in aqueous and organic solution. Cytotoxicity evaluation of polymers modified CNT showed that these modified CNT are biocompatible with cells. Finally, due to the universal adhesive of PDA and chain transfer free radical polymerization, this strategy developed in this work can also be extended for surface modification of many other nanomaterials with different functional polymers.

  12. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu Sekhar Nanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl triethoxysilane (MEEETES were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  13. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  14. The mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes:a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Yuan Zheng; Wu Shengwei; Li Wenxin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes. Methods: The mechanics property of carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membranes with different carbon nanotubes contents were tested by universal material testing machine. The surface of the membranes was observed by electron microscope when the stent was bent 90 degree. And its cytotoxicity was tested by cultivating study with 7721 cell. The metallic stent that was covered with carbon nanotubes-polyurethane composite membrane by using dip-coating method was inserted in rabbit esophagus in order to evaluate its biocompatibility in vivo. Results: Composite membranes tensile strength (MPa) and elongation at break (%) were 4.62/900, 6.05/730, 8.26/704 and 5.7/450 when the carbon nanotubes contents were 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. If the stent was bent at 90 degree, its surface was still smooth without any fractures when it was scanned by electron microscope.Composite membranes had critical cytotoxicity when its carbon nanotubes content was up to 0.5% and 1.0%. No fissure nor degradation of composite membranes occurred at 30 days after composite membrane covered metallic stent was inserted in rabbit esophagus. Conclusion: When moderate carbon nanotubes are added into polyurethane composite membrane, the mechanics and biocompatibility characteristics of the polyurethane composite membrane can be much improved. (authors)

  15. Influence of Electropolishing and Magnetoelectropolishing on Corrosion and Biocompatibility of Titanium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Pompa, Luis; Haider, Waseem

    2014-11-01

    Titanium alloys are playing a vital role in the field of biomaterials due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. These alloys enhance the quality and longevity of human life by replacing or treating various parts of the body. However, as these materials are in constant contact with the aggressive body fluids, corrosion of these alloys leads to metal ions release. These ions leach to the adjacent tissues and result in adverse biological reactions and mechanical failure of implant. Surface modifications are used to improve corrosion resistance and biological activity without changing their bulk properties. In this investigation, electropolishing and magnetoelectropolishing were carried out on commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, and Ti6Al4V-ELI. These surface modifications are known to effect surface charge, chemistry, morphology; wettability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of these materials. In vitro cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted in phosphate buffer saline in compliance with ASTM standard F-2129-12. The surface morphology, roughness, and wettability of these alloys were studied using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, biocompatibility of titanium alloys was assessed by growing MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cells on them.

  16. Carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites: Microstructure and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei1121@aliyun.com; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Shouyang; Lu, Jinhua; Li, Wei; Cao, Sheng; Wang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    To improve the surface biocompatibility of carbon/carbon composites, a carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was applied using a combination method of slurry procedure and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The biocompatibility of the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was investigated by osteoblast-like MG63 cell culture tests. The results showed that the carbon foam could provide a large number of pores on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. The hydroxyapatite crystals could infiltrate into the pores and form the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating. The coating covered the carbon/carbon composites fully and uniformly with slice morphology. The cell response tests showed that the MG63 cells on carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating had a better cell adhesion and cell proliferation than those on uncoated carbon/carbon composites. The carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coatings were cytocompatible and were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility. The approach presented here may be exploited for fabrication of carbon/carbon composite implant surfaces.

  17. Carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites: Microstructure and biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Shouyang; Lu, Jinhua; Li, Wei; Cao, Sheng; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    To improve the surface biocompatibility of carbon/carbon composites, a carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was applied using a combination method of slurry procedure and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The biocompatibility of the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was investigated by osteoblast-like MG63 cell culture tests. The results showed that the carbon foam could provide a large number of pores on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. The hydroxyapatite crystals could infiltrate into the pores and form the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating. The coating covered the carbon/carbon composites fully and uniformly with slice morphology. The cell response tests showed that the MG63 cells on carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating had a better cell adhesion and cell proliferation than those on uncoated carbon/carbon composites. The carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coatings were cytocompatible and were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility. The approach presented here may be exploited for fabrication of carbon/carbon composite implant surfaces.

  18. Fabrication of biocompatible free-standing nanopatterned films for primary neuronal cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Cesca, F.

    2014-09-10

    Devising and constructing biocompatible devices for nervous system regeneration is an extremely challenging task. Besides tackling the issue of biocompatibility, biomaterials for neuroscience applications should mimic the complex environment of the extracellular matrix, which in vivo provides neurons with a series of cues and signals to guide cells towards their appropriate targets. In this work, a novel nanopatterned biocompatible poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) film is realized to assist the attachment and growth of primary hippocampal neurons. Costly and time-consuming processes can be avoided using plasma-surface nanotexturing obtained by a mixed gas SF6/Ar at −5 °C. The intrinsic composition and line topography of nanopatterned PCL ensure healthy development of the neuronal network, as shown by confocal microscopy, by analysing the expression of a range of neuronal markers typical of mature cultures, as well as by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we show that surface nanopatterning improves differentiation of neurons compared to flat PCL films, while no neural growth was observed on either flat or nanopatterned substrates in the absence of a poly-D-lysine coating. Thus, we successfully optimized a nanofabrication protocol to obtain nanostructured PCL layers endowed with several mechanical and structural characteristics that make them a promising, versatile tool for future tissue engineering studies aimed at neural tissue regeneration.

  19. Polybiguanide (PHMB) loaded in PLA scaffolds displaying high hydrophobic, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorens, Elena; Calderón, Silvia; Valle, Luis J. del; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a low molecular weight polymer related to chlorohexidine (CHX), is a well-known antibacterial agent. In this study, polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with PHMB were produced by electrospinning to obtain 3D biodegradable scaffolds with antibacterial properties. PLA fibers loaded with CHX were used as control. The electrospun fibers were studied and analyzed by SEM, FTIR, DSC and contact angle measurements. PHMB and CHX release from loaded scaffolds was evaluated, as well as their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. The results showed that the nanofibers became smoother and their diameter smaller with increasing the amount of loaded PHMB. This feature led to an increase of both surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the scaffold. PHMB release was highly dependent on the hydrophilicity of the medium and differed from that determined for CHX. Lastly, PHMB-loaded PLA scaffolds showed antibacterial properties since they inhibited adhesion and bacterial growth, and exhibited biocompatible characteristics for the adhesion and proliferation of both fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. - Highlights: • Nanofibers of PLA-PHMB (antibacterial polymer) were prepared by electrospinning. • PHMB has hydrophilic character but the PLA-PHMB scaffolds were highly hydrophobic. • The high-hydrophobicity of the new scaffolds conditioned the release of PHMB. • The controlled release of PHMB inhibited the growth and bacterial adhesion. • PLA-PHMB scaffolds have biocompatibility with fibroblast and epithelial cells

  20. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  1. Safety of intradiscal injection and biocompatibility of polyester amide microspheres in a canine model predisposed to intervertebral disc degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Nicole; Mihov, George; Grinwis, Guy C M; van Dijk, Maarten; Schumann, Detlef; Bos, Clemens; Strijkers, Gustav J; Dhert, Wouter J A; Meij, Björn P; Creemers, Laura B.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    Repair of degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) might be established via intradiscal delivery of biologic therapies. Polyester amide polymers (PEA) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, and thereafter intradiscal application of PEA microspheres (PEAMs) in a canine

  2. Safety of intradiscal injection and biocompatibility of polyester amide microspheres in a canine model predisposed to intervertebral disc degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Nicole; Mihov, George; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; van Dijk, Maarten; Schumann, Detlef; Bos, Clemens; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Meij, Björn P.; Creemers, Laura B.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Repair of degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) might be established via intradiscal delivery of biologic therapies. Polyester amide polymers (PEA) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, and thereafter intradiscal application of PEA microspheres (PEAMs) in a canine

  3. Biocompatibility of Human Auricular Chondrocytes Cultured onto a Chitosan/Polyvynil Alcohol/Epichlorohydrin-Based Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo-Ramírez, Yaaziel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; García-Carvajal, Zaira; García-López, Julieta; Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel; Ibarra, Clemente; Velasquillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has become an alternative for auricular reconstruction based on the combination of cells, molecular signals and biomaterials. Scaffolds are biomaterials that provide structural support for cell attachment and subsequent tissue development. Ideally, a scaffold should have characteristics such as biocompatibility and bioactivity to adequate support cell functions. Our purpose was to evaluate biocompatibility of microtic auricular chondrocytes seeded onto a chitosan-polyv...

  4. Synthetic bedding and wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2003-01-01

    The reasons for the increase in childhood asthma over time are unclear. The indoor environment is of particular concern. An adverse role for synthetic bedding on asthma development in childhood has been suggested by cross-sectional studies that have found an association between synthetic pillow use and childhood wheeze. Prospective data on infant bedding have not been available. Bedding data at 1 month of age were available from an infant survey for children who were participating in a 1995 follow-up study (N = 863; 78% traced). The 1995 follow-up was embedded in a larger cross-sectional survey involving 6,378 seven year olds in Tasmania (N = 92% of eligible). Outcome measures included respiratory symptoms as defined in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. Frequent wheeze was defined as more than 12 wheeze episodes over the past year compared with no wheeze. Synthetic pillow use at 1 month of age was associated with frequent wheeze at age 7 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-5.5) independent of childhood exposure. Current synthetic pillow and quilt use was strongly associated with frequent wheeze (aRR = 5.2; CI = 1.3-20.6). Substantial trends were evident for an association of increasing number of synthetic bedding items with frequent wheeze and with increasing wheeze frequency. Among children with asthma, the age of onset of asthma occurred earlier if synthetic bedding was used in infancy. In this cohort, synthetic bedding was strongly and consistently associated with frequent childhood wheeze. The association did not appear to be attributable to bedding choice as part of an asthma management strategy.

  5. Biocompatibility evaluations and biomedical sensing applications of nitric oxide-releasing/generating polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiduo

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule secreted by healthy vascular endothelial cells (EC) that is capable of inhibiting the activation and adhesion of platelets, preventing inflammation and inducing vasodilation. Polymeric materials that mimic the EC through the continuous release or generation of NO are expected to exhibit enhanced biocompatibility in vivo. In this dissertation research, the biocompatibility of novel NO-releasing/generating materials has been evaluated via both in vitro and in vivo studies. A new in vitro platelet adhesion assay has been designed to quantify platelet adhesion on NO-releasing/generating polymer surfaces via their innate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Using this assay, it was discovered that continuous NO fluxes of up to 7.05 x10-10 mol cm-2 min-1 emitted from the polymer surfaces could reduce platelet adhesion by almost 80%. Such an in vitro biocompatibility assay can be employed as a preliminary screening method in the development of new NO-releasing/generating materials. In addition, the first in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of NO-generating polymers was conducted in a porcine artery model for intravascular oxygen sensing catheters. The Cu(I)-catalyzed decomposition of endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) generated NO in situ at the polymer/blood interface and offered enhanced biocompatibility to the NO-generating catheters along with more accurate analytical results for intra-arterial measurements of PO2 levels. NO-generating polymers can also be utilized to fabricate electrochemical RSNO sensors based on the amperometric detection of NO generated by the reaction of RSNOs with immobilized catalysts. Unlike conventional methodologies employed to measure labile RSNO, the advantage of the RSNO sensor method is that measurement in whole blood samples is possible and this minimizes sample processing artifacts in RSNO measurements. An electrochemical RSNO sensor with organoselenium crosslinked polyethylenimine (RSe

  6. 21 CFR 73.1200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.1200 Section 73.1200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  7. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  8. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  9. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WISB: Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary 'build to apply' and 'build to understand' approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  12. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  13. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives.

  15. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  16. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  17. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  18. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  19. CSBB: synthetic biology research at Newcastle University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy (CSBB) brings together a far-reaching multidisciplinary community across all Newcastle University's faculties - Medical Sciences, Science, Agriculture and Engineering, and Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The CSBB focuses on many different areas of Synthetic Biology, including bioprocessing, computational design and in vivo computation, as well as improving understanding of basic molecular machinery. Such breadth is supported by major national and international research funding, a range of industrial partners in the North East of England and beyond, as well as a large number of doctoral and post-doctoral researchers. The CSBB trains the next generation of scientists through a 1-year MSc in Synthetic Biology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.